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Dealing with Menstruation Problems | Everyday Health

Q1. I often feel weak and drained (even my legs feel weak) during menstruation. There are days when I just want to stay in bed, and I am without energy for the full six days of my period. Why is this? Should I be worried? Is there anything I can do?

— Kimberley, Virginia

Weakness during menstruation is usually caused by dehydration, due to the loss of fluid and blood that occur during your period. This is probably not worrisome, though. The best way to counteract menstrual-linked weakness is to drink plenty of fluids, especially those containing electrolytes, such as Gatorade, Powerade, or other sports drinks. Water is also a good way to stay hydrated during your period. In addition, be sure to eat healthfully, and don’t go for long stretches without having a snack or small meal. Eating properly during your period can help prevent hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), thereby preventing any additional weakness. Dehydration is the more important issue, though.

Q2. I started my period early in childhood (I was 11 years old). How likely is it that my girls will start early as well?

— Becky, Oregon

The short answer to your question is that the age at which a woman starts her period is not inherited. Here’s some background: Menarche, or the age of the first menstrual period, has become progressively younger in the past century. In fact, some claims report a decline of two to two-and-a-half years from about 1900 to the 1960s, but the most reliable North American surveys indicate just a two- to three-month decline from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s; today, the average age in the United States is 12.6 years old.

There are both genetic and environmental factors at play here. In general, a girl’s weight and body-fat percentage are the most precise determinants of when she will begin having periods. This is due to the fact that estrogen levels are stored in fat, so once a girl reaches a certain weight and height, her rising hormone levels trigger menstruation. If your daughters have the same body size and shape that you did at 11 years old, they may start menstruating then, but age alone is not the determinant.

Experts hypothesize that today’s girls reach menarche earlier because their diets contain more fat, and thus they weigh more than their counterparts did in the early 1900s. Some researchers point to the increased incidence of childhood obesity, as attaining a weight of 100 pounds appears to be a trigger for very young girls reaching menarche. Other theories include environmental exposure to chemicals that mimic the effects of estrogen and also the impact of the sexualization of our society.

Q3. I am about to get married next week. I have had my period for three weeks now. Everyone is saying that stress is the reason my menstruation has lasted this long. Could this be true? I actually have been pretty calm throughout the process.

– De De, Illinois

De De, first, congratulations on your marriage. And yes, stress — even at a level that you may not perceive — can be responsible for altering your hormone levels enough to disrupt your periods. But there are other things that can cause you to have your period for three weeks, like uterine polyps, ovarian cysts, or a systemic illness.

Most women between 20 and 45 will have an occasional abnormal period every few years. That’s one reason it’s important to be evaluated regularly by your gynecologist, who will do a pelvic exam, or even a sonogram (ultrasound imaging) to look at the ovaries and uterus (depending on your age) to make sure everything’s okay. In your case, if your next period is normal, treatment is probably unnecessary. However, if your current period continues beyond four weeks, I suggest you contact your doctor who may want to treat you with a low dose of hormones to regulate the menstrual cycle.

RELATED: The United States of Stress

Learn more in the Everyday Health Women’s Health Center.

Why Do I Get So Fatigued During My Period?

Let’s be real—periods can be hard to manage at times. The cramps, inconvenience, cravings, and hormonal changes may be overwhelming. When you add fatigue into the mix, the negative effects of every other symptom becomes intensified. But why do you get so fatigued during your period?

Fatigue—feeling overtired or having abnormally low energy—can interrupt your work, personal life, relationships, and well being.

In the field of functional medicine, we know that taking the time to understand the underlying source of the problem is the first step towards feeling better. Here are some of the causes of menstrual fatigue and how you can start feeling more like yourself during your period. 



Tiredness from dropping estrogen levels

In the weeks leading up to your period, your body prepares for a potential pregnancy with spikes in your estrogen levels. These hormones work in overdrive to create the perfect environment for a fertilized egg. Once your period arrives, your body realizes that you no longer need those high estrogen levels to sustain a pregnancy, causing them to drop off. 

This rollercoaster of hormones can contribute to the fatigue you feel during your period. Peeked estrogen levels give you energy and make your body feel high alert. When this switch flips, your energy levels will drop proportionately, leaving you feeling exhausted.

Stress—heightening every source of menstrual exhaustion

Your period can throw off your hormonal balance in more ways than one. The emotional inconsistencies, physical aches, and other menstrual symptoms you may experience may result in some serious stress. These stressors are taxing on both your mind and your body. 

When you feel tired, it can be challenging to perform well at work, school, or home. In this sense, fatigue is both caused by stress and creating it. This can create a toxic cycle of stress and fatigue that lasts for the duration of your period.

Low-quality sleep and your period

When you are experiencing cramps, discomfort, and other period pains, quality sleep may be hard to reach. Without adequate sleep, fatigue during your period is a given. 

On a normal day, you may be used to getting by with less than the recommended eight hours, but your period can take this sleeplessness to the next level. How do periods shift your lack of sleep into overdrive?

  1. Extra caffeine: You may be (knowingly or unknowingly) getting higher doses of caffeine during your period. It is natural to find yourself reaching for that extra cup of coffee to fight menstrual tiredness. Additionally, many period-specific medicines (like Midol Complete) include a dose of caffeine to help fight fatigue. If you aren’t careful, you will find that this fatigue fix actually makes your sleeplessness worse. 
  2. Aches and pains: How can you be expected to sleep well when you are cramping and aching? Period-related discomfort may prevent you from reaching a deep level of sleep. You may also find yourself getting up throughout the night for extra trips to the bathroom. You may find yourself waking up feeling like you didn’t sleep at all.
  3. Stress: As we mentioned before, periods cause extra stress. This can make it hard to fall or stay asleep—despite making you feel so tired. 

Your period is arguably when you need sleep the most. A variety of factors leave your body and mind desperately needing rest. When you are unable to achieve the sleep you need, your period can have you reaching a new level of exhaustion.

Estrogen dominance—fatigue from high levels of estrogen

While estrogen can give you energy, abnormally high levels of estrogen creates a hormonal imbalance. Your body’s estrogen will begin overpowering your body’s progesterone levels. Progesterone is responsible for regulating your period. It also plays a key role in offsetting the negative side effects that estrogen can create. One of these—as you may have guessed—is fatigue. When your estrogen levels are much higher than your progesterone levels, this condition is called estrogen dominance.

Pre-menopausal changes and challenges

As your body prepares for menopause, you will begin to notice differences in your period, body, and overall well being. This may include fatigue. 

Harvard Health Publishing reports that 40% of perimenopausal women have difficulty sleeping. Fatigue and other pre-menopausal challenges can seem overwhelming and inevitable. You are not alone in this transition. There are safe medical solutions that you can access for relief. Working closely with a doctor one-on-one can help you alleviate fatigue and other pre-menopausal symptoms. 

