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Watery vision: Blurred Vision? Eye Problem Causes Explained


Computer Vision Syndrome | Cedars-Sinai

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What is digital eye strain?

Digital eye strain is a group of
eye and vision problems. The problems can include eyes that itch and tear, and are
and red. Your eyes may feel tired or uncomfortable. You may not be able to focus
normally. These problems are caused by lots of computer or digital device use. Using
e-readers and smartphones may also cause these problems.

These problems have been increasing
in frequency over the past few decades. Many people have some symptoms if they use
computer or digital device for long periods. Most computer or digital device users
symptoms at least some of the time. Digital eye strain is very common in both children
and adults.

What causes digital eye strain?

For many reasons, reading text on a
computer screen or digital device is often harder for the eyes than reading printed
text. This is why working on a computer for a few hours may cause symptoms of digital
eye strain, but reading a book may not.

Several factors help to cause
digital eye strain, such as:

  • Screen glare
  • Poor lighting
  • Poor posture while using a
  • Viewing a computer at the wrong
    distance and angle
  • Uncorrected vision problems
  • A combination of many of these

People often blink less when using
a computer than when reading printed text. This can cause dry eye, This may contribute
to digital eye strain.

Who is at risk for getting digital eye strain?

You may be at greater risk for
digital eye strain if you:

  • Spend a few hours or more a day at a
    computer or on a digital device
  • Are too close to your computer or
    digital device screen
  • View your computer or digital
    device at the wrong angle
  • Have bad posture while using your
    computer or digital device
  • Have eye problems (even minor ones)
    not corrected with glasses or contact lenses
  • Have a pair of glasses that is not
    suitable for viewing the distance of your computer
  • Don’t take breaks while you are

You may have an underlying problem
with dry eye. This may make digital eye strain worse, or more likely to occur. Dry
is more common in women than in men. It also becomes more common with age. Some
medicines and health problems make dry eye more likely. For example, if you use
antihistamines, you may be at greater risk of having dry eye. If you have thyroid
disease or certain autoimmune diseases, you are also at greater risk of having dry

What are the symptoms of digital eye strain?

Digital eye strain can cause many
symptoms, including:

  • Blurred vision
  • Double vision
  • Dry eye
  • Eye discomfort
  • Eye fatigue
  • Eye itching
  • Eye redness
  • Eye tearing
  • Headaches
  • Neck and shoulder pain

Most of these symptoms are
short-term (temporary). They often lessen or go away when you stop using your computer
or device. But symptoms may continue for a longer time.

The severity of symptoms may vary
depending on:

  • How long you have been using the computer or digital
  • Your underlying eye problems
  • Other factors that cause digital eye strain.

Symptoms may get worse if you don’t resolve the problem.

Using a computer or digital
device for a long time can also lead to other symptoms. This includes neck and shoulder
pain. This is often due to poor alignment and posture when using the computer or digital
device. Some healthcare providers call these symptoms part of digital eye strain as

How is digital eye strain diagnosed?

Your eye care provider will make a
diagnosis with a health history and complete eye exam. They will assess if any health
problems, medicines, or environmental factors might be adding to your symptoms.

Your eye care provider may test the
sharpness of your vision and how well your eyes focus and work together. For a more
detailed exam your provider may want to dilate (enlarge) your pupils. Then they will
a device (ophthalmoscope) to look at the back of your eye. In some cases, you may
to get follow-up blood tests for healthcare problems that might be helping to cause
digital eye strain.

How is digital eye strain treated?

Treatment includes creating a
better work environment.

  • Rest your eyes at least 15 minutes
    after each 2 hours of computer or digital device use.
  • Every 20 minutes, look into the
    distance at least 20 feet away from the computer or digital device. Do this for at
    least 20 seconds.
  • Enlarge the text on your computer
    screen or digital device.
  • Reduce glare from the light sources in
    your environment.
  • Think about using a screen glare
  • Place your screen so that the center
    of it is about 4 to 5 inches below eye level (about 15 to 20 degrees from the
  • Place your screen about 20 to 28
    inches from your eye.( About arm’s length.)
  • Remember to blink often.
  • Fix your chair height so your feet can
    rest comfortably on the floor. Don’t slump over the computer screen.

Making these changes may help
eliminate digital eye strain in many people.

Your eye care provider will also
need to treat any hidden health problems that may be adding to your digital eye strain.
For instance, you might need a new pair of glasses. If you have an underlying dry
problem, your eye care provider might advise the following:

  • Using lubricating drops
  • Treating allergies, if you have
  • Creating a more humid work
  • Drinking more fluids (staying
  • Taking a prescription medicine to
    increase tear production

What can I do to prevent digital eye strain?

Create a better work environment to
help prevent digital eye strain.  If you use glasses or corrective lenses, see your
care provider at least once a year or as advised for a checkup. Also see your healthcare
provider regularly. This can help prevent and treat health problems that can help
digital eye strain.

Key points about digital eye strain

  • Digital eye strain is a group of related eye and vision problems
    caused by extended computer or digital device use.
  • Symptoms include eye discomfort and
    fatigue, dry eye, blurry vision, and headaches.
  • Uncorrected vision problems are a
    major cause.
  • Sometimes hidden health problems help
    to cause it.
  • Having a better computer work
    environment may help improve symptoms.
  • Resting your eyes regularly is one of
    the best ways to prevent and treat digital eye strain.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from
a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and
    what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down
    questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask
    questions and remember what your healthcare provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a
    new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new
    instructions your healthcare provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment
    is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated
    in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is
    recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take
    the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment,
    write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your
    healthcare provider if you have questions.

Medical Reviewer: Chris Haupert MD

Medical Reviewer: Rita Sather RN

Medical Reviewer: Stacey Wojcik MBA BSN RN

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

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When your blurry vision is serious?

Many a times we experience blurry vision. Sometimes we don’t pay much attention to it. Your eyes may be tired, you may need new glasses — or it may be a sign of a major health problem. Here we discuss about some common reasons and the action you need to take.

You need glasses

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When your eye cannot focus in the right spot, you can often correct these “refractive errors” with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or minor surgery.

Your eyes may be tired

Have you been staring at a screen or page or focusing on a task for a long time? People tend to blink less often when they are concentrating like that. And each time you blink, you are spreading tears across the surface of your eye to keep it lubricated, clean, and refreshed. You may need to remind yourself to blink more often, take breaks, and look around to prevent vision fatigue.

You have diabetes

When your blood sugar is not well-controlled, fluid may seep into the lens of your eye and make it swell. This can happen before you are diagnosed or if you are changing your treatment, like starting insulin. As your glucose level gets back to normal, the lens should, too.

Your eye is inflamed

Eye tissue may swell because it has been bruised or something bad was splashed in it. The herpes virus from a cold sore could move to your eye. Immune system diseases that affect other parts of your body, like psoriasis, IBS, and rheumatoid arthritis, can also cause inflammation in your eye.

Your blood pressure is low

Feeling weak and dizzy, too? Your blood pressure might be too low because you are dehydrated — maybe from too much activity in the hot sun. Things like some medications, heart problems, poor nutrition, and hormone imbalances could also cause low blood pressure and related blurry vision.

