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Water coming out of skin: 7 Tips For Managing Leg Leaking Water

Blisters with Water: Causes, Treatment, Draining, Prevention

Blisters with Water: Causes, Treatment, Draining, Prevention

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Medically reviewed by Alana Biggers, M. D., MPH — By Scott Frothingham — Updated on May 5, 2023

Water blisters are fluid-filled sacs on your skin. They are relatively common and will usually heal on their own. If the blister is large or painful, you may want to consider draining it.

Referred to as vesicles (small blisters) and bullae (larger blisters), water blisters can have a variety of causes.

When the outer layer of your skin is damaged, your body sends blood to heal and cool the injured area.

Part of that process is the formation of protective pads comprised of blood serum (without the clotting agents and blood cells). These serum pads are water blisters.

Some common reasons water blisters occur are:

  • friction
  • burns from heat, chemicals, or the sun
  • contact dermatitis
  • eczema
  • an allergic reaction
  • poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac
  • viral infections such as herpes, chickenpox, and shingles
  • skin infections such as impetigo
  • frostbite

Blisters will usually heal on their own with the skin over the blister helping to keep out infection while new skin is formed underneath and the fluid is absorbed.

To keep a blister clean and to protect it from friction, you can cover it with a bandage.

Contact your doctor if:

  • the blister shows signs of infection such as pus, or the area around the blister becomes swollen, red, warm, or painful
  • you develop a fever
  • you have several blisters and you can’t identify what’s causing them
  • you continue to see drainage after you’ve drained the blister
  • you have poor circulation or diabetes

If your blister is large, painful, or likely to be aggravated and pop on its own, you might consider draining it.

To properly drain the fluid while leaving the top skin in place for shielding, there are specific steps you should take. These include:

  1. Wash the blister, the area around it, and your hands with warm water and soap.
  2. Use an absorbent pad to apply iodine to the blister and surrounding area.
  3. Wipe a sharp needle with rubbing alcohol to sterilize it.
  4. Aiming for spots near the blister’s edge, puncture it a few times with the needle.
  5. Allow the fluid to drain, while leaving the overlying skin in place.
  6. Spread the blister area with petroleum jelly or a similar ointment.
  7. Cover the blister with a non-stick gauze bandage.

Follow-up care

  1. Check for any signs of infection daily.
  2. After a few days, using small, sharp scissors and tweezers — wiped with rubbing alcohol to sterilize — cut away all the dead skin.
  3. Apply more ointment and cover the area with a bandage.

The general rule of blister prevention is to stay away from whatever caused the blister.

It’s overly simple, but it also makes sense: If you got blisters from getting a sunburn, spend less time in the sun (or wear more protective clothing and sunscreen).

For specific body parts, here are a few prevention tips to keep in mind:


  • Wear shoes that fit properly.
  • Wear moisture-wicking socks.
  • Attach moleskin to the inside of your shoe where it rubs against your foot.
  • Put powder in your socks just prior to putting them on.


  • Wear gloves.
  • Put powder in your gloves just prior to putting them on.

Body, arms, and legs

  • Avoid wearing clothing thatcauses chafing.
  • Wear moisture-wicking clothing.
  • Apply petroleum jelly to areas that are rubbed by other body parts or clothing.

Water blisters are common and, if left alone, will typically heal on their own.

If a blister grows, becomes painful, or seems likely to be irritated, you might consider draining it using proper sterilization steps and bandaging the open wound. There are steps you can take to prevent blisters, including shoe, sock, and clothing choices.

If you can’t determine the origin of a blister, blister drainage continues after it’s been drained, or if a blister shows signs of infection, contact your doctor.

Last medically reviewed on October 12, 2018

How we reviewed this article:

Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.

  • 5 ways to avoid blisters and the best way to treat them. (2015).
  • American Academy of Dermatology. (n.d.). How to prevent and treat blisters.
  • Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018). Blisters: First aid.
  • U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2016). Blisters.

Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

Current Version

May 5, 2023

Written By

Scott Frothingham

Edited By

Claire Brocato

Oct 12, 2018

Medically Reviewed By

Alana Biggers, MD, MPH

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Medically reviewed by Alana Biggers, M. D., MPH — By Scott Frothingham — Updated on May 5, 2023

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Vesicles: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Vesicles are small blisters that can appear on your skin. They can be a symptom of a medical issue or a sign of tissue injury. Some conditions, like contact dermatitis or cold sores, may not require medical attention.

Vesicles are small fluid-filled sacs or blisters that can appear on your skin. The fluid inside these sacs may be clear, white, yellow, or mixed with blood.

Vesicles are fluid-filled lesions less than 5 mm (1/2 cm). If the fluid-filled lesion is greater than 0.5 mm, it’s called a bulla. Blisters are either vesicles or bulla, depending on the size.

Blisters can be a symptom of a medical issue or a sign of tissue injury.

In anatomy, vesicles may refer to any pouch-like structure in the body. The function of these types of vesicles is to store and transport materials and waste.