Underlying health issues—the dangerous side of menstrual fatigue

Unfortunately, period fatigue can be a sign of an underlying issue in your health. This is why menstrual fatigue and other severe symptoms require the attention of a doctor. While a doctor will help you arrive at a specific diagnosis, common culprits include hypothyroidism, iron-deficiency anemia, and anemia-inducing health issues.




Your thyroid is responsible for regulating your body’s metabolism. This system is key to converting nutrients into energy. When your thyroid is underactive, it will not produce the hormones necessary to give your body the energy it needs. These symptoms can be heightened during your period.

Iron-deficiency anemia

Red blood cells carry iron as a component of hemoglobin, which distributes oxygen throughout your body. When you have inadequate levels of iron, your body begins to slow down as your tissue and muscles stop getting the oxygen they need to function properly. This can lead you to develop iron-deficiency anemia. 

When you lose blood during your period, you also lose iron. This puts you at risk for developing this condition. The effects can be subtle or drastic, but its most common and prominent symptom is fatigue. 

When you have heavy, frequent periods, you are at a higher risk of developing iron-deficiency anemia. Several conditions can cause heavy periods and related fatigue, including:

Uterine fibroids

Uterine fibroids (also called leiomyomas) are small, often benign tumors that can grow in the uterine wall. Fibroids are relatively common, with 30% of women developing them before the age of 35 and nearly 80% of women developing them by the age of 50. Some women with fibroids are asymptomatic. However, for those who do experience symptoms, heavy bleeding can be a sign. This heavy loss of blood may cause you to develop iron deficiency anemia. 


Do you find yourself needing to change your pad or tampon multiple times each hour? Does your period often last for more than seven days? These heavy bleeding patterns are signs of menorrhagia. The CDC reports that this condition affects roughly 1 in every 5 American women. Menorrhagia can cause anemia and fatigue, and it may be the sign of a deeper feminine health issue. 


Endometriosis is a condition in which the type of tissue that forms the lining of the uterus is found outside of the uterus. During your period, these misplaced tissues grow and bleed like the lining of your uterus. This causes swelling, irritation, and even scarring. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, roughly 1 out of every 10 women has endometriosis. 

Heavy bleeding associated with each of these conditions can cause iron-deficiency anemia and the resulting fatigue. 

Tiredness before your period

While you might think that 7-days of menstrual fatigue sounds manageable, this tiredness can actually begin several days before your period does. For many women, PMS or PMDD causes fatigue and other negative symptoms in the days or weeks leading up to their period. 

  • PMS (premenstrual syndrome) is common, affecting more than 90% of menstruating women. Symptoms include bloating, headaches, moodiness, and fatigue.
  • PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) is a less common and more severe form of PMS, impacting up to 5% of menstruating women. 

When you feel tired before your period even begins, what chance do you stand against fatigue? This tiredness can carry through the end of your cycle. It may be especially unmanageable when you do not get the rest and recovery time you need before your period begins. 

What can I do to relieve menstrual fatigue?

When it comes to abnormal period symptoms, the key is to find and treat the underlying cause. That is why it is important to find a doctor who is willing to take the time to really talk with you and understand your symptoms.


A functional medicine practitioner can help. Rather than taking a surface-level approach to your feminine care, a functional medicine doctor will take the time to get to know you. By discussing your symptoms, examining your medical history, and completing lab tests, your doctor can bring you the clarity and relief you need. When dealing with intimate and serious issues with your period, the last thing you need is a traditional in-and-out doctor’s visit. 

Your period is not something you should have to suffer through each month. If you experience abnormal or intolerable levels of fatigue, pain, or other symptoms that might have been dismissed or undiagnosed by a traditional doctor, consider speaking with a functional medicine practitioner to find a better way forward.  

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Heavy Menstrual Periods | Michigan Medicine


Is this topic for you?

This topic covers heavy menstrual bleeding, including information about symptoms, tests, and home treatment. For more information, see the topics Normal Menstrual Cycle, Abnormal Uterine Bleeding, Uterine Fibroids, and Endometriosis.

What are heavy menstrual periods?

If you bleed a lot during your menstrual cycle, you’re not alone. Many women do. When you have heavy menstrual periods (also called menorrhagia), you may:

  • Pass large blood clots and soak through your usual pads or tampons.
  • Bleed for more than 7 days. (A normal period usually lasts 4 to 6 days.)
  • Have severe menstrual cramps.

Heavy periods can be messy and unpleasant, and they may disrupt your life. But in most cases, they aren’t a sign of a serious problem.

Still, it’s a good idea to see your doctor. A doctor can suggest treatments to ease your symptoms and make sure that you don’t have a more serious condition.

What causes heavy periods?

A number of things can cause heavy periods. These include:

  • A change in hormones. Normally one of your ovaries releases an egg during your menstrual cycle. This is called ovulation. If you don’t ovulate, your hormone levels can get out of balance. This can affect the lining in your uterus and may cause heavy bleeding.
  • An irritation in the uterus. Certain things can cause this, such as using a copper IUD.
  • A growth in the uterus, such as a polyp or fibroid.
  • Adenomyosis. This condition occurs when the cells that normally line the uterus grow into the wall of the uterus.
  • Some bleeding disorders that prevent blood from clotting properly.
  • Certain medicines, such as anticoagulants.

Sometimes a cause can’t be found.

When are heavy periods a cause for concern?

When you lose a lot of blood during your period, your iron levels can drop. This can cause anemia. Anemia can make you feel tired and weak. Call your doctor if you think you have anemia.

In rare cases, heavy periods may be a sign of a serious problem, such as an infection or cancer.

Call your doctor now or seek immediate medical care if:

  • You pass clots of blood and soak through your usual pads or tampons every hour for 2 or more hours.
  • You are dizzy or lightheaded, or you feel like you may faint.

How are heavy periods diagnosed?

Your doctor will ask about your menstrual periods and do a pelvic exam. During the exam, your doctor will check for signs of disease, infection, and abnormal growths.

If needed, your doctor may also do one or more tests to find out what’s causing heavy periods. These tests may include:

  • A Pap test. This can look for signs of infection and changes in the cells of your cervix.
  • Blood tests. These can check for anemia, a bleeding disorder, or other problems.
  • A pelvic ultrasound. This test can look for any problems in the pelvic area.
  • An endometrial biopsy. It can check for abnormal cell changes in the lining of the uterus (endometrium).
  • A hysteroscopy. This can check the lining of your uterus to look for the cause of bleeding, such as fibroids.

How are they treated?

In most cases, heavy menstrual periods can be managed with medicines or hormone treatments. If those treatments don’t help, you may need surgery to help control your bleeding.

Medicine options

Your doctor may suggest that you take a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), like ibuprofen (such as Advil or Motrin) or naproxen (such as Aleve). Taking an NSAID can reduce bleeding and pain during your period. But NSAIDs usually don’t help as much as hormone treatments.