Fluid is building up in your eye

That can put pressure on the optic nerve and damage it. If you are also seeing halos around lights, your eyes are very red and hurt a lot, and you feel queasy, you may have acute angle glaucoma. It develops very quickly, and you could lose your vision within a day if it is not treated.

A migraine is starting

About 1/4 of people who have migraines get visual auras, usually before the pain and for less than an hour. These range from shimmering zig-zag lines, sparkles, and flashes to blind spots and tunnel vision. It may seem like you are looking through water or cracked glass. If it happens only in one eye, see your doctor in case it is a serious problem.

You have a cataract

That is a cloudy area in the normally clear lens of the eye. They grow slowly, usually in both eyes, after age 55. But younger people, even kids, can get them, too. Colours may seem faded, it may be harder to see at night, and you may be more sensitive to glare. Special glasses and lens coatings can help you see. Surgery can replace the cloudy lens with a man-made one.

You are getting older

Starting around 40, you will notice that it is harder to focus on up-close tasks like reading. The clear lens inside your eye is not as flexible as younger people’s. It is a normal part of aging. Your eye doctor can help you with reading glasses, contacts, or surgery.

You scratched your cornea

Typically, this feels like you have got a big, rough chunk in your eye. A corneal abrasion might be from an injury, but it is more likely from a bit of dust or sand. Try flushing your eye with clean water or eye wash. You can blink several times to make more tears, but don’t rub or touch your eyeball. That could make it worse. See an eye doctor.

It is something in your brain

A concussion or brain injury could disrupt how information from your eyes gets processed. Depending where and how big it is, a brain tumor may affect your sight. Double vision can be one of many symptoms of brain swelling or of the membrane that surrounds it (encephalitis or meningitis), often because of infection.

Your retina is damaged

The retina is the back part of your eye where light gets focused, like a movie screen. If something happens to that surface, like swelling or tearing, the picture can be distorted or lost. Poor diet, smoking, previous eye injuries or disease, and health issues such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes can raise the odds of problems like macular edema and a detached retina.

You may have multiple sclerosis

Signals going from your eye to your brain have a harder time travelling through a swollen or damaged optic nerve. Vision trouble is often the first symptom of multiple sclerosis.

There is trouble with your pregnancy

Blurry vision along with headaches, shortness of breath, or feeling like throwing up may signal a serious complication called preeclampsia. It happens when blood vessels in your placenta are too narrow and don’t work right. (Higher blood pressure after 20 weeks is usually the first sign.) See your doctor right away. Without treatment, it can cause life-threatening problems. Medications and rest until you deliver can help. 


Source: WebMD

From watery eyes to blurred vision: Know the symptoms of weak eyesight in children

The use of mobile phones and electronic gadgets among toddlers is on the rise. Many young children, and even teenagers, are spotted with their eyes glued to mobile phone screens these days. While it is fine to sometimes keep young children occupied with mobile phones, parents, owing to their busy schedules, often tend to keep them occupied throughout the day. This, in turn, is leading to an increase in the number of children, especially under the age of eight years, with poor eyesight.

Age-related vision degradation is common, but one of the easiest preventable measure includes keeping digital gadgets away from children. Parents need to be aware of certain symptoms that can indicate a poor eyesight in their children, says Dr Ritika Sachdev, additional director, Centre for Sight.

Below she lists some symptoms that indicate weak eyesight, while suggesting foods that will ensure your vision is healthy.

Some of the symptoms include:

*Watery eyes
*Blurred vision
*Kids unable to read out clearly
*Frequent irritation or redness in the eyes

Blurred vision, headache are some of the symptoms of a weak eyesight. (Photo by Thinkstock Images)

These symptoms, along with headaches, are the most common indication of depleting eyesight and suggest that it is time to consult an ophthalmologist. These symptoms can develop irrespective of age, but can sometimes depend on the profession in case of adults.

The importance of proper nutrition may not be well understood in developing countries like India. Lack of awareness and preventive measures have given rise to cataract (where the lens of the eyes gets clouded) and glaucoma (a condition that causes damage to the eyes optic nerve and can even lead to blindness) among the youth as well. Creating awareness about the consequences should be the first preventive step. Healthy diet for a better vision includes rich sources of Vitamins (A,D, E, K, B12).

Some fruits and vegetables that should be included in the diet:

A diet rich in Vitamins A,D, E, K, and B12 is good for the eyes. (Source: Getty Images)

*Sweet potatoes: 100g contains 283% Vitamin A(of DNV), 4% Vit C and 10% Vitamin B6. It is also rich in sodium (2% or 1.8 gms) and potassium (337mg or 10%) – regulating the intraocular pressure.

*Dark leafy green vegetables are also rich in vitamin A which are very good for the eyes.

*Carrots are the best source for Vitamin A. Smokers should try and consume 30-40 per cent more of it than non-smokers.

*Dried fruits, especially apricots, can be consumed any time of the day.

*Fish is not only rich in protein that helps improve metabolism, but is also a rich source of Vitamin A.

Papaya is considered to be good for the eyes. (Source: Thinkstock Images)

*Fruits like mangoes and papaya should also be included in the diet.

Consult an ophthalmologist on a regular basis to keep a check on your vision. Following a proper and timely diet along with exercise keeps the blood circulation better. Sedentary lifestyle should be changed as far as possible. Taking precautionary measures in the early stages can help prevent ocular problems becoming an epidemic among the youth.

Why Do You Have Cloudy Vision?

Cloudy vision makes it seem as though you are looking through a fog, and objects will likely appear milky. In some cases, cloudy vision can also dull your perception of colours, and you might see halos around various light sources.

What causes cloudy vision?

Cloudy vision can occur in one or both eyes, and it’s usually caused by an eye condition. The most common cause of cloudy vision is cataracts. Cataracts occur when the lens of your eye gradually becomes cloudy and loses its transparency, which causes your vision to change.

This is just a normal by-product of the ageing process, but it can be treated with cataract surgery which involves replacing the cloudy lens. This surgery is one of the most common procedures in the UK.

Other causes of cloudy vision can include macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Both of these conditions can cause your vision to change, sometimes resulting in clouded vision. In some cases, if you have damaged your eye due to an infection or inflammation you may experience cloudy vision.

If you develop cloudy vision, you might also notice that you have dry or watery eyes, enhanced sensitivity to light or even red and sore eyes. In some cases, you might experience worsened vision at night.

Any change in your eyes, such as cloudy vision, should prompt you to book an appointment with your optician, so they can check your eye health and understand the cause. In most cases, cloudy vision will gradually get worse, so it’s always better to get it checked.

Is blurred vision the same as cloudy vision?

Many people use the terms blurry vision and cloudy vision interchangeably, but they are quite different. Blurred vision is a loss of sharpness that might cause objects to appear out of focus. It is typically the result of a refractive error, including short or long-sightedness and astigmatism, that can affect your ability to see objects close up or far away.

This is easily corrected by visiting your optician to make sure you have the right corrective lenses for your needs. if you require lenses for just one refraction error, like myopia or hypermetropia, Eyezen single vision lenses are an ideal solution. If you need lenses for distance but also for reading as you get older, Varilux varifocal lenses provide a seamless experience for clear vision.

