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Water leaking out of legs: ‘Leaky legs’: strategies for the treatment and management of lower-limb lymphorrhoea


Fluid leaking from legs in elderly

Fluid leaking from legs in elderly

Swollen body parts may be uncomfortable but with older adults, it can be a sign of edema. This serious condition can occur in any part of your body but usually results in fluid leaking from legs in elderly individuals.Aug 25, 2020

  • Fluid leaking from legs in elderly patients especially can be a sign of a more serious underlying health problem, including kidney damage, cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, and weakness or damage to veins in the legs.

Weeping edema can happen to anyone, but is particularly common in elderly and pregnant women. Fluid leaking from legs in elderly patients especially can be a sign of a more serious underlying health problem, including kidney damage, cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, and weakness or damage to veins in the legs.

What causes fluid leaking from legs?

A blood clot in the deep veins of your leg can cause leg edema . A tumor blocking the flow of blood or another fluid called lymph can cause edema . Critical illness. Burns, life-threatening infections, or other critical illnesses can cause a reaction that allows fluid to leak into tissues almost everywhere.

How can I stop my legs from leaking fluid?

3. Skin must be well hydrated (not wet) Epaderm or Dermaveen are parafin based creams and lotions help with the lipid and fatty acid structure on the epidermis which helps to stop water from evaporating through. Always look after intact skin when bandaging. Remove hyperkeratotic skin scales. Treat eczema.

Are Weeping legs a sign of heart failure?

Right side failure causes fluid to back up in the veins and capillaries in your body. This backup can cause pressure on the capillaries and fluid seeps out into the tissue causing swelling and even “ weeping ” of tissue, especially in the legs and feet. You can experience both types of heart failure at the same time.

Can weeping legs be cured?

When treating excessive lower extremity drainage due to edema , complete decongestive therapy can go a long way to resolve a “ weepy leg . ” The management of excessive lower extremity drainage is often difficult.

Is Weeping edema serious?

Extreme swelling , often in the feet, ankles and legs, can lead to skin ulcers (wounds), weeping edema and dangerous skin infections like cellulitis. Family caregivers who suspect edema should address the concern immediately with a physician.

What are some home remedies for weeping legs?

Lifestyle and home remedies Movement. Moving and using the muscles in the part of your body affected by edema , especially your legs , may help pump the excess fluid back toward your heart. Elevation. Massage. Compression. Protection. Reduce salt intake.

Will drinking more water help with edema?

1. Drink 8 to 10 glasses of water per day. Though it might seem counterintuitive, getting enough fluids actually helps reduce swelling . When your body isn’t hydrated enough, it holds onto the fluid it does have.

Is edema in the legs life threatening?

Some edema can be expected, such as swollen ankles when you’re pregnant or a traumatic ankle sprain; but edema can be caused by life – threatening conditions, such as heart disease or kidney failure.

What are the 4 signs your heart is quietly failing?

Heart failure signs and symptoms may include: Shortness of breath ( dyspnea ) when you exert yourself or when you lie down. Fatigue and weakness . Swelling ( edema ) in your legs, ankles and feet. Rapid or irregular heartbeat. Reduced ability to exercise. Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged phlegm.

What are the signs of end stage congestive heart failure?

The symptoms of end-stage congestive heart failure include dyspnea , chronic cough or wheezing, edema , nausea or lack of appetite , a high heart rate, and confusion or impaired thinking. Learn about the hospice eligibility requirements for end-stage heart failure.

What are the 4 stages of congestive heart failure?

There are four stages of heart failure (Stage A, B, C and D). The stages range from “high risk of developing heart failure” to “advanced heart failure,” and provide treatment plans.

What is weeping edema in legs?

Sometimes, swelling is so extreme that a person has difficulty moving. Swelling can become so severe that fluid will leak out directly from the skin. This is known as weeping edema . Pitting edema may also develop.

Should I cover a weeping wound?

Q: Is it better to bandage a cut or sore , or air it out? A: Airing out most wounds isn’t beneficial because wounds need moisture to heal. Leaving a wound uncovered may dry out new surface cells, which can increase pain or slow the healing process.

What is weeping cellulitis?

Symptoms of cellulitis swelling. tenderness or pain in an area of skin. weeping or leaking of yellow clear fluid or pus.

A beloved mother is lost to lymphedema

by Jennifer Vitale

My mother, Linda Vitale, was a primary lymphedema patient. For years she struggled with this disease and didn’t even know she had a disease. Her doctors always said she was just extremely heavy. When her legs started leaking fluid, she was told it was a calcium build up and that can cause edema.

At age 50, my mom went to a varicose veins specialist who told her he believed she had a condition called lymphedema. He did not know much about it but knew where to send her for wraps and pumps. We contacted LE&RN (then still the Lymphatic Research Foundation) and through them we got a lot of our knowledge about this disease and they helped us tremendously with advice on where to go to get special items needed and who to call for therapy and help.

Because my mom’s legs were so big they had trouble sizing her correctly for wraps and had to make specialized pumps. This took a lot of time. After about five years, she finally had wraps and pumps that assisted a bit with the lymphedema swelling. Her legs were very painful. She used to scream when she got into bed at night and because the pain was so over bearing. In the morning, she moved very slowly to help ease the pain and stiffness of getting up and starting her day.

My mother was a wonderful woman. Smart, full of life, she loved kids and looked forward to going to work every day. She worked for the Connecticut Association of Foster and Adoptive Parents. To get ready in the morning she would follow a ritual. Her legs would leak fluid, which actually had an odor to. Every morning after she showered she would clean in between each roll caused by the lymphedema to make sure she did not develop chafe or any kind of infection in the creases. Cellulitis was a scary but normal condition for her. This infection she would get at least once every 3 months. She had a supply of Cipro on hand for the “just in case” outbreak of cellulitis.

After a while our home’s living room started to resemble a hospital room. We had to make accommodations so she could get around freely and without injury. We had a walk in shower put in because she couldn’t step over a bathtub. She went from a cane to a walker and we eventually had to put in an elevator because her lymphedema started to debilitate her where she couldn’t walk and eventually was confined to a wheelchair. Through all this, my mom was determined to work. She did everything she could to fight to keep her job and the quality of life she had for her family.

Wounds were also very common with lymphedema. She would break out in a small blister that would burst and leave an open wound.  She had to be so careful. Anytime she got the smallest scratch it would turn into an open wound and it took a very long time to heal. Her quality of life suffered tremendously.

Depression, though she fought it, had started to set in about a year after being confined to her wheelchair. Though she was losing a lot of weight, her legs were continuously swelling. Their size made it very hard to transport her to functions or even doctors and she started making decisions to stay in more.

We now needed to have around the clock nurses to assist her and care for wounds. Her last wound seemed to never heel. It ended up taking over the whole back half of her right leg. She had this wound for over two years. Even though we had nurses come and clean it almost every day the wound became necrotic. She would get cellulitis often in the leg and was hospitalized a few times with the strep A virus from what I understood was a flesh-eating virus in that leg.

On May 14, her grandson’s 18th birthday in 2011, she became very ill. She couldn’t stand, couldn’t pull herself up, and couldn’t even swallow water. After 24 hours she needed to go to the emergency room, which she hated because her legs were so big and she was so afraid of leaving her home because transportation was always an issue.

The virus had gone through her body and she had a blood disease and her body was septic. I remember those 4 days so clearly. By the time she reached the hospital she was completed dehydrated, her blood pressure was extremely low and they had to put a line in her neck to get her fluids. Her leg was so necrotic they put her in for immediate surgery to clean the wound.

The next day, mom was still sedated and we needed to make the decision to amputate the leg because the infection started attacking organs. Doctors thought this is the only way to keep her alive. My sisters and I, against our heartfelt judgment, gave consent for the leg to be amputated.

She was in intensive care for the next two days. Her fever was so high they had to pack her with ice. The virus then attacked her kidneys as well as other organs. After 48 hours of trying everything they could to save her, my mom passed away. What people do not understand is the stagnant material in the swollen legs can harbor all sorts of bacteria. The wounds that can open because of this swelling can be life-threatening.

My mom died from nothing other than complications from lymphedema.

What are the Causes and Treatments of Leg Swelling?