Hormone treatments that may be prescribed include:

  • Birth control pills, patch, or ring. These release two hormones, estrogen and progestin. They prevent pregnancy and also can reduce menstrual bleeding and pain.
  • Progestin-only birth control, such as mini-pills, implants, and shots. These types of birth control can reduce bleeding and cramping.
  • Progestin pills. These are progestin-only pills that help reduce bleeding but do not prevent pregnancy.
  • Hormonal IUD. This is a birth control device that your doctor places inside your uterus. It releases a type of progestin that can reduce bleeding and cramping.

Sometimes doctors prescribe a medicine called tranexamic acid (such as Lysteda). It is not a hormone treatment. It reduces bleeding by helping blood to clot.

Surgery options

You may want to think about surgery if medicines don’t help or if you have a growth in your uterus. Your choice will depend partly on whether you want to get pregnant in the future. Surgery options include:

  • Hysteroscopy. This procedure is done to diagnose heavy periods. But it can also treat some problems at the same time. For example, fibroids or polyps may be removed during this procedure.
  • Endometrial ablation. This procedure destroys the endometrium. This reduces or stops uterine bleeding. But it is not an option if you hope to get pregnant.
  • Hysterectomy, a surgery to remove the uterus. This may be an option if heavy bleeding can’t be controlled or when the cause of bleeding can’t be found and treated. It ends your ability to get pregnant.

What can you do to feel better?

If you have severe cramping during your periods, taking an NSAID such as ibuprofen or naproxen may help. An NSAID works best when you start taking it 1 to 2 days before you expect pain to start. If you don’t know when your period will start next, take your first dose as soon as bleeding or cramping starts.

Heavy periods can make you feel weak and run-down and can lead to anemia. Your doctor may suggest that you take an iron supplement if your iron levels are low. You may be able to prevent anemia if you increase the amount of iron in your diet. Foods rich in iron include red meat, shellfish, eggs, and beans.

7 Steps To Take If Your Period Makes You Unusually Tired

Periods aren’t always exactly joyful things. Yes, they generally show that you’ve become an adult, and if you’re not looking to become pregnant, your period’s arrival can be an immense relief; but for many of us, periods are also sources of inconvenience, annoyance, and genuinely unpleasant physical symptoms ranging from the irritating to the debilitating. All periods are unique, but one particular symptom may be causing you concern: exhaustion so severe that you want to fall asleep and wake up in 2020. If this is you, the good news is that it doesn’t necessarily mean anything untoward is happening — it can be easy to deal with, if you and your doctor can locate the cause.

The main lesson to take away from this article is that everybody’s period is different. Menstrual cycles involve a complex interplay of hormones and bodily processes, plus various underlying conditions that may be causing variation, so you can’t draw any conclusions just because your friend Lizzie’s cousin’s boss got tired during her period, and shortly thereafter her womb exploded. (Or something to that effect.) Exhaustion during menstruation is annoying, but it can be dealt with, and medical professionals won’t find it puzzling or shocking.

Either way, if your exhaustion is giving you particular worries, there are certain things that you can focus on, from sleep cycles to hydration levels and iron in your diet. It’s all going to be fine. And yes, you can have that nap.

1. Don’t Panic

It seems as if hormonal levels may be at least partially to blame for increased fatigue at the start of your period, because of the impact that estrogen and progesterone have on your body’s energy levels. At the point before the menstrual cycle enters its “shedding” phase (i.e. when the womb sheds its lining, creating a period), levels of estrogen and progesterone lower, which means that energy may be at a low ebb. It’s been suggested that low estrogen levels in particular are responsible for creating more waste products in the body when we ingest carbs, contributing to fatigue; this may also be behind the fatigue common in early menopause. We’re not entirely sure that this is the case for all women, but natural hormonal fluctuations seem to be at least part of the problem — so it’s likely that that is the cause behind you drooping eyelids, not some wild, undiscovered disease.

2. Get Checked For Anemia

One of the most common reasons for abnormal tiredness during your period? Anemia, or lack of iron. This makes perfect sense; a loss of blood represents even more of a blow to your body’s already-depressed iron levels, which can result in deeper fatigue. Fortunately, anemia is relatively easily diagnosed: a doctor will take a sample of your blood to check the number of red blood cells, and also possibly examine their size or shape. Blood loss and its impact on iron levels are a particular risk factor for fatigue if you have a heavy flow.

3. Try To Fix Your Sleep Cycle

Fatigue during your period may actually not be about blood cells; it might be related to sleep disturbance due to menstrual needs. Professor of obstetrics and gynecology Lauren Streicher explained to YouBeauty that disturbed sleep may be the culprit in many cases of period-related exhaustion. If you’re waking up to take pain-managing medication, change your menstrual protection, or just waking up because you’re in such agony that you can’t stay asleep, it’s a recipe for more tiredness the next day (particularly if this continues throughout your entire period). If that sounds like you, try to minimize the amount of times you get up in the night, by regulating your pain medication to let you sleep through, or getting thicker night-time pads. This may not be possible, of course; but if it is, it may help.

4. Make Sure You’re Hydrated

It turns out that low levels of estrogen may be contributing to dehydration in your body during your period, and causing a knock-on effect for your energy levels. Estrogen, it seems, is actually associated with the body’s ability to retain water. The lower it is, the less your body holds onto; and this fluctuation may result in an increased risk of dehydration. The loss of fluid for women with heavy blood flows may also be sufficient to risk dehydration without any extra contribution from meddling hormones, so when you’re on your period, it’s important to drink a lot of water and keep an eye on your hydration levels.

5. Keep An Eye On Your Diet

Along with water, it seems that you need to watch your diet during the more fatiguing parts of your period, to try and counteract the exhaustion. Good sources of iron are particularly useful, to counteract any tiredness-triggering iron loss; get yourself some red meat, spinach or sardines. You may also want to stay away from carbohydrates and load up on healthy fats and vitamins, to help you process nutrients and give you maximum energy.

6. Track Your Flow

One of the biggest causes of menstrual fatigue is an intensely heavy flow, and it’s important that you know if that’s the case for you. You may have assumed that everybody goes through several tampons in a few hours, but the average level of blood loss during a period is 35mL, and anything above 80mL is regarded as abnormal (in case you’re not measuring your period in a test tube, the average pad or tampon holds 5mL of blood in it). The technical term for a heavy period is menorrhagia, and it can show up in several ways: going through many menstrual products in a short time, bleeding for longer than a week, or having blood clots appear in your flow beyond a 24-hour period. If you believe your flow is abnormal, talk to a doctor to look into potential causes, and see what can be done to give you more energy.

7. Look Out For Other Symptoms

Fatigue during periods can actually be a sign of other, more serious conditions, so it’s important that you keep on top of it and get checked out if it appears alongside other things. For instance, endometriosis can cause serious exhaustion during periods, because of the nature of the disorder: it happens when cells that make up the inner lining of the womb migrate to other areas of the body and “shed” during a period, causing blood build-up and serious pain. And fatigue as a part of your period may also be an indication of a folic acid deficiency, where a low level of vitamin B12 causes the production of abnormally large red blood cells that can’t function effectively.

