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Water and body: Water: Essential to your body


Water: Essential to your body

Speaking of Health

Drinking water does more than just quench your thirst — it’s essential to keeping your body functioning properly and feeling healthy. Nearly all of your body’s major systems depend on water to function and survive. You’d be surprised about what staying hydrated can do for your body.

Here are just a few important ways water works in your body:
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Moistens tissues in the eyes, nose and mouth
  • Protects body organs and tissues
  • Carries nutrients and oxygen to cells
  • Lubricates joints
  • Lessens burden the on kidneys and liver by flushing out waste products
  • Helps dissolve minerals and nutrients to make them accessible to your body

Every day, you lose water through your breath, perspiration, urine and bowel movements, which is why it’s important to continue to take in water throughout the day. For your body to function at its best, you must replenish its water supply with beverages and food that contain water.

Mayo Clinic recommends this minimum daily intake of water:
  • Women — 11.5 cups
  • Men — 15.5 cups

By consuming the minimum recommendation of water, you’re helping your body function better and improving your overall health. Read tips and a recipe if you have difficulty drinking enough water daily.

For more information about ways to consume more water and find out if you’re getting enough for your body’s needs, talk to your health care provider.

For the safety of our patients, staff and visitors, Mayo Clinic has strict masking policies in place. Anyone shown without a mask was either recorded prior to COVID-19 or recorded in a non-patient care area where social distancing and other safety protocols were followed.

6 Side Effects Of Not Drinking Enough Water

Human beings are made up of about 80% water. Every organ, cell, and tissue in our bodies use it to function properly, which is why drinking enough water every day is important.

“We’re made up of water more than anything else,” says Marjan Moghaddam, D.O., a family medicine doctor with Henry Ford Health System. “Drinking six to eight, eight-ounce glasses of water daily is what’s recommended. Six is fine for most people, eight if you’re more active.” (And if you drink Gatorade or Powerade after an hour workout, Dr. Moghaddam says water is still better. “You don’t need to replenish your electrolytes after an hour workout,” she says.)

If drinking water is something that always falls by the wayside during your day, fill a water bottle in the morning and keep it close by to track how much you’re drinking. Eating your water in the form of water-dense fruits and veggies like cucumbers, melons, berries, lemons and limes is also a great way to supplement your fluid intake, says Dr. Moghaddam.

What Happens If You Don’t Drink Enough Water

Whatever you do, make sure you get in those six to eight glasses, otherwise dehydration could cause a whole host of problems. Here are a few side effects:

  1. Persistent headaches. One of the first things you might notice when you’re dehydrated is a throbbing headache. The good news? If dehydration is the cause, it should go away shortly after you drink a large glass of water.
  2. Sluggish bowel function. “There are water receptors in the colon, and they pull water from the body to make the stools softer,” says Dr. Moghaddam. “If you don’t get enough water, hard stools and constipation could be common side effects, along with abdominal pain and cramps.”
  3. Dull skin. Dehydration shows up on your face in the form of dry, ashy skin that seems less radiant, plump and elastic.
  4. Fatigue. If you’re not replenishing your fluid intake, your energy levels could plummet and you could experience fatigue and brain fog. So the next time you reach for another cup of coffee, see if it’s water that you need instead.
  5. Weight gain. “Sometimes people mistake thirst for hunger and they eat more, but really they just need to drink more,” says Dr. Moghaddam. “Sometimes if you have a glass of water, the hunger cues will go away.”
  6. Dry mouth. If you’re not getting enough water, you can have dry mucous membranes—i.e., a lack of saliva. This can make it difficult to talk, swallow, and even breathe. Luckily, this can easily be solved by drinking water.

An important note: If you have heart failure, less water is better—you don’t want your body to retain too much fluid, forcing your heart to work harder. Aim for less than two liters daily from all liquid sources, says Dr. Moghaddam. If you have questions, talk to your doctor to see what is right for you.

For everyone else, while six to eight glasses is preferred, going to far above and beyond that won’t help you—in fact, drinking too much water can lead to brain swelling and fluid overload, says Dr. Moghaddam. Find a happy balance between six to eight glasses daily to stay healthy.

To find a doctor at Henry Ford, visit henryford.com or call 1-800-HENRYFORD (436-7936). 

Want more health and wellness advice? Subscribe to our health and wellness newsletter to get all of the latest tips. 

Marjan Moghaddam, D.O., is a family medicine physician who sees patients at Henry Ford Medical Center in Capitol Park and Harbortown. 

Tags: Nutrition, Primary Care

Water | The Nutrition Source

There are many options for what to drink, but water is the best choice for most people who have access to safe drinking water. It is calorie-free and as easy to find as the nearest tap.

Water helps to restore fluids lost through metabolism, breathing, sweating, and the removal of waste. It helps to keep you from overheating, lubricates the joints and tissues, maintains healthy skin, and is necessary for proper digestion. It’s the perfect zero-calorie beverage for quenching thirst and rehydrating your body.

How Much Water Do I Need?

Water is an essential nutrient at every age, so optimal hydration is a key component for good health. Water accounts for about 60% of an adult’s body weight. We drink fluids when we feel thirst, the major signal alerting us when our body runs low on water. We also customarily drink beverages with meals to help with digestion. But sometimes we drink not based on these factors but on how much we think we should be drinking. One of the most familiar sayings is to aim for “8 glasses a day,” but this may not be appropriate for every person.

General recommendations

  • The National Academy of Medicine suggests an adequate intake of daily fluids of about 13 cups and 9 cups for healthy men and women, respectively, with 1 cup equaling 8 ounces. [1] Higher amounts may be needed for those who are physically active or exposed to very warm climates. Lower amounts may be needed for those with smaller body sizes. It’s important to note that this amount is not a daily target, but a general guide. In the average person, drinking less will not necessarily compromise one’s health as each person’s exact fluid needs vary, even day-to-day.
  • Fever, exercise, exposure to extreme temperature climates (very hot or cold), and excessive loss of body fluids (such as with vomiting or diarrhea) will increase fluid needs.
  • The amount and color of urine can provide a rough estimate of adequate hydration. Generally the color of urine darkens the more concentrated it is (meaning that it contains less water). However, foods, medications, and vitamin supplements can also change urine color. [1] Smaller volumes of urine may indicate dehydration, especially if also darker in color.
  • Alcohol can suppress anti-diuretic hormone, a fluid-regulating hormone that signals the kidneys to reduce urination and reabsorb water back into the body. Without it, the body flushes out water more easily. Enjoying more than a couple of drinks within a short time can increase the risk of dehydration, especially if taken on an empty stomach. To prevent this, take alcohol with food and sips of water.
  • Although caffeine has long been thought to have a diuretic effect, potentially leading to dehydration, research does not fully support this. The data suggest that more than 180 mg of caffeine daily (about two cups of brewed coffee) may increase urination in the short-term in some people, but will not necessarily lead to dehydration. Therefore, caffeinated beverages including coffee and tea can contribute to total daily water intake. [1]

Keep in mind that about 20% of our total water intake comes not from beverages but from water-rich foods like lettuce, leafy greens, cucumbers, bell peppers, summer squash, celery, berries, and melons.

Aside from including water-rich foods, the following chart is a guide for daily water intake based on age group from the National Academy of Medicine:

Age Daily Adequate Intake
1-3 years 4 cups, or 32 ounces
4-8 years 5 cups, or 40 ounces
9-13 years 7-8 cups, or 56-64 ounces
14-18 years 8-11 cups, or 64-88 ounces
men, 19 and older 13 cups, or 104 ounces
women, 19 and older 9 cups, or 72 ounces
pregnant women 10 cups, or 80 ounces
breastfeeding women 13 cups, or 104 ounces

Preventing Dehydration: Is Thirst Enough?