Here at Ocean County Foot & Ankle Surgical Associates, leg swelling is a common condition that we see among our patients. As a first step in treating patients suffering from leg swelling, there are a few common causes that we look to identify.

The first is leaking veins in the legs. The veins in the legs return fluid and blood to the heart. Veins that are leaking will lead to swelling and retained fluid in the legs. At Ocean County Diagnostics, our state-of-the-art, IAC certified vascular testing facility, we identify leaking veins with a venous reflux duplex ultrasound, a noninvasive test that looks at the flow of blood through the veins.

Another common cause of leg swelling is sleeping with the legs below the heart. Gravity pulls fluid into our legs daily and sleeping with legs below the heart can increase this fluid build-up in the legs.

Leg swelling can also lead to other conditions. When fluid is trapped in the legs, it can leak through the skin causing blisters and wounds. These wounds should be promptly treated by our wound care physicians as these areas can become infected, resulting in a condition known as cellulitis.

When you visit our office, we will provide an evaluation that includes blood work to evaluate the liver and kidneys. We will also work closely with cardiologists and nephrologists to identify the cause of the swelling and work toward a solution.

Common treatments for leg swelling include walking daily, elevation of the legs throughout the day and at night, compression stockings and sleeves, compression pumps, wrapping the legs to reduce swelling, and use of water pills or diuretics in consultation with your primary care doctor and cardiologist.

If you are suffering from leg swelling or have a wound that isn’t healing, take a step in the right direction and call our office today at 732-838-FEET (3338). Our skilled physicians are ready to provide you with the attention you deserve and to get you back on your feet again.

Chronic Venous Insufficiency / Swollen Leg Treatment Southern New Jersey

Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) or Leg Swelling

CVI, or leg swelling, is an extremely common disorder that affects millions of Americans. Untreated, venous insufficiency causes high pressure in your veins that worsens over time and can cause significant and painful permanent changes to your skin. This places you at increased risk for skin breakdown or ulcers which are very difficult to heal. This condition is worsened by prolonged standing and sitting, increased salt and fluid consumption and especially by weight gain and obesity. The good news is that patients can obtain significant relief and lead a normal and productive lifestyle if they are compliant with specific lifestyle changes as described below.

In healthy veins, there are multiple one-way valves that only allow blood to flow upward, out of your legs back to your heart. When you stand or sit, the valves close and prevent blood from flowing backwards into your legs. Over time, valves can leak and blood flows downwards, back into your legs. This causes high pressure in your leg veins and causes fluid to leak out and build up in your legs due to the effects of gravity. Pigment from your blood builds up under your skin and causes permanent darkening of your skin. There are good options to improve your condition. These can give you great relief and protect your legs from permanent damage, but this requires a strong commitment on your part. Please read and follow these guidelines carefully.

Compression Stockings: Compression tockings are the mainstay of treatment. TED hose, or Thrombo-Embolic Deterrent Hose, given during routine surgery or stockings purchased at the department store or grocery store are not adequate because they do not provide enough compression. Good compression stockings are difficult to apply and expensive, but they last a long time and are very effective. They may cause an indentation in your skin at the top of the stocking, but this is not harmful, and they will NOT cut off your circulation. You must elevate your feet ABOVE YOUR HEART overnight or apply first thing in the morning before you walk around during day to minimize the swelling before you apply your stockings. You can take your stockings off whenever your feet are elevated.

You should purchase compression stockings from a specialty shop or The Heart House to receive a proper fit and tips on how to best apply them. Durable Medical Equipment (DME) Stores carry these stockings at full retail, where they cost $80-$130 for thigh-high or panty stockings. If custom stockings are required, the price can be much higher. Insurance does not cover these. Note: It is preferred for patients to have either thigh-high or full-panty stockings. This is a post-procedure standard to ensure proper compression of the great saphenous vein or GSV. The stockings offered at the Heart House may be washed and dried as normal and have a year warranty.

Leg Elevation: Your legs must be elevated above the level of your heart to receive the benefits of gravity. To accomplish this, your toes should be higher than your nose. Simply lying on a recliner chair is not adequate. You can place a board under the foot of your bed and sleep with your feet on pillows. During the day, you can lie on the floor and keep your feet on the couch or lie on the couch with your feet on the armrest. Ideally, you should keep your feet elevated as much as possible when you are not walking or wearing compression stockings. If you’re on your feet all day at work, take whatever breaks you can to elevate your feet as high as possible. Ideally, you should either be walking or have your legs elevated as much as possible. Sitting and standing are the worst positions for your swollen legs.

Weight Loss: Even small amounts of weight loss are significant and will greatly improve your symptoms. All the fluid in your legs has to go through your abdomen (belly) to get back to your heart. Quick weight loss diets on TV are a scam and are a waste of your time and money. The bottom line for success: You must combine increased exercise with decreased consumption of calories.

Salt Restriction: Salt causes you to retain fluid in excess of what your body needs. Gravity and bad veins cause this fluid to accumulate in your legs. Patients always say they do not add much salt to their food. However, there is a huge amount of added salt in nearly all processed, pre-packaged, canned, restaurant, fried and fast-foods. Look at the salt content in any diet book and you will be amazed. Try to limit your salt consumption to less than 2 grams per day.

Exercise: An active lifestyle will help with weight loss and is certainly beneficial to your heart and longevity. Walking causes your calf muscles to contract (squeeze) which compresses the fluid out of your veins and pumps it up your legs back towards your heart. Walking with your compression stockings in place helps prevent fluid from building back up after it is pumped out of your legs by walking. You should exercise at least 30 minutes a day, 4 or 5 days a week. Exercise should be of moderate intensity in order to elevate your heart rate significantly. Ideally, you should continue to increase the intensity of your exercise as much as possible (that is, walking or biking further and faster over time). You should check with your cardiologist first if you have any history of heart disease before beginning any exercise program.

The Importance of Drinking Water to Treat Swollen Legs and Feet

Home / The Importance of Drinking Water to Treat Swollen Legs and Feet

Swelling of the feet and ankles is medically known as edema. It can affect any part of the body though it is most commonly seen in the legs, feet, ankles, arms and hands. Edema may be caused by certain medical conditions (liver disease, kidney disease, heart failure or pregnancy) or due to certain medications. Individuals suffering from venous insufficiency may also experience edema.

“Usually, individuals who suffer from heaviness and leg swelling make the mistake of not drinking enough water – says Dr. Marco Setti, Head of Vascular Surgery at Humanitas Gavazzeni. Instead, it is necessary to introduce fluids into the body by eating lots of vegetables and fruits as well as drinking natural water. It is safe to assume from medical assistance that phlebotonic medications can help improve blood circulation. The special creams that contain phlebotonics and heparinoids reduce the “heat” that is manifested in the calves and can help make a difference even if it is only a minimal difference.”

How does edema occur?


Edema occurs when water leaks from the small blood vessels in the body. The kidneys start to react by retaining more sodium and water. The fluid then builds up in surrounding tissues, leading to swelling. In such cases, it is necessary to resort to lower sodium foods and beverages.

Mild cases of edema may result from the following:

  • Salty foods
  • Pregnancy
  • Premenstrual signs and symptoms
  • Prolonged sitting

Certain medications that may cause edema include:

  • Steroids
  • Estrogens
  • High blood pressure medications
  • Diabetes medications

More severe conditions that may cause edema include:

  • Kidney damage
  • Kidney disease
  • Liver cirrhosis
  • Heart failure
Helpful tips to relieve pain in the legs

“A few helpful tips on relieving pain when you suffer from swollen feet and legs is to exercise, keep active and drink plenty of water. At night, you should also keep your legs raised by resting them on a soft pillow – adds Dr. Setti. Unfortunately, for women, hormonal issues related to pregnancy, the use of birth control pills or other similar problems make them more susceptible to venous insufficiency than men. Edema affects as many as 7 out of 10 women.