Vesicles develop when fluid becomes trapped under the epidermis, the top layer of your skin. A number of different health conditions can cause them. Some of these conditions are minor, like contact dermatitis or cold sores, and don’t require medical attention.

But other causes are more serious and can signal a complicated medical issue that needs ongoing treatment. These issues may include bacterial or viral infection, autoimmune disease, and a sensitivity or allergy to medication, among others.

Causes of acute (short-lasting) vesicles on the skin include:

  • papular urticaria, a reaction from insect bites or stings
  • dermatitis or eczema
  • contact dermatitis, like from poison ivy or poison oak or reactions from skincare products
  • burns, like from radiation, sun, or chemicals
  • a reaction to medication, like a fixed drug eruption or drug hypersensitivity syndrome
  • bacterial infections, like impetigo, a skin condition caused by infection with strep or staph bacteria
  • viral infections, like chickenpox, shingles, or hand, foot, and mouth disease
  • trauma to the skin
  • herpes or cold sores

Causes of chronic blistering rashes include:

  • autoimmune disorders, like bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris
  • skin diseases that cause blistering, like porphyria cutanea tarda
  • other rare immunobullous diseases can cause a blister-like rash

If you experience unexplained blistering rashes, acute or chronic, it’s best to see a doctor for a diagnosis.

Vesicles caused by burns, infections, and reactions to medication can be serious and should be treated by a doctor.

If you experience blistering of the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, or vagina, this may be a sign of a potentially life-threatening reaction to a drug. Seek emergency medical care.

Doctors can recognize vesicles based on their bubble-like appearance. Most develop on the surface of the skin and cause it to swell with fluid. The skin around a vesicle keeps the fluid contained.

Some blister-like lesions can rupture easily. This causes fluid to leak from the blister. When the fluid dries, it may turn yellow or crusty.

Symptoms that may occur with a blistering rash include:

  • itching
  • tenderness
  • warmth at the affected skin
  • pain
  • possible oozing

The following symptoms may occur with blistering rashes:

  • fever
  • chills
  • swollen lymph nodes
  • joint pain
  • muscle weakness or muscle ache

Vesicles or blisters can occur with a rash, known as a vesicular rash.

Some common vesicular rashes include:

  • Heat rash: Heat rashes tend to occur in hot, humid, or tropic climates. It’s caused by blockage and swelling of the sweat ducts and is usually found on the torso.
  • Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can cause rashes along with superficial vesicles or bullae.
  • Contact dermatitis: Contact dermatitis is a common cause of vesicular rash can occur after exposure to an allergen or irritant. You may develop this type of rash from poison oak or poison ivy or from touching something you might be allergic to, like substances in soap, perfume, or jewelry.

Vesicular rashes may spread quickly. In the case of viral and bacterial infections, keep the rash clean to prevent it from spreading to other parts of the body.

You should make an appointment with a doctor if you develop unexplained vesicles on your skin. If you don’t already have a doctor, try the Healthline FindCare tool to see the options available in your area.

During the visit, they’ll ask you about your recent health history and about any medical conditions that might be related to the vesicles, like other symptoms including fever, chills, itching, or pain.

They may also ask if you’ve traveled recently or had possible contact with poison ivy or sumac. They might also want to know if you’ve started any new medications or had changes made to existing ones. Finally, they may ask if you have any family history or personal history of autoimmune diseases.

They’ll also examine your skin. Your doctor may be able to diagnose the cause of your vesicles based on this information alone.

If your doctor is uncertain about a diagnosis, they may recommend more tests. They may also take a sample of fluid or a biopsy of the skin tissue from the vesicle to send to a lab. The analysis of the sample will help them to confirm a diagnosis.

Talk with a doctor about the best treatment options to reduce your symptoms.

Treatment for your vesicles depends on the cause. Over-the-counter (OTC) remedies may be enough to treat vesicles resulting from an allergic reaction, dermatitis, poison ivy, or cold sores. Many of these remedies are topical ointments that can soothe the skin. Antihistamines may be able to reduce allergy-related symptoms.

Vesicles can be accompanied by other serious symptoms, like inflammation or infection. In these cases, your doctor may prescribe medications to treat the underlying causes.

For example, bullous pemphigoid — a type of autoimmune disorder that affects older adults — is typically treated with oral steroids to help reduce inflammation and possibly immunosuppressants or monoclonal antibodies.

Bacterial infections are typically treated with oral antibiotics so as not to aggravate the vesicles.

Vesicles caused by eczema are often treated with topical medications, including topical steroids and glucocorticoids.

Burn blisters will be treated with prescription burn creams. You may also be prescribed oral antibiotics to reduce the chance of infection.

Home treatments, including alternative remedies can often be effective for treating vesicles or blisters.

According to the American Academy of Dermatology Association, you should care for an open or torn blister by washing the area with soap and water and then applying petroleum jelly. You can also use an OTC antibiotic ointment to help prevent infection. Cover the area with a clean, loose bandage to protect it.