A healthy body is designed to send thirst signals when the body becomes depleted of fluids. Thirst is the desire to drink, and is not only driven by physiological cues but behavioral cues. [2] An example of a behavioral prompt is water temperature; research suggests that people tend to drink the most water when it is served at room temperature even though cooler drinks are rated as most pleasing to taste. We are also often influenced to drink (and eat) more in social settings.

As we age, however, the body’s regulation of fluid intake and thirst decline. Research has shown that both of these factors are impaired in the elderly. A Cochrane review found that commonly used indicators of dehydration in older adults (e.g., urine color and volume, feeling thirsty) are not effective and should not be solely used. [3] Certain conditions that impair mental ability and cognition, such as a stroke or dementia, can also impair thirst. People may also voluntarily limit drinking due to incontinence or difficulty getting to a bathroom. In addition to these situations, research has found that athletes, people who are ill, and infants may not have an adequate sense of thirst to replete their fluid needs. [2] Even mild dehydration may produce negative symptoms, so people who cannot rely on thirst or other usual measures may wish to use other strategies. For example, aim to fill a 20-ounce water bottle four times daily and sip throughout the day, or drink a large glass of water with each meal and snack.

Symptoms of dehydration that may occur with as little as a 2% water deficit:

  • Fatigue
  • Confusion or short-term memory loss
  • Mood changes like increased irritability or depression

Dehydration can increase the risk of certain medical conditions:

  • Urinary tract infections
  • Kidney stones
  • Gallstones
  • Constipation 

Should I drink alkaline water?

Like most trends of the moment, alkaline water has become popular through celebrity backing with claims ranging from weight loss to curing cancer. The theory behind alkaline water is the same as that touting the benefits of eating alkaline foods, which purportedly counterbalances the health detriments caused by eating acid-producing foods like meat, sugar, and some grains.

From a scale of 0-14, a higher pH number is alkaline; a lower pH is acidic. The body tightly regulates blood pH levels to about 7.4 because veering away from this number to either extreme can cause negative side effects and even be life-threatening. However, diet alone cannot cause these extremes; they most commonly occur with conditions like uncontrolled diabetes, kidney disease, chronic lung disease, or alcohol abuse.

Alkaline water has a higher pH of about 8-9 than tap water of about 7, due to a higher mineral or salt content. Some water sources can be naturally alkaline if the water picks up minerals as it passes over rocks. However, most commercial brands of alkaline water have been manufactured using an ionizer that reportedly separates out the alkaline components and filters out the acid components, raising the pH. Some people add an alkaline substance like baking soda to regular water.

Scientific evidence is not conclusive on the acid-alkaline theory, also called the acid-ash theory, stating that eating a high amount of certain foods can slightly lower the pH of blood especially in the absence of eating foods supporting a higher alkaline blood pH like fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Controlled clinical trials have not shown that diet alone can significantly change the blood pH of healthy people. Moreover, a direct connection of blood pH in the low-normal range and chronic disease in humans has not been established.

BOTTOM LINE: If the idea of alkaline water encourages you to drink more, then go for it! But it’s likely that drinking plain regular water will provide similar health benefits from simply being well-hydrated—improved energy, mood, and digestive health

Is It Possible To Drink Too Much Water?

There is no Tolerable Upper Intake Level for water because the body can usually excrete extra water through urine or sweat. However, a condition called water toxicity is possible in rare cases, in which a large amount of fluids is taken in a short amount of time, which is faster than the kidney’s ability to excrete it. This leads to a dangerous condition called hyponatremia in which blood levels of sodium fall too low as too much water is taken. The excess total body water dilutes blood sodium levels, which can cause symptoms like confusion, nausea, seizures, and muscle spasms. Hyponatremia is usually only seen in ill people whose kidneys are not functioning properly or under conditions of extreme heat stress or prolonged strenuous exercise where the body cannot excrete the extra water. Very physically active people such as triathletes and marathon runners are at risk for this condition as they tend to drink large amounts of water, while simultaneously losing sodium through their sweat. Women and children are also more susceptible to hyponatremia because of their smaller body size.

Fun Flavors For Water  

Water is an excellent calorie-free, sugar-free choice.  For some people who are accustomed to drinking sweet beverages, water can initially taste bland. To increase water consumption without losing flavor or to spice up your daily water intake, try these refreshing water-based beverages:

Infused water

Instead of purchasing expensive flavored waters in the grocery store, you can easily make your own at home. Try adding any of the following to a cold glass or pitcher of water:

  • Sliced citrus fruits or zest (lemon, lime, orange, grapefruit)
  • Crushed fresh mint
  • Peeled, sliced fresh ginger or sliced cucumber
  • Crushed berries

Sparkling water with a splash of juice

Sparkling juices may have as many calories as sugary soda. Instead, make your own sparkling juice at home with 12 ounces of sparkling water and just an ounce or two of juice. For additional flavor, add sliced citrus or fresh herbs like mint.

TIP: To reduce waste, reconsider relying on single-use plastic water bottles and purchase a colorful 20-32 ounce refillable water thermos that is easy to wash and tote with you during the day. 

Water becomes bubbly through the process of carbonation and is sometimes suggested as a healthier alternative to soda. Carbonation involves dissolving carbon dioxide gas in water under high pressure; when the pressure is released, bubbles form. This process lowers the pH of water from 7 to 4, which is more acidic. The acid level has raised concerns that seltzer and soda water may harm dental enamel or bone health. However, research has not shown that carbonated beverages are associated with dental decay unless they also contain sugar or other sweeteners like high fructose corn syrup. Furthermore, studies have not found that carbonated beverages are associated with decreased bone mineral density; the culprit is more likely the high phosphorus content specific to dark cola soft drinks than the carbonation.

BOTTOM LINE: Carbonated waters, if unsweetened, are safe to drink and a good beverage choice. They are not associated with health problems that are linked with sweetened, carbonated beverages like soda.


  • Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health is a member of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network’s (NOPREN) Drinking Water Working Group. A collaborative network of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the NOPREN Drinking Water Working Group focuses on policies and economic issues regarding free and safe drinking water access in various settings by conducting research and evaluation to help identify, develop and implement drinking-water-related policies, programs, and practices. Visit the network’s website to access recent water research and evidence-based resources.
  • The Harvard Prevention Research Center on Nutrition and Physical Activity provides tools and resources for making clean, cold, free water more accessible in environments like schools and afterschool programs, as well as tips for making water more tasty and fun for kids.


  1. The National Academy of Sciences. Dietary References Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. https://www.nap.edu/read/10925/chapter/6#102 Accessed 8/5/2019.
  2. Millard-Stafford M, Wendland DM, O’Dea NK, Norman TL. Thirst and hydration status in everyday life. Nutr Rev. 2012 Nov;70 Suppl 2:S147-51.
  3. Hooper L, Abdelhamid A, Attreed NJ, Campbell WW, Channell AM, et al. Clinical symptoms, signs and tests for identification of impending and current water-loss dehydration in older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Apr 30;(4):CD009647.

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Dehydration: Causes & Symptoms


What is dehydration?

Warm weather brings with it thoughts of cool ocean breezes, napping in a hammock and sipping a tall glass of lemonade. Now hold on to the mental image of that lemonade because summer is also a time to be wary of dehydration: the lack of sufficient water in your body, specifically in your cells and blood vessels. Even losing a little bit, as little as 1.5% of your body’s water, can cause symptoms. Those symptoms can be as simple as a slight headache, or the dehydration could contribute to a life-threatening illness like heatstroke (hyperthermia).

Your body’s natural response to inadequate hydration is thirst. You should respond to thirst right away by drinking fluids – preferably water. Drink enough water to prevent yourself from feeling thirsty! Water has zero calories!

What does water do for your body?