Treatment typically depends on taking care of the underlying cause by:

  • Limiting sodium intake (preventing the body from retaining excess water)
  • Eating healthy foods
  • Drinking plenty of fluids (1.5-2 liters of water a day)
  • Avoiding a sedentary lifestyle
  • Moving the ankles more often
  • “When you take long journeys via plane, car or train, your limbs are forced into small spaces or crouched positions. In such cases, it is recommended to wear relaxation stockings throughout the duration of the trip in order to improve venous circulation. For individuals with episodes of thrombus phlebitis, it is advised to consult with a specialist. Sun exposure is permitted in such cases but with moderation. In cases of phlebitis inflammation, sun exposure is absolutely prohibited. Finally, it is advised to walk along the water or swim while you are at sea. Such activities produce a natural and healthy hydro massage on the body” – concludes Dr. Setti.

Top 10 exercises and tips to relieve swollen legs

Our top ten tips will make the most of those lovely legs and edge you a little bit closer to that model ideal.

1. Get it checked out

Swelling – the technical term is edema – can happen for lots of reasons. Most of them are innocent but in some cases, swollen legs are a sign that something more serious is going on. That aside, those swollen ankles are probably down to sitting in one position too long, premenstrual changes, pregnancy or eating too much salt. If you’ve noticed anything unusual get it checked out to rule out any major issues and get some peace of mind.

Physically, that annoying puffiness is caused by your tiny blood vessels (known as capillaries) leaking fluid. The fluid builds up in the surrounding tissues and there’s your swelling.

Edema puts an extra burden on your heart and kidneys – and that can take a toll in the long term so it’s worth taking control of the situation as early as possible.

2. Stay active

Once you’ve checked with your doctor, it’s time to get on your feet.

The best weapon in the fight against swollen legs is a simple one: walking.

Getting your legs moving means circulation is improved which will sweep up that collected fluid and get it shifted.

Using a cross trainer or treadmill has a number of advantages, or you can alternate a structured walk in the gym with walking outside. In the gym you can track your distances and control of the number of inclines you use. We suggest starting at 30 minutes three or four times a week and adding on 5 minutes (and increase the inclines) each week to build up slowly.

3. Give yourself a massage

Walking aside, these couple of smart exercises are brilliant at preventing fluid from pooling. Do them a few times a day until you see an improvement.

• Leg lifts: Holding the back of a chair for support, lift one leg off the floor and move it backwards, keeping your knee straight. Repeat as advised by your doctor.

• Calf stretches: Still holding the chair, go onto tiptoes, hold for a couple of seconds and lower. The stretch you can feel in your calf will help squeeze the fluid up and away from your lower leg.

4. Raise your legs

Yes, we are encouraging you to start walking more – but you also have our permission to put your feet up.

When you’re resting, raise your feet above the level of your heart. This will help the fluid drain and give you a nice rest too.

5. Massage

Check with your doctor first but if you’ve got the all-clear, a massage is wonderful for boosting your lymphatic system.

It doesn’t need to be deep or painful – just a simple, gentle movement will sweep fluid towards lymph nodes, activating the system. Surely you don’t need any more reasons to get booked in?

6. Stay away from salty foods

Too much salt could be causing those puffy ankles. If you suspect you might be a salt fiend, cut down on the table salt and check the ingredients of any prepared food for hidden levels.

Opt for freshly-prepared meals and keep the salt cellar in the cupboard.

7. Drink more water

It might sound counterintuitive but drinking more water actually puts a rocket into the body’s elimination system – and it will pick up lots of waste products as it goes. It will help with the fluid, but also you will see other benefits – greater focus, more energy. Aim to drink eight to ten large glasses a day. A good tip is to store a day’s water in a jug in the fridge (add in lemon, orange, lime or cucumber for taste) so you know how much you need to get through.

8. Use plant power

Natural diuretics are a gentle, healthy way of encouraging fluid to drain away.

Try diuretic herbs such as dandelion, licorice root and elderberry. Or boost your intake of celery, artichokes, grapes and parsley. Green tea and cranberry juice are great alternative drinks if you get bored of water.

9. Up your potassium levels

Diuretics can whip some of your potassium away along with the excess fluid, so while you’re taking them, add potassium supplements or boost your intake of bananas, raisins and kidney beans, all of which have high, natural, levels of potassium.

10. Bath time

Epsom salts are a brilliant old-fashioned remedy that’s more than just an old wives’ tale. Run a warm (not hot) bath, chuck in a handful of Epsom salts and relax.

Swelling can be caused by a lack of magnesium and soaking is a great way of absorbing this precious mineral. You will be able to admire your newly-slender ankles as you lay in the tub.

What is ascites (fluid in the abdomen)? | Coping physically

The medical name for a build up of fluid in the abdomen is ascites (pronounced ay-site-eez). It can also be called malignant ascites.

The tummy (abdomen) contains many organs, including the stomach, bowels, pancreas, liver, spleen and kidneys. There is a sheet of tissue (peritoneum) around these organs. It is made up of 2 layers. One layer lines the wall of the abdomen. The other covers the organs.

The layers produce a small amount of fluid so that the organs in the abdomen can move smoothly. Sometimes fluid builds up between the 2 layers, which makes the abdomen swell. This can be very uncomfortable.

This fluid build up is called ascites.

The causes of ascites

Cancers that can cause ascites include:

  • ovarian cancer
  • breast cancer
  • bowel cancer
  • stomach cancer
  • pancreatic cancer
  • mesothelioma in the peritoneum
  • lung cancer
  • liver cancer
  • womb cancer

Fluid can build up when:

  • cancer cells irritate the lining of the abdomen and make it produce too much fluid
  • lymph glands in the abdomen get blocked and can’t drain fluid properly
  • cancer has spread to the liver and raises the pressure in nearby blood vessels, which forces fluid out
  • the liver can’t make enough blood proteins so fluid leaks out of veins into the abdominal cavity

Other conditions that can cause fluid in the abdomen include:

  • liver disease
  • heart disease

What are the symptoms of ascites?

The fluid causes swelling that can make the tummy feel tight and very uncomfortable. It often develops over a few weeks but might happen over a few days.

The fluid causes pressure on other organs in the abdominal area and may lead to:

  • clothes feeling tighter or needing a bigger belt size
  • bloating
  • abdominal pain
  • back pain
  • difficulty sitting comfortably and moving around
  • loss of appetite
  • indigestion
  • constipation
  • needing to pass urine often
  • breathlessness
  • tiredness and weakness (fatigue)


You might have tests to find the cause of the swelling.

Your doctor examines you and asks about your symptoms. They may also ask you to have:

  • an ultrasound scan
  • blood tests to check your general health and how well your liver and kidneys are working
  • a CT scan
  • a sample of the fluid taken from your abdomen to check for cancer cells or infection

Your doctor puts a needle into your abdomen to take a sample of fluid. They use an ultrasound scan to guide them. This can be uncomfortable but isn’t usually painful.

They use a syringe to draw out some fluid to send to the laboratory. In the lab, they examine it under a microscope to look for cancer cells.

90,000 Annual analysis shows that the main causes of fatalities on water are

1.among children and adolescents:

· inability to swim;

· abandonment of children without adult supervision;

· swimming in unequipped, prohibited places.

2.in adults:

· bathing while intoxicated;

· violation of the rules for the operation of small vessels and rowing boats;

· ignorance, and sometimes ignorance of the rules of behavior near the water, on the water and methods of rescue and first aid.

Rules of conduct on the water:

1. Choose safe or specially equipped bathing areas;

2. Do not swim while drunk;

3. Do not swim near vessels (motor and sailing), boats and other floating facilities;

4. Do not leave children near or on the water unattended;

5. Do not dive in unfamiliar places;

6. Do not swim far from the shore or beyond the beach fence signs;

7.Do not swim in pits;

8. Do not swim at night;

9. Do not use boards, air mattresses, car cameras for swimming;

10. Do not throw jars, glass and other objects dangerous for bathers into the water;

11. Do not jump into the water from boats, launches, piers, and structures not intended for these purposes;

12 Do not arrange in the water games associated with diving and grabbing the hands, head, legs of the swimmer;

13.Do not play with the ball and other sports games in places not intended for these purposes;

14. The lifebuoy is not a toy. He may be needed at any moment to save a person’s life.

15. Do not call for help if nothing threatens you. Such “jokes” interfere with the work of rescuers.

16. Children under the age of 16 are advised to ride boats only with adults.

17. Before boarding the boat, make sure that it is in good working order.Check that the oarlocks and oars are in order, that the outflow bucket, the mooring rope and life-saving equipment: a lifebuoy, bib or vest for each passenger that you will need for assistance, are in place.