Popping a vesicle isn’t typically advised. This can leave the area open to infection and make it take longer to heal. Unless the vesicle becomes large and exceptionally painful, leaving it alone is best. Most blisters heal on their own in 1 to 2 weeks.

Your outlook depends on the underlying cause. If your vesicles are caused by an allergic reaction or contact dermatitis, you’ll typically make a full recovery after treatment.

More serious cases of vesicles can be a result of your genetics or an infection with a virus, so the vesicles may reoccur throughout your life. Proper treatment may relieve your symptoms. But if you have a chronic condition, the vesicles are likely to return.

If you know you have allergies, you can help prevent vesicles by avoiding allergy triggers.

Herpes and cold sores are contagious, so you should also take care not to share cups, straws, or lip products. This precaution may also help prevent you from catching other viral illnesses.

Try not to wear tight-fitting clothing that rubs uncomfortably on the skin, especially in hot or damp weather. Opt for clothing that breathes, like cotton. You should wear proper attire for sports or physical activity, like socks with extra padding, to prevent friction. Moisture-wicking clothing can also be helpful. If you experience pain or redness, stop the activity.

Keep your skin clean, maintain good hygiene, and avoid irritants that could aggravate your skin. Using unscented products can help prevent rashes, as those with scents can irritate sensitive skin more.

Antibacterial soaps can help prevent infections from causing vesicles (and vesicles from becoming infected). Shower immediately after working out or coming into contact with a potential skin irritant.

In some instances, it may not be possible to prevent vesicles.

Most vesicles, blisters, and bullae can be treated with OTC treatments and home remedies. But in some cases, it’s a good idea to call your doctor.

See your doctor if…

  • you’re experiencing signs of an infection, including swelling, increased redness, streaks from the vesicle, and warmth at the site of the vesicle
  • you’re getting vesicles or blisters often or have a large number of blisters and don’t know why
  • you have a band of painful vesicles on one side of your body or face, which could indicate shingles
  • you have diabetes and get vesicles or blisters on your hands, feet, or legs
  • you have fever, chills, and swollen lymph nodes, which can be a sign of a life-threatening allergy to medication
  • you have any rash spread across your body with blisters in the mouth or eyes

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If you experience a rapid spread of vesicles, especially with a rash, and symptoms like shortness of breath, pain, or dizziness, you may be having an allergic reaction to medications. In these cases, you should seek immediate medical attention.

causes and solutions , Private Medical Club

Fluid accumulation: causes and solutions

Fluid accumulation in the body (edema) is a problem faced by many. It is not always justified in such cases to conclude that there is a disease, but this phenomenon, of course, does not apply to healthy reactions of the body either. Therefore, when edema occurs, measures must be taken. We will explain why swelling occurs and how to get rid of them the fastest.

Edema can cause organ weakness

Fluid accumulation, or edema, occurs when water leaves the blood or lymph vessels and collects in adjacent regions of the body. Edema is just a symptom that is always caused by some disease.

Edema most often appears on the legs: the legs become thick and heavy. In addition, feet and ankles often swell. The hands and face may also visibly swell due to the accumulation of fluid.

On hot summer days, high temperatures can cause the blood in the body to thicken, making the legs feel heavy and the feet slightly swollen. This phenomenon is not edema, because when the temperature drops, it disappears as quickly as it appeared.

You can find out for yourself whether the swelling is caused by edema: to do this, press your finger on the skin in the area of ​​the tumor. If it is an edema, a visible indentation will form from pressure, which will only slowly level out.

Fluid accumulation in tissues is often caused by weakness of the organs. If the swelling persists, you should consult a doctor.

Edema due to heart failure

When the heart is weakened, its ability to pump blood is impaired, and as a result, blood pressure decreases. Blood stasis occurs in front of the heart. Because of this, pressure in the veins increases, and blood plasma (water) is squeezed out through the bloodstream into the adjacent connective tissue.

If the failure affects the right side of the heart, water accumulates mainly in the legs, ankles, feet or in the abdominal cavity. In case of insufficiency of the left cavities of the heart, the lungs are affected, and life-threatening pulmonary edema can develop.

Its symptoms are wheezing when breathing, increasing shortness of breath, and blue lips and skin. If water accumulates in the lungs, immediate medical attention is required.

Edema due to kidney failure

Weakening of kidney function results, among other things, in the fact that the kidneys are not able to produce enough urine. As a result, less water is excreted from the body than is necessary, which can lead to the accumulation of fluid throughout the body.

Due to limited renal function, fewer poisons are excreted in the urine. To protect the body, toxic substances are either sent to the connective tissue or bound by an aqueous solution, which also leads to the accumulation of water.

If the weakening of the kidneys is due to damage, the kidney filtration system stops working as it should. This means that the necessary substances also enter the urine, which should be retained by small renal bodies.

