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Vomiting diarrhea muscle cramps: Diarrhea, Muscle Cramps Or Spasms (Painful) And Nausea Or Vomiting

Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu): Symptoms and Treatment

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Viral gastroenteritis can cause nausea and vomiting. You can get the virus that causes it from other people or through contaminated foods, drinks, or surfaces. Washing your hands often may help prevent it.

Viral gastroenteritis is an inflammation and irritation of your intestines caused by one of a number of viruses, most commonly norovirus or rotavirus. This illness is also known as the stomach flu.

This highly contagious illness spreads through close contact with people who have the virus or through contaminated food or water.

It can easily spread in close quarters, such as:

  • childcare facilities
  • schools
  • nursing homes
  • cruise ships

This article will help you understand more about viral gastroenteritis including symptoms, causes, treatment, and prevention.

Symptoms of gastroenteritis usually begin shortly after infection. For example, symptoms caused by norovirus typically develop within 12 to 48 hours. Symptoms from adenoviruses may be delayed 3 to 10 days after contact.

Depending on which type of virus you’ve contracted, symptoms can last anywhere from 1 to 14 days. Symptoms often start suddenly over the course of 1 or 2 hours.

Symptoms can include:

  • loose, watery diarrhea more than 3 times per day
  • fever or chills
  • nausea and vomiting
  • headache, muscle aches, or joint aches
  • sweating or clammy skin
  • abdominal cramps and pain
  • loss of appetite

Diarrhea caused by viral gastroenteritis isn’t usually bloody. Blood in your stool could be a sign of a more severe infection.

You should seek emergency medical treatment if:

  • diarrhea has lasted for 2 days or more without getting less frequent
  • your infant develops diarrhea
  • blood is present in your diarrhea
  • you show or see signs of dehydration, such as dry lips or dizziness

In addition to the above symptoms, you should seek emergency attention for your child if they have the appearance of sunken eyes or if they aren’t making tears when they cry.

Viral gastroenteritis is caused by a number of different viruses. It’s easy for these viruses to spread in group situations. Some of the ways the virus is transmitted include:

  • eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water
  • being in close contact with someone who has the virus
  • sharing utensils or other items with someone who has the virus
  • touching contaminated surfaces
  • not washing hands properly, especially food handlers

Viral gastroenteritis affects people of all ages all over the world. But some factors can increase the risk of contracting viral gastroenteritis. People who are at a higher risk include:

  • children under the age of 5
  • older adults, especially those who live in nursing homes or assisted living facilities
  • people with a compromised or weakened immune system
  • those who are often in group settings, such as schools, dormitories, day care, religious gatherings, and other indoor group settings

Other factors that may increase the risk of becoming ill with viral gastroenteritis include:

  • being malnourished, especially low levels of vitamin A or zinc
  • recent travel to developing countries
  • antibiotic or antacid use
  • anal intercourse

Several different types of viruses can cause viral gastroenteritis. The most common include:

  • norovirus
  • rotavirus
  • adenovirus
  • astrovirus

Let’s look at each of these viruses in more detail.


Norovirus is highly contagious and can affect anyone at any age. It spreads through contaminated food, water, and surfaces, or by people who have the virus. Norovirus is common in crowded spaces.

Norovirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States and worldwide. Most outbreaks in the United States occur between November and April.

Symptoms include:

  • nausea
  • diarrhea
  • fever
  • body aches

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most people who become ill with norovirus start to feel better within 1 to 3 days of symptom onset.


Rotavirus commonly affects infants and young children. Those who contract it can then pass the virus to other children and adults. It’s usually contracted and transmitted via the mouth.

Symptoms typically appear within 2 days of infection and include:

  • vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • watery diarrhea that lasts anywhere from 3 to 8 days

A rotavirus vaccine was approved for infants in 2006. Early vaccination is recommended to prevent severe rotavirus illnesses in infants and small children.


The adenovirus affects people of all ages. It can cause several types of illness, including gastroenteritis. The adenovirus can also cause common cold-like symptoms, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pink eye (conjunctivitis).

Children in daycare, especially those under 2 years of age, are more likely to get adenovirus.

Adenovirus is passed through the air via sneezing and coughing, by touching contaminated objects, or by touching the hands of someone with the virus.