Between about 55% to about 78% of your body is made of water. Newborn babies are about 78% water, a year-old baby is 65%, adult men are about 60% and adult women are about 55%. Your brain is made up of 73% water, and so is your heart. Your bones are 31% water, muscles and kidneys are 79% and your skin is 64%. A whopping 83% of water makes up your lungs.

Water helps:

  • Aid digestion and get rid of waste.
  • Work your joints. Water lubricates them.
  • Make saliva (which you need to eat).
  • Balance your body’s chemicals. Your brain needs it to create hormones and neurotransmitters.
  • Deliver oxygen all over your body.
  • Cushion your bones.
  • Regulate your body temperature.

Act as a shock absorber for your brain, your spinal cord and, if you’re pregnant, your fetus.

Water is important to your body, especially in warm weather. It keeps your body from overheating. When you exercise, your muscles generate heat. To keep from burning up, your body needs to get rid of that heat. The main way the body discards heat in warm weather is through sweat. As sweat evaporates, it cools the tissues beneath. Lots of sweating reduces the body’s water level, and this loss of fluid affects normal bodily functions. Drink water!

Are hypovolemia and dehydration the same?

No, these terms do not mean the same thing. Hypovolemia defines many conditions where extracellular fluid volume is reduced. Dehydration can be one of several causes of hypovolemia, but it is not the same thing as it.

Are dehydration and hypernatremia the same?

No. Again, dehydration can be a cause of hypernatremia, but it is not the same thing.

Possible Causes

What causes dehydration?

Dehydration happens when you don’t drink enough water, or when you lose water quickly through, for example, sweating, vomiting and/or diarrhea. Certain medications such as diuretics (water pills) can result in increased urination and dehydration.

Who’s at risk of becoming dehydrated?

Anyone can become dehydrated if they don’t take care of themselves and drink water. However, infants and children, especially when they’re sick, are at a higher risk because they may be unable to communicate that they’re thirsty. Monitor the amount of fluids your kids take in.

Older adults are also at a higher risk. Their body’s fluid reserves shrink and their body’s ability to tell them they’re thirsty doesn’t work as effectively. This means they don’t carry as much water in their bodies and they can’t tell as easily when they’re thirsty. If you’re a caretaker of an elderly individual, especially one who may have memory problems, offer them drinks frequently. Even if they’re enduring an uncomfortable infection like a UTI (urinary tract infection), they still need to consume liquids.

What are the signs of dehydration? What does dehydration feel like?

If you suspect that you or someone else is severely dehydrated, seek immediate medical attention.

Signs of dehydration include:

  • Headache, delirium, confusion.
  • Tiredness (fatigue).
  • Dizziness, weakness, light-headedness.
  • Dry mouth and/or a dry cough.
  • High heart rate but low blood pressure.
  • Loss of appetite but maybe craving sugar.
  • Flushed (red) skin. Swollen feet. Muscle cramps.
  • Heat intolerance, or chills.
  • Constipation.
  • Dark-colored pee (urine). Your pee should be a pale clear color.

The best way to beat dehydration is to drink before you get thirsty. If you wait until after you’re thirsty, you’re already dehydrated.

In what other ways does dehydration affect me?

Dehydration does more than you might expect. If affects you not only physically (note the signs stated above), but mentally and emotionally as well. If you’re dehydrated, you may feel:

Mental affects:

  • Confused.
  • Like you can’t remember.

Emotional affects:

Note that these symptoms may be worse in someone who has dementia.

How does dehydration affect the brain?

Severe hydration shrinks the blood vessels in the brain. When there aren’t high enough fluid levels in your brain, that affects your memory and coordination.

How does dehydration affect the heart? Can dehydration cause high blood pressure?

Your heart has to work harder when there’s less water in your blood.

How does dehydration affect the kidneys?

The average person urinates (pees) about six or seven times a day. If you’re dehydrated, you may urinate less. This is because less water in your blood causes your kidneys to hold on to the urine.

Does dehydration cause cramping?

Loss of electrolytes, like sodium and potassium, can cause cramping. They’re expelled through perspiration (sweating). Drink water, but also a sports drink to replenish your electrolytes if your fluid losses are extensive from sweating, vomiting or diarrhea.

Can medications cause dehydration?

Diuretic medications, which are prescribed to treat heart failure and high blood pressure, can increase your risk of dehydration.

Can dehydration cause shortness of breath?

Shortness of breath is not a symptom of dehydration. However, it may go alongside dehydration. For example, you might be playing a sport outside in the hot sun and get dehydrated from lack of water and also feel short of breath from all the activity.

Care and Treatment

How is dehydration diagnosed?

Don’t forget that if you feel thirsty, you’re already dehydrated. That’s the easiest way to tell that you need more fluids.

Laboratory tests can also diagnose dehydration. Tests include:

  • Low urine sodium concentration.
  • Elevated plasma serum osmolality. This measures how concentrated some particles are in your blood plasma.
  • Elevated creatinine. This tests kidney function.
  • Elevated blood urea nitrogen. This also relates to kidney function.

What are the levels of dehydration?

Dehydration may be categorized as:

  • Mild. You just have to take in more fluids orally (by mouth). Drink water, but replace fluids with a drink that contains electrolytes if you experience significant sweating or fluid losses from vomiting and diarrhea. You should feel better after five or 10 minutes.
  • Moderate. Moderate dehydration requires an IV (intravenous hydration). You’ll get this in an urgent care, emergency room, or hospital.
  • Severe. See a healthcare provider if your symptoms of dehydration are severe. Call 911 or go to an emergency room.

If you’re seeing a healthcare provider, they’ll figure out what level you’re at in order to assign you treatment.

How is dehydration treated?

Drink water. You could also try increasing your hydration with oral rehydration sachets – powders you mix in with your water.

How long does it take for the symptoms to stop after water is ingested?

You may see the symptoms of dehydration improve in as little as five to 10 minutes.

How do I prevent dehydration?

Exactly how much water do you need? That depends on your weight, age, level of activity, age, the climate of your environment and other factors. Those with diabetes, heart disease, cystic fibrosis and other conditions may need to be cautious. The amount of water you need can also depend on the climate and what clothes you’re wearing. Although the standard advice is eight glasses of water per day (about 2.2 liters or 2.3 quarts per day for an adult female and about 3 liters or 3.2 quarts per day for an adult male), talk to your healthcare provider to confirm the right amount for you.

Keep track of how much fluid you drink. Drink water throughout the day, including at meals. Avoid soda, alcohol and caffeinated drinks. One way to make sure you are properly hydrated is to check your urine. If it’s clear, pale or straw-colored, it’s OK. If it’s darker than that, keep drinking!

To avoid dehydration, active people – people playing a sport or exercising – should drink at least 16 to 20 ounces of fluids one to two hours before an outdoor activity. After that, you should consume six to 12 ounces of fluid every 10 to 15 minutes when you’re outside. When you are finished with the activity, you should drink more. How much more? To replace what you have lost: at least another 16 to 24 ounces.

Which beverages hydrate the body, and which dehydrate?

Some beverages are better than others at preventing dehydration. Water is all you need if you’re planning to be active in a low or moderate intensity activity, such as walking for only an hour or less. If you plan to exercise longer than that, or if you anticipate being out in the sun for more than a few hours, you may want to hydrate with some kind of sports drink. These replace not only fluid, but also electrolytes like sodium and potassium, which are lost through sweating. Too much or too little sodium and potassium in the body can cause trouble. Muscle cramping may be due to a deficiency of electrolytes.

Alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, such as coffee, teas and colas, are not recommended for optimal hydration. These fluids tend to pull water from the body and promote dehydration. Fruit juice and fruit drinks may have too many carbohydrates, too little sodium and they may upset your stomach.

Adequate hydration will keep your summer activities safer and much more enjoyable. Keep an extra pitcher of water in the refrigerator and add fresh lemons, limes, cucumber or mint for a dash of flavor.

How do I get myself and my loved ones to drink more water?