These substances primarily include proteins. In particular, a large amount of albumin is excreted in the urine, which accounts for about 60 percent of the proteins dissolved in blood plasma.

In a healthy body, albumin maintains the necessary level of water in the blood. With a lack of this important protein, the osmotic pressure in the blood vessels changes, and water from them penetrates into the adjacent tissue.

Edema develops, the extent of which depends on the scale of protein loss. The more protein is excreted from the body, the more noticeable swelling.

Weakness of the kidneys reveals itself as a severe swelling of the eyelids or of the whole face. Usually these phenomena develop during the night, and they are easy to notice in the morning. During the day, swelling descends into the legs.

Special comprehensive measures have been developed for the prevention of kidney failure, which are quite within your power.

Edema due to weakness of the veins

Disease of the veins can contribute to the accumulation of water throughout the body. Depending on where the stagnation of venous blood occurs, edema may appear.

Due to the stagnation of blood in the vein, the pressure on the walls of the vessels increases so much that the plasma is forced out into the adjacent tissues and accumulates in them. This happens especially often in those patients whose vein walls have lost sufficient flexibility and stability.

Congestion can be caused by small blood clots (clots) that narrow or even block a vessel. Thrombosis develops, predominantly in the deep veins of the legs or veins of the pelvis, and large accumulations of water form.

Violations of the function of the venous valves also provoke blood stasis. The function of the valves is to ensure that the blood, contrary to gravity, rises from the legs up to the heart, and does not remain in the legs.

If the valves fail to close as they should, blood flow is disrupted and pools in the lower leg and foot. The plasma is squeezed out into adjacent tissues and accumulates in them.

Edema due to weakness of the liver

If some of the liver cells are destroyed as a result of a disease (for example, with cirrhosis), it, among other things, cannot produce enough protein.

There is a deficiency of an important blood protein, albumin, which regulates the water content in blood vessels.

When the concentration of albumin in the blood changes, too much water enters the tissues, and it accumulates in the tissues.

Edema due to weakness of the lymphatic system

Lymphoedema occurs when the outflow of filtered tissue fluid is disturbed in the lymphatic system. There are two types of lymphoedema: congenital dysfunction of the lymphatic system (primary lymphoedema) and acquired (secondary lymphoedema).

In the first case, there are either not enough lymphatic vessels in the body, or they are too narrow or too wide. Sometimes this disease makes itself felt already at birth, sometimes it manifests itself only during puberty.

At first, water usually accumulates in only one leg. Later, the second leg swells, and then other parts of the body.

Secondary lymphoedema is more common. It can occur due to extensive destruction of soft tissues as a result of severe trauma or inflammation. Then the lymphatic fluid stagnates in the adjacent areas, and edema forms.

However, this type of lymphoedema is especially common after breast cancer surgery with removal of the axillary lymph nodes. At first, water accumulates only in the shoulder area (up to the elbow). In severe cases, swelling covers the entire arm, including the hand.

Lymphoedema may also occur after surgical removal of a large number of lymph nodes in patients with cancer of the uterus or cervix. In this case, the legs swell.

Radiation therapy, often used for cancer in addition to medication or surgery, increases the risk of lymphedema. In this case, lymphatic vessels are often damaged, radiation can affect the outflow tract of the lymph. As a result, the lymphatic fluid stagnates, penetrates into the tissues, and water accumulates in them.

What is the treatment for edema?

Water accumulation caused by severe weakness of the heart, kidneys, or liver is usually treated with medications only.

Diuretics (diuretics) are prescribed, which are divided into 4 groups. The mechanism of functioning and the strength of the effect they have is different. But the principle of operation is ultimately the same. Diuretics stimulate the excretion of water and salts from the body through the kidneys.

If swelling is caused by weak veins, compression stockings or bandages are used first. Only with severe edema, dehydrating drugs are additionally prescribed.

Medicines should not be taken continuously

In principle, medication is necessary in severe cases. Of course, in this case, in parallel with dehydration, measures should be taken against the underlying disease, which provoked the weakness of the corresponding organ.

However, dehydration with special preparations should be done only for a limited time, as diuretics seriously affect the fluid and electrolyte balance and therefore can have many side effects.

Irregular heart rhythm, blurred vision and confusion are just some of the negative effects that these medications can cause.

Avoid mineral deficiencies

Severe dehydration caused by diuretics automatically removes vital minerals and vitamins from the body. There is a deficiency of essential substances, which, in turn, provokes other diseases.

Therefore, it is very important to fight this deficit. To do this, you need to organize a healthy diet rich in useful elements, and regularly take natural (not synthetic) preparations with vitamins and minerals.

Lymphedema is not treated with diuretics

Lymphoedema is the only type of edema that cannot be treated with medication. The fact is that the lymphatic fluid is very saturated with proteins.

Proteins, firstly, bind water, and secondly, they are resistant to diuretics. This means that they are not excreted from the body when taking dehydrating medications.