In some cases, blurry vision may be a result of temporary eye conditions, such as allergies like hayfever or lifestyle choices such as computer vision syndrome and eye strain. If you notice your vision is becoming blurry, it may help to take a break from what you are doing and look at what treatment might help to alleviate your vision.

What to do if you notice cloudy or blurry vision

Either cloudy or blurred vision can be your eyes’ way of telling you something isn’t right. If you notice your vision has changed in any way, or you’re concerned about your eye health, make an appointment with your optician.

They will be happy to carry out a routine eye examination and check your eye health to make sure everything is as it should be, and they can advise on any further treatment if necessary.

Cloudy Vision in Your Eye: Symptoms, Causes & Treatments

Cloudy vision, not to be confused with blurry vision, is when objects in the line of sight appear ‘milky’ or ‘hazy’ almost as if the viewer were looking through a thin film or unclean piece of glass. Cloudy vision may also dull the viewer’s perception of colors, distort image edges, and create halos surrounding lights.

Cloudy Vision vs. Blurry Vision

Cloudy vision and blurry vision are two distinct conditions that materialize in different ways. Though they can both be caused by some of the same underlying eye problems, such as cataracts or damaged corneas, they are separate problems and require different treatment.

Blurred vision is a loss of sharpness when viewing objects. Though it can be the result of something more serious, it is commonly experienced by many people and can be caused by nearsightedness or farsightedness, which can be treated by wearing eyeglasses or contact lenses.

Cloudy vision, on the other hand, is usually more problematic. It is often caused by a more severe underlying issue and is usually accompanied by secondary symptoms such as:

  • Dry eyes
  • The appearance of halos around lights
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Watery eyes
  • Eye pain
  • Impaired night time vision
  • Red or sore eyes (bloodshot eyes)

Blurred vision, when accompanied by double vision, can be a symptom of a serious underlying health condition, including brain hemorrhages and strokes.

Common Causes of Cloudy Vision

There are a number of common factors and causes that can lead to cloudy vision, including: 

  • Age-related macular degeneration, which is an age-related disorder that leads to central vision loss
  • Cataracts, which decrease transparency in the lens
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Foreign objects within the eyes
  • Glaucoma
  • Injuries or around to the eyes
  • Damaged or dirty contact lenses
  • Other Eye Diseases

Rare, Life-Threatening Causes of Cloudy Vision

In rare instances, cloudy vision may be caused by more serious conditions. While rare, these can be very problematic, especially if left untreated or undiagnosed. Some of the causes of cloudy vision that are more serious include: 

  • Serious injury to the cornea
  • Optic neuritis, which is inflammation of the optic nerves
  • Retinal detachment
  • Dystrophy of the cornea 
  • Corneal infection

Rarer still, eye clouding might be a sign of a dangerous and life-threatening underlying condition. Some of these conditions are not eye-specific problems and need to be diagnosed and treated as early as possible to avoid a potentially life-threatening situation. Some of these causes include:

  • Brain tumor
  • Stroke
  • Transient ischemic attack, which may be a sign of a stroke coming on

Because of the possibility of any of these conditions being present, which are not outwardly easy to diagnose, people experiencing cloudy vision should seek immediate medical consultation to rule out any of these life-threatening causes and avoid further complications.

Possible Complications

Untreated or undiagnosed cloudy vision could lead to further problems. Possible complications from leaving underlying conditions unchecked include changing levels of alertness or consciousness (fainting or becoming unresponsive), as well as:

  • Noticeable changes in mental status
  • Sudden changes in behavior
  • Confusion
  • Delirium
  • Severe headaches
  • Sudden loss of vision
  • Sudden weakness
  • Numbness

Diagnosing Cloudy Vision 

Due to the potential of serious underlying causes, diagnosing cloudy vision must be done by a specialized medical professional, such as an ophthalmologist or optometrist. Some conditions are easier to identify, such as macular degeneration or cataracts, while others, such as diabetes or brain tumors, require more in-depth study to pinpoint the exact cause. 

While occasional or slightly cloudy vision may not be a serious issue, a doctor should be seen if the condition persists or worsens. It is crucial to get diagnosed early and correctly, as treatment is more likely to be successful the earlier it is administered. 

Treatment Options for Cloudy Vision

Different causes of cloudy vision require different procedures or eye surgeries. The most straightforward and successful treatment is cataract surgery. However, this is only applicable if cataracts are the cause of the cloudy vision. 

Treating infections, such as those in the cornea, can be done with antibiotics. Removing foreign objects through surgical procedures can be successful in treating cloudy vision if it were the foreign objects causing the issue. However, the vision can remain cloudy for some time if the infection or foreign object removal leaves a scar on the cornea.

As far as brain tumors, strokes, and other underlying conditions that cause cloudy vision yet are not eye-specific ailments, they need to be treated by medical professionals and eye doctors.

The bottom line is that people experiencing cloudy vision should seek medical guidance as early as possible to have the best chance of successful treatment. 

Cloudy Vision FAQs

What causes sudden cloudy vision?

The most common cause of cloudy vision is cataracts. A refractive error, such as astigmatism, can also cause eye cloudiness. However, sudden cloudy vision, or blurred vision, can be a sign of a serious medical condition. Even if this occurs temporarily, it is essential to seek medical attention.

Can dehydration cause cloudy vision?

Dehydration can lead to eye strain, which can result in temporary cloudy vision.

Can tiredness cause cloudy vision?

“Tired eyes” is a symptom of eye strain, which can lead to cloudy vision.

Dry & Watery Eyes – Peel Vision

There is no cure for dry eye.  However, there are many treatments available that can help reduce the symptoms of dry eye.   The success of these treatments depend on how well and how often they are applied, and will need to be used long-term.

1. Artificial tears for dry eye

The most important treatment for dry eye is the use of moisturising or artificial tears.  These may come as eye drops, gels or ointments/creams.  There are many products on the market, with no product shown to be superior to any other. 

The success of treatment depends on the frequency at which the tear replacements are used.  For most patients with dry eye, a minimum of 4 times a day is required.  In severe dry eye, you may be started on an intensive regime of 1-2 hourly drops, and then weaned down to a more manageable maintenance dose.

Artificial tears may come in preserved or non-preserved forms.  If you are using tears more than 4 times per day, a non-preserved lubricant should be prescribed to avoid any toxicity or irritation from frequent use of preservatives.  

Drops are easier to use than gels or ointments, but do not last as long.  Gels and ointments are messier to use, and may temporarily blur the vision, but last longer in the eye.  Each patient needs to find the combination of lubricants that suits their lifestyle best.  Most patients will use drops/gels during the day, and an ointment at night before bed. 

2. Lifestyle measures to improve dry eye

As well as artificial tears, patients with dry eye should also:

  • Drink plenty of water during the day
  • Consider fish oil or flaxseed oil supplements (if not contraindicated)
  • Remember to blink frequently, especially when using screens
  • Optimise your environment.  Avoid dry, dusty, windy conditions.  Wear wrap-around sunglasses when outdoors.  Avoid air-conditioned or over-heated rooms.  Use a humidifier.