  • Carry a water bottle with you. Keep it filled!
  • Choose water instead of sugary drinks, including at meals.
  • Add flavor. A wedge of lime or lemon might make it tastier, and more fun! You can also try some flavored drink mixes, but watch out for the sugar!
  • Eat foods that are high in water content. Many soups, fruits and vegetables meet this description.
  • If you don’t like drinking a lot of water at once, try smaller doses spread out throughout the day.

When to Call the Doctor

When should I contact a healthcare provider about dehydration? At what point is dehydration dangerous?

The amount of water needed on a daily basis depends on many factors, so it’s best to check in with your healthcare provider to determine exactly how much will keep you healthy.

Always drink water immediately if you feel thirsty. Remember – if you feel thirsty, you’re already dehydrated. You may see the symptoms of dehydration improve in as little as five to 10 minutes.

If you think your symptoms of dehydration are severe, don’t hesitate to seek help! Dehydration can contribute to kidney stones, kidney failure and heatstroke, all life-threatening illnesses. Call 911 or go to the emergency room right away if you have symptoms of severe dehydration, or (see below) heatstroke:

  • A temperature of 103 degrees Fahrenheit or higher.
  • Muscle twitching.
  • Red, hot, dry skin.
  • Nausea.
  • Rapid pulse.
  • Seizures.
  • Lack of sweating.
  • Confusion, altered mental state, slurred speech.
  • Dizziness.
  • Fainting, loss of consciousness.
  • Hallucinations.

Top 10 Ways Water Benefits the Body

Water makes up a large percentage of human body composition — it accounts for about 75% of a newborn’s body weight and drops to around 55% percent in older adults. Blood plasma, or the liquid part of blood, is about 90% water, and nearly all our bodily systems depend on water to function effectively.

Adequate daily water intake varies from person to person. However, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine has established some guidelines suggesting that an average adequate daily fluid intake is 15.5 cups for men and 11.5 cups a day for women. About 20% of our water consumption should come from foods, and the rest should come from the water we drink. This level of intake helps keep our bodies healthy and strong.

What are some of water’s health benefits? Read on to learn more.

How Does Water Benefit Your Body?

Below are the top 10 benefits of drinking water for the human body.

1. Skin Clarity and Health

Drinking enough water has a tremendously positive effect on skin clarity and health. Dehydration promotes the formation of wrinkles, and it can also lead to dry skin and certain rashes and skin disorders. Adequate water intake, though, helps keep the skin soft, hydrated, clear and lustrous.

The benefits of drinking water for skin also extend to your youthful appearance — the collagen that supports healthy, firm skin is about 60% water by weight, so enough water intake may help keep this protein plump and help prevent premature aging. Other factors like sun exposure and genetics, though, also play a role.

2. Weight Control

The benefits of drinking water for weight loss and healthy weight maintenance are also substantial. Juices and many sodas are high in calories and sugar. Extra calories quickly lead to added weight, and excessive sugar consumption can lead to cravings that wreak havoc on a thoughtfully planned diet. Water contains no calories and can help the body feel full and stave off cravings.

3. Blood Pressure Regulation

Adequate consumption of water helps regulate blood pressure. Dehydration can lead to a thinning of the blood, which, in extreme cases, can cause dangerous drops in blood pressure that could harm the internal organs. But drinking enough water helps maintain a healthy blood consistency and keep blood pressure numbers within the recommended ranges. Drinking water before giving blood can also increase blood pressure enough to keep donors from getting woozy — it reduces the incidence of fainting from lowered blood pressure by up to 20%.

4. Body Temperature Regulation

The middle layers of the skin typically store the body’s water. During exercise, or when the body becomes overheated, this water rises to the skin’s surface as sweat and helps cool the body through evaporation.

Some evidence suggests that when the body becomes dehydrated, heat storage in the skin increases because there is inadequate water to allow the body to cool itself through sweating. This heat storage can decrease the body’s effectiveness in responding to the strain that occurs during physical exertion. But drinking enough water can help reduce strain on the body during exercise.

5. Energy Boosting

Drinking enough water throughout the day helps boost energy levels and stave off periods of drowsiness and fatigue. Many people drink coffee to stay alert in the morning and throughout the day. Drinking water helps increase alertness without the adverse side effects of caffeine consumption, such as shakiness and energy crashes. Dehydration negatively impacts mood and energy levels, but drinking water helps combat those effects and get the body and mind alert and energized.

Some evidence also suggests that drinking enough water helps boost energy to improve athletic performance. One study found evidence that dehydration had an observable negative effect on physical exertion that lasted for more than 30 seconds. But drinking more water can help correct for this detrimental effect.

6. Kidney Function

Adequate hydration also helps maintain proper kidney function. Water is essential to help the kidneys preserve the body’s homeostasis by filtering fluids, regulating fluid levels and maintaining electrolyte balances in the body.

Flushing too little water through the kidneys can lead to problems like kidney stones. Why? Water helps dissolve minerals and nutrients and remove waste products. If there isn’t enough water available, minerals and nutrients build up in the kidneys and accrete as stones. When waste products accumulate in the kidneys, it forces these vital organs to work much harder than they would otherwise have to. These issues potentially lead to chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. But consuming the proper amount of water helps keep the kidneys healthy and functioning effectively.

7. Digestive Efficiency

Drinking enough water aids the digestive system. Water helps form the saliva we need to start breaking down food as we consume it. And water is essential for proper intestinal function as well. Without an adequate supply of water, the stomach experiences increased concentrations of acid, and the intestines cannot break down food or transport food waste through the body effectively. These issues can lead to symptoms of gastric distress, such as heartburn, constipation and stomach ulcers. But water dilutes stomach acid and helps bulk up food waste and move it through the body more easily.

8. Joint Health

Adequate water consumption is essential for joint health. Water helps form necessary lubrication for the joints to prevent friction and pain as the body moves — cartilage, which surrounds the joints and the discs of the spine, is about 80% water. Chronic dehydration decreases the ability of cartilage to act as a natural shock absorber, and this decreased shock absorption can lead to joint pain. But drinking enough water helps the body maintain easy, pain-free mobility.

9. Brain Function

One of the most significant health benefits of water is its positive effect on brain function. Water helps provide the fluid necessary to cushion the brain and spinal cord and protect them from injury. And evidence suggests that dehydration can lead to the disruption of the hormones and neurotransmitters needed for proper brain function, particularly the functions involved in reasoning, focus and short-term memory. Adequate hydration, though, can promote healthy brain function and clear, measured thinking.

10. Nutrient Absorption

Drinking enough water is essential for optimal nutrient absorption, as well. Water dissolves minerals and nutrients and makes them available for the body to use. Dehydration makes much less water available to help dissolve minerals and nutrients the body needs to function. But adequate water consumption helps ensure the body can absorb the nutrients it needs for effective function and optimal health.

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Water’s Role in the Body – Bottled Water | IBWA

According to Lawrence Armstrong, PhD, FACSM, professor emeritus, University of Connecticut, and Drinking Water Research Foundation (DWRF) trustee, “Our thirst sensation doesn’t really appear until we are 1 or 2 percent dehydrated. By then dehydration is already setting in and starting to impact how our mind and body perform.” According to Armstrong, “Dehydration affects all people, and staying properly hydrated is just as important for those who work all day at a computer as it is for marathon runners, who can lose up to 8 percent of their body weight as water when they compete.”

The body parts

Water is essential for life. It supports metabolic reactions—such as the formation of urine (approximately 95 percent water), sweat (approximately 99 percent water), and blood plasma (about 92 percent water). Other parts of the body function best when adequately hydrated. Here are a few examples.