Symptoms associated with adenovirus include:

  • sore throat
  • pink eye
  • fever
  • coughing
  • runny nose

Most children will feel better within a few days of experiencing adenovirus symptoms. However, symptoms such as pink eye may last longer than a few days.


Astrovirus is another virus that commonly causes gastroenteritis in children. Symptoms associated with astrovirus include:

  • diarrhea
  • headache
  • mild dehydration
  • stomach pain

The virus most often affects people in late winter and early spring. It’s transmitted through contact with a person who has the virus or via an infected surface or food.

Symptoms usually appear within 2 to 3 days after initial exposure, and the virus will usually go away within 1 to 4 days.

The main complication of viral gastroenteritis is dehydration, which can be quite severe in babies and young children. Viral gastroenteritis accounts for over 200,000 childhood deaths worldwide per year.

Other complications of viral gastroenteritis include:

  • nutritional imbalances
  • body weakness or fatigue
  • muscle weakness

Dehydration can be life threatening. Call your doctor if you or your child have these symptoms:

  • diarrhea lasting more than a few days
  • blood in the stool
  • confusion or lethargy
  • dizziness or feeling like you’re going to faint
  • nausea
  • dry mouth
  • an inability to produce tears
  • no urine for more than 8 hours or urine that is dark yellow or brown
  • sunken eyes
  • sunken fontanel on an infant’s head

Dehydration that accompanies viral gastroenteritis can lead to several complications of its own. These include:

  • brain swelling
  • coma
  • hypovolemic shock, a condition that occurs when your body doesn’t have enough fluid or blood
  • kidney failure
  • seizures

To prevent complications, get immediate medical attention if you or your child have symptoms of dehydration.

Most of the time, your medical history and physical exam are the basis for diagnosis, especially if there’s evidence that the virus is spreading through your community.

Your doctor may also order a stool sample to test for the type of virus, or to find out if your illness is caused by a parasitic or bacterial infection.

The main focus of treatment is to prevent dehydration by drinking plenty of fluids. In severe cases, hospitalization and intravenous fluids may be necessary.

Over-the-counter oral rehydration solutions (OHS), such as Pedialyte, can be helpful in mild cases. These solutions are easy on your child’s stomach, and contain a balanced mixture of water and salts to replenish essential fluids and electrolytes.

These solutions are available at local pharmacies and don’t require a prescription. However, you should follow the instructions carefully.

Antibiotics have no effect on viruses. Check with your physician before taking any over-the-counter medications.

Shop online for oral rehydration solutions such as Pedialyte and oral electrolyte products.

Treating diarrhea and vomiting

Diarrhea can be treated in adults with over-the-counter medications such as loperamide (Imodium) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol).

Your doctor may also prescribe probiotics to replace the healthy bacteria that’s lost during diarrhea or they may prescribe medications to treat severe vomiting.

What to eat and what to avoid

As you start to feel better and reintroduce foods into your diet, it’s best to opt for bland foods, such as:

  • rice
  • potatoes
  • toast
  • bananas
  • applesauce

These foods are easier to digest and less likely to cause further stomach upset. Until you’re feeling better, you may want to avoid some types of foods, such as:

  • fatty or fried foods
  • caffeine
  • alcohol
  • sugary foods
  • dairy products

Self-care steps

If you have viral gastroenteritis, consider these self-care measures to help ease your symptoms and prevent dehydration:

  • Drink extra fluids with and between meals. If you have difficulty, try drinking very small amounts of water or sucking on ice chips.
  • Avoid fruit juices. These don’t replace the minerals that you’ve lost and can actually increase diarrhea.
  • Electrolytes. Children and adults can consume sports drinks to replenish electrolytes. Younger children and infants should use products formulated for children, such as OHS.
  • Limit portion sizes. Try to eat food in smaller amounts to help your stomach recover.
  • Get lots of rest. Prioritize getting at least 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night. Don’t exert yourself until you feel that you have your usual level of energy and strength.
  • Medications. Check with your doctor before taking medications or giving them to children. Never give aspirin to children or teenagers with a viral illness. This can cause Reye’s syndrome, a potentially life threatening condition.

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In addition to rehydrating and resting, there are some natural and home remedies that may help you relieve the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis.

Heating pad or heat pack

If you have abdominal pain, try applying a low-temperature heating pad or a warm heat pack to your stomach. Cover the heating pad with a cloth and don’t leave it on for more than 15 minutes at a time.