Bathing Tips:

Before bathing:

1. Before you start bathing, consult your doctor, as bathing is not useful for everyone.

2. Start swimming in sunny, calm weather, at an air temperature of 20-25 ° C, water – 17-19 ° C.

3. Choose safe or designated swimming areas for swimming. If there is no beach, baths, or water station nearby, you can swim in a reservoir with a clean sandy shore.

4. After eating, do not swim earlier than an hour later.

5. You cannot swim while drunk.

6. Rest before swimming. Hot to enter the water is not recommended.

7. Do not swim in large waves.

8.Don’t jump into water in unfamiliar places.

While swimming:

1. Enter the water carefully. Stop at a shallow place and quickly plunge headlong.

2. Do not bring yourself to chills, swim for no more than 10-15 minutes.

3. In case of convulsions – do not get lost! Try to stay on the surface of the water, call for help.

4. Do not often get out of the water and stand wet in the wind.

5. Once in a strong current, do not swim against it, use the current to get closer to the shore.

6. Once in the whirlpool, do not be alarmed. Take in more air in your lungs, immerse yourself in the water and, making a strong dash in the direction of the current, float to the surface.

7. Do not swim far from the shore, do not swim behind the warning signs.

8. Remember: pranks on the water can lead to accidents.

9. It is recommended to swim no more than twice a day.

It is dangerous for the elderly to enter the water after prolonged exposure to the sun.It is extremely dangerous to jump into the water, especially in an unfamiliar body of water, head down, as this often leads to damage to the cervical vertebrae.



Drowning rescue:

Drowning occurs when a person is immersed in water. Drowning deaths are caused by a lack of oxygen.A significant part of the drowned are children. It should be remembered that drowning can be caused by a violation of the rules of behavior on the water, fatigue, even with good swimming ability (for example, during long swims in cold water), injuries during diving (especially in unfamiliar waters), alcohol intoxication, a sharp change in temperature when immersion in water after overheating in the sun, etc. Factors of an increased risk of drowning are the high speed of the flow of an ox, the presence of eddies, key sources that dramatically change the water temperature in a small area, storms, the possibility of collision with various floating equipment (for example, passing by ship or raft).Drowning often occurs as a result of a person being lost in a difficult situation. He forgets that his body is lighter than water and that with minimal effort it can be on the surface for a very long time both in a horizontal and vertical position, for which it is enough to just slightly scoop up the water with his hands and feet and breathe as calmly as possible.

If you get into a whirlpool, you need to draw in more air into your lungs and, diving deeper, swim to the side under water, which is much easier to do, since the speed of water movement at a depth is much lower than on the surface.

It is often necessary to rescue a drowning person by swimming, as often misfortune happens in places where there are no life-saving equipment and far from the rescue station. The success of the rescuer’s actions is largely due to their rational sequence, the ability to swim, perform rescue operations and provide first aid to the victim.

The rescuer must quickly run to the nearest drowning place along the coast. It is necessary to undress and, after entering the water, work intensively with arms and legs, keeping the strength for the upcoming rescue operations.When a drowning person dives to the bottom, the rescuer must dive, swim along the bottom (in running water – taking into account the direction and speed of the current). If there is sufficient visibility, you should open your eyes under water, since rescue actions are more effective in this case. Having found a drowning person, you should take him by the hand, under the armpits or by the hair and, pushing strongly from the bottom, rise to the surface with him, while working intensively only with his legs or feet and a free hand. If the drowning person is on the surface of the water, then it is advisable to calm him down even from a distance.If this fails, then it is better to try to swim up to him from behind in order to avoid his captures, from which it is sometimes difficult to get rid of. One of the techniques that allows you to free yourself from such a convulsive embrace is to dive with the drowning person in the water, who, trying to stay on the surface, releases the rescuer


Noticing a drowning person, try to swim up behind unnoticed. And if you see that he is waiting for your approach to grab you with his hands, beware.Remember, this is fraught with danger for both the person being saved and the savior. Having swum to the drowning man, do not give him the opportunity to grab hold of yourself, Dive in and push his knee with the palm of your right hand, and grab your right leg with your left hand. Turn the person in distress towards you and at the same time push vigorously with your right leg and left arm upward. Then begin to swim, grabbing the drowning person by the chin. tow it to the shore.

It is necessary to tow so that the nose and mouth of the rescued person do not submerge in the water.Having freed the chin of the rescued person at the beginning of the forward movement, take his face in your palms so that at the same time squeeze his mouth and close his ears. You must swim smoothly and calmly. If the rescued person begins to resist, stick your right hand under his left armpit and, grabbing his right hand behind the drowning person’s back, firmly press his body to you. Swim, of course, while you will have to be on your left side.

Rules for release from grappling

A drowning man grabbed you by the neck from the front.With your left hand, push his right elbow up and, grabbing the left hand of the rescued person with your right hand, pull it down and, gently turning at the elbow, put it behind his back. Themselves, in the meantime, sink into the water and swim behind the drowning person, and then float to the surface.

If you are grabbed by the neck from behind, push with your left palm the left hand of the rescuer under the elbow up and to the right, and with your right hand grab the wrist of the same hand and, bending at the elbow, turn it behind the drowning man’s back.Having descended under the water, you can easily free yourself from the grip, and then float to the surface behind the back of the rescued person.

In the event that you are grabbed by the body in front, you will have to push the rescuer under the chin with your hand, and if this does not help, you will have to pinch his nose with your fingers, close your mouth with your palm and gently push your knee into the stomach. At the moment of the push, it is necessary to support the drowning person by the lower back with his free hand.

If a drowning man grabbed your legs with one hand, bend his head towards you and down, and with the other turn his chin away from you.He will be forced to free your legs, and, pushing back, you get rid of the dangerous grip.

It is possible that someone in distress can grab your hands. Then, clenching your fists, turn them sharply towards the thumbs of the drowning person. This is quite enough to free your hands and be able to save the victim.

It is safest to take a drowning person from behind under the arms or by the back of the head, near the ears, and, supporting his face above the water, swim on his back to the shore.A drowning man must be helped as soon as possible, since a person cannot hold his breath for a long time and, 20-30 seconds after diving, begins to breathe under water. Water fills the respiratory tract and suffocation ensues.

Having delivered the drowning man to the shore, they begin to provide first aid, the nature of which depends on the condition of the victim. If the victim is conscious, he has a satisfactory heart rate and number of breaths in 1 min, then it is enough to lay him on a dry hard surface so that his head is lowered, then undress, rub with hands or a dry towel.It is advisable to give the victim a hot drink (tea, coffee, adults can have a little alcohol, for example 1-2 tablespoons of vodka), after which it is necessary to wrap him up in a warm blanket and let him rest. If the victim is unconscious when removed from the water, but he has a satisfactory pulse rate and number of breaths, then his head should be thrown back and the lower jaw extended, and then laid in such a way that the head is lowered down, and with his finger (preferably wrapped in a scarf) free his oral cavity from silt, mud, vomit.

Subsequently, the victim is wiped dry and warmed.

When removing the victim from the water unconscious, without signs of spontaneous breathing, but with persisting cardiac activity, after carrying out similar preliminary measures aimed at clearing the airways, it is necessary to start artificial respiration as soon as possible using the mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-mouth method. nose”.

In the absence of both breathing and cardiac activity, artificial respiration should be combined with chest compressions.First, you need to remove fluid from the respiratory tract as soon as possible. To this end, the caregiver places the victim with his stomach on his bent knee. The victim’s head hangs down and water flows out of the respiratory tract and stomach.

It must be remembered that in the oral cavity there may be foreign objects, removable dentures, which, with further assistance, may block the airways. Therefore, remove foreign objects with your finger.These measures must be performed immediately after removing the victim from the water (on the shore, in a boat, on a raft, etc.) before the arrival of medical workers with special equipment and his delivery to the hospital.