Brain. Our brains are 83 percent water, and numerous studies have demonstrated the positive benefits of adequate water consumption and the negative impacts of dehydration. Your brain’s hydration status can affect all of the following: cognitive function, mood, motor function, short- and long-term memory, and attention span. Corinne Cian, PhD, a researcher from the Armed Forces Biomedical Research Institute in France, found that dehydration of 2.8 percent caused impaired performance on tasks including examining visual perception, short-term memory, and psychomotor ability. So, the next time you are feeling cranky, have a hard time focusing, or can’t think properly, perhaps you should reach for some bottled water—because you may simply be dehydrated.

Muscles. While water loss degrades many physiological functions, one of the most obvious is diminished muscle performance. “Muscles need water to be able to expand and contract quickly in response to instructions from the nervous system. Muscle strength is also affected by hydration: Thirsty muscles move slowly and can’t bear as much weight, which leads to sluggish performance. This effect is present in any dehydrated person—not just elite athletes,” says Georgie Adams, PT, A Fine Balance.

Joints. Proper hydration is also critical for healthy joints. “Water acts as a lubricant for your joints, making sure they can move efficiently and painlessly. Many joints have little fluid-filled sacs called bursae in them. These cushion the joint and allow it to move freely and bear weight. Poor hydration can mean these little sacs become thinner and more rigid which makes them unable to provide proper joint support,” says Adams.

Gastrointestinal functions. Properly hydrating the colon will promote regular peristalsis (the natural muscle contractions that move food through the intestines) and help ease elimination. Try to drink at least half your body weight in ounces of water each day, says gastroenterologist Leonard Smith, MD, of Gainesville, Florida.

Kidney functions. Ten percent of the U.S. population is affected by kidney stones—and that figure is growing. Researchers, such as Jessica Sontrop, PhD, from Western University in Canada, have found increased water consumption can alleviate the incidence of kidney stones because water helps decrease the concentrations of substances involved in stone formation. In addition, Sontrop has found the prevalence of stage III chronic kidney disease was highest among those with the lowest water intake. Her study concluded there is “evidence suggesting a potentially protective effect of higher total water intake, particularly plain water, on the kidney.”

Heart functions. Keeping the body hydrated helps the heart more easily pump blood through the blood vessels to the muscles. And, according to the American Heart Association, it helps the muscles work efficiently. “If you’re well hydrated, your heart doesn’t have to work as hard,” says John Batson, MD, a sports medicine physician with Lowcountry Spine & Sport in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and American Heart Association volunteer.

Regulation of blood volume. Decreases in blood volume can occur through blood loss or via loss of body water from sweating, which can lead to increased heart rate, a drop in blood pressure, or fainting. Drinking water will reduce heart rate and increase blood pressure in normal healthy people, says Barry Popkin, PhD.

Gallbladder functions. Studies have found that a high daily water intake and consumption of water at regular intervals can help with the function of emptying the gallbladder and preventing gallstones from forming, according to research by Mahantayya V. Math.

Urinary tract. Numerous studies have found that drinking plenty of water can help “flush out” bacteria from the urinary tract. One such study by Christine Stauffer, MD, of University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland, found girls with poor fluid intake were three times more likely to have recurring urinary tract infections compared to better-hydrated girls. That research is significant because urinary tract infections are the second most common reason antibiotics are prescribed (respiratory infections are No.1), coupled with a general growing concern over implications connected to the “overuse of antibiotics” among the population.

Skin elasticity and resilience. Water makes up 30 percent of our skin, so it makes sense that water contributes to our skin’s plumpness, elasticity, and resiliency. While maintaining adequate hydration cannot stop wrinkles, Professor Martina Kerscher, MD, Division of Cosmetic Sciences, University of Hamburg, found that water helped with skin thickness and density among people who had low water intake.

Controlling and losing weight. Drinking water in place of caloric beverages will reduce a person’s energy intake, which helps better control daily calorie intake. For people who are overweight and trying to lose pounds, there is evidence that drinking water will also alter metabolism. Jodi Stookey, PhD, of Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) in California, found that increases in water consumption were associated with significant loss of body weight and fat in overweight dieting women, regardless of diet and activity. Stookey has pointed out that studies examining how athletes improved athletic performance by burning more carbohydrates and less fat to delay fatigue during intense physical activity could reveal information about weight loss and water. According to Stookey, “When the same studies are looked at from a weight-loss perspective instead, we’re left with only one question, What are we waiting for? We should absolutely be telling people to drink water as part of losing weight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism are linked like a see-saw. If you prioritize one, you suppress the other.”

Situations that require special consideration

Knowing that water consumption is necessary for a healthy body is one thing, but it’s also important to be aware that situations exist when it is particularly important to have access to water.

Patients, physically impaired, and the elderly. A variety of physiological conditions can affect patients, physically impaired persons, and the elderly that don’t bother a healthy middle-aged person—such as a reduced sense of thirst, decreased total body water content, and decreased kidney function—which makes them more susceptible to becoming dehydrated. But oftentimes, a decrease in mobility causes that group to purposely put off drinking fluids, so they don’t have to go to the bathroom as often, as getting up and down is difficult and they feel they could risk injury. However, studies show patients with high water intake are less likely to have a fatal heart attack. In addition, research by Professor Luca Masotti, MD, at the School in Geriatrics, University of Siena, Italy, shows well-hydrated patients recover quicker. And a study by Mathilde Ferry, at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire in France, shows patients with high water intake have lower rates of infections.

Air travel. Aircraft cabin air lacks humidity, which can cause moisture in our bodies to evaporate more quickly than normal, causing us to become dehydrated. Research by Wolfgang Schobersberger, of the Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT) in Austria, has shown that dehydration increases systolic blood viscosity, which is associated with blood clots. The advice is to drink plenty of water before your flight, and sip regularly during a flight to prevent dehydration.

Cold weather. Researchers at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) used “cold chambers” to study the effects of cold on the human body. According to Robert Kenefick, PhD, UNH associate professor, cold temperatures actually alter thirst sensation. By measuring blood volume and flow, he discovered the brain focuses more on body core temperature over fluid balance. “If humans don’t naturally hydrate themselves properly, they can become very dehydrated in cold weather because there is little physiological stimulus to drink,” says Kenefick. Coupled with this loss of thirst sensation, cold weather causes decreased body water due to respiratory fluid loss through breathing, greater effort during physical activity because of the weight of extra clothing, and sweat evaporating more quickly due to the cold air.

Extreme heat. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that during hot weather people need to increase their fluid intake, regardless of activity level. And people shouldn’t wait until they feel thirsty before they consume fluids. During heavy exercise in a hot environment, the CDC says a person should drink two to four glasses (16-32 ounces) of cool fluids each hour. Also avoid very cold drinks because they can cause stomach cramps.

Are you hydrated? 

The best way to keep on top of your hydration is to keep an eye on the color of your urine. Armstrong has provided a urine color chart on his website that can help people tell their level of hydration. The palest yellow indicates “adequate hydration,” says Armstrong. On average, men urinate 1.4 liters per day, and women urinate 1.1 liters per day, so it’s important to consume at least that much and then more to compensate for other body water lost through normal sweating and breathing.

Water’s role in your body is extremely important. Use our hydration calculator to help you determine the proper amount of water your body requires.

Water’s Journey Through The Body

Another exit point for water is through stools. Healthy fecal matter consists of 75% water and 25% solid matter. Once the small intestine has absorbed enough water to send throughout the body, it will pass the water along to the large intestine. When water reaches the large intestine, it will combine with solid matter to soften stool and aid digestion.

When someone exercises or heats up, small droplets of water, also known as sweat, will appear on the skin to cool the body. Sweat is a natural way the body regulates its temperature. It’s estimated that most individuals sweat at a rate of 500 to 700 mL per day, but people can sweat at a rate of up to one liter per hour during high-intensity exercise in a hot environment. While drinking water during exercise will help replace these fluids, the best strategy is to continuously drink water throughout the day to ensure adequate hydration.