The heat can help relax the muscles in your digestive tract and keep them from spasming.

Shop online for heating pads and heat packs.

Brown rice water

Some parents serve rice water to their children. This is the water that remains after boiling brown rice. It’s high in electrolytes and can help with rehydration.

To make rice water:

  1. Boil 1 cup of rice and 2 cups of water for about 10 minutes until the water becomes cloudy.
  2. Strain the rice and keep the water.
  3. Cool the rice water before serving.


Products containing ginger, such as ginger ale or ginger tea, may help soothe an upset stomach.

A 2019 review of studies found that a divided daily dose of 1,500 milligrams of ginger taken in two parts throughout the day may help reduce nausea. More research needs to be done on ginger’s ability to treat other gastrointestinal symptoms.

Shop online for ginger ale and ginger tea.


Mint may also have anti-nausea properties similar to those of ginger. Sipping a soothing mint tea may help you feel better.

Studies have found that peppermint oil may help relax the muscles in your gut. It also has anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties.

Shop online for mint tea.

Yogurt or kefir

Although dairy products should be avoided when you have your most acute symptoms, eating unflavored yogurt with live active cultures or drinking kefir may help restore your body’s natural bacterial balance after illness.

Shop online for plain yogurt and kefir.

Viral gastroenteritis can spread easily. However, there are some steps you can take to lower your risk of contracting the virus or passing it to others.

Prevention tips

  • Wash your hands often, especially after using the bathroom and before food preparation. If necessary, use hand sanitizer until you can access soap and water.
  • Don’t share kitchen utensils, plates, or towels if someone in your household is sick.
  • Don’t eat raw or undercooked foods.
  • Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly.
  • Take special precautions to avoid contaminated water and food when traveling. Avoid ice cubes and use bottled water whenever possible.
  • Ask your doctor if you should have your infant vaccinated against rotavirus. There are two vaccines, and they’re generally started around 2 months old.

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Viral gastroenteritis is an inflammation and irritation of your intestines caused by one of several types of viruses.

Vomiting and diarrhea are among the most common symptoms. You can get viral gastroenteritis from other people or through contaminated foods, drinks, or surfaces.

Generally, viral gastroenteritis symptoms come on suddenly and pass quickly. If diarrhea lasts longer than 48 hours, be sure to follow up with your doctor.

It’s also a good idea to get medical attention if your infant or young child develops diarrhea because it can lead to serious complications due to dehydration.

Can leg cramps be a sign of something serious? : Peachstate Advanced Cardiac & Endovascular: Board Certified Interventional Cardiologists

Leg cramps or spams are one-time events that generally occur as a result of overworking a certain muscle. Even while the cramps are unpleasant, they are not harmful. Muscle cramps/leg cramps, on the other hand, might indicate a serious condition in some circumstances, therefore it’s critical to know the difference between a harmless cramp and a life-threatening one.

Cramp Fasciculation Syndrome, or CFS. Cramp Fasciculation Syndrome (CFS) is a peripheral neuropathy characterized by hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve system. Unwanted muscular cramps and fasciculation are symptoms of this illness. You may also feel additional symptoms, such as a burning sensation or numbness, which are both symptomatic of a neuropathy condition.


End-stage renal or kidney disease. Leg cramps, particularly in the calf regions, are common in people with end-stage kidney or renal illness, especially those who are receiving dialysis. Leg cramps can strike at any moment, whether at home or during dialysis. Cramps are linked to depression and sleep difficulties in this scenario, resulting in a decrease in quality of life.

Cirrhosis. Leg cramps in Cirrhosis patients occur in a variety of locations, including the thighs, cervical region, toes, calves, fingers, and abdominal muscles. Crampings, on the other hand, may affect different parts of the body in this scenario.


By running the same distance, you can detect key leg cramps symptoms that indicate severe health problems. If you often go for lengthy runs and get cramp from jogging the same distance each time, it might be a sign of a health problem. It’s known as compartment syndrome, and it affects people whose muscles in a certain location don’t have enough room to support the sort of activity they’re doing. When we exercise, our bodily muscles require more blood, which causes our blood vessels to widen. We don’t have enough area for blood vessels to expand when the muscle compartment is too tight, resulting in leg spasms or cramps.