3. Specific measures to improve dry eye

Many patients with dry eye also have blepharitis   Treatment of blepharitis with warm compresses and eyelid scrubs can greatly improve dry eyes.

Scroll down to read more on Blepharitis

If you are a contact lens wearer, minimise the time of lens wear.  In some cases, a different type of lens be better tolerated if you develop dry eye.

If you are on any medications that exacerbate dry eye, consult your general practitioner to see if they can be ceased or changed to an alternative medication.

4. Plugging the tear duct.

The tears normally drain into 2 small openings in the inner eyelids (one in the upper eyelid, and one in the lower eyelid), known as the puncta. These are the entry points into the tear drainage system, which continues into a tear sac (lacrimal sac) and a tear duct (nasolacrimal duct) located in the nose.  That is why our nose runs when we cry. 

In severe dry eyes, where artificial tears are not sufficient, occlusion of the puncta may be performed by Dr Then. This reduces the drainage of tears out of the eye and can help keep the eye moist for longer.   Usually only the tear ducts in the lower eyelids are closed. The tear duct opening are plugged with tiny silicon plugs which remain permanently in place.  This is a quick, painless and simple procedure performed in the clinic, with no need for any anaesthetic. Tears can still drain around the plugs, but at a much slower rate.  If they cause any irritation or over-watering of the eye, they can be just as easily removed.

Click here to download the RANZCO information form on Dry Eye

Patient information for insertion of punctal plugs for dry eye with Peel Vision

What to Do If You Experience Blurry Vision in One Eye

Blurry or blurred vision is a fairly common complaint that isn’t typically a reason for concern. But what causes it, and what if you have blurry vision in only one eye? Should you be worried? Here we look at what causes blurry vision, and how to know if or when you should seek medical attention.


What causes blurry vision?

There are many causes of blurry vision, and although the majority are not alarming, it’s important to know that there are some potentially life-threatening conditions behind this symptom.

Usually blurred vision is caused by refractive errors, including nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), astigmatism, or presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).

Other times, it could be due to low blood sugar or the onset of diabetic retinopathy in diabetics, or to treatments for certain medical conditions (including eye drops or certain medications). It can even be caused by laser or other surgery for your eyes.

Some people wear contacts longer than they should, causing proteins and other buildup to cloud the lens and affect vision.

  • Some other common causes of blurry vision include:
  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • High blood sugar
  • Cataracts
  • Glaucoma
  • Migraine or other headache
  • Eye infections or conditions, such as infectious retinitis
  • Scarring or abrasions to the cornea
  • Injury to the eye
  • Stroke

You might find that everything in your entire field of vision is blurry, or you might notice that your blurred vision only affects a part of your vision, such as your peripheral vision.


When is blurry vision in one eye serious?

Most of the time, blurry vision is not serious, and is instead caused by eye strain or tiredness, or even too much sun exposure.

But there are instances when blurry vision can be a symptom of a serious eye problem, especially when it occurs in one eye or comes on suddenly. Here’s what to look for.

Call 911 or seek immediate medical attention if you have any of the following symptoms that accompany your sudden blurry vision. These could be the symptoms of a stroke or an early sign of another health condition, such as multiple sclerosis:

  • Drooping of the muscles of the face
  • Loss of control of your muscles one one side of your body
  • Severe headache
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Double vision

Other medical emergencies that could cause you to experience sudden blurred vision include:

  • Macular hole (a hole in the central portion of your retina)
  • Transient ischemic attack (symptoms of an impending stroke)
  • Brain tumor (a mass or growth of abnormal cells in the brain)
  • Detached retina (when the retina separates from the layer of blood vessels that supply its oxygen and nutrients)
  • Glaucoma (a group of eye conditions that cause damage to the optic nerve)
  • Optic neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve)

Again, seek immediate medical attention if the blurriness comes on suddenly and is accompanied by other vision problems, including double vision, tunnel vision, blind spots, halos, or dimness of vision.

If you’ve noticed that your vision has slowly worsened over time, make an appointment with your eye doctor.


What can be done about blurry vision?

If a refractive error is the culprit for your blurry vision, then getting a new vision prescription for eyeglasses or contacts will do the trick.

Whatever the underlying issue, your eye doctor or primary care doctor will be able to conduct the right tests and ask the right questions in order to diagnose the cause, and help you find a suitable treatment that will help you see clearly again.

Are you experiencing blurry vision in one or both eyes that has been slowly worsening over time? Call today to schedule a comprehensive eye exam. We can help you identify the source of your blurry vision, and get you on the way to seeing clearly.

90,000 Flies in the eyes. What is it and is it worth worrying about?

  • Jason G. Goldman
  • BBC Future

Photo author, Getty

Photo caption,

When you turn your eyes towards the “flies”, as a rule, they escape from the field of view

Many of we noticed a strange movement in our own eyes – floating opacities of different densities, as if fleeing from your gaze. Browser

BBC Future explains the nature of this phenomenon.

You may not know their official name, but you have no doubt seen them in your eyes.

The phenomenon associated with the appearance of these floating visions, sometimes also called vitreous opacities or Muscae volitantes (flying flies – lat.), is known as myodesopsia, i.e. “opacity of the vitreous body”.

They may look like dots or spots, threads, caterpillars, cobwebs, and these are not optical illusions.They really are there and glide along the inner surface of your eye.

To understand where and how they appear, it is worth at least a little understanding of the anatomy of the eye.

Foreign bodies

The anterior convex part of the eye is the cornea. Behind it are the pupil – a dark point in the center of the eye – and the iris, a colored edge around the pupil (a thin movable diaphragm with an opening-pupil).

Between them is a small container with a jelly-like liquid, which is called in Latin humor aquosus or aqueous humor of the eye chambers.

Photo author, SPL

Photo caption,

As we get older, “flies” appear in our eyes – in a jelly-like liquid in front of the retina

The vitreous body of the eye is a colorless mass, consisting mainly of water and having jelly-like consistency.

Unlike the aqueous humor of the eye, the vitreous humor is never replenished. You will die with the same amount of vitreous fluid as you were born with.

This means that if any foreign objects get into the vitreous, for example, blood or other cells, they will remain there.

When these small particles block light from passing through the eye, they cast small shadows on the retina. These shadows are what we perceive as flies in the eyes.

As we get older, some of the jelly-like substance naturally breaks down and becomes more fluid.

And when this happens, particles of minerals dissolved in water, scattered throughout the vitreous humor of the eye, can stick together.

They can also project small shadows onto the retina, which are perceived as flies.

Optometrists * report that this is a fairly common occurrence. According to one British study, an average of 14 patients visit each optometrist per month and complain of flies in their eyes.

Another study used a smartphone app to determine how common the fly problem is. Of 603 Android smartphone users, 446, or 74 percent, reported seeing them.

However, only a third of the participants in the experiment complained that it had a detrimental effect on their vision.

Most researchers and medical practitioners regard this symptom as a minor problem, as either most people get used to living with flies, or they eventually disappear on their own.

Risky treatment

However, in other cases, this phenomenon can lead to more serious suffering and damage to health, or become a harbinger of future problems.