Small droplets of water also exit the body via the breath. This is most evident on a cold day when a person can clearly see their breath. Nonetheless, it occurs with every breath we take and is one of the main reasons someone may feel slightly dehydrated in the morning after a full night of restful sleep.

Now that you know what happens to water in your body, learn about different types of water and find out how much water you should consume daily.

Now that we better understand how water moves through the body and why water is so crucial to our physical and mental wellbeing, we need to find ways to get the best water possible. Water filters are one of the easiest ways to consistently drink pure, healthy water that doesn’t contain dangerous toxins or contaminants. Whether you want to invest in a whole house water filtration system, which filters all of the water in your house, an affordable countertop water filter, or a simple filtered water bottle for hydration on the go, look for an NSF Certified Product to ensure that you are getting some of the best water filters on the market.

Water and the human body | Lifestyle

Water is integral to our health and well-being. The human body is 70% water. Water plays a key role in many vital processes in the body:

• Moisturizes eyes, mouth and nose

• Protects human organs and tissues

• Provides lubrication to joints

• Regulates body temperature

• Reduces the burden on the kidneys and liver, removing toxins from the body

• Provides cells with nutrients and oxygen

• Helps prevent constipation

• Helps dissolve minerals and other nutrients for fast absorption

During the day we lose water through urine, sweat, breath, and this fluid must be replenished.This can be done by consuming any liquid. However, water is a healthy choice as it contains no calories and no sugar that can harm your teeth.

Drinking enough water has many positive effects on the body. Water makes us energized, helps keep our skin hydrated and supple, which makes us look younger. Regular drinking of water will also help reduce appetite and lose weight due to its lack of calories.

Research shows that eating a low-calorie diet and drinking water before meals can help you lose more weight than diet alone.

Lack of water in the body leads to dehydration, which occurs when your body does not have enough water to carry out its normal functions. Without water, a person can die in three days, and without food, in the presence of water, he can live for several weeks. Mild dehydration can be characterized by dry mouth, headache, dizziness, and fatigue.

Even mild dehydration has shown us in scientific research a decrease in physical performance. It has also been suggested that insufficient water intake can lead to the occurrence of many diseases and ailments, including asthma, angina pectoris, heartburn, back pain, migraines. Drinking enough water in equal portions throughout the day will help improve your mental performance.

Water has a beneficial effect on cognitive functions, because 85% of the brain is water.Lack of water can impair intellectual ability, memory, concentration and coordination. When you feel dehydrated, your focus and concentration can drop by 13% and your memory by 7%.

It has been suggested that dehydration can also have a negative effect on mood. Therefore, regular and adequate drinking of water has many positive effects not only on physical health, but also on overall mood and well-being.

It is recommended to drink about 1.2 liters of liquid daily.This is about 6 cups of 200 ml or 8 cups of 150 ml.

90,000 What percent of water is in a person


Even from school, children learn how many percent of water is contained in the human body, how important it is to observe the drinking regime. Is the human body really 80% liquid, or is this indicator influenced by some factors, and it can fluctuate. This information is extremely important, because it allows you to better understand biological processes, as well as maintain a stable state of health.


In the human body, the percentage of water content is not constant. It can fluctuate depending on a number of factors. How many liters of water in a person depends on age characteristics, the presence of chronic diseases, climatic conditions, seasonality, nutrition, etc. All tissues of the human body are formed by cells, the basis of which is h3O.

How many percent of water the human body contains depends on age.The younger it is, the more fluid in the tissues:

  • newborns – 90-97%;
  • 90,063 children under one year old – 86%;

  • 5-14 years old – 75%;
  • 90,063 20-35 years old – 65%;

  • 40-50% – 55%;
  • 90,063 60-80 years old – 50%.

How many liters of water are in the human body also depends on weight. Less fluid in the body of overweight people, because the fat layer includes only 20% of the fluid.


A person needs to replenish the water balance.The body needs fluid to activate metabolic processes in the body, complete digestion of food, remove toxins, control normal temperature, build cells, etc.

How many liters of water should a person consume is a common question. There is a misconception that everyone is obliged to drink 2-3 liters a day, depending on the weight. In fact, people should drink when they feel thirsty. You shouldn’t force yourself to drink when you don’t feel like it.The human body is able to take care of itself on its own, so it sends signals in the form of a feeling of thirst when needed.


You need to quench your thirst with clean, drinking water. Juices, tea, coffee, sweet soda are not suitable for these purposes. It is very important to ensure that you always have a clean drink at all times. Poor quality water supplied through taps leads to the deposition of heavy metals in the body. This is fraught with serious health consequences.

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90,000 10 facts about water

We are made of water

More than 85% of the body weight of a newborn baby is water! Even fish are only 75% water.With age, the amount of water in the body gradually decreases, but never falls below 50%.

Only 1% of the water on Earth can be drunk

Water covers more than 70% of the planet’s surface, however, 97% of these reserves are salt water, and only 3% is fresh. Unfortunately, most of this 3% is inaccessible to us: the main reserves of fresh water fall on glaciers and groundwater.

The human body evaporates up to 5 liters of water per day!

The water contained in the human body is constantly evaporated during respiration, and also exits through the pores in the epithelium.Under normal conditions, the body evaporates about 2 liters of water per day. If we are actively moving, and the weather is hot outside, then the “loss” of water in the process of evaporation reaches 4-5 liters!

Hot water freezes faster than cold water

Experiments show that hot water turns to ice faster than cold water. Scientists are still arguing about what is the cause of this illogical phenomenon: the effect of liquefied gases on water or the difference in the processes of evaporation and convection during the formation of ice.

Water provides energy for mental activity

Plain water gives our body strength and electrical energy for all brain functions – without water, we simply cannot think. In addition, adequate water intake increases performance and improves focus.

A person drinks 35 tons of water in a lifetime

Water is necessary for survival: a person can do without food for about 30-40 days, and without water – only a few days.Food without water has no energy value for the body: water, supports the processes of metabolism and assimilation of food.

Water helps the body to cope with stress

Scientists have proven that a person feels happier next to a river, sea, lake or fountain. The aquatic environment helps our brains recover from stress and prolonged mental stress.

Sufficient water intake delays aging

10% of the water reserves in our body are in the skin – these are the reserves that are consumed first in the event of a fluid deficiency.Experts say that one and a half to two liters of plain water a day will fully replenish the body’s need for fluid, and, having received a sufficient amount of moisture, the skin will become smooth and beautiful.

Water is essential for heart health

Scientists compared two groups of people: in the first, they drank about six glasses of water a day, and in the second, only two. It turned out that the study participants from the first group are less at risk of heart stroke. These data suggest that consuming at least five glasses of water a day reduces the likelihood of a heart attack by 41%!

The age of water on Earth is greater than the age of the Sun

Modern research has shown that about half of all water on Earth comes from ice particles floating in interstellar space: this water is more than 4.5 billion years old!

When working on the article, information was used from the following sources: Kulsky L.A., Dal V.V., Lenchina L.G. “The water is familiar and mysterious”
“Narykov V.I., Bokarev M.A., Lizunov Yu.V. Hygiene of water supply “
“Wallace N. Closer to the Water”

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90,000 Influence of water on human health

Water is the source of life on Earth. In terms of importance for the human body, water is in second place, after air. There is evidence that a person can go without water for up to 7 days.

Water is one of the most important components of the human body. Depending on weight and complexion, the human body contains 55-75% water. The functions of absolutely all cells and organs depend on water. Water promotes the transformation of food into energy, delivers nutrients to all cells of our body, participates in the cleansing of blood vessels, dissolves mineral salts, removes toxins, and regulates body temperature.

Throughout the day, through the kidneys, skin, and also during breathing, we lose about 2 liters of fluid.Therefore, it is so important to maintain water balance. The problem is that a person does not always have a need for water, i.e. thirsty. After all, thirst is already an alarm signal for our body, and not just a desire to drink water.