90,000 Water is everywhere. Why does edema appear on the legs and how to deal with them? | Healthy life | Health

According to statistics, women most often face unpleasant swelling of the legs, although the problem also affects representatives of the stronger sex.About why it arises and how to cope with it – in the material of AiF.ru.

Warning, danger!

There are many reasons for edema: prolonged exercise, problems with the kidneys and veins, heart pathologies, hormonal fluctuations.

If you have to stand for a long time, for example, because of work, you can expect a feeling of heaviness in your legs every evening. Hairdressers, salespeople, and other representatives of “standing” professions suffer especially from this.

Kidney disease, as a rule, is accompanied by additional troubles in the form of back pain.In addition, in this case, not only the feet and legs swell, but also the face, and then the whole body. And quite quickly – literally in a day.

The so-called cardiac edema can be recognized by the time of its occurrence. So, if the cause of the problem is in the main muscle of the body, the legs will swell in the evening, but by the morning everything will be gone. In addition, in this case, they will swell completely and will be cold to the touch.

Changes in hormonal levels often cause edema of the lower extremities. This is due to a slowdown in blood circulation, blood thickening and a violation of a number of metabolic substances.

However, most often the cause of the disease is problems with the veins, due to which varicose veins develop. Moreover, it is a mistake to think that veins must first “come out” or spider veins appear. Quite the opposite, in such a situation, heaviness in the legs and swelling signal that the situation may soon seriously worsen.


First of all, when such alarming symptoms appear, you should think about visiting a doctor – a surgeon or therapist.Based on the symptoms they have, they will be able to diagnose the cause of the disease. Indeed, at this stage, you can still get by with simple treatment. If you tighten it, you will have to resort to surgery.

However, you should not endure unpleasant manifestations, there are five simple ways to get rid of them:

1. Sea salt bath. It is enough to dissolve 1 tablespoon of baking soda and a handful of sea salt in 3 liters of hot water and hold your feet for 15–20 minutes. Herbal infusions are also suitable.As a base, you can use St. John’s wort, nettle, elderberry, mint, chamomile, etc.

2. Contrasting douches. For 10 minutes, you should water your feet with hot and cold water. This, firstly, will quickly relieve swelling due to vasospasm. Secondly, it helps to improve blood flow.

3. Ice with herbs. Brew the herbal tea, pour into molds and place in the freezer. You just need to wipe your feet with ice in the evenings.

4.Gymnastics for the legs. You need to lie down on the sofa and put your feet on the wall to improve venous outflow, then you can do the exercise “bicycle”: “twist” imaginary pedals for 3-5 minutes. After the procedure, you can apply special tonics to your legs, which strengthen the walls of the vessels and help to normalize the work of the vessels and veins of the legs.

5. Sleeping roller. It is recommended to keep the legs slightly higher than the level of the whole body in the supine position. To do this, you should abandon the high pillow, and put a special roller under your feet.

Such simple methods will allow you to properly care for your feet and get rid of pain and a number of unpleasant sensations until you get an appointment with a doctor.

90,000 Where is the moisture in the boots?


This usually happens if the shoes are not matched (shod) out of season. Or not by activity.

Well, for example, children’s Lumi boots are designed for temperatures from -5 C with average activity. And on the street -5 C. But your child is very active.It is carried by a jet rocket.

What’s going on? Feet is hot. They sweat. And if he, warmed up, reduces activity, the legs may also freeze.

What needs to be done? Remember that in these boots, with high activity, it is comfortable from -15 C. Put the boots aside until the onset of -15. Well, or at least -10 C.

Of course, this is all very rough and depends on many factors. Read more about this in the article “How to choose Nordman children’s winter shoes?” But the main point is that the shoes need to be selected according to the weather and the characteristics of the child, so that the feet are not hot.

And don’t forget about the socks. How the socks are chosen determines not only whether your feet are hot, but also whether they will be wet, even if they sweat.

If cotton socks are bad. Cotton absorbs moisture. Feet will be cold.

If the socks are thermo (with the addition of synthetics), they will wick away moisture, the feet will remain dry and will not freeze. All that remains is to dry your shoes.

Going further


We will not burden you with unnecessary terms – just remember that there is such a thing as condensate.

It is often confused when there is condensation and when the legs are sweating. But these are slightly different processes.

Most often, condensation forms in boots (snowboots), where there is a removable liner. Why is it formed? Due to the temperature difference.

Now there will be some physics.

The surface of the shoe is cold. And inside there is a warm liner, from which heat comes. In this case, there is an air space between the inner wall of the shoe and the liner. And at some point, due to this temperature difference, moisture forms on the walls of the shoes from the inside.Scientifically speaking: gas turns into liquid. Condensates.

And it doesn’t depend on the manufacturer. This is the law of physics. As well as the law of gravitation or Archimedes’ law. Another thing is important here.

Moisture must not penetrate inside the insert. Therefore, the feet must be dry.

The Nordman boots feature state-of-the-art liner technology. Therefore, even if condensation occurs, the inside of the insert remains dry. And the legs, respectively, too. If your feet are wet, most likely, this is not condensation, but reason # 1 (feet are sweating).Well, because, imagine how much condensation is needed to soak through first the liner, and then the legs and socks.

So: if your feet are sweating, your feet are wet.

If condensation forms, the feet and the liner are dry inside. Moisture only on the walls of the shoes.

What should you do if you find condensation in your boots?

Remove the insert, wipe the inside of the boots with a dry cloth and dry at room temperature.


This can happen mainly at near-zero temperature, when puddles, slush, mud…

Some mothers believe that you can run in puddles in snowboats because the fabric protects you from moisture. It certainly is. The fabric repels moisture. Protects from splashes and snow. But the joint between the shoe and the fabric is not airtight. Water can seep through this seam if you stand in a puddle, for example.

Therefore, if you have snowboots, do not go into the water above the level of the galoshes.

If you need to walk through deep puddles, choose EVA boots. They are completely sealed.And warm (for cold water).

Another reason for wet shoes is mechanical damage. They punctured, damaged the boots, for example. Some kind of micro-cut and that’s it. The shoes are leaking.

The best way to check a shoe for mechanical damage is to put it in a basin of water for several hours (but not above the level where it can leak), and stuff it with newspaper from the inside. If the newspaper becomes wet, it means there is a leak. In the same way, shoes are checked for defects if there is a suspicion that they are leaking in the sole area.

As soon as a shadow of doubt provokes the tightness of the shoe – straight into the basin!


It is damp inside, but feet are dry – condensation. We just dry the shoes and that’s it. It’s useless to fight physics.

Wet inside – feet are wet. His feet were probably sweating. Shoes and socks should be matched to the weather.

Wet inside – feet are wet. Shoes are likely leaking. The reason is improper operation or mechanical damage. It is not difficult to identify the cause.

An ideal option to remove suspicions, immediately after purchase, check the shoes for leaks (in a bowl of paper).

Unworn shoes are hard to blame for mechanical damage.

Also, do not forget about the manufacturer’s 30-day warranty. This time is enough to identify the defect. But in 99.9%, wet feet arise precisely for three reasons that we described.

P.S. We do not consider the situation when water is simply poured through the top (we stepped into a very deep puddle) – everything is too obvious there.

Dropsy – Wikism … This is NOT Wikipedia for you!

Dropsy (“ watery edema “) – the accumulation of fluid in the tissues or cavities and organs of the body.

The accumulating moisture is formed from the liquid constituents of blood and lymph, which, due to special, abnormal conditions, leave (sweat) from the vessels, do not enter the further circulation and accumulate in the tissues of the body. Water soaking of tissues can be observed either in limited areas, or it can be general and touch almost all parts of the body. Depending on the prevalence of the process V. are divided: into general – hydrops universalis, and local; the latter, in turn, are divided into separate forms, depending on the location of the lesion, which have their own special names, as follows: edema of the skin and subcutaneous tissue – anasarca, hyposarca; abdominal B.- ascites; accumulation of fluid in the chest cavity, in the pleural sac – hydrothorax; in the heart bag – hydropericardium; in the cavities and ventricles of the brain – hydrocephales, etc.