Both of these conditions come with other symptoms, though, so don’t take the first pang of tiredness during your period as a signal to panic and diagnose yourself with something deadly. Just keep a note of anything that feels concerning and take your worries to a doctor if you believe it needs more attention.

Images: Diego Cervo / EyeEm/EyeEm/Getty Images, Giphy

Can Heavy Periods Cause Anemia?: OB/GYN Specialists: OB/GYNs

If you’re a woman between the ages of 15 and 55, chances are high that you have a monthly period. Your period is controlled by hormones, and it’s a part of your menstrual cycle.

The menstrual cycle is the process your body goes through to prepare for pregnancy. Your ovaries release an egg (ovulation), and if it’s fertilized, you get pregnant. If it isn’t fertilized, your period is triggered and your uterine lining sheds.

Symptoms of your period can vary, and many women find that the characteristics of their menstrual cycles are unique. A surprising number of women, however, are living with abnormally heavy periods and potentially serious symptoms.

At OB/GYN Specialists, Daniel McDonald, MD, and Marc Wilson, MD, are experts in diagnosing and treating pelvic pain and heavy periods. There are many different reasons that you could have abnormally heavy bleeding during your period, and the risks of ignoring the condition can significantly impact your health. 

Heavy bleeding can be accompanied by severe menstrual cramps, forcing you to miss work or school. It can be linked to endometriosis, or increase your risk of other medical conditions, including anemia.

Signs of abnormally heavy periods

Every woman’s period is different. Some periods are short, lasting just two to three days, while others consistently last a week. While differences in your period’s duration and the length of your menstrual cycle might vary, certain symptoms shouldn’t be ignored.

Heavy menstrual bleeding, also known as menorrhagia, can severely impact your quality of life and overall well-being. Signs that you might have periods that are too heavy include:

  • Bleeding that lasts longer than a week
  • Soaking through a pad or tampon every hour
  • Needing to change pads or tampons during the night
  • Passing blood clots larger than a quarter

Blood lost during your period contains red blood cells, which are important for your overall well-being. Women with regular periods don’t lose enough blood to experience negative side effects, but significant blood loss during your period can lead to anemia. 

Signs of anemia

If you have consistently heavy bleeding during your menstrual period, it’s possible to suffer anemia. Your iron levels can go down from the blood loss during your period, leaving you feeling depleted and fatigued.

Anemia is a medical condition that develops when your body doesn’t have enough red blood cells. Red blood cells are a crucial component of your blood. They carry oxygen to your organs, muscles, and tissues. 

You might have anemia if you experience:

  • Fatigue
  • Lightheadedness
  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain or irregular heartbeat
  • Pale skin
  • Poor circulation in your hands and feet

Anemia can be a short-term condition, or it can become chronic. It has a number of causes, so it’s important to visit the doctor if you think you might have anemia.

What to do about heavy periods

Getting a diagnosis is the first step to finding relief from period-related anemia and other symptoms. Dr. McDonald and Dr. Wilson are experts in identifying common causes of abnormal bleeding.

Hormonal birth control is often a good option for women who want to have children in the future. These birth control options can regulate your menstrual cycle and reduce or even eliminate menstrual flow.

For women who don’t want to have children, there are other options. Endometrial ablation is a common treatment for endometriosis, and a hysterectomy is another permanent option to eliminate menstrual bleeding.

If your period is getting in the way of your health and happiness, visit us at OB/GYN Specialists. We’re here to help you understand the cause and potential complications of your heavy periods. Call our Denton, Texas, office today at 940-202-0566 for your first appointment, or send the team a message here on our website.

10 Reasons Your Period Is Light

This article was medically reviewed by Angela Chaudhari, M. D., a member of the Prevention Medical Review Board.

When most of us complain about our periods, we kvetch about those heavy flow days and the bloating, cramping, and exhaustion that can go along with them. So if you have a light period, a.k.a. hypomenorrhea, it might seem like a good thing. While less bleeding may very well make you more comfortable, it could be a sign something’s gone awry. (An unusually heavy period can also be cause for concern.)

While most periods produce between 30 to 50 milliliters of blood, a person with hypomenorrhea makes substantially less than 30 milliliters per cycle, according to the book Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. It’s pretty difficult to measure out your period in milliliters, but this is just a point of reference.

Lina Akopians, M.D., Ph.D., a specialist in reproductive endocrinology at the Southern California Reproductive Center, says that a period that lightens up substantially could be caused by a hormonal issue or a structural one (meaning something happened to an organ in your body). That said, here are the top reasons that might explain why your flow is so light.

1. It could be a sign of pregnancy.

      While one of the clear signs of pregnancy is missing your period, it turns out that some women continue to experience bleeding or a light version of their period when they’re pregnant, says fertility expert Janet Choi, M.D., medical director at CCRM in New York. In fact, she’s had patients who’ve been struggling to get pregnant go out drinking after a light version of their period shows up—only to later learn that they really are pregnant.

      Unusually light periods or spotting could also indicate an ectopic pregnancy (when an egg implants somewhere other than the uterus), which can be very dangerous. When in doubt, take a pregnancy test.

      2. You’ve lost or gained a ton of weight.

      Fluctuating weight can mess with your menstrual cycle, making your periods a lot shorter or lighter. That’s because when you gain weight, storing more fat in your body can affect your hormone levels and throw them out of balance. In a similar way, losing weight from restricting calories can put your body into stress mode and create an imbalance of hormones. Dr. Akopians notes that “your body needs a healthy balance between protein, carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins,” to keep operating normally.

      3. Stress is messing with your body.

      skynesherGetty Images

      You already know that stress can mess with your body in a lot of ways. While the usual day-to-day annoyances aren’t enough to throw your hormones out of whack, Dr. Choi says that major life stressors—for example, grieving over a loss or suffering from depression—can do just that. She also points out that overexercising can also wreak havoc on your period because of the stress it puts on your body physically.

      4. You have an overactive thyroid.

      An overactive thyroid—also known as hyperthyroidism—begins producing too many thyroid hormones, which can cause serious issues for your heart, blood pressure, muscles, and more. Abnormally light periods and missing periods are also a symptom of hyperthyroidism. If you’re experiencing some of the other symptoms of an overactive thyroid, make an appointment to see your doctor.

      5. You’re using hormonal birth control.

      TanyaJoyGetty Images

      One of the most common reasons for a lighter period is going on hormonal birth control; some doctors even prescribe it to women with very heavy periods for that exact reason. So if you’ve recently started the pill, are using the patch or the ring, or gotten a hormonal IUD, and your periods have lightened up, it’s normal to have light cycles, to completely skip cycles, or have small amounts of dark or light blood.

      6. It may be due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

      PCOS is a condition where the ovaries produce an abnormally large amount of androgens, which are male sex hormones. Some women with PCOS will have small fluid-filled sacs, or cysts, form in the ovaries. These hormonal changes can prevent a woman from ovulating normally, which can lead to a host of unpleasant symptoms, including acne or oily skin, weight gain, and excess body hair. Other symptom of PCOS are irregular and missed periods. When women do get their period, it may be heavier or lighter than average. Talk with your doctor if you’re experiencing these symptoms.