If, however, such drugs are given, the ability of proteins to bind water comes into play. To compensate for the lack of water, they take it from the extracellular fluid, which ultimately makes the success of therapy impossible.

Therefore, the main therapeutic measures for lymphoedema are manual lymphatic drainage, which stimulates the active excretion of proteins, in combination with mechanotherapy and compression treatment (compression stockings).

Water accumulation due to lack of physical activity

Fluid accumulation can occur not only due to weakness of individual organs. People who sit or stand for a long time and move little can develop venous disease, which greatly increases the risk of fluid accumulation.

Our advice: Fill your life with physical activity again. To do this, it is not necessary to buy a card to the nearest fitness club. Regular jogging or walking, trampolining, yoga and other light physical activity options are quite able to reduce the load on exhausted veins and at the same time strengthen them.

Water accumulation due to estrogen dominance

Hormonal imbalance, in which there is much more estrogen than progesterone, can also provoke edema. This problem is often faced by women shortly before menstruation or before menopause.

Fluid collections occur predominantly in the abdominal cavity. Fingers, feet, and hands may also swell. Edema sometimes appears even on the face.

Our advice: if you suspect a hormonal imbalance, take a hormone test. Even a simple saliva test can provide information about your hormonal status.

Fluid accumulation due to increased intake of proteins and salt

Salty food contributes to the accumulation of water in the body, since salt actively binds water. The same is true for protein-rich meals.

A particularly serious problem in this context is the widespread consumption of sausages and cheeses today, since without a fair amount of salt, such products are usually inedible. All varieties of sausages and cheeses contain a lot of salt. Meat also becomes tasty only if it is well salted.

The combination of large amounts of protein and salt is one of the most common causes of non-disease related water retention.

In such cases, taking dehydrating tablets is completely pointless. In any case, proteins will remain in the body and will continue to bind water – you already know about this.

Our advice: Instead of taking dehydrating medications, change your eating habits. Refrain from salt for a while and stop eating animal proteins. Soon your body will have no reason to edema.

Water accumulation due to increased acidity

Acidity in the body is a very strong predominance of acids over alkalis (alkaline minerals).

Usually alkalis neutralize excess acids and the acids are excreted through the kidneys. But this requires a sufficient supply of alkalis.

Otherwise, the body has no choice but to bind dangerous acids with an aqueous solution in order to protect the organs. For this, tissue fluid is used.

The higher the acid level, the more water is required. To the same extent, the danger of noticeable and (or) tangible accumulations of water increases.

However, if the formation of water reserves is a necessary measure to protect the organs of the body, it is wrong to take medicine to remove this water from the body.

Our tip: Detecting an increase in acidity in the body is easy: use a urine pH test strip. If they show high acidity, an exclusively alkaline diet should be established for a short time, and then switched to a diet with an excess of alkalis. However, one measurement is not enough, it is necessary to trace the dynamics of this indicator.

A course of acid elimination, carried out simultaneously with a change in diet, will accelerate the restoration of acid-base balance. Such a course contributes not only to cleansing the body of harmful acids, but also to saturation with alkaline minerals. They can neutralize the acids associated with the aqueous solution and ensure their excretion through the kidneys.

Some treatment programs include alkaline baths that stimulate the elimination of acids. With the help of alkaline baths, your body will be able to use for cleansing and the skin – the largest organ of the excretory system.

All measures to combat fluid accumulation can also be carried out in the form of lymph cleansing.

Removal of fluid accumulations by lymph cleansing

The lymph cleansing program is designed specifically for those body systems that, in the case of fluid accumulations, suffer from blockage – stagnation of the lymph. It’s about the lymphatic system.

Herbs against fluid accumulation

In both curative courses, certain herbs can serve well. Plants that have a positive effect on the lymphatic system activate the lymph flow, support the functioning of the kidneys, increase the amount of urine produced and thereby prevent the formation of fluid accumulations. Such preparations are united by the common name “aquaretics”.

The important advantages of dehydrating herbal preparations over conventional diuretics are not limited to the fact that they remove excess tissue fluid from the body. These rich preparations also contain minerals, which prevents the development of mineral deficiency in the body when minerals are excreted with water. Therefore, dehydration with the help of herbal remedies, unlike drug treatment, does not threaten demineralization.

Another serious advantage of these preparations is their wide spectrum of action. They not only remove water, but at the same time, for example, activate the lymphatic system, reduce inflammation, strengthen the immune system and stimulate blood flow, or otherwise support the body and do not have negative side effects like conventional medicines.

13 herbs effective against edema

Here are a few herbs that have proven especially effective in treating fluid accumulation in the body.

Since they have a very diverse effect and are widely used, we will limit ourselves to only those properties that in one way or another contribute to the removal of water and the strengthening of blood vessels. Birch (Betula pendula)

Birch leaf tea increases the amount of urine produced by 5-6 times. Birch, due to its diuretic and anti-inflammatory effect, has long been used in the phytotherapeutic treatment of edema.