Discoloration, redness, or swelling of the skin. If you observe discolouration, swelling, or redness on your skin, as well as muscular cramps, these might be indicators of a blood clot. When a blood clot remains in its proper location, it poses no hazard. However, if the clot breaks off, you’re more likely to have a heart attack or a stroke. Cramps and excruciating pain. If your muscular spasms are interfering with your regular activities, you should consider it a serious concern. Leg cramps, in most situations, cause you to feel agony, curl your toes, and persist for roughly 10 minutes. However, if you see anything different than the above, it might be a sign of anything more serious.


Inadequate blood flow to the particular muscle, ovarian bulk, or pinched nerve are all possible reasons of severe muscular cramps.


Nausea, vomiting, and fever If you’re experiencing leg cramps along with other symptoms like vomiting, fever, or nausea, it’s possible that you’re suffering from food poisoning or dehydration. As a result, you should ensure that you eat nutritious and clean meals while also exercising often.  Your legs are tingling and burning. Because of your herniated disk condition, you may have tingling and burning sensations in your legs as well as muscular cramps. Muscle relaxants and anti-inflammatory medications, on the other hand, may help you overcome this difficulty.


We are just a call or click away. To learn more, book an appointment online or over the phone with PeachState Advanced Cardiac & Endovascular. We have several locations in Georgia: Newnan, Atlanta, & Griffin. 


Kelly Miles
Current Director of Business Development & Operations at PeachState Advanced Cardiac & Endovascular- PACE. Kelly has a passion for helping others navigate the healthcare industry and ensuring quality outcomes. She lives in Newnan, GA with her husband and children.

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Leg cramps | Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Almost everyone has had an uncontrollable muscle contraction attack at least once in their life. When the muscle contracts, then the person experiences twitching, unpleasant contraction and pain. Painful muscle spasm continues for several minutes.

Single seizures usually go away without special medical treatment. If such episodes are often repeated, then this is evidence of health problems, which is why the help of a doctor is so important.
The most common cramps are in the calf muscles and thighs, as well as the feet and hands. Spasmodic activity in the facial and respiratory muscles leads to stuttering. When a person sleeps at night in a relaxed state, he can simultaneously reduce one or more muscles. Due to sharp pain, sleep is disturbed, and a person waking up cannot rest during the night.

Approximately 75% of people over 60 experience leg cramps during sleep. Many people think that cramps at night are just unpleasant and harmless phenomena that are associated with age. But convulsions also occur in children and young people. Women often complain of sharp nocturnal and painful cramps during pregnancy.


  • What causes leg cramps
  • Causes
  • Which doctor to contact
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • Conservative therapy
  • Surgical treatment
  • Why does the legs cramp in older men and women
  • Night cramps in pregnant women

Why leg cramps occur

Cramps are sudden muscle contractions that are involuntary in nature and are diagnosed on the basis of a medical survey and during an external examination of a doctor, according to the results of analyzes and hardware research methods. Treatment includes antispasmodics and muscle relaxants, antiepileptic and anticonvulsants, physiotherapy and surgical interventions.


Convulsions occur due to peculiarities and various disorders in the body:

  • stagnation of blood in the legs;
  • vitamin deficiency;
  • endocrine disorders;
  • kidney disease;
  • dehydration;
  • sudden change in temperature;
  • taking diuretics, anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • tight footwear, clothing;
  • physical and emotional overload.

Cramping in the calves is a symptom of varicose veins. It is necessary to consult a doctor if there is swelling and heaviness in the legs, which appear due to stagnation of blood. With the help of convulsions, the muscles contract, so the body activates blood circulation in the veins. There are no visible manifestations at this stage of the disease. If you start treatment in time, then protruding, swollen veins and spider veins will not appear, and muscle spasms will stop bothering you at night.

  • Micronutrient deficiency
  • Blood electrolytes are needed to deliver nutrients and oxygen. If few microelements, such as calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium enter the cells, then the water balance is disturbed. There are uncontrolled processes that cause the muscles to contract. It is necessary to donate blood for a biochemical analysis to check its electrolyte composition. Minerals can be poorly absorbed with a lack of vitamins, or in the diet due to a large amount of protein, since when it is broken down, calcium is rapidly excreted from the body.