For example, sudden and profuse flies in older adults may be a sign of a condition known as posterior vitreous detachment or ZOST.

ZOT can lead to retinal rupture and ultimately blindness.

A recent article in the Journal of the American Medical Association concludes that 14% of patients who report to ophthalmologists are likely to have retinal rupture in 14% of cases.

Photo author, SPL

Photo caption,

The sudden appearance of flies in the eyes can also mean serious problems

This is a rather serious problem, since these patients had to “go to ophthalmologists for an immediate examination.”

However, for most people, flies in the eyes are not a problem.

And despite this, a quick search on the Internet will give you an abundance of different treatments, from the rather absurd (yoga) to those that seem justified, but require invasive intervention (surgery).

Of particular concern are those treatment methods that at first glance seem quite acceptable, for example, the use of a yttrium aluminum garnet crystal (YAG or YAG laser) **.

This instrument is increasingly used in ophthalmology, but has yet to receive support or approval from the FDA.

For example, scientists David Sendrowski and Mark Bronstein write in the journal Optometry that a “limited clinical study” is underway to investigate the use of a YAG laser to treat this symptom.

If it turns out that the use of the YAG laser is safe, only one third of patients will expect “moderate” improvement in their condition.

A more acceptable procedure – for those patients who have so many “flies” that it impairs their vision – is called “vitrectomy”.

This involves removing part or all of the vitreous humor from the eye and replacing the ocular fluid with saline.

But because vitrectomy itself carries significant risks, including a high likelihood of retinal tears and cataracts, this is generally considered a last resort.

For most people, “the traditional cure for flies in the eyes is nothing but reassurance and education,” write Sendrowski and Bronstein.

A 2012 study by Italian scientists places particular emphasis on this fact: many of us think that flies in our eyes are more of a hindrance than a pathology that requires treatment.

Most people, like you and me, can see “flies” from time to time, especially when looking at the clear blue sky – in this case, they are especially noticeable.

“Flies” seem to us to be strange or confusing phenomena – until they start to fade. Then they disappear from our field of vision.

Dry eye syndrome: symptoms, signs, causes and prevention.

Dry eye syndrome is the result of a chronic lack of lubrication and moisture on the surface of the eye.

Dry eye symptoms range from mild but persistent eye irritation to significant inflammation and even scarring of the anterior surface of the eye.

Alternatively for symptoms called dry eye syndrome, dry eye disease, or simply
dry eye, the following medical terms are used:

  • Keratitis dry
    Commonly used to describe dryness and inflammation of the cornea.

  • Keratoconjunctivitis dry
    Used to describe dry eye syndrome, which affects both the cornea and the conjunctiva.

  • Dysfunctional Lacrimal Syndrome

    Used to emphasize that insufficient tear quality is just as important as insufficient number of tears.

Prevalence of dry eye syndrome

Dry eyes may turn red, burning and irritation with a feeling of sand in the eyes.

Dry eye syndrome, also called dry eye disease (DRB), is one of the most common eye conditions worldwide and the main reason for visiting optometrists.

In one review article published in the Journal of Global Health, researchers reported a prevalence of dry eye between 5 and 50 percent in various populations around the world. (According to the authors of the study, such a wide range may be due to different diagnostic criteria in different studies, the unique characteristics of the studied populations, and other factors).

Risk factors for dry eye syndrome included old age, female sex and computer work.

Symptoms of dry eyes

Symptoms of dry eyes and dry eye syndrome:

  • Burning sensation

  • Itching in the eyes

  • Painful sensations

  • Heaviness

  • Eye pain

  • Feeling dry

  • Eye redness

  • Photophobia

  • Blurred vision

Another common symptom is that you feel like a foreign body or some kind of sand in your eye then another object or material.

As odd as it sounds, watery eyes can also be a sign of dry eye syndrome.

This is due to the fact that the dry surface of the eye in some cases activates a defense mechanism that stimulates the excessive production of the watery component of tears. But the duration of “reflex lacrimation” is not enough to eliminate the main cause of dry eyes.

In addition to these symptoms, dry eyes can lead to inflammation and (sometimes irreversible) damage to the surface of the eye.

Dry eye can also affect the effectiveness of LASIK laser vision correction and cataract surgery.

What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome?

Adequate and consistent tear-wetting is essential to maintain the health and comfort of your eyes and good vision.

A tear washes the surface of the eye, moisturizes it, washes away dust, foreign particles and microorganisms that can damage the cornea and lead to eye infections.

Normal tear film consists of three important components:

  1. Fat (lipid) component

  2. Watery (water) component

  3. Mucous (mucin) component

Each component of the tear film plays an important role. For example, tear lipids prevent the tear film from evaporating too quickly and provide lubrication, while mucin helps to retain and evenly distribute the tear over the surface of the eye.

Each tear component is produced by different glands located directly in or near the eye:

  1. The fatty component is produced by the meibomian glands of the eyelids.

  2. The watery component is produced by the lacrimal glands located inside the upper eyelids.

  3. The mucin component is produced by the goblet cells of the conjunctiva lining the white membrane of the eye (sclera).

A malfunction of any of these organs can lead to tear failure and dry eyes.

DO YOU HAVE DRY EYES? Find an optometrist nearby .

Varieties of dry eye syndrome

Depending on which organ is affected, there are different types of dry eye syndrome.

For example, if the meibomian glands do not produce or secrete enough fat (meibum), the tear film will evaporate too quickly – so-called evaporative dry eye syndrome occurs.

Moreover, in many cases, when making a diagnosis of dry eye syndrome, it is possible to determine the underlying disease – dysfunction of the meibomian glands.

In some cases, dry eye syndrome is caused by the inability of the lacrimal glands to produce enough aqueous humor to properly moisturize the eyes. This condition is called “dehydrated dry eye” syndrome.

A type of dry eye syndrome often
determines the type of treatment your optometrist prescribes to relieve symptoms.

Factors Associated with Dry Eye Syndrome

Many factors can increase the risk of developing dry eyes.For example:

Working with a computer

Working in front of a computer, a smartphone or other portable digital device, we tend to blink less frequently and not fully, which leads to more tear evaporation and increases the risk of dry eye symptoms.

Contact lens wear

While there is no clear relationship between contact lens wear and dry eye, dry eye discomfort is the main reason people stop wearing contact lenses.


Dry eye can occur at any age, but it becomes more common in older age, especially after 50 years.


Postmenopausal women are at greater risk of developing dry eyes than men of the same age.

Room humidity

Air conditioning, ceiling ventilation and forced air heating can reduce humidity in a room and / or speed up the evaporation of tears, causing dry eye symptoms.

Outdoor environmental conditions

An arid climate and dry or windy conditions increase the risk of developing dry eye syndrome.

Frequent flights

Air in aircraft cabins is practically free of moisture and can cause dry eyes, especially for those who fly frequently.


In addition to dry eyes, smoking causes serious vision problems, including macular degeneration, cataracts, and uveitis.

General health

Certain systemic diseases such as diabetes, thyroid disease, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren’s syndrome contribute to dry eyes.


Many prescription and over-the-counter medications, including antihistamines, antidepressants, certain blood pressure medications, and birth control pills, increase the risk of dry eye symptoms.