Thanks to these two properties, birch is ideal for washing the urinary tract, which is especially recommended for inflammation of the bladder and kidneys.

How to make tea

Pour a handful of finely chopped fresh birch leaves (or 2 g dried leaves) with boiling water, cover the cup and let steep for 10 minutes.

This tea is best drunk freshly brewed. During the day, it is recommended to drink 4 cups of birch leaf tea.

Please note: this tea should not be drunk if the edema is caused by cardiac or renal disorders.


This plant contains a lot of potassium and therefore stimulates the kidneys. As a result, the amount of urine produced increases significantly, which automatically contributes to the removal of water from the body.

Horsetail is also rich in silicon. Of course, this is useful for the whole organism, but in connection with edema, it is important, first of all, that the walls of blood vessels become stronger and more elastic.

How to make tea

Pour 2 teaspoons of horsetail into 250 ml of boiling water and let it simmer covered for 10 minutes. Then reduce the heat and leave for another 10 minutes. After that, strain.

Alternatively, you can pour boiling water over the horsetail and let it steep, covered, for half an hour.

For optimal kidney cleansing, it is recommended to drink 2 liters per day for two to three weeks.

This tea is also useful for inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and bladder.

Please note: this tea should not be drunk if the edema is caused by cardiac or renal disorders.

Cat’s whisker (orthosiphon)

Orthosiphon comes from Asia. The name “cat’s whisker” is associated with the shape of its flowers.

In addition to many other health benefits, it is an excellent diuretic and, due to its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, is ideal for washing the urinary tract.

In pharmacies you can find dried orthosiphon leaves. In the form of a ready-made tea, it is known under the names “Indian tea for strengthening the bladder and kidneys” and “Javanese tea”.

How to make tea

Pour 2 teaspoons of crushed dried leaves into a cup of boiling water. Strain the decoction after 15 minutes. During the day, you can drink 4-5 cups of this tea.

Please note: This tea should not be drunk if the edema is caused by heart or kidney problems.


Dandelion is an excellent rejuvenator for the whole body, but it is especially useful for connective tissue, liver and kidneys.

This herb is known for its diuretic and blood-purifying properties, primarily due to its high potassium content.

Since dandelion greatly increases the activity of the liver and kidneys and at the same time stimulates intensive fluid excretion, a 2-3 month course of this remedy is ideal.

Dandelion roots are primarily suitable for making tea, as they contain a higher concentration of active substances than leaves.

Please note: This tea should not be drunk if the edema is caused by heart or kidney problems.

How to make tea

Soak 2 teaspoons of dried dandelion root in a cup of cold water overnight. The next day, bring the tea to a boil, then strain. During the day, you should drink from one to one and a half liters of this tea.

Alternatively, pour 2 teaspoons of chopped leaves in cold water, heat and boil for 1 minute. Then remove from the stove and strain after 10 minutes.


Nettle, like dandelion, is a very useful plant. In the fight against edema, it activates the production of urine and accelerates its excretion.

Thanks to its diuretic and anti-inflammatory action, nettle prevents the occurrence of edema and contributes to their elimination.

Method of making tea

For making tea, you can use both nettle leaves and its roots (which contain more useful substances).

8 teaspoons of freshly cut or dried leaves are required per liter of tea. They should be poured with boiling water, after 10 minutes strain – and the tea is ready. Drink it throughout the day.

To make root tea, add 6 g of nettle root to 1 liter of water, cover and heat on the stove. Leave the tea to simmer for 1 minute, then turn off the stove and let it steep for 10 minutes. Then strain the infusion and drink throughout the day.

Please note: this tea should not be drunk if the edema is caused by cardiac or renal disorders.

Sweet clover

Sweet clover acts mainly on the veins. It increases the resistance of all vessels to diseases and, in addition, prevents the increase in capillary permeability, thereby not releasing water from the vessels.

This plant is used for heavy and swollen veins, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, inflammation of the veins and lymphatic congestion.

Sweet clover contains a large amount of coumarin, which, in combination with many secondary plant substances, promotes vein dilation and reduces vascular permeability. This improves blood circulation throughout the body and reduces the risk of edema.

How to make tea

Pour 8 teaspoons of crushed fresh or dried herb into 1 liter of boiling water. After about 10 minutes, the tea can be strained and then drunk throughout the day.

Please note: sweet clover thins the blood, and therefore it is contraindicated for those who are already taking medications that thin the blood (marcumar, aspirin, etc.).

Horse chestnut

Horse chestnut is also used primarily for vein problems. This plant improves vascular blood flow, reduces the tendency to varicose veins and inflammation of the veins. In addition, it increases the density of blood vessels, and the fluid cannot escape through them into the tissues.

Horse chestnut stabilizes blood pressure, relieves swelling, strengthens veins and stimulates venous blood flow.

How to make tea

Pour half a teaspoon of dried horse chestnut flowers into one cup of hot water and let steep for 5 minutes. During the day, you can drink (at intervals) 3 cups of this tea.