So, as a result of dehydration, the following changes in the body are observed:

  • the skin becomes dry, as a result of which wrinkles appear prematurely;
  • hair loses moisture and looks lifeless, nails can exfoliate;
  • there is dryness in the mouth, there is a coating on the tongue, bad breath;
  • there is rapid eye fatigue, especially while working at a computer, i.e.because the cornea lacks moisture;
  • blood thickens, which can lead to blood vessel thrombosis;
  • a constant lack of water leads to the formation of kidney stones;
  • the body’s fight against infections slows down;
  • and you also start to eat more, because often confuse hunger with the desire to just drink a little water, which subsequently leads to extra pounds.

You can still list this list for a very long time, because water plays a huge role in our life.So:

  • when the water level in the human body decreases by 5%, thirst, nausea, drowsiness and bad mood appear;
  • loss of 10% – leads to impaired attention and headache;
  • and a decrease in water up to 20% significantly impairs hearing and vision;

Further loss of fluid poses a direct danger to human life.

Therefore, it is so necessary to provide our body with a sufficient amount of water. Of the total need, only a small part of it is formed in the body itself, about half – we get with food, but the rest – we must replenish exclusively through water.For example, tea and coffee only remove fluid from the body. Therefore, remember the rule: for every mug of any of these drinks, drink the same mug of water. This will at least replenish the lost fluid from the body.

On average, an adult should drink 1.5 – 3 liters of water per day.

Here are some guidelines for water intake:

  • try to drink a glass of water immediately after sleep, on an empty stomach, and at least 30 minutes before meals and not earlier than an hour after meals;
  • you need to drink slowly and in small sips;
  • drink plenty of fluids in hot weather;
  • do not drink too cold or too hot water;
  • remember to drink before and after exercise;
  • still bottled water is recommended.

Follow these simple rules and be healthy!

Natalya Afanasenko,
of the public health department
of the Gomel regional CHE and OZ

Water balance in the body / Blog / Clinic EXPERT

Zinovieva Evgeniya Nikolaevna

Chief physician, therapist, gastroenterologist, hepatologist of the highest category, Ph.M.Sc., associate professor

9.6 thousand views

Everyone knows that the human body is 80% water. Water is the main component of blood (91%), gastric juice (98%) and other fluids in the human body. Water is also present in our muscles (74%), in the skeleton it is about 25%, and, of course, it is present in the brain (82%). That is why the water balance in the body uniquely affects the ability to memorize, thinking and physical capabilities of a person.How to keep it at the required level so that health problems do not arise?

When the water balance is normal, the amount of fluid excreted by the body is adequate to the incoming volume, that is, these processes are balanced. With an insufficient amount of water drunk, the balance will turn out to be negative, which means that the metabolism will be significantly slowed down, the blood will become thicker, which will make it difficult to distribute oxygen throughout the body in the required volume, the body temperature will rise and the pulse will become more frequent.

Symptoms of negative water balance:

  1. Dry skin.
  2. Skin rashes.
  3. Swelling. Accumulation of water in various tissues and cavities.
  4. Thirst and dry mouth from lack of saliva.
  5. Bad breath.
  6. Covered tongue
  7. Deterioration of brain function: manifestation of symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, attention.
  8. Joint pain and risk of muscle spasms.
  9. If ​​there is not enough fluid in the body, it leads to constipation and a constant feeling of nausea.

How to normalize the water balance in the body?

Many people only drink water when they are thirsty. This is a big mistake. Thirst indicates that you already have some degree of dehydration. Even when it is very small, it still has a strong effect on the body. Remember not to drink a lot at breakfast, lunch and dinner, and immediately after eating. This will significantly reduce the concentration of gastric juice and impair the digestive process.It is advisable to “replenish” water supplies between meals.

How to restore water balance in the body?

  • One glass 30 minutes before breakfast, for the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • One and a half to two glasses a couple of hours after breakfast. This may be tea at work, but as an exception, not a rule. It is better to drink regular drinking water.
  • One glass 30 minutes before lunch.
  • One and a half to two glasses a couple of hours after lunch.
  • One glass 30 minutes before dinner.
  • One glass after dinner.
  • One glass before going to bed
  • This mode is possible in the absence of contraindications.
  • In case such regular drinking is unusual and difficult for you, then you can try to stretch this process for the whole day for a few sips.

What influences the maintenance of normal water-salt balance?

  1. During physical exertion, a lot of salt comes out of the body along with sweat, so it is better to drink water with salt, or mineral water.
  2. Increase the amount of water consumed if the ambient temperature is high.
  3. Also drink more water if you are in a dry room (where the batteries are very hot, or the air conditioner is running, or when you are in rooms without ventilation for a long time).
  4. When taking medications, consuming alcohol, caffeine, smoking, the level of water in the body also decreases. Be sure to replenish the loss with extra fluid.
  5. Water is supplied not only with coffee, tea and other beverages.Eat vegetables, fruits, and other foods that are high in fluid. But remember that ordinary drinking water is most useful!
  6. The body also absorbs water through the skin with a local effect. Shower more often, lie in the bathtub, swim in the pool.

With a uniform flow of water, your metabolism will improve, energy will be generated constantly during the period of activity, and you will not become so tired from work. Also, maintaining the water balance in the body will prevent the accumulation of toxins, which means that the liver and kidneys will not be overloaded.Your skin will become more elastic and firm, with a healthy complexion.

Can bathing in cold water prevent dementia?

  • Justin Rawlatt
  • Senior BBC Environmental Correspondent

As scientists at Cambridge University have established, bathing in cold water can prevent degenerative brain diseases such as dementia.

For the first time, scientists have been able to identify a special “cold shock” protein in the blood of “walruses” swimming in the open pool of London’s Hampstead Heath park.

This protein slows down the development of dementia and, as shown in experiments on mice, is even able to regenerate nerve fibers damaged by this disease.

According to the head of the Research Center for the Study of Dementia at the University of Cambridge, Professor Giovanna Mallucci, this discovery may lead to the creation of a new drug that will help prevent the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

Scientists are primarily interested in the ability of almost all mammals to hibernate under the influence of low external temperatures.In this state, all vital processes in the body slow down.

Despite a clear breakthrough, this research is still in its early stages.

There are more than 1 million people in the UK with varying degrees of senile dementia, and this number will double by 2050.

Currently, there is practically no effective treatment for this disease.

Bears and hedgehogs

Doctors have known for a long time that cooling the body temperature of a person in certain situations can protect the brain.

People with brain injuries or before heart surgery are put into suspended animation by lowering their body temperature.

However, scientists did not understand why cold has such a protective effect.

It turns out that this has to do with how synapses arise and collapse – the places of contact between nerve cells in the brain.

In the early stages of Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases, these neural connections are disrupted.

This leads to a number of symptoms characteristic of dementia, such as forgetfulness, confusion, mood swings, and sometimes the death of entire brain regions.

Professor Mallucci was particularly interested in the fact that similar dying off of entire neural parts of the brain occurs in hibernating animals, for example, in bears, hedgehogs and bats.

About 20-30% of their synapses seem to die off as their body slows down all vital processes.

However, they miraculously recover when these animals awaken from hibernation in the spring.

Why can cold be dangerous?

Photo by Ruth Corney

Cold has a very powerful effect on the human body.

The shock of immersion in cold water leads to a sharp increase in heart rate and high blood pressure, which in turn can lead to myocardial infarction or stroke in people suffering from cardiovascular diseases.

It can also cause convulsive breathing and the person may eventually choke and drown.

The more time a person spends in water, the slower his reactions become. Sometimes people in such a situation lose their agility, feel confusion and have difficulty getting ashore.