Eyelid problems

As a result of aging of the body, cosmetic blepharoplasty or other reasons, incomplete closure of the eyelids may occur when blinking or during sleep (lagophthalmos), which, if left untreated, can lead to corneal ulcers.

In some cases, dry eyes can be associated with laser vision correction using the LASIK technique and other refractive corneal surgery. In most cases, the discomfort associated with dry eyes after LASIK vision correction is temporary and resolves within a few weeks after the procedure.

If you have dry eye and are about to undergo LASIK laser vision correction, your optometrist may prescribe a dry eye treatment program for best results.

News on the topic “dry eyes”

A link was revealed between the use of smartphones and dry eyes in schoolchildren

In addition to the significant monthly phone bills that parents have to pay for their children, the latter have to pay with their health for using smartphones – it turned out that this may be the cause of the development of dry eye syndrome in children at an early age.

Korean researchers assessed the risk factors for dry eye syndrome among schoolchildren who used video devices, including smartphones.

916 students in grades 1–6 were examined for signs of dry eye syndrome. We analyzed questionnaires in which children and their parents indicated the types of video devices that children often use (computers, smartphones and televisions), as well as the amount of time they spent with each video device. Data was also collected on the amount of time children spent outdoors.

Overall, 6.6 percent of children showed signs of dry eye syndrome.Pathology was detected more often in children living in cities than in rural areas (8.3 percent versus 2.8 percent). With regard to the frequency of using smartphones, they were used by 61.3 percent of children living in the city and 51.0 percent of children living in rural areas.

When measured by age, BSH was diagnosed in 9.1 percent of children aged 9 to 12 compared to 4.0 percent of children aged 6 to 9. Among older children, 65.1 percent used smartphones, while among younger children 50.9 percent.

In addition, children with dry eye have used smartphones longer than children who have not been diagnosed with the disease. After children with dry eyes stopped using smartphones for 4 weeks, there was a decrease in subjective symptoms and objective signs of dry eyes.

The study authors concluded that smartphone use by children is closely associated with dry eye disease in children. Older schoolchildren living in the city had the highest risk factors and incidence rates for dry eye syndrome.

The authors also noted that signs and symptoms of dry eye improved after stopping smartphone use, and increased time outdoors appears to be a good prevention of dry eye disease in children.

Diagnosing Dry Eye

The only way to know for sure if you have chronic dry eye syndrome is to ask your optometrist for one or more dry eye tests during your eye exam.

The symptomatology in this case is an insufficient prognostic factor for the presence and severity of dry eye syndrome. Symptoms can vary greatly from person to person, and may even depend on the personality type.

For example, people with minimal or mild dry eyes may be very preoccupied with their eyes, while others may be severely ill, but do not consider their symptoms severe enough to see an optometrist (or have no symptoms at all). dry eyes).

Only a thorough examination of your eyes by an ophthalmologist can reveal the presence of dry eye syndrome and its severity, as well as help the ophthalmologist select the optimal type of treatment for each case to ensure eye health, comfort and good vision.

Treating and Preventing Dry Eyes

Fortunately, there are effective treatments for chronic dry eyes.

In many cases, regular use of a tear substitute, as well as minor changes in behavior (for example, frequent breaks while working at the computer) can significantly reduce the symptoms of dry eyes.

In some cases, your optometrist may prescribe prescription eye medications and outpatient treatments to help your body produce and shed more tears, reducing eye irritation and inflammation.

Page published in Nov 2020

Page updated June 2021

90,000 How to identify glaucoma in time so as not to lose sight

Glaucoma is a chronic eye disorder in which intraocular pressure (IOP) rises and the optic nerve is affected.

Translated from Greek, the name of the disease means “blue cloudiness of the eye”, “the color of sea water.” Other names for the disease are “green water”, “green cataract”. In this case, vision decreases, up to the onset of blindness. One of the main external signs is a change in the color of the pupil – its repainting in a greenish or azure shade. According to statistics, about 70 million people worldwide suffer from glaucoma. According to experts, in 2020, 80 million people will be affected by this disease.human.


According to the specialists of the Center for Medical Prevention of the Ministry of Health of the Krasnodar Territory, the main cause of glaucoma is high intraocular pressure. It increases due to an imbalance between the production and outflow of aqueous humor – a special liquid substance necessary for the normal functioning of the eye.

Most often, primary glaucoma occurs, the symptoms of which are mild.The factors provoking its development include age, myopia, heredity, diseases of the nervous system, thyroid gland, diabetes mellitus, hypotension.

Secondary glaucoma develops as a result of a previous eye disease. Its causes are lens shift, inflammatory processes of the eyes, such as scleritis, uveitis, keratitis; cataract; dystrophic eye diseases, for example, progressive iris atrophy; wounds, eye burns; swelling of the eye; surgical operations on the eyes.

How to recognize glaucoma

In the case of glaucoma, visual field defects are an important symptom. The field of view is the space that we see around us. At the initial stage of glaucoma, subtle loss of small central areas of the visual field is most often noted, which the patient may not notice at all or notice in the form of dark spots with uneven outlines (if he tries to look with one eye).

Dynamics of changes in vision in glaucoma.
Photo: glaz-kursk.ru

With the further development of glaucoma symptoms, the patient notes a steady narrowing of the peripheral boundaries of the visual field, that is, the patient sees well only the space located directly in front of him, but does not see what is happening on the sides of him. In the later stages of the disease, only tubular vision is preserved in the form of a small picture (as if the patient was looking at the world through a long tube). In the terminal stage of glaucoma, vision disappears completely – complete blindness develops.

Characteristic signs of glaucoma:

  • violation of visual function: slight blurred vision, the appearance of a film in front of the eyes and the so-called running points at the moment of fatigue;

  • pain in the eyes and in the area of ​​the temples;

  • rapid eye fatigue when reading, working at a computer.

The most common form of glaucoma is open-angle.Very often it proceeds almost imperceptibly for the patient. The eye looks normal, but watery moisture, without a normal outflow, accumulates in the eye, which leads to an increase in intraocular pressure. And this is, perhaps, the most unpleasant feature of the open-angle form – the disease progresses imperceptibly, and without treatment, glaucoma sooner or later leads to complete loss of vision.

Angle-closure glaucoma occurs in about 10 percent of cases. This form is characterized by acute attacks, in which the intraocular pressure rises significantly: it can reach 60–80 mm Hg.pillar. There are severe pains in the eye, often accompanied by headaches, nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. There is a sharp decrease in the vision of the diseased eye. Acute angle-closure glaucoma is difficult to diagnose: it is often mistaken for toothache, migraine, flu, meningitis, stomach ailment, since patients complain of nausea, headaches, etc. , and eyes are not mentioned.

Diagnostics and treatment

To understand how to treat glaucoma, it is necessary to undergo timely diagnostics.To diagnose the disease, the following methods are used: perimetry, measurement of intraocular pressure, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound examination, checking the condition of the fundus, electrophysiological and some other studies.

As a preventive diagnosis of glaucoma, regular measurement of intraocular pressure is recommended: at the age of 35–40 years – at least once a year, at the age of 55–60 and older – at least once or twice a year. If abnormalities are detected, a complete examination should be completed immediately.