      7. You’re experiencing early signs of menopause.

      When a patient mentions a diminishing return on her tampon investment, the first thing Dr. Choi looks at is age. Menopause might be around the corner, but not always. “Sometimes with aging the cycles change,” she says, noting that it’s not necessarily a sign of infertility. “Someone who needed to use a super pad in their 20s and early 30s may find they need less protection in their later 30s.”

      8. You have cervical stenosis.

      A rare but uncomfortable problem, Dr. Akopians says this occurs when the cervix narrows or closes up completely. This may occur after previous surgery of the cervix or uterus, such as a LEEP procedure for an abnormal pap or an endometrial ablation for heavy menses. Cervical stenosis may also be due to low estrogen levels during perimenopause. As a result, blood stays trapped in the uterus or is only able to trickle out slowly. If you experience bad cramping, despite a light flow, talk to your doctor.

      9. Scar tissue in your uterus is causing issues.

      Most women who have gone through routine dilation and curettage (D&C) procedures heal with zero complications, but sometimes severe scarring causes the walls of the uterus to stick to each other, causing what’s known as Asherman’s syndrome. If your period seems to have lightened up a lot after you’ve had a D&C, this might be your problem. You may need surgery to remove the scar tissue.

      10. You lost a ton of blood during or after childbirth.

      “This is a very rare condition,” says Dr. Akopians. Losing a lot of blood deprives your body of oxygen, which can end up damaging the pituitary gland and cause something called Sheehan’s syndrome. That, in turn, drastically reduces the gland’s production of all types of hormones, including those that control your menstrual cycle. This hormone production not only impacts your menstrual cycle, but it can affect other parts of your body, like your thyroid. So if your doctor is concerned about this, they will likely refer you to an endocrinologist for diagnosis and treatment.

      The bottom line: While having a lighter period than normal isn’t necessarily cause for alarm, don’t ignore the change. Track your cycle for a couple of months, and if it doesn’t go back to your normal, make an appointment with a gynecologist.

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      Can your period cause anemia?

      This article is also available in: português, español

      Top things to know:

      • Monthly blood loss through menstruation can cause anemia

      • Heavy menstrual bleeding can make you more susceptible to iron deficiency anemia

      • Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include: tiredness, weakness, shortness of breath, poor concentration, lightheadedness

      Anemia can sneak up on you—especially iron deficiency anemia. It can happen slowly, over years, so that you might not notice the changes. A fatigue that you can’t shake, regardless of how much you rest. Feeling easily out of breath from activities you could always do before. Unexplained changes in your hair, nails, skin. These are just some of the symptoms of iron deficiency. Anemia is a huge public health problem globally, with 1. 62 billion people (24.8% of the world population) predicted to be impacted (1).

      First: what is anemia?

      Anemia is the reduction in red blood cells or hemoglobin within the body (2). Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein within your red blood cells. Hemoglobin binds and transports oxygen molecules to the cells of your body. With fewer red blood cells, your body (including your brain) cannot receive enough oxygen and function optimally.

      What causes anemia?

      Red blood cells are made in your bone marrow and have a lifespan of approximately 110 days, during which they circulate and deliver gases throughout the body (3). As they age, they are eventually broken down in the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver, and their parts are recycled within the body. Any disruption along the lifecycle of the red blood cell (creation, functional life span, or destruction) could cause anemia. Common causes of anemia include: blood loss, parasitic infections, nutritional deficiencies, absorption problems, and chronic disease (1,2). Anemia is a broad topic. There are many different causes and manifestations of it.

      For the purpose of this article, though, we’ll only be focusing on iron deficiency anemia—a particular type of anemia—and how it relates to menstrual and gynecological health.

      Download Clue to track your cycle length and changes.


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      Periods and anemia

      People who menstruate are disproportionately affected by anemia due to the fact that they lose blood through their periods.

      In fact, 29% of non-pregnant women and 38% of pregnant women worldwide are affected by anemia (4).

      When blood is lost every month during menstruation, the iron within those red blood cells is also lost. If monthly iron intake and absorption does not replace the iron lost during your period, you can end up with iron deficiency anemia (2).

      People with heavy menstrual bleeding are more susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia. A person is considered to have heavy menstrual bleeding when their menstrual period is typically over 80 ml (5). Some causes of heavy menstrual bleeding can be attributed to fibroids (abnormal growth of muscle tissue on your uterus), adenomyosis (a condition where endometrial tissue invades into the muscular wall of the uterus), polyps (abnormal growths on your cervix or the inside of your uterus) or bleeding disorders (6).

      Menstrual periods are not the only gynecological source of iron-deficiency anemia. During pregnancy and lactation, as with any time of increased growth and development, there is an increased need for iron (2,7). It is important for pregnant people to ensure that they have adequate iron, since low iron levels can harm both parent and child (2). During pregnancy, you need 2 to 3 times the normal amount of iron you’d need when not pregnant (8). Blood loss during childbirth can also further contribute to anemia.

      What are the symptoms of anemia?

      Anemia, particularly the iron deficient type, can have an insidious onset as it can take years to slowly develop. Some of the symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include: tiredness, weakness, shortness of breath, poor concentration, lightheadedness, cold intolerance, and heart palpitations (1,2,9).

      Other physical signs that your healthcare provider will look for are: paleness (particularly on your inner eyelids), hair loss, chapping at the corners of your mouth, nail changes, and poor circulation (cold fingers and toes) (1,2,9).

      I have iron deficiency anemia. What now?

      Seems obvious — just eat more iron, right? Well, not necessarily. Increasing iron intake through your diet is a great place to start. There are two types of dietary iron: heme iron and nonheme iron.

      Heme iron sources contain hemoglobin (remember: this is the iron containing protein within blood cells), and is only found in meat sources (10). Heme iron is more readily absorbed than nonheme iron. Organ meats (like liver) generally have the highest concentrations of heme iron (11). All meat contains heme iron, not just red meat (although it does have higher concentration of heme iron), but chicken, pork and turkey are good sources. Fish, seafood, and especially shellfish like oysters are also great sources of iron (11).

      Nonheme iron is available from plant sources, such as grains, beans, and some vegetables (10). Nonheme iron is not absorbed as well as heme iron sources. Populations where meat intake is low can struggle to obtain enough dietary iron. Other compounds found within nonheme iron sources (such as phytates, tannin, and calcium) can also *decrease* iron absorption — so try to limit your coffee and tea intake directly after meals (12,13). Eating iron sources with vitamin C (citrus fruits, peppers, strawberries, etc) will help make dietary iron more readily absorbed (13). Some sources of high nonheme iron include: soybeans/tofu, lentils, oats, wheat (this is often fortified), beets, kale, nuts, molasses, and beans (11).