  • Endocrine disorders
  • If your leg muscles cramp at night, you get tired quickly, irritability appears, then it is advisable to check the endocrine system. In case of thyroid disease or when diabetes mellitus occurs, magnesium, sodium, calcium are poorly absorbed and metabolism is disturbed. In diabetes mellitus, due to false impulses from the nervous system, the muscles of the legs contract and they feel sipping or short-term severe pain.

  • Kidney disease
  • There are many diseases. In diseases of the kidneys, the content of potassium and calcium decreases, and sodium, on the contrary, increases. The water balance is disturbed and muscle cramps occur.

  • Dehydration
  • Due to the lack of fluid in the body, most often there is a water-salt disorder. Due to alcohol abuse, excessive consumption of salt and coffee, also against the background of diarrhea or vomiting. Low levels of electrolytes in the blood (calcium, magnesium): low blood levels of calcium or magnesium directly increase the excitability of the nerve endings innervating the muscles.

  • Extreme temperature change
  • If the temperature drops sharply in the bedroom at night, the muscles may also cramp. The problem is solved with the help of warm clothes, blankets, electric sheets.

  • Taking diuretics, anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Diuretics accelerate the excretion of minerals from the body, which leads to a violation of the water-salt and electrolyte balance. When the muscles are relaxed, a contraction occurs, which is strongly felt during rest, disturbing sleep.

    Treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs can have an undesirable side effect – muscle spasms, which manufacturers warn about in the instructions. When a person stops taking the drug, they stop bothering him.

  • Tight shoes, clothing
  • Tight, tight clothing, dress shoes that compress the foot, high heeled shoes disrupt the blood circulation of the muscles, due to their contraction to increase blood flow.

  • Physical and emotional overload
  • Leg cramps occur when working while standing or walking frequently and for a long time. Muscle stretching exercises can help relieve tension. Also, muscle contractions can provoke severe unrest and stress.

    Cramps in the muscles of the thighs and calves are due to an electrolyte imbalance due to decreased absorption of calcium, and not due to problems in the nervous system. Therefore, sedatives will not help.

Which doctor to contact

If it’s not the first time you’ve been cramping your legs, in order to understand why cramps occur, you need to contact a therapist. The doctor will send you for studies of a general and biochemical blood test, which will identify problems and check the amount of microelements in the body.

Depending on their results, the therapist will prescribe treatment or give a referral to a surgeon or phlebologist if there are problems in the vessels, to an ophthalmologist if the eyelid tremors torment you, to an endocrinologist if there are malfunctions in the endocrine system.


When determining the causes of seizures, the doctor conducts an examination and history taking, instrumental and laboratory tests: general and biochemical blood tests, blood tests for hemoglobin.

According to the testimony of a neurologist, patients can be referred to an orthopedist, phlebologist, gynecologist, and other medical specialists.

  • Poll. Finds out the patient’s lifestyle, as well as when the spasms first appeared, how often they recur and what can provoke seizures. Asks about existing illnesses and medications that the patient is taking to determine the causes.
  • Physical examination. During the examination, the doctor reveals signs of flat feet in the legs, hypertrophy and decreased muscle tone, dilated veins and edema. Assesses sensitivity, pulsation, explores reflexes.
  • Electrophysiological studies. Electroneurography and electromyography help to determine the state of muscle transmission, the speed of passage of nerve impulses, the presence of spontaneous muscle activity, due to which convulsions often occur.
  • Laboratory tests. Screening examination includes a complete blood and urine test, a blood test for sugar and protein, the determination of liver enzymes, creatinine, urea. In case of violations of the water-electrolyte balance, the level of electrolytes is assessed, in case of hypovitaminosis, the content of vitamins is examined, in case of endocrine pathologies, an analysis is made for hormones. In case of poisoning of the body, toxicological tests are taken.
  • Hardware methods. Dopplerography and duplex scanning of the lower extremities are indicated for vascular disease. With flat feet, X-rays are performed with a load. In endocrine diseases and kidney pathology, an ultrasound examination of the glands of the lesion is performed. In case of neurological diseases, an MRI of the brain is recommended.
  • Treatment

    It is necessary to treat leg cramps in a complex: eat right, take vitamins, drink up to 2 liters of water a day, do not drink alcoholic beverages, do not overwork.