The reasons for the formation of dropsy are mainly: 1) in mechanical conditions that prevent the complete removal of venous blood and lymph from the tissues; so, for example, with pressure on any part of the body, the limb, superficial veins may be narrowed in the lumen, and deeper arteries will continue to deliver blood to the tissues; due to such conditions, the lymphatic fluid entering the tissues will not enter the veins that have a difficult outflow of blood, but will accumulate between the cells and fibers of the tissue, and edema will result.The general dropsy, which develops in heart disease, has the same mechanical origin; usually it is observed with such sufferings of the heart, when the correct flow of venous blood into the right heart is disturbed; for example, with insufficiency of the tricuspid valve and, sequentially, with insufficiency of the valves of the bicuspid, and when, due to a decline in cardiac activity, weakening of the force of heart contractions, the balance between the flow of liquid lymph into the tissue and its reverse absorption is disturbed.Dropsy and edema from mechanical causes are usually called “stagnant” or “passive”; secondly) from changes in the composition of blood or lymph and from changes in the walls of blood vessels; the latter, in turn, most often occurs in blood diseases and tissue cell nutritional disorders. These changes cause increased leakage through the walls of the capillary vessels of the liquid parts of the blood, the so-called “cachectic” or “hydraemic” dropsy. They are observed when the blood is depleted in protein, when the blood is watery and poor in its uniform elements, with specific changes in the blood and blood vessels with kidney disease (Bright’s form), with swamp thinness (malaria), with scurvy (scorbutus), with insufficient nutrition (incomplete starvation ), etc.(unlike dropsies of mechanical origin, or passive, these dropsies are called “active”) and 3-x) under the influence of disorders of the nervous system, peripheral or central, – the so-called “neuropathic edema”. This type of dropsy includes “paralytic edema”, local or general, developing after paralysis from various lesions of the brain or spinal cord; “neuralgic edema” – with nervous or neuralgic pain; edema with traumatic injuries of the nerve trunks, “hysterical edema”, urticaria blisters (articaria) that appear in some people when various flavoring or medicinal substances are introduced into the stomach, etc.(Prof. V. V. Podvysotsky, “Fundamentals of General Pathology”, St. Petersburg, 1891, p. 187). The cause of neuropathic edema is believed to be a disorder of vascular innervation or, more precisely, a spasmodic contraction of the veins (Unna).

The distribution of V. into groups is of more theoretical significance; in practice, the moments that cause V. are often complex, which determines the existence of “mixed forms” of dropsies (Prof. Yu. T. Chudnovsky, “Protocols of General Russian Doctors”, St. Petersburg, 1879, p. 109).Elucidation and recognition of the most important of the causes of such V. in each individual case is of great clinical importance for the treatment and prediction of the outcome of the disease. It is necessary to distinguish from true dropsies inflammatory liquid effusions caused by inflammatory processes in tissues and organs (see Inflammation) and also the so-called “false dropsies”. The latter are formed in individual organs and glands from excessive accumulation of liquid compartments (secretions) in them due to the difficulty or cessation of their exit from the narrowing or complete overgrowth of the excretory ducts; for example, dropsy of the renal pelvis (hydronephrosis) when the ureter is infected, the accumulation of fluid in the lacrimal sac, – in the fallopian tubes when their walls are fused (hydrosalpinx), etc.e. Pseudodesy usually represent cystic saccular tumors filled with fluid.

Anatomical changes in tissues with dropsy are expressed primarily by the separation of fibers and cells by accumulating fluid and their subsequent turbid swelling and fatty degeneration. As for the appearance of the edematous parts, their shape changes: they become soft, low elastic; when you press your finger on the swollen skin, a depression is formed, which does not smooth out for a long time; they increase in volume, sometimes so significantly that adjacent organs are displaced; the functions of the edematous organs are disturbed until they stop completely, which causes secondary disorders.

The watery liquid, which permeates tissues, is very close in composition to blood plasma, contains all its liquid, soluble constituents (only in a slightly smaller amount), the salt content is almost the same as in the blood, and the protein substances, on the contrary, are much less , especially in the aqueous humor with chronic inflammation of the kidneys (Bright’s form), with heart disease, cachexia, etc., in which the protein content in the aqueous humor is less than 1%. The watery liquid is often transparent and colorless, but sometimes yellowish or reddish from admixture of blood and cloudy from the presence of white blood cells, purulent corpuscles or fat.Its reaction is alkaline; specific gravity below the specific gravity of blood. Dropsy cannot be considered an independent form of the disease, but is a consequence or symptom of other disorders. Watery phenomena, complicating various diseases, do not appear in the same form and intensity, but have their own characteristics. So, in case of heart disease, watery edema is primarily seen on the legs, on the ankles and slowly rises up; the hands, shoulders, and face are the last to swell. With dropsy of the heart, the fluid sweating from the blood vessels, as if due to its gravity, descends and accumulates in the lower parts of the body.With dropsy of renal origin and with some cachectic edema, edema is first seen on the face, then dropsy of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (anasarca), common to the whole body, is observed. Often, chronic kidney disease causes an enlargement of the heart (cardiac hypertrophy) with consequent circulatory disturbances, resulting in a combination of kidney and heart disease that is reflected in the form of dropsy. When the blood flow through the portal vein is obstructed due to liver disease or compression of the vein by any tumor or from any other reason, fluid effusion into one abdominal cavity occurs – abdominal dropsy (ascites).The reasons that impede the movement of blood through the portal vein are usually very persistent, which is why abdominal V. has, in most cases, a long course and reaches enormous proportions; sometimes up to 20 liters of fluid accumulated in the abdominal cavity. Edema of the legs can join the abdominal dropsy due to the fact that the fluid accumulated in the abdomen presses on the veins, and then cachexia can develop from malnutrition, which is the cause of general B. Drops of nervous origin are often observed on one half of the body, for example, with half paralysis ; or on one arm, leg, etc.with damage to individual nerve trunks. Treatment of dropsies is in direct proportion to the causes that cause them; the destruction of the latter, or at least weakening them – these are the first main indications for the treatment of dropsies. Dropsy edema, which develops in heart disease, usually disappears relatively quickly with increased cardiac activity and a decrease in stagnation in the venous system; heart remedies aimed at restoring the compensation of blood circulation, such as foxglove (digitalis), adonis vernalis, lily of the valley (convallaria majalis), caffeine, etc., the essence at the same time and means against V. Abdominal V., depending on the movement of blood through the portal vein, in most cases does not lend itself to radical therapy, since the reasons for such difficulty usually lie deep – in persistent changes in the liver tissue, in the development of tumors, pressing on blood vessels, etc., which are often impossible to eliminate. General V. in diseases of the kidneys disappears with the restoration of the correct function of the latter, with the improvement of the painful process in the walls of the vessels, with the restoration of the normal composition of the blood.Dropsies from cachexia and nerve damage also require therapy against the underlying suffering. In addition to radical therapy, palliative measures are also applied to the treatment of dropsies, with the aim of limiting the accumulation of fluid, which are necessary when the accumulation of dropsy becomes excessive, disrupts the activity of various organs and threatens life. These measures include, first of all, all the techniques that raise the general energy of the body and help it to fight against the abnormal conditions caused by the painful process.We see such an example of the body’s self-defense in the development of collateral circulation in general. With a large accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, due to a significant difficulty in the outflow of blood through the portal vein, collateral, accessory blood circulation also develops, and the function of the portal vein is taken over by the vein branches embedded in the abdominal walls and belonging to the common venous system.

Then, the accumulation of fluid in the body can be limited by decreasing the amount of water in food (dry eating) or increasing the removal of moisture from the body by sweat, urine, excrement, which is why diaphoretic, diuretic, and persistent drugs are used against dropsies.

With a large accumulation of fluid in the body or in separate cavities, simple mechanical release is also used. To release fluid in case of general dropsy, injections or skin incisions are made, mainly on the legs, through which the fluid oozes. Sometimes tubes, metal or rubber, are inserted into the incisions made. With this kind of operation, the strictest observation of their cleanliness and disinfection must be observed; contamination of the wounds leads to the appearance of phlegmonous and even erysipelas. The release of fluid can be done on the same patient many times, and there have been cases when it gave impetus to a lasting recovery.The accumulated liquid in any cavity is sometimes poured out and arbitrarily, with an accidental rupture of the walls; so, an arbitrary outflow of fluid with abdominal dropsy was observed through the navel, through the intestines, etc.; This flow of fluid can be beneficial, but sometimes it is very dangerous when fluid flows into other organs, for example, into the lungs with dropsy (pleural sac).