      Once a person has iron deficiency anemia, unfortunately, dietary iron intake isn’t always enough to correct the deficiency. Oral iron tablets and supplements are the primary treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Before taking any supplement for anemia, talk to your healthcare practitioner. There are many different types of anemia with different causes, so it is important to make sure that you are treating the appropriate type of anemia and its underlying cause.

      Know your body. Download Clue today and track your period.

      How to strengthen the immune system is advised by the candidate of medical sciences, allergist-immunologist EuroMed

      Have you noticed that some people can sit quietly in a draft, walk in a cold jacket in a light jacket, swim in a cold river, communicate with friends with a cold, and at the same time do not get sick? While others take great care, wear gauze masks during epidemics, wrap themselves in warm sweaters and woolen socks, and still do not get out of colds? What is the reason for this? It’s all about immunity!

      Our consultant: Candidate of Medical Sciences, allergist-immunologist Yulia Borisovna SELIKHOVA.

      Our immunity is the body’s main defense mechanism against viruses and bacteria. The development of the immune system in the process of evolution determined the very possibility of human existence. Immunity is innate and adaptive (acquired).

      Innate immunity is the body’s ability to recognize and neutralize various bacteria and viruses based on common characteristics. As the name implies, this is a basic property of an organism that it receives at birth.Adaptive immunity recognizes more specific, individual pathogens, it is formed in the process of encountering them, after diseases or vaccinations.

      Immune Failure Signs

      • Frequent ARI
      • frequent exacerbations of chronic infectious diseases (tonsillitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, pyelonephritis, adnexitis, etc.)
      • frequent relapses of herpetic eruptions
      • pustular skin lesions
      • joint and muscle pain
      • prolonged increase in temperature or lack of temperature reaction in acute infectious diseases
      • swollen lymph nodes
      • poor wound healing
      • malignant neoplasms
      • weakness
      • chronic fatigue syndrome

      The immune system is formed in a person in the womb, and a lot depends on heredity. But lifestyle also plays a very significant role in the work of immunity. And if we cannot do anything with heredity, then it is in our power to strengthen the immune system by following certain rules!

      How to strengthen the immune system?


      Hardening is essentially training the immune system. The main principle of hardening: moderation, gradualness and regularity.

      Start small: walk more, ventilate the apartment more often, walk around the house barefoot, wipe yourself with a sponge or towel moistened with cool water, wash your face with cool water.Then you can move on to more serious procedures: pouring cold water, contrasting shower. A contrast shower, by the way, is very useful for training the cardiovascular system, improving skin condition, and preventing cellulite. Just remember to be careful and gradual! If you already have problems with the cardiovascular system, consult with your cardiologist beforehand.

      The regularity of hardening procedures, the absence of long breaks between them is very important.

      You can start hardening procedures only if you are completely healthy. Ideally, after consulting a doctor.


      To strengthen the body, you need a balanced diet rich in vitamins and microelements. In order for you to receive all the necessary substances and trace elements, the diet should be as varied as possible. All major food groups should be present in the diet every day: dairy, starchy, vegetables, fruits, sources of complex carbohydrates, protein and fats.Complex carbohydrates are found in cereals, pasta, potatoes, bran bread, and yeast-free whole grain breads. They take a long time to digest, unlike simple carbohydrates found in sugar, cookies, cakes and other sweets. Also, a person needs indigestible carbohydrates – fiber or dietary fiber. They create a feeling of fullness and are good for digestion as well. Such carbohydrates are found in oatmeal, wholemeal bread.

      In addition, our body needs fats, as they help to absorb vitamins A and E. If the body has an insufficient amount of fat, the skin looks worse, the liver suffers, and sex hormones stop being produced. Fats are either saturated or unsaturated. The latter are better absorbed, respectively, they are more useful. It is good to get them from fatty fish, avocados, almonds, olive oil. Of course, the use of foods containing hidden unhealthy fats, such as mayonnaise, sausage, cakes, should be limited.

      Sources of protein are fish, meat, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, mushrooms.

      Eat as many vegetables and fruits as possible, preferably uncooked for better preservation of vitamins.

      Vitamins and Probiotics

      Numerous studies show that in Russia, and in other countries too, the overwhelming majority of people suffer from hypovitaminosis – a lack of vitamins. As you know, vitamins are not formed in the human body, with the exception of vitamin D and vitamins synthesized by intestinal bacteria, therefore, they must be constantly present in the composition of food. But even with the most rational nutrition (and let’s be frank – most of us have far from ideally balanced nutrition), the human diet today is “understaffed” with vitamins by 20-30%. The assimilation of vitamins from “artificial” preparations is often higher than from ordinary food.

      Accordingly, it is necessary to regularly take multivitamin preparations. During the period of illness, stress, depression, increased stress, pregnancy, smoking and alcohol abuse, taking antibiotics, the need for vitamins increases.The duration of taking multivitamins is determined by the doctor, and is usually 1-3 months, it is advisable to repeat the course 2-4 times a year. Vitamins are better absorbed if the daily dose is divided into several doses; it is better to prescribe the main intake of drugs in the first half of the day, since in the evening and at night the body’s metabolism slows down. Since a person has always received vitamins from food, it is better to take vitamin preparations with food, so they are absorbed more fully.

      In addition to vitamins, probiotics are important for strengthening the immune system.Probiotics are medicines or biologically active food supplements that contain live microorganisms that are representatives of the normal human microflora. They are designed to restore the disturbed balance of microorganisms inhabiting various mucous membranes of a person, and therefore are used for the treatment and prevention of immunodeficiency, dysbiosis and related diseases.

      Probiotics stimulate the immune system at all levels, as proven by numerous clinical studies.Probiotics and vitamins should not be prescribed for yourself, it is better if a doctor does it.

      Mode and physical activity

      For the normal functioning of the whole organism and the well-being of a person, the regime is very important.

      Try to get up and go to bed at the same time, get enough sleep. Rest more, walk in the fresh air. You need to go in for sports, do exercises.

      Regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on the immune system.During active physical activity, the general tone of the body rises, the mood improves, which contributes to greater activity and a surge of energy, the blood is enriched with oxygen, sleep and appetite improve. Exercise helps to relieve stress, the body produces endorphins (“hormones of happiness”).

      And be sure to walk in the fresh air. If the weather permits, try to spend at least an hour a day outside. Ideally, during daylight hours, because the sun is necessary not only for the production of vitamin D, without sunlight, the level of serotonin (another “happiness hormone”) in the blood decreases, which is responsible for our good mood.In autumn and winter, the problem of lack of sunlight is especially relevant – we get up after dark, leave work after sunset. Take every opportunity to catch the light of day: go for a walk during your lunch break, be sure to plan your walks at the weekend.