    Conservative therapy

    Treatment depends on the specific cause of the leg cramps. Taking into account the pathology, methods are applied:

    • Crampy syndrome. Treatment of the disease is indicated for convulsive symptoms. Calcium channel blockers, antiepileptic drugs, quinine are used to eliminate seizures. To stop the activity, muscle relaxants are prescribed. In case of pain syndrome, NSAIDs are included for the treatment of seizures; in case of sleep disorders, hypnotics are used.
    • Flat feet. The leading role is given to non-drug therapy. Patients usually need to bring their weight back to normal, choose comfortable or orthopedic shoes, and avoid static prolonged loads. Walking, special massages and exercises, magnetic therapy, sinusoidal modulated current therapy and other physiotherapy procedures are useful for strengthening the foot.
    • Vascular diseases. In the elderly, atherosclerosis obliterans is often diagnosed with painful sensations of burning, numbness of the feet, increased sensitivity to cold and cramps in the calves. After a short time, lameness may join. Young men often suffer from obliterating endarteritis, the symptoms of which are numbness and chilliness, paresthesias and spasms, sometimes accompanied by lameness and resemble atherosclerosis. But with this disease, trophic disorders develop rapidly.
    • Bilateral thromboangiitis obliterans. Simultaneously with increased painful sensitivity of the legs, hemorrhages and convulsions in the fingers, thrombophlebitis of the legs and Raynaud’s syndrome with severe trophic disorders are detected. Treatment of varicose veins in order to reduce the load on the legs is carried out with the help of venotonics, physical exercises, compression agents, sclerotherapy methods. As part of the medical treatment of arteries, thrombolytics, antispasmodics, analgesics, anticoagulants are taken. With non-drug therapy, ozone therapy, intravenous laser blood irradiation, oxygenation, as well as balneological and physiotherapy are prescribed.
    • Endocrine diseases. Hypoparathyroidism is treated with diet, calcium and vitamin D, sedatives, and anticonvulsants. Useful ultraviolet radiation. Hypothyroidism is corrected with hormone replacement therapy, patients undergo thyreostatic therapy. In diabetes with macroangiopathy, it is necessary to take antiplatelet agents in combination with insulin therapy.
    • Fluid disturbances are treated with intravenous electrolyte solutions. Patients with hypovitaminosis recommend vitamin complexes. With intoxication of the body, detoxification therapy is required. Pregnant women with Parhon’s syndrome are advised by doctors to sleep on their left side and moderate physical therapy exercises. Eclampsia during pregnancy is a disease for a complex of resuscitation measures.

    Surgical treatment

    Surgery for pain with convulsions:

    • Flat feet: foot deformity correction, tendon grafting, bone removal.
    • Varicose disease: phlebectomy, miniphlebectomy, adhesive obliteration, laser and radiofrequency coagulation, cryophlebectomy.
    • Obliterating vascular diseases: endarterectomy, stenting, dilatation or prosthesis of arteries, bypass interventions, arterialization of the veins of the foot, profundoplasty, thromboembolectomy.
    • Endocrine pathologies: removal of the thyroid gland in hyperthyroidism, endarterectomy and plasty of trophic ulcers in diabetes.

    Why does the legs cramp in older men and women?

    With age, the ability to absorb vitamins and trace elements decreases. In the elderly, muscle cramps due to a lack of calcium, dilated veins, and taking certain medications, such as diuretics, cause muscle spasms. A sedentary image leads to overwork, cramps several times a night can interrupt sleep.

    What should I do if my child’s legs are cramping?

    Children grow up fast. For a growing body, tight shoes and clothes are more harmful than adults.

    The cause of cramps can especially be a lack of vitamin D and minerals due to an unbalanced diet and lack of water in the body. Seizures often occur and greatly disturb a child who plays sports, so it is necessary to reduce the load, take more time to rest and avoid stress.

    Night cramps in pregnant women

    During pregnancy, the amount of trace elements is consumed more. Calcium and magnesium are necessary for the growth and development of the fetus. If the expectant mother does not have enough of them, then the body signals with muscle spasms. Eat right, limit the amount of salt. With an increase in weight in a pregnant woman, the legs experience a load, the blood circulation process becomes more difficult. When spasms appear, perform special exercises with stretching and stretching exercises. Do not take medicines without medical advice.