It is quite difficult to diagnose a disease in a child due to the impossibility of carrying out some procedures. The main reasons provoking the development of glaucoma in children have not been identified by doctors. Experts are inclined to believe that the disease can manifest itself due to a hereditary predisposition or due to the influence of other factors during the period when the child is in the womb.

As a preventive diagnosis of glaucoma, regular measurement of intraocular pressure is recommended: at the age of 35–40 years – at least once a year, at the age of 55–60 and older – at least once or twice a year.If abnormalities are detected, a complete examination should be completed immediately.

It is strongly recommended to contact a specialist if the following symptoms appear: the appearance of a “veil” on aiming at a light source; deterioration of vision; severe headaches; redness of the eyeballs; loss of peripheral and then central vision.

If untreated, the disease leads to complete blindness. And even the treatment and prevention of complications carried out for glaucoma do not always lead to improvement.Approximately 15 percent of patients will completely lose sight in at least one eye within 20 years.

Glaucoma can be treated with eye drops, medications, laser surgeries, traditional surgery, or a combination of these methods. The goal of any treatment is to prevent vision loss. It is important to remember that eye drops for the treatment of glaucoma should be used only on the recommendation of the attending physician, with regular monitoring of the level of intraocular pressure. It should also be understood that glaucoma cannot be cured with folk remedies.

The good news is that glaucoma can be controlled if it is detected early, and that with medication or surgery, most people will retain their sight.

Diet and Bans

Nutrition for eye glaucoma plays an important role in the fight against this disease. Thanks to a properly formulated diet, it is quite possible to improve the result of drug treatment and reduce the risk of complications. People with glaucoma should get enough B vitamins, A, C, and E every day to successfully fight the disease.They help to improve the functioning of the visual organ and prevent further progression of the disease.

The diet should be aimed mainly at protecting nerve cells and fibers from damage under the influence of high intraocular pressure. To do this, you need to pay special attention to antioxidant substances and foods that are rich in them.

However, there are also products that are not recommended for use during glaucoma, as they can weaken the effectiveness of medications and aggravate the patient’s condition.Such products include fatty, smoked, spicy foods, as well as preservation. Alcoholic drinks, strong tea or coffee are completely excluded. Smoking should also become one of the prohibitions in order to exclude a negative effect on the vessels of the optic organ.

Prevention of glaucoma

The disease can result in disability, but the prognosis is favorable, provided that treatment is started at the initial stage. Prevention of glaucoma should consist in regular examination by an ophthalmologist, if a person has a bad heredity, there are somatic factors.

Methods of prevention:

  • watch TV in good lighting;

  • when reading after 15 minutes, you need to take breaks;

  • eat according to age characteristics with restriction of sugar, animal fats. Eat natural vegetables and fruits;

  • Before drinking coffee, make a test.Measure the intraocular pressure 1 hour after drinking coffee. If it does not rise, you can drink a drink;

  • nicotine is harmful to the eyes, so you should get rid of the habit to cure the disease;

  • good sleep, two to three teaspoons of honey at night, warm foot baths reduce the pressure inside the eyes;

  • physical activity is necessary to prevent glaucoma and simply to maintain good or sufficient vision.

According to doctors, the only way to preserve vision in glaucoma is to identify it very quickly, observe it regularly and treat it correctly.

Eye Anatomy

Sometimes a person sees life in a gray color, not because of a pessimistic attitude, but because of a rare disease.

What is color blindness 👇

🚦 Color blindness. This is another name for color blindness: the inability to distinguish between certain colors.More often than not, people cannot distinguish between green and red. Sometimes blue is difficult.

🧬 Transmitted on the X chromosome. Color blindness is more common in males because they only have one X chromosome. Women have two X chromosomes, and the likelihood of a genetic breakdown on two chromosomes at once is much lower.

👀 Non-working cones. We have already said that cones help humans to distinguish colors. A person has several types of them and each is responsible for its own color.Color blindness occurs when one or more types of cones are missing or not working properly.

Types of color blindness 👇

🔹 Complete color blindness. In general, there are no working cones, only rods – so a person sees everything in a gray gradient. This condition is called achromatopsia and is sometimes associated with poor vision.

🔹 Moderate color blindness. There are cones, but one or more types are not working correctly. As a result, a person sees a color different from what it is.Most often, it is difficult to determine the shades of red and green, blue and yellow.

Causes of color blindness

🔸 Congenital. It is passed on to the child on the female X chromosome. For this, the mother must be a carrier of the gene for color blindness.
🔸 Purchased. Color blindness can also occur in adulthood. This is usually a sign of health problems and it is best to go to the doctor right away. The cause can be trauma, toxic effects from drugs and substances, vascular diseases of the eye, metabolic disorders.The risk is increased by the presence of diabetes and glaucoma.

👨‍⚕️ Color blindness test. Sometimes color blindness is very weak: only in shades of color. A doctor can determine that a person suffers from color blindness. For tests, special cards with multi-colored dots are used, on which numbers or figures are hidden. If a child has color blindness, parents will notice this when he learns the names of colors.

🤓 Treatment. Color blindness does not threaten life, it only makes it more uncomfortable.They have not yet learned how to cure this disease, but they have come up with glasses that allow you to see colors.

90,000 Glaucoma Treatment – Eye Center “New Vision”


More than 70 million people worldwide suffer from this disease. The term “glaucoma” unites a large group of diseases, each of which has its own characteristics. The combination of these diseases into one group is due to a common symptom complex for all, which includes the following pathological manifestations: disturbances in the hydrodynamics of the eye, an increase in the level of ophthalmotonus, glaucomatous optic neuropathy and deterioration of visual functions.
Glaucoma is a large group of eye diseases characterized by a constant or periodic increase in intraocular pressure caused by a violation of the outflow of aqueous humor from the eye. The consequence of an increase in pressure is the gradual development of visual dysfunctions characteristic of the disease and glaucoma optic neuropathy. Glaucoma does not manifest itself for a long time, does not cause pain, does not cause anxiety. However, untreated glaucoma leads to progressive vision loss, even blindness.Loss of vision in glaucoma is an irreversible process. Therefore, the main task facing you and your ophthalmologist is to stop the disease at the stage during which you asked for help. Early diagnosis and the right treatment can slow or halt the progression of the disease and further deterioration of vision. Depending on the severity of glaucoma, drug treatment with eye drops, laser treatment or surgery is performed.Patients suffering from glaucoma must instill drops on a daily basis and follow the doctor’s recommendations. It is very important to visit your doctor regularly, even if the course of the disease is stable enough and you do not feel any worsening, since a regular examination of your eyes is necessary to assess the effectiveness of the treatment. And remember glaucoma is a chronic disease that requires the use of drugs throughout the patient’s life. Each unauthorized termination of treatment can lead to irreversible deterioration of vision.

90,000 ᐉ Glaucoma • What is it, causes, symptoms and effects of glaucoma in the human eye • Ocular


In the early stages, glaucoma is not accompanied by any symptoms, so a significant part of glaucoma patients may not even know about their disease. If you regularly see an ophthalmologist once a year, you can detect glaucoma before vision begins to deteriorate.