Especially often horse chestnut is used externally as a tincture, ointment or gel.

Barbed needle

Spiny needle is very effective in helping to cope with any disorders of the veins. The substances contained in this plant stimulate the muscle cells in the walls of the veins and thereby increase their elasticity. In addition, the needle reduces the permeability of blood vessels, and as a result, less water is passed through them.

Butcher’s broom also increases the activity of the lymphatic vessels, which ensures the rapid removal of accumulated water.

Our tip : For those who are susceptible to horse chestnut, the spiny needle is an excellent alternative.

Drink plenty of water during the course of dehydration

Remember that with any method of dehydration, your body loses a large amount of tissue fluid. To compensate for these losses, be sure to drink approximately 2.5 liters of still water (regardless of other drinks).

Ready-made preparations

Pharmacies and specialized stores offer numerous mixtures of different herbs that remove water from the body and strengthen blood vessels.

They are sold as ready-made preparations: tinctures, capsules, nutritional supplements, as well as ointments and gels.

To combat the accumulation of fluid in the tissues, you will find over-the-counter medicines in pharmacies made exclusively from herbal ingredients. Talk to your pharmacist about them.

What else can be done against edema

Here are some tips on how to further strengthen blood vessels and connective tissue:

  • put your feet high (as often as possible),
  • walk barefoot in dew and snow (at every opportunity),
  • take a contrast shower daily,
  • daily do special exercises to strengthen the veins (alternate walking on toes and heels, rotation of the legs (“bicycle”) while lying on the back, etc.),
  • Stroke your feet daily from the bottom up,
  • take warm (38°C) alkaline baths to remove acids,
  • wear alkaline stockings at night,
  • if swelling is caused by inflammation, use cold packs or compresses.


There are a number of steps you can take on your own to strengthen your veins, activate your lymphatics, and thereby get rid of water buildup. But before self-treatment, be sure to consult a therapist to find out the cause of the problem.

If edema is caused by weakness of any organ, the recommended methods can only be used as additional therapeutic measures, and after consultation with a doctor.

You may notice that the dehydrating plants we have mentioned help not only against edema, but also against many other diseases caused by an increase in the level of acidity in the body. These include diseases accompanied by inflammatory processes.

In all these cases, it is important that the acids that cause stress on the body are excreted in the urine as quickly as possible. Then diuretics and anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as drugs that stimulate the lymphatic system, will come in handy.

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Allergy to water: does it happen, what does it look like, what to do

. Spoiler: not much is known about the disease yet

Updated on December 29, 2022, 08:28


Aquagenic urticaria is a disease in which the skin reacts to water – be it shower, sea water, rain or something else. The severity of the reaction varies, and the cause, as well as the methods of treatment, are still not understood. In medical practice, allergies to water are rather rare. More often, under its mask, other skin reactions are hidden – from dermatitis to skin lesions by parasites. We figure out how not to confuse the symptoms and what to do for those who are allergic even to their own tears.


  1. Causes and symptoms
  2. Allergies
  3. Care and treatment

Is there an allergy to water?


The skin does not react to the water itself, but to certain chemicals in its composition that act as allergens

Water allergy is a rare condition in which red, itchy blisters appear on a person’s skin. In medicine, this condition is called aquagenic urticaria [1]. It provokes contact with water, regardless of temperature and physico-chemical properties: it can be tap, river, sea or pool water. In addition, the scientific literature describes cases when aquagenic urticaria arose from rain, tears and sweat [2].

Water allergy, or aquagenic urticaria, is currently poorly understood. Only a few hundred such cases are known to science. It is assumed that it affects women more often than men, and first manifests itself during puberty [3]. At the same time, what exactly provokes an allergy to water has not been fully identified, but there are several theories.

  • The skin does not react to the water itself, but to certain chemicals in its composition that act as allergens, causing the immune system to release histamine.
  • Water can react with sebum to produce a toxin that causes the body to release histamine.

Diagnosis of aquatic urticaria is based on patient-reported symptoms. The most obvious of these is a rash that is localized mainly on the neck, shoulders, arms and back. Common signs of aquagenic urticaria also include:

  • itching;
  • burning;
  • redness of the skin;
  • small blisters 1–3 mm in diameter.

A special water test is additionally performed to confirm the diagnosis. A cloth moistened with water at room temperature is placed on the skin for about 20 minutes. If the patient develops urticaria, the diagnosis may be confirmed. Additionally, the person will be asked to alternately immerse the forearm in water of different temperatures. In this way, it is possible to exclude other types of physical urticaria and reactions that occur with short-term contact with water without severe itching and blisters.

Olga Gromadina allergist-immunologist, candidate of medical sciences, chief specialist of the network of clinics “Semeynaya”

“True water allergy is possible, but it is a very rare variant of urticaria that develops in response to physical exposure to water. Moreover, the reaction occurs precisely upon contact with the skin, while a person suffering from an allergy to it can drink water, maybe the contact of water with mucous membranes is safe.