    If you have cramps in your legs, we recommend that you make an appointment for a consultation at the My Doctor medical center in Volgograd. Qualified doctors of the highest category will establish the cause and draw up a personalized treatment and rehabilitation program. Our medical center has a large number of services in various fields: neurology, gynecology, ultrasound (abdominal organs, vessels of the head, neck, upper / lower joint) and much more. You can also read other useful articles on our blog.

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what kind of disease, causes, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, outbreak and epidemic prevention







Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The disease is anthroponotic and develops only in the human body. It is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person by the fecal-oral route.

The main manifestations are diarrhoea, frequent vomiting, fluid loss up to severe dehydration. All this occurs against the background of violations of the functions of the small intestine. This infection is especially dangerous.

In the spring of 2022, Rospotrebnadzor published a complete instruction for the prevention of cholera in Russia. It was discussed on social networks that another epidemic of this disease had begun in the country. Everything turned out to be wrong – these measures are dictated by the fact that in the areas that border on Ukraine, in the absence of normal sanitary conditions, there may be an outbreak of a dangerous disease. But, as the doctors themselves say, this will never happen, since all the necessary medicines, as well as the vaccine in hospitals, are in full.

Epidemiology of cholera

What kind of disease is cholera? The source of the disease is only an already infected person. It is especially dangerous for others in the first week, it is at this time that the largest number of vibrios is released.

In total, the world has known 7 cholera pandemics, the first of which happened in 1816, and the last one broke out in 1961. In the modern world, this disease no longer poses a particular danger, as it was two or three centuries ago. However, individual cases of the disease are still being diagnosed from time to time, and cholera epidemics are still detected in poor countries against the backdrop of various natural disasters.

How is cholera transmitted? This happens by the fecal-oral route, and the main agents for transmission are water and food. Also, in some cases, a contact path is possible. However, if a person is in the same room with an infected person, he will not be able to get infected directly. Dangerous for him will be only the discharge of a sick person that has fallen into the mouth of a healthy one.

Unlike other intestinal diseases, cholera can spread much more easily and quickly. At the same time, the vomit and intestinal secretions of an infected person do not change their color and do not acquire an unpleasant odor. After entering the reservoir, the causative agent of cholera remains in the water for a long time, even actively multiplying.

This is especially typical for stagnant reservoirs and swamps, where the water is well warmed up by the sun.

After recovery, a stable lifelong immunity develops. However, it will not save from infection with other types of cholera.

Symptoms of cholera

After the pathogen enters the body, the incubation period begins, which can last from several hours to 5 days. At this time, there are no manifestations of the disease, but the person is already infected.

The disease always begins suddenly for the patient against the background of full health. This is also called an acute onset. It is important to remember that with cholera there is no fever and abdominal pain, which distinguishes this disease from all other intestinal infections.

The very first symptom of cholera is severe diarrhea during the night or morning hours. A little later, vomiting joins the diarrhea. The main complaints of the patient are associated with rapid dehydration. There is a strong unquenchable thirst, constant dryness in the mouth, the voice becomes hoarse. Appetite worsens, the patient almost completely refuses to eat, but drinks a lot. Severe, often uncontrollable vomiting occurs. Lethargy, weakness, lack of strength appear.

However, there is no pain in the abdomen. Sometimes there are complaints about rumbling, unpleasant sensations that appear near the navel. On examination, there is a dry tongue with a strong white coating, the skin becomes dry and pale. The amount of urine is markedly reduced. Over time, muscle cramps begin to appear.

Among other symptoms of cholera in the development of the disease should be noted sunken eyes, sharpening of facial features, the appearance of dark circles under the eyes, blue ears, lips, nose. The skin becomes ashy. When feeling the abdomen, you can hear the sounds of overflowing liquid. Blood pressure drops noticeably, the pulse becomes thready.

If the sick person is not provided with timely medical assistance, then the terminal stage sets in, then the agony and death.

Cholera classification

According to the type of clinical picture, this infection is divided into typical, with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as atypical. In the second case, the disease develops during pregnancy, against the background of prolonged alcoholism, immunodeficiency, antibiotics, dystrophy and other conditions. Also, an atypical form of the disease is diagnosed in people who have been given the cholera vaccine.