What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a disease that damages the optic nerve.This is usually caused by a buildup of fluid in the front of the eye, excessive fluid pressure builds up inside the eye and pinches the optic nerve.

Glaucoma can cause complete loss of vision, but in many cases, timely initiation of treatment can slow down this process and maintain vision longer.

Thermal IN S

Z Tranial nerve – the nerve that connects the fundus of the eye with the brain.The optic nerve sends signals to the brain through which we see.

Watery moisture is a clear liquid inside the front of the eye. Watery moisture has a different chemical composition than tears, it nourishes the eye and maintains its shape.

Drainage angle is the part of the eye in which aqueous humor drains from the front of the eye.

Iris – the colored part of the eye with a hole in the center – the pupil, through which light enters the eye.

h is the cause of glaucoma s?

The so-called aqueous humor constantly forms in the eye. As the aqueous humor enters, the same amount of fluid must leave the eye through the so-called drainage angle. Thus, the pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure) remains unchanged. If the drainage angle does not fulfill its function, fluid accumulates in the eye, pressure builds up, and the optic nerve is damaged.

The optic nerve is like an electrical cable with over a million fine nerve fibers.If these fibers die off, then blind spots appear in the field of view. Sometimes patients only notice blind spots when many nerve fibers have died. If all the fibers die off, the patient will lose sight.

Form Glaucoma S

There are two main forms of glaucoma

Primary open-angle glaucoma . This form of glaucoma develops gradually and is caused by the fact that fluid does not flow out of the eye properly (as it happens with a clogged drainpipe).As a result, pressure builds up inside the eye and the optic nerve is damaged. This form of glaucoma is painless and does not affect vision in the initial stages.

In some people, the optic nerve suffers even at normal intraocular pressure . The risk of glaucoma is increased in this case. You need to regularly visit an ophthalmologist in order to timely identify damage to the optic nerve.

Close Angular glaucoma . This form of glaucoma is caused by the iris being too close to the drainage angle.As a result, the iris overlaps the drainage corner, like a piece of paper in a sink drain. The complete overlap of the drainage angle leads to a rapid increase in intraocular pressure – this is called “acute attack of glaucoma” . This situation requires urgent attention.

Manifestations of an acute attack of angle-closure glaucoma:

– Sudden loss of visual clarity

– severe pain in the eyes;

– headache;

– nausea;

– Light halo or “rainbow” around light sources.

In many cases, glaucoma develops slowly, then it is called chronic. At first, the patient has no complaints, so he may not know about his illness until the first attack or severe damage to the optic nerve.

Angle-angle glaucoma can lead to loss of vision if not started immediately.

How is glaucoma diagnosed?

The only reliable way to diagnose glaucoma is a full examination by an ophthalmologist.A single measurement of intraocular pressure is not enough to detect glaucoma.

On examination for glaucoma, ophthalmologist:

– measure intraocular pressure;

– examine the drainage corner of the eye;

– examine the optic nerve for signs of damage;

– will check your peripheral (lateral) vision;

– will take a picture or CT scan of the optic nerve

– will measure the thickness of the cornea.

Your task in glaucoma treatment

Your doctor needs your help to successfully treat glaucoma.You must follow the directions of your ophthalmologist and take the eye drops prescribed by your doctor. If you are being treated for glaucoma, you should see your ophthalmologist regularly. Usually you will be invited for a check-up every 3-6 months, but this depends on what kind of treatment you need.

How is treated with glaucoma?

The consequences of glaucoma are irreversible, so it is important to start treatment as early as possible, with the help of drugs or surgery, you can stop the process of further damage to the optic nerve.

L Products . Eye drops are commonly used to control glaucoma. If the medicine is instilled daily, the intraocular pressure decreases. Some medications slow down the formation of aqueous humor, while others speed up the removal of moisture through the drainage corner and thus reduce the pressure inside the eye.

Glaucoma medications help preserve vision, but can have side effects. Some medicines cannot be taken at the same time, so be sure to tell your doctor about any medicines you are taking on a regular basis.If your glaucoma medications are causing you side effects, tell your ophthalmologist.

Never stop glaucoma treatment or change anything without consulting an ophthalmologist. If you run out of medication, see your ophthalmologist for a new prescription.

Laser treatment of glaucoma . For glaucoma, two types of laser treatments are most often performed, as a result of which aqueous humor flows out of the eye better.

  • Trabeculoplasty / Selective trabeculoplasty .This procedure is intended for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. The ophthalmologist treats the drainage angle with a laser so that the aqueous humor flows out more freely. As a result, the pressure inside the eye is reduced.
  • Iridotomy. This procedure is for the treatment of angle-closure glaucoma. The ophthalmologist uses a laser beam to create a small hole in the iris through which moisture enters the drainage corner.

Surgical interventions. In some cases, to treat glaucoma, a new drainage channel must be formed.

Trabeculectom The ophthalmic surgeon cuts out a small flap in the sclera (the white of the eye) and a “bubble” or pocket in the conjunctiva called a filter cushion. It is usually not visible under the upper eyelid. Through the valve, aqueous humor enters the filter cushion, where it is absorbed into nearby tissues. Thus, intraocular pressure is reduced.

Drainage devices. A small device can be implanted into the eye through which aqueous humor will enter a special container – a reservoir formed by an ophthalmologist under the conjunctiva (this is a transparent film that covers the white of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids), from the reservoir the moisture is absorbed into nearby tissues.


Glaucoma is a disease that damages the optic nerve. This nerve suffers from increased pressure inside the eye caused by excess fluid accumulation. Damage to the optic nerve can lead to loss of vision.

Ophthalmologists use drugs or surgery to treat glaucoma. Glaucoma does not cause any symptoms, so you need to visit an ophthalmologist regularly for examinations and eye examinations.

If you have any questions about eyes or vision, be sure to see an ophthalmologist. The ophthalmologist will make every effort to protect your vision.

Watery moisture

Watery moisture is contained in the chambers of the eyeball and is a clear solution that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. The composition of the aqueous humor resembles blood plasma, but with a reduced protein content in it.

Formation of intraocular fluid

The formation of aqueous humor occurs by special cells (non-pigmented epithelial cells) of the ciliary body.About 3-9 ml of liquid is produced per day.

Moisture circulation

First, aqueous humor is produced by filtration of the blood and enters the posterior chamber of the eye. After that, she enters the anterior chamber, bypassing the pupil. In front of the iris, due to the temperature difference, the intraocular fluid gradually rises upward. On the posterior surface of the cornea, aqueous humor goes down and is absorbed in the corner of the anterior chamber of the eyeball. From there, through the trabecular network, the fluid enters the Schlemm canal and returns to the systemic circulation.

Functions of the intraocular fluid

Due to the fact that aqueous humor is rich in nutrients, including amino acids and glucose, it helps to deliver these substances to areas of the eye that do not have vascular access (lens, trabecular meshwork, corneal endothelial lining, anterior vitreous region). Due to the fact that the intraocular fluid contains proteins (immunoglobulins), it helps to eliminate potentially dangerous antigens from the eyeball.

In addition, the intraocular fluid is a transparent medium that has a refractive function.