Dr. Heather Massey of the Laboratory for the Study of Extreme Conditions at the University of Portsmouth says there are a few basic rules to keep in mind: , consult your doctor

  • Swim with people who are accustomed to winter swimming and know local waters
  • Get out of the water as soon as you feel cold
  • Find shelter, take off your wet clothes and change into dry clothes, and put on yourself as many layers of clothing as possible and do not forget about a woolen hat and gloves
  • Move, do light exercises, wave your hands and do not be afraid of trembling in your body – it will just help you warm up faster
  • But, warns Dr.Massie, do not take any hot baths, no showers.

    As you get warmer, your blood pressure can drop sharply, which can lead to fainting.

    “Cold shock” and its chemical constituent

    Back in 2015, a Cambridge team of scientists discovered specific chemicals that accompany the cold shock experienced by the body.

    During the experiment, they chilled normal healthy mice, as well as mice with Alzheimer’s disease and prion disease (also classified as neurodegenerative), to a state of hypothermia – that is, the body temperature of the mice dropped below 35 degrees Celsius.

    After the animals returned to normal, scientists found that only normal mice were able to restore all their neural connections, or synapses, while those suffering from Alzheimer’s and prion disease were not.

    Along the way, they found out that the level of the RBM3 protein produced by the body experiencing a “cold shock” jumped sharply in healthy mice, but not in sick ones.

    This suggested that it is the RBM3 protein that may be responsible for the formation of new neural connections.

    Photo caption,

    The author of the article, Justin Rowlatt tries winter swimming on himself

    Scientists at the University of Cambridge confirmed their discovery in another experiment, which showed that the death of brain cells in Alzheimer’s disease and prion disease can be prevented by artificially raising the level in mice protein RBM3.

    This is a major breakthrough in dementia research. The conclusions made by scientists were published in the scientific journal Nature.

    Winter Bathers

    Professor Mallucci now believes that a drug that can induce the production of RBM3 protein in the body may help slow down and possibly even partially cure the development of neurodegenerative diseases in humans.

    Since the RBM3 protein was not detected in the usual analysis of human blood, it was a logical step to understand exactly when it appears, but for this it was necessary to subject the subjects to hypothermia.

    For reasons of medical ethics, this was not easy to do, as Professor Mallucci said in an interview on the national BBC radio.

    And then Martin Peith came to the rescue – a bather from a small group of enthusiasts who love to swim in the winter in the outdoor pool in London’s Hampstead Heath Park.

    He sent the professor an e-mail in which he said that he was ready to undergo hypothermia on a regular basis with several walruses like him – for scientific purposes.

    Professor Mallucci agreed to this experiment, which lasted three winters – from 2016 to 2018 – when her team regularly measured the presence of cold shock protein in the subjects’ blood.

    As a control group, the scientists took members of a tai chi club who worked near the pool, but had never swum in it in winter.

    It was found that many of the main group of bathers had increased RBM3 protein levels while their body temperature dropped to 34 degrees.

    At the same time, none of the tai chi group demonstrated the presence of the RBM3 protein, but they did not experience such severe hypothermia.

    Can cold slow the progression of dementia?

    The progress of the study conducted with a group of winter bathers can be found in a series of Internet lectures, but there is no scientific publication on this subject yet.

    In several other studies, researchers have also found high levels of RBM3 protein, for example, in infants or patients who have had a stroke or heart attack and underwent artificial hypothermia.

    According to Professor Mallucci, this demonstrates that humans, like hibernating mammals, can independently produce the “cold shock” protein.

    However, the risks of hypothermia outweigh the potential benefits, so swimming in cold water is definitely not a cure for dementia.

    The current challenge, she said, is to create a drug that would stimulate the production of this protein in the human body. It’s even more important to make sure it actually helps delay the onset of dementia.

    It is known to be a disease of the elderly, therefore even a small delay in the development of this disease can have a colossal impact on the quality of life of both an individual and society as a whole.

    “If you slow the progression of dementia in the general population by even a couple of years, it will have a tremendous impact on both the economy and health care,” says Professor Mallucci.

    the whole truth about the hydration of the body

    Low energy, headache and dry mouth are common symptoms of mild dehydration. With the rise in summer temperatures and physical activity, even minor losses of water can seriously affect your well-being and your performance. How to control the water balance of the body?

    Low energy, headache and dry mouth are common symptoms of mild dehydration. With the rise in summer temperatures and physical activity, even minor losses of water can seriously affect your well-being and your performance.How to control the water balance of the body?

    Cell energy and heart function

    Our cells need water to synthesize energy. This is especially important if you’re considering doing a full, high-intensity workout in the summer. The main form of energy our muscles need to function is called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. When we exercise, our bodies work to convert nutrients such as carbohydrates and fats into ATP through anaerobic (no oxygen) and aerobic (oxygenated) processes.We can only store small amounts of ATP in our cells, so our bodies are constantly synthesizing more to continue to fuel our every move. But without water, ATP synthesis is impossible! If you are dehydrated, you are short on energy.

    When you have less fluid in your body, your blood volume decreases and your heart has to work even harder to pump blood. Even moderate activity training will make your heart pound.

    Dehydration can lead to a malfunction of the natural mechanisms of regulation of body temperature.The more intense the exercise and the hotter the environment, the more actively your body must sweat for thermoregulation and cooling. Your brain also needs water, which is about 73% water. In the event of dehydration, problems with short-term memory, attention, and hand-eye function may occur. So, if this hot summer, you plan not only to rest, but also to work, then it is important to make sure that your brain is getting enough water.

    Voditsy to get drunk

    The good news is that you don’t have to perform complex manipulations to maintain optimal moisture levels in the body.On hot days or during physical activity, the first sign of dehydration is thirst. It occurs when the body loses approximately 2% of its optimal water level.

    Here are 5 ways to protect your body from dehydration:

    1. Make sure you drink enough clean water

    Tips about 8 glasses of water are probably pretty boring for you. We will not insist, but recall that 30 ml per 1 kg of body weight is the optimal amount of water that you need to drink per day.But everything, of course, depends on the air temperature, your activity, habits. An important condition is to prevent thirst.

    2. Add flavor and … benefits to water

    Add mint leaves, citrus slices or a handful of berries to the water. This will make the drink delicious without any artificial sweeteners or preservatives. Each of the natural ingredients is able to give the drink not only taste, but also benefit.

    Want to speed up fat burning and get rid of headaches? Add 100 ml of freshly brewed green tea, a few sprigs of mint and lime slices to a glass of water.For blood pressure control, prepare a drink with kiwi slices, strawberries, and cucumber wedges. And to strengthen the immune system, add a variety of citrus fruits to the water bottle – lime, lemon, orange.

    3. “Eat” water

    70-80% of your daily water requirement should come from pure drinks, and 20-30% from food! All fruits and vegetables contain a certain amount of water, but there are some record holders among them:

    Cucumbers – 97%
    Celery – 96%
    Tomatoes, radishes – 95%
    Sweet peppers – 93%
    Cauliflower, watermelon – 92%
    Spinach , strawberries, broccoli – 91%

    4.Create a hydration schedule for your workout

    Make it a rule to drink water before, during, and after your workout. Drink a glass of water 30 minutes before your workout. During exercise, consume 250-300 ml, spreading this amount into several servings, which should be drunk every 10-20 minutes. Drink another glass of water within 30 minutes of your workout.

    5. Replenish the loss

    If you train for 60 to 90 minutes at moderate intensity, you do not need to worry about losing electrolytes, an hour of training will not lead to a deficiency.But if you are a lover of active and high-intensity workouts, and train in any weather, despite the heat, you should know that after such loads, your body loses not only a large amount of fluid, but also vitamins and minerals. To compensate for the losses, VPLab created the FITACTIVE isotonic drink. It is a dry concentrate, the main action of which is to maintain optimal performance and provide the body with all the necessary electrolytes and vitamins that the body loses during long and hard workouts.