In total, it is customary to distinguish several variants of an atypical course:

  • fulminant, in which dehydration shock and death are possible in just 3-4 hours from the first manifestations of the disease;
  • dry, in which the rapid onset of the disease, toxicosis and coma occur without severe vomiting and diarrhea;
  • erased, when it is possible to determine the exact diagnosis due to the absence of clear manifestations only after a laboratory study of the discharge;
  • is asymptomatic, when there are no manifestations of the disease at all, and the diagnosis is made only after a laboratory test.

Vibrio carriers are also noted, when the person himself does not get cholera, but can infect other people.

According to severity, there are 4 forms of the disease:

  1. In mild cases, symptoms are minimal, vomiting and diarrhea occur no more than 5 times a day, the duration of the disease is up to 5 days. There is also no noticeable fluid loss.
  2. In moderate degree there is moderate intoxication, diarrhea and vomiting occur up to 15 times a day, symptoms of dehydration are noticeable, characteristic of 1-2 degrees. The disease lasts up to a week, but there is a risk of complications in the future.
  3. In severe cases, severe intoxication appears, diarrhea and vomiting occur up to 20 times a day, dehydration develops to 2-3 degrees, the disease lasts more than a week and after that complications almost always develop.
  4. In an extremely severe degree, the disease begins suddenly, indomitable vomiting, diarrhea appear, and already in the first 12 hours after the first symptoms, dehydration shock develops.

According to the duration of the course, cholera is divided into three variants of the course. The acute form lasts up to a month, protracted – up to 3 months, chronic – longer than 3 months.

Cholera diagnostics

To diagnose cholera, blood, urine, and stool tests are performed. However, to identify the cause of cholera, and this is the presence of vibrios in the body, it is necessary to carry out bacteriological cultures of the patient’s stool and vomit. The growth of the bacteria present in them is observed for 14-48 hours, however, to confirm the diagnosis, this study is carried out three times.

PCR tests and indirect hemagglutination tests are also performed to detect the disease. Rapid tests help laboratory technicians to detect the causative agent of the disease in just a few minutes.

Cholera must be differentiated from many other types of AII. However, with other infections, body temperature almost always rises, there are abdominal pains, bowel movements change the smell, and dehydration develops extremely rarely.

Similar symptoms are also present in case of poisoning, as well as botulism.

Cholera treatment

Cholera therapy is carried out only in the infectious diseases department or in intensive care, which depends on the patient’s condition. The main objectives of treatment are to restore the volume of bcc and electrolyte composition, as well as the fight against the pathogen with the help of antibiotic therapy.

The treatment of cholera begins with the replacement of lost body fluids. At the same time, it should arrive in a volume that is one and a half times the volume lost. If a person is able to drink, special solutions containing salts and electrolytes are prescribed to him. If the patient is in a weakened or comatose state, the required amount of fluid is infused intravenously.

Antibacterial therapy is mandatory to control a cholera outbreak. These are drugs from the tetracycline series or the fluoroquinolone group. This is done in conjunction with rehydration. Zinc preparations are used to reduce the volume of feces and the duration of diarrhea.

However, there are drugs that are strictly contraindicated in this condition, such as cardiac glycosides. Also, intravenous administration of blood substitutes, colloidal solutions, pure glucose or sodium chloride is not allowed. Colloidal solutions will greatly increase the lack of circulating blood and lead to collapse, and glucose and sodium chloride without additional saline solutions will not help replenish electrolytes. Without this, the infusion of these fluids will not make any sense.

Nutrition during illness should be as gentle as possible for the intestines. Food is only steamed and then ground. All flour, sweet, spicy, smoked, fatty foods are completely excluded from the diet. Meals are taken 6 times a day, in small portions. At the recovery stage, prebiotics and probiotics are necessarily introduced.

Cholera vaccination may be used if an epidemic is likely. Now there are 3 different versions of the cholera vaccine, which differ in their composition. All have been tested and proven to be effective.

After recovery, the patient is placed under dispensary observation with regular visits to the doctor and medical examination.

Cholera Prevention

The likelihood of contracting cholera can be minimized by following simple rules of prevention. So, for example, it is recommended to drink only bottled water, and the lids must be sealed.

Do not drink water from puddles, natural reservoirs, pools, fountains, as well as tap water in regions unfavorable for this disease. Wash your hands with soap every time before eating. Do the same after visiting the restroom or any public place. You can not eat raw foods, you should wash all vegetables and fruits well, be sure to remove the peel.

The author of the article:

Ivanova Natalya Vladimirovna


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