      Quitting bad habits

      Bad habits – smoking, alcohol, abuse of drugs and narcotic drugs – greatly weaken the body’s immune system, impair the functioning of many organs, destroy blood vessels, the brain, lungs, and increase the risk of developing diseases.In fact, if you constantly poison yourself with smoking, alcohol, etc., it is difficult to expect good health from the body. Alcohol and nicotine suppress the immune system, as a result of which it ceases to fulfill its protective functions. By the way, many medications can also weaken the immune system, therefore, firstly, you should not mindlessly take pills without a doctor’s prescription, and secondly, if you are taking medications, strengthen measures to strengthen the immune system.

      Positive attitude

      There is an intimate relationship between the physical and emotional components of humans.If life does not bring joy and pleasure to a person, then biological mechanisms of self-destruction are triggered. Be positive, enjoy every day – there is always a reason for this. The ability to positively perceive any reality is, without exaggeration, a guarantee of health and longevity.

      We hope that our tips will help you become healthier and that the upcoming fall-winter season will bring you only joy, not illness!

      No, immunity does not weaken in spring.What ideas about him are actually myths?

      Immunity is a complex system of molecules, cells, tissues and organs, which is most often compared to an army or guards. This “Ministry of the Interior” tracks strangers in our body in order to destroy them or simply expel them. But this is not the only function. “Immunity is also tolerance to one’s own tissues, micro- and macroorganisms inside a person,” explains Alexander Karaulov, head of the Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology at Sechenov University.

      On this topic

      The immune system introduces a throughput mode in the body, but both ours and strangers sometimes get permission, and sometimes get blacklisted. Cancer and dead cells are our own, but the immune system fights against them. The gut bacteria that help digest food come from outside, but as long as they behave well, they are not touched. How this happens and what consequences it leads to, physicians and scientists do not fully understand. For example, there are suggestions that the immune system is somehow associated with mental disorders and can affect personality traits.But a lot in immune processes is still clear.

      Immunity cannot be “strengthened”

      When talking about strengthening the immune system, it is difficult to understand what is meant. Some parts of the immune system act in the opposite way on the body. For example, some molecules increase inflammation, while others, on the contrary, weaken it. If the inflammation proceeds slowly, then harmful viruses and microorganisms can harm a person too much. But too violent inflammation – with fever, edema – can kill.

      The immune system is like a musical instrument that is initially correctly tuned. “If we are not sick with anything, our immunity works well – there is no need to” strengthen. ” “How Immunity Works” Ekaterina Umnyakova.

      Most common immunomodulators do not work

      Immunity can, however, be influenced.Substances that can do this are called immunomodulators. Some of them are sold as medicines in pharmacies, but you should not rush to buy. “Most of them are useless, especially when we are talking about homeopathic medicines, as well as medicines whose effectiveness has not been proven in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials on a decent sample,” says Ekaterina Umnyakova. Effective drugs – as an example Ekaterina Umnyakova cites recombinant cytokines that serve as a signal for immune cells – it is also better not to take without the appointment and supervision of the attending doctor, so as not to harm yourself.True, some doctors prescribe anything. For example, sweet granules for colds, where the active ingredient is diluted so much that in 20 billion universes like ours, if they existed, there would be only one molecule of this substance. “Carefully study the name of the drug, the active ingredient, try to find data on how the effect is proven,” advises Ekaterina Umnyakova.

      Double-blind, placebo-controlled testing is considered the best way to test the efficacy of a substance.Participants are randomly (then the experiment is called randomized) divided into two groups – one is given the drug, and the other is a dummy (placebo). Sometimes there are more groups to compare several drugs. Neither doctors nor patients know who got what (which is why testing is double-blind). It is believed that this design of the experiment eliminates bias and gives objective results.


      But most people do not need immunomodulators, even if they have already caught a cold or got sick with something else.According to Ekaterina Umnyakova, to maintain the immune system in order, you just need to eat right so that the body receives enough proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. At the same time, doctors advise not to take supplements with vitamins and minerals for prophylaxis – only if the lack of these substances is revealed by tests.

      Probably training does not weaken the immune system

      It is believed that after hard training it is easy to get sick. According to Alexander Karaulov, the first studies on this topic showed that during sports, the number of immune cells increases up to ten times, but soon after that their level, on the contrary, drops below normal.The results were interpreted as suppression of immunity. But cells do not disappear without a trace and do not collapse.

      © Mikhail Japaridze / TASS

      A recent study showed that immune cells from the blood travel to the lungs and other organs through which pathogens can enter. Its authors believe that after training, the body’s resistance only increases, at least when it comes to influenza viruses. But playing sports still takes away strength. “You need nutrition rich in vitamins, macro- and microelements, antioxidant therapy is very important, because training inevitably causes oxidative stress,” explains Alexander Karaulov.

      Caesarean section impairs the formation of immunity

      The immune system, which for a long time was considered only as a defense against outsiders, often fails without some “aliens”. As the baby passes through the birth canal, the mother’s bacteria colonize the baby and tune the baby’s immune system. Children born by cesarean section are deprived of this. “Unfortunately, they are more likely to suffer from chronic diseases involving the immune system,” says Alexander Karaulov.

      On this topic

      “But this is not always critical and it cannot always be compensated for.Sometimes cesarean section and artificial feeding are shown, “says Ekaterina Umnyakova. Artificial feeding can also disrupt the proper formation of immunity, because breast milk contains the necessary substances not only for the child, but also for the beneficial bacteria living with him. Therefore, children are given special formulas that are close in composition to breast milk.

      “The most important thing is not to panic: it would not be better for the child. You just have to get together and do everything possible to observe as many natural conditions as possible,” says Ekaterina Umnyakova.

      What else you need to know about immunity

      In the spring, immunity does not weaken, and people usually get sick for other reasons . “With the arrival of warmth, all sorts of viruses and bacteria multiply more actively – yes; there may be less vitamins than in summer; the change of seasons can cause a little stress, especially when people do not guess with the clothes, but in general nothing is weakened,” says Ekaterina Umnyakova.

      Face masks are of little use during flu outbreaks .”Viral particles are many times smaller than the pores of the tissue from which the mask is made. It creates an obstacle if the inhaled or exhaled particles are large enough, and if small, then the protection is significantly reduced. It is recommended to wear the mask for no longer than two hours, then it must be changed,” – explains Ekaterina Umnyakova. It should also be remembered that some strains of influenza can enter the body through the mucous membrane of the eye, which the mask does not cover – just rub them with your hand. Alexander Karaulov reminds that hands must be washed thoroughly.And during epidemics, it is best to avoid people as much as possible.

      • Non-childhood infection: how to prevent contracting measles and what to do if already sick
      • What is herd immunity? Should adults be vaccinated? Questions about vaccinations

      The benefits of vaccination far outweigh the risks . “Opponents of vaccinations usually do not want to” harm “the body with an unnecessary, in their opinion, load and provoke allergies or other side effects. After all, there is a possibility that neither they nor their children will ever meet pathogens of serious infectious diseases.But, as a rule, they forget that the diseases themselves, which are vaccinated against, are much more dangerous than side effects, “says Ekaterina Umnyakova. Alexander Karaulov recalls that the measles virus sometimes leads to serious complications years after the illness. and children die from them.