A. Lipsky. Dropsy in animals. In general, the development of the disease in animals is the same and is caused by the same causes as in humans.In some species of animals V. is found relatively rarely, for example, in horses, which is explained by the keeping of these animals closer to nature; on the contrary, in indoor dogs kept far from under normal conditions, it occurs as often as in humans. Sometimes the general dropsy takes on the character of a general disease and reaches the size of an enzootic (see this sl.). This is usually due to the improper maintenance of animals; Thus, the general disease of dropsy was observed repeatedly among working oxen and horses in those farms where working cattle feed on the remnants of sugar beet production, containing a huge amount of water, very often up to 95%, and the remaining 5% of dry matter contains only 1 / 2 90 320% nitrogenous nutrient.Interestingly, cows that receive the same feed, but have a natural runoff of water overly absorbed into the feed through the mammary gland, do not develop dropsy. In addition, V. was observed among sheep grazing on bad swampy peat pastures and among cattle with exclusive feeding by bard. V. in animals is also often not an independent disease, but only a symptom accompanying some other disease, for example, with hepatic worm disease of sheep, tuberculosis of cattle, etc.NS.

The corpses of animals that have died from general V. are striking in their anemia and pale color of meat. The same pallor of color in live animals can be seen on uncolored areas of the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth. The meat of animals killed during the period of completely developed dropsy is tasteless, and therefore in some states either it is not allowed for sale at all, or is sold only under special conditions. The cure of this disease is possible only if the keeping of animals is changed.

Article from the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary

This article is subject to revision and revision!

If you notice an inaccuracy – you can correct it using the link edit on this page.

How to teach a child to swim – Russian newspaper

Summer, sea, sun. The swimming season is open. Children love to splash in the water. Even if they can’t swim. This skill is not innate, but necessary.How can a child feel comfortable and safe in any body of water? Here are 5 tips for parents on how to help a kid or already a schoolboy not be afraid, teach them to stay on the water and swim.

1. Count to four

Professional trainers and specialists believe that up to four years old a child can simply enjoy water procedures – swimming, splashing, splashing, jumping from the side (of course, under the supervision of adults). And at four years old, when the movements become more coordinated, you can take the first lessons.This is the most optimal age. But it is not too late and not ashamed to master the basics of swimming neither at 7, nor at 10.

2. Start with pool

It is better to start learning to swim in a shallow pool so that the child stands confidently on the bottom, and the water does not rise above the lower part of the chest. It is very important that in the early stages the child feels protected from any failure on the water. Therefore, swimming in the pool for adults, when the kid needs to hold on to the noodle (water gym), is not a good idea. Choose a “paddling pool” at least five meters in length so that you can perform various exercises, such as sliding, pushing off the side.

Sometimes it happens that a child, having got used to the pool, feels insecure and uncomfortable in a natural body of water – a lake or sea, afraid of depth and open space. To eliminate these phobias, train your child in different bodies of water.

3. Make an asterisk

First of all, teach your child the basic things – to lie on the surface of the water and not be afraid to lower your face into the water while holding your breath. There are three effective exercises to help you do this:

“asterisk”: lie on the water, stretch your arms and legs to the sides, keep strictly horizontal;

“float”: clasp your knees with your hands, lower your head to your knees, “hang” on the surface of the water;

“arrow”: push off the side of the pool and slide, stretching out your arms and legs, along the surface of the water.

4. Breathe freely

It is very important to master the “swimming breathing”: a quick inhalation through the mouth, a long exhalation through the nose. Moreover, you need to form the habit of breathing out into the water. For a start, it’s best to practice on land. For example, take a bowl of water: inhale and then exhale into the water. The main thing is not to hold your breath and during inhalation do not wipe your face with your hands.

Correct breathing can be difficult to coordinate with the work of the legs and arms. Therefore, everything needs to be done gradually: first, master sliding on water, then add movements with your legs, then with your hands, and only after that – inhale and exhale.

5. Place your back

The ability to swim on your back is an additional safety net. First of all, because it is much easier to swim in this way. Lying on your back, you can easily regain strength if you are in the water for a long time. In addition, this position of the body in the water allows for better breathing.


How You Can’t Teach Swimming

Banned extreme

The extreme option of pushing or throwing a child into the water and waiting for instincts to force him to swim out and get to land is not a proven “old-fashioned method”, but a merciless and dangerous way.Finding yourself in a stressful situation, floundering in the water and numb with horror, the child can get psychological trauma. The most likely result of such experiments of parents is a persistent rejection or even a panic fear of water in a novice swimmer. Never force children to learn to swim immediately. Encourage, motivate, create comfortable conditions so that water procedures are associated only with positive emotions.

Remove the sleeves

Professional trainers unanimously say that the only correct aid for teaching swimming is a swimming board, which makes it possible to lie on the water strictly parallel to the surface, lower your face into the water and slide, working with your feet.All other accessories – colored arm ruffles and vests, circles in the form of dinosaurs or cars – only slow down the process, reinforcing harmful skills and creating a false sense of security and confidence in the child. For example, in oversleeves, the child gets used to keeping his head upright above the water, leaning on his hands. At the same time, he does not feel the buoyancy of his body, and therefore cannot learn to stay on the water on his own.

Not “like a dog”, but “like a frog”

It is better not to teach children to swim “somehow”, for example, in the well-known way “like a dog.”Then it will be much more difficult to retrain to swim correctly and to complete the tasks for the technique. But the repulsive movements of the legs “like a frog” are one of the classic exercises.

Expert opinion

Dmitry Volkov, medalist of the Olympic Games and World Swimming Championships, four-time European champion, ex-world record holder, editor of the “Swimming” magazine:

– There is such a vivid saying that is attributed to the ancient Greeks. They said about an ignorant person: “He cannot read or swim.”Not being able to swim even in Ancient Greece was indecent, and even more so in the modern world.

Swimming is the most harmonious sport, develops all muscles, has a fruitful effect on the psyche. Plus water is magic, because in water you can feel free from gravity. Once finding himself in this state of real, only hydraulic weightlessness, a person will never forget it and will strive to return to it.

Start training in shallow water. You can master the simplest skills in one lesson, despite the fact that state regulations provide for more than 20 hours.

First step: holding your breath while submerging. If you think that everyone can do it, you are cruelly mistaken. Even at the Institute of Physical Education, if we are not talking about athletes, probably no more than 50 percent will do this exercise without problems.

Second step: fighting fear. A huge number of people have aquaphobia. But this is being overcome. With the help of a competent coach. When a person masters holding his breath, he realizes that on inhalation, with the air inside, he becomes unsinkable.At this moment, the fear of the aquatic environment immediately disappears and you can work any miracles.

Third step: learning to slide. A person pushes off the side, holds his breath and, feeling his unsinkability, slides in a streamlined position, in the pose of the so-called “arrow”.

By the way

Rubber bathing caps are used only for hair protection. You should not cover your ears, on the contrary, it is advisable to bend the edges inward. Otherwise, the cap acts as a valve: water enters the ear and does not flow out.

What is better for the baby – immediate birth or waiting for the onset of labor – if the amniotic fluid has departed before 37 weeks of gestation in the absence of contractions?

What is the problem?

In the event that the discharge of amniotic fluid in a pregnant woman occurs without contractions until the 37th week of pregnancy, there are two options: how quickly the baby is born, or the expectation of the natural onset of labor. We need to carefully examine the risks and benefits of both options.

Why is this important?

Birth too early may increase the likelihood of problems associated with prematurity, such as breathing problems and longer stays in the neonatal intensive care unit. However, keeping the fetus in the uterus in such situations can cause infections in both the mother and the baby, and lead to serious health problems and even death. The purpose of this review is to find out which option is optimal.

What evidence have we found?

We included 12 trials involving 3617 women with premature rupture of membranes.The women were randomly assigned to early labor or expectant management (waiting for labor to begin). The women were pregnant at 25 to 37 weeks. The studies were conducted in 16 countries between 1977 and 2013. Overall, we estimate that 12 studies had low or unclear risk of bias, and the quality of the evidence ranged from moderate to high.