Types of water allergy


Medicine knows of cases where allergies and skin reactions were provoked exclusively by sea salt water

Water allergy can be understood as several different diseases, both allergic and related to other mechanisms – atopic dermatitis or dyshidrotic eczema, explains Lyudmila Khludova, allergist-immunologist at the Rassvet clinic. According to the doctor, hives in cold and hot water are also common.

Lyudmila Khludova Allergist-Immunologist at the Rassvet Clinic

“All three types will look approximately the same – like red itchy rashes, usually rising above the surface of the skin, appearing within 30 minutes or faster at the points of contact with water and disappearing without a trace faster than in a day.”

Allergy to chlorinated water

If after swimming the skin turns red, itchy or a small rash appears, it is not at all necessary that this is aquatic urticaria. Most likely, this is how an individual reaction to bleach or simply irritation manifests itself. However, chlorine can indirectly contribute to allergies. There are studies confirming that frequent inhalation of chlorine vapors, for example when visiting the pool, increases the risk of developing asthma and other respiratory allergies [4].

Allergy to cold water

Cold urticaria appears shortly after the skin is subjected to a sharp drop in air temperature or from cold water. The reaction develops within 5-10 minutes and can last up to two hours. A typical example is when a person comes out of cool water and almost immediately his skin becomes covered with urticaria. More often the rash covers the arms and legs. There are two forms of the disease: acquired and hereditary. The main symptoms include abnormal reddening of the skin (erythema), urticaria, and itching [5].


Redness, itching or a slight rash after swimming may be an individual reaction to the water or irritation. This is not necessarily aquagenic urticaria

Allergy to hot water

Cholinergic urticaria is a type of urticaria caused by fever. Not only a hot shower can provoke a reaction, but also physical exercises and even too strong emotions, for example, from stress. Allergy to hot water is manifested by itching and small blisters that persist for 15–30 minutes. Patients with cholinergic urticaria sometimes have asthma symptoms and low blood pressure. Cooling of the skin helps to stop the attack [6].

Allergy to sea water

Medicine knows cases when allergies and skin reactions were provoked exclusively by sea salt water. The study of the symptoms and their specificity gave reason to assume the existence of a separate salt subtype of aquatic urticaria. There are few data on this type of urticaria, but it is known that it is characterized by localization of the rash on the lower contours of the face and neck [7].

In some cases, if a rash suddenly appears after swimming in salt water, it is possible that it is not an allergy, but sea lice. They have nothing to do with hair parasites. They are tiny larvae of foxtail jellyfish, sea anemones and other marine life. Once on human skin, these miniature creatures, defending themselves, sting, throwing out a dose of toxins. As a result, a person feels a slight tingling sensation, which develops into itching and a rash. Antihistamines and calamine lotions help relieve symptoms [8].

Allergy to river water

If you are certain that you are not allergic to water, then the rash after swimming in fresh water may be caused by tiny parasites – schistosomes, which are considered to be carriers of snails. For humans, infection with these worms is manifested by skin tingling, itching, and a rash. These symptoms are uncomfortable but usually resolve on their own within a few days to a week [8].

Other reactions to water

There are other skin reactions to water that are not allergic, says allergist Olga Gromadina. For example, in people suffering from atopic dermatitis or eczema, prolonged bathing or the use of water at very high or low temperatures can exacerbate inflammation. Hard water can aggravate eczema, while swimming in the sea will be safe.

Olga Gromadina:

“At the same time, not all people with chronic inflammatory skin diseases may experience the same degree of irritation when in contact with water, since these conditions are very individual. So, in some people, the pH of the water is higher than neutral and the high content of chlorine can cause dryness and irritation of the skin. On the other hand, in some foreign studies, people suffering from chronic dermatoses recommend the use of so-called bleaching chlorine baths to reduce the number of bacteria on inflamed eczematous skin.

What to do if you are allergic to water?


For many patients, medications that minimize discomfort and improve quality of life are successful treatments

The main recommendation in the treatment of any allergy is to try to avoid the trigger. But in the case of aquagenic urticaria, it is completely impossible to exclude contact with water. This would mean avoiding showering, going outside when it rains, and avoiding sweat-inducing activities. For the treatment of allergies to water, a complex of means is used, including medicines and external preparations.

With aquagenic urticaria, treatment will be similar to other types of urticaria, but there may be additional nuances, says allergist Khludova. “There is evidence of the use of PUVA therapy (ultraviolet radiation), it also looks logical to use protective agents for the skin. In particular, cosmetics with insulating or hydrophobic properties,” the doctor advises. Serious systemic reactions in aquatic urticaria are rare, she said, so for many patients, medications that minimize discomfort and improve quality of life, although not completely eliminating symptoms, are successful therapy.

Lyudmila Khludova:

“Allergists treat all types of urticaria. Now doctors do not have diagnostic methods that allow them to say exactly when aquagenic urticaria will pass.