We found no difference in the incidence of infection in infants or mortality of infants before birth between the two groups.However, early childbirth increased the risk of infant death after birth, as well as breathing problems when the newborn needed additional respiratory support. Children of mothers who had planned early births were more likely to be admitted to neonatal intensive care units and were born earlier than children of mothers who were treated with expectant care. Early labor was also associated with increased caesarean section rates, induction of labor, and the risk of uterine lining infection, but decreased the risk of uterine lining infection.Women assigned to the expectant tactics group spent longer in the hospital.

What does this mean?

In pregnant women before 37 weeks of gestation, amniotic fluid is draining, waiting for a natural onset of labor is the most optimal option for achieving better health outcomes, unless there are other reasons why the baby should be born immediately.

Five basic substances of life

The cosmos consists of the energy “qi”.All living beings and things are the embodiment of this one power. In us, humans, the “qi” energy is embodied in five forms, in five basic substances. From the point of view of the ancient Chinese, these five forms represent different aspects of being.

“Qi” itself is understood as vital energy

“Qi” – the original substance of the cosmos

According to Chinese ideas, the world and even the entire cosmos are permeated with the finest material substance – the vital energy “qi”. “Qi” also flows in us humans.We all constantly perceive it when, for example, we breathe or eat. Yet qi means more than just that. This concept covers the mental and mental energy of every living being. “Qi” is a force that controls all processes inside the body and outside of it, both living and inanimate matter. Other basic substances are also composed of “qi”.

Sources of vital energy

Each person possesses two forms of “qi”: inherited and acquired.We receive inherited or original “qi” from our parents and accumulate in the kidneys-shen. It is consumed throughout life – we cannot replenish it. We constantly take in the acquired “qi” in the form of breathing or eating food. The original qi, the breathing qi, and the food qi together form the true qi. It flows through the body and has various names according to its function.

If the energy “qi” feeds our body, it is called “nourishing qi”; if it fights against external influencing factors that cause disease, such as viruses or bacteria, it is called “protective qi”; if it forms organs and controls their functions, then it is called “qi of individual organs”, etc.e. As already mentioned, the other four basic substances are also composed of “qi”. They are only different forms of manifestation of the same initial substance.

What is blocking the flow

Now it becomes clear why “qi” is so important in traditional Chinese medicine: a person will be healthy only when enough of this energy flows freely in the body.

Stagnation of “qi”

Stagnation of “qi” can be caused by various reasons: external influences, for example, cold and heat, as well as injuries.Or internal reasons: aggravated feelings. In other words, forces that cause external or internal disharmony. If there is stagnation of “qi” in your body, then you will notice it very easily: anywhere in the body you will feel pain. Headache, abdominal pain, or sacral pain are just some of the effects of qi stagnation. In such a case, your Chinese doctor will try to eliminate the stagnation of “qi” and restore its free flow again.

Ailments with qi stagnation Stomach and abdomen Bloating, feeling of fullness, feeling of tension in the stomach and in the abdominal cavity or various parts of the body, in nodes in the lower part of the body that appear and disappear Face Pain in the face Soul Irritability, feeling of depression , changing mood

Rebellious “Qi”

Usually “Qi” in any organ always flows in one set direction.For example, “qi” in the stomach habitually flows downward because the stomach processes food and then transfers it further into the intestines. The rebellious Qi flows in the wrong direction for the given organ. So, for example, the rebellious “qi” in the stomach flows upwards, not downwards. As a consequence, the rising “qi” in the stomach causes nausea and vomiting. In other organs, “qi” behaves similarly. If the “qi” riots in the lungs, that is, flows upward, then the victim must cough violently, he spits out mucus, and in the worst case also blood,

“Ailments with rebellious” qi “Stomach Belching, heartburn, nausea, vomiting Heart Anxiety, sleep disturbances Lungs Cough, asthma Kidneys Asthma Liver Headache, dizziness, diarrhea, nausea

Qi deficiency

A frequent disorder is qi deficiency.The reasons for this can be varied: unhealthy diet, too much work, too much sex, illness for too long. You can get qi deficiency due to anything that causes too much of your energy to be expended. The Chinese physician should then strengthen your qi.

Ailments with a lack of qi Heart Strong heartbeat Lungs Choking (shortness of breath), weak voice Kidneys Frequent urge to urinate, urinary incontinence, weak legs, difficulty urinating Spleen Lack of appetite, diarrhea

Decreasing qi , first of all, the “qi” of the spleen, has another important task: it must keep the organs in place.If the qi is too weak, the organs are lowered. In this way, diseases arise, for example, prolapse of the stomach or kidneys. Reducing qi is a special form of qi deficiency. Therefore, your Chinese physician must strengthen your Qi to heal.

Ailments with decreasing “qi” General well-being Fatigue, lethargy, poor attention, feeling that “everything is pulling down” Organs Descent or prolapse of organs, such as stomach, uterus, intestines, vagina and bladder Soul Feeling without joy, depression

” Essence-chin “means the power of growth, becoming, as well as the human constitution. Essence-chin: the source of growth

Essence-chin, according to Chinese ideas, is responsible for our growth, for the continuation of the race and for our development.Like the original qi, we inherit it from our parents and store it in the kidneys. During life, we can only consume the essence-chin, but not in any way increase its amount.

A deficiency leads to impaired growth

Essence-rank basically corresponds to what we in Western medicine understand as a “constitution”, that is, the physical and mental structure of a person. According to the essence-rank, there is only one form of disharmony – its lack. If a person has inherited too little of the essence-rank, then his growth, his ability to reproduce offspring and his development are impaired.A Chinese doctor cannot eliminate the lack of essence-chin. However, he can help his patient to care for the existing chin essence.

Ailments with a lack of essence-rank Growth, procreation and development Slow growth, weak bone structure, fragile teeth, hair loss, gray hair Sexuality Weak sexual needs, impotence Head Feeling dizzy, ringing in the ears, poor concentration, poor memory Immune system Weak body defense, frequent colds, runny nose, allergies

“Blood-xue” is understood as nourishing energy in liquid form Blood-xue: energy in liquid form

The closest connection among the five basic substances is between “qi” and its form manifestations of “blood-xue”.Qi flows through the body in the form of blood (Chinese: xue). Blood xue has the task of nourishing the body and moisturizing the tissues.

Lack of “blood-xue”

The only possible violation of “blood-xue” is its lack. A weak spleen-pi is usually the culprit (p. 53). Because the ancient Chinese thought that our blood was formed in the spleen. In addition, the spleen-pi no TCM is also responsible for digestion. How well it works depends in turn on what you eat.

Ailments with a lack of blood-xue Face Pale and dull, pale lips, pale tongue, blurry vision Skin and hair Dull and dry skin, dry hair General health Numbness in various parts of the body, especially in the limbs Women Menstruation is weak or absent

Stagnant “Blood-xue”

Since both basic substances are inseparably belong to each other, no doubt you should not be surprised that if “blood-xue” no longer flows, then “qi” also stagnates, and vice versa – if the note clogs up ” qi “, then, as a result, there will always be stagnation of” blood-xue “.Therefore, as in the case of stagnation of “qi”, the main sign of stagnation of blood-xue will always be pain. As a countermeasure, the Chinese doctor must restore the free flow of blood in this case too.

Ailments with stagnant blood-xue Face Dark color, purple lips and tongue Pain Boring and stitching pain in certain parts of the body Nails Bluish-purple Women Dark lumpy discharge during menstruation

“Um-shen” means consciousness, sleep and the feeling of Mind Shen-consciousness and feelings

Um-shen in Chinese medicine is the seat of spirit and intellect.He is a reflection of our consciousness, as well as our subconscious. Therefore, he embodies, in addition, our feelings and mental strength and is the guardian of our sleep. Violations in the shen mind result in:

you cannot concentrate well; your memory often fails you; you develop mental illness; you do not fall asleep well or cannot sleep for long.

Body fluids “chinye” – accumulators of water Fluids in the body-chinye: current force

The fifth basic substance is called “fluid in the chinye body”.