      © Yuri Smityuk / TASS

      Do not overestimate the hardening of . “Hardening, if carried out correctly, can increase the body’s resistance, for example, in the cold. But still, the effect on immunity is indirect, and in different conditions the body can react differently,” says Ekaterina Umnyakova.However, cold showers and similar treatments can provide other benefits. According to Alexander Karaulov, hardening reduces anxiety, improves mood, and immunity also depends on the state of the psyche.

      Due to drugs, the immune system does not “learn” to work independently . It is believed that if you take too many drugs, then over time, the immune system will not be able to cope without them. Immune suppressants do exist. Sometimes this is their main purpose: without them, for example, it would be impossible to transplant organs that would be rejected like strangers.But if the doctor has prescribed medications, you need to follow his prescription. “From drugs, immunity will not forget how to do what was created by millions of years of evolution,” says Ekaterina Umnyakova.

      Marat Kuzaev with the participation of Vera Klyueva

      90,000 “The decrease in immunity lasts one and a half to two months after COVID-19” | Articles

      In different regions of the country, the number of patients with COVID-19 varies from 21% to 60%, judging by the presence of antibodies in patients. Moreover, the largest megalopolises with the highest average daily incidence – Moscow and St. Petersburg – are by no means among the leaders, but among the middle peasants, Areg Totolyan, an immunologist, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, director of the Pasteur Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, told Izvestia.In addition, during the study, experts found markers of a decrease in general immunity in COVID-19 patients, he said. According to the immunologist, this condition lasts for two months. Also, the scientist talked about what is more dangerous: first to get vaccinated, and then get infected, or vice versa.

      To inject and not get infected

      Areg Artemovich, mass vaccination has begun. It passes at the peak of a pandemic, and the risk of encountering an infection remains high during the formation of immunity.Which is safer: for example, if the virus has already entered the body, but without knowing it, the person will be vaccinated, or if the infection occurs after the first or second injection, when immunity to SARS CoV -2 is still being formed?

      – The question is correct and fair. If there was contact with the virus, but there is no clinical picture, that is, the virus does not multiply in the respiratory tract, this situation should not be feared. In this case, the vaccine cannot be harmful.

      Another situation, if there is a certain clinical picture: signs of acute respiratory infections, temperature even at the level of subfebrile values ​​(37. 1-38 degrees – Izvestia), there is a more specific symptomatology – loss of smell, you must refrain from vaccination, transfer her at a later period. If you lose your sense of smell, you should postpone the vaccination even in the absence of other signs of the disease. I would recommend that everyone remember that a doctor, a vaccine prophylaxis specialist, must give permission or “approval” for vaccination.So in any case, decisions should not be made on their own.

      Photo: Izvestia / Pavel Volkov

      – Like the flu vaccine?

      – Of course! Against the background of active infection, any vaccination is contraindicated. We are not dealing with therapeutic vaccines, but with preventive ones.

      Today we have two vaccines approved for mass use. They have not been studied as therapeutic agents. The studies that were conducted for registration and post-registration studies were devoted specifically to the preventive effect of the vaccine, and not to the therapeutic one.

      – And if contact with the infection occurred after vaccination, but before immunity was formed?

      – Yes, there may be such a situation that after vaccination a person fell under a high viral load, and no one is immune from this. It is more terrible to get vaccinated if a person is already sick. But let’s divide: what we can influence and what we cannot influence. We can delay vaccination if there are signs of illness.

      It must be remembered that immunity does not develop immediately, the very fact of the injection does not give protection.In the case of the administration of the Sputnik-V and EpiVacCorona vaccines, two injections are provided with an interval of three weeks. The total observation period is 42 days (six weeks, or one and a half months), during this time it is necessary to continue to observe all measures of social distancing, to use personal protective equipment. Otherwise, it is necessary to sit on self-isolation, but, I think, hardly anyone will go according to such a scenario.

      Photo: Izvestia / Pavel Volkov

      If the human immune system responds normally to vaccination, the level of antibodies has become high enough, then you can feel protected.

      – Some are just trying to sit out the pandemic. When is this strategy correct?

      – For super elderly people under 90 or 90+. Our country is large, there are also people aged 130, most of whom have chronic diseases, and this is a relative contraindication for vaccination. Some diseases are considered absolute contraindications to vaccination – primary immunodeficiencies. In such patients, whole parts of the immune system are turned off from functioning.They should wait for the situation when collective immunity is formed, this is a completely correct tactic. I would urge people between the ages of 18 and 70–75 not to follow the path of rigid self-isolation.

      The best protection

      – Which protects better – antibodies formed in the event of a previous illness or as a result of vaccination? They are the same?

      Miscellaneous. The rule applies to most vaccine-preventable infections: the immunity that is produced naturally is more persistent, it lasts a longer period than post-vaccination immunity.I would not apply this rule to today’s topical infection. First, we see that after a coronavirus infection, not everyone develops neutralizing antibodies. Some develop antibodies, but not of the specificity that allows them to protect themselves from reinfection.

      Photo: State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology “Vector” Rospotrebnadzor

      Secondly, both Sputnik-V and EpiVacCorona vaccines are aimed at interacting with the S-protein.”Sputnik-V” is aimed at the site that is responsible for the neutralizing activity of antibodies, while “EpiVacCoron” uses peptides, which are fragments of the S-protein. Therefore, in the case of vaccination with both Russian vaccines, there is a greater chance of obtaining antibodies that will protect, than in the case of a passively transferred infection, when it comes to mild and asymptomatic forms of the disease. In the case of moderate infection, both the level of antibodies and the quality of antibodies are significantly higher.

      – What in the body does the coronavirus “attack” first of all?

      – First of all, it disables the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx.They are the first to encounter the virus, and the interferon system inside the cells is blocked. They become inferior due to the multiplication of the virus in them. This is important because the quality of the humoral immune response also depends on the functional usefulness of epithelial cells. Damage to epithelial cells is one of the reasons for the body’s inadequate immune response to the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

      Photo: Depositphotos

      – Is the inhibition of the immune response by the virus a distinctive feature of SARS- CoV -2? Other viruses are not capable of this?

      – Yes, this is the specificity of the new coronavirus infection.


      – How quickly does the normal immune response to infection recover in those who have been ill?

      – We conduct an immunological examination of both patients and those who have been ill who belong to the category of reconvolutions (they are in such a period of recovery when the obvious signs of the disease have ended, but there is still no full restoration of the previous state of the body. – Izvestia) at different times, and there are already first results. We found biomarkers of some immunological deficiency, immune depression.Such a decrease in immunity lasts one and a half to two months after the transferred COVID-19 and is reversible. Clinically, this manifests itself as asthenization syndrome. People suffer from increased fatigue, drowsiness, a person copes with stress worse, and cognitive functions suffer. We investigated the immunological consequences of the postponed COVID-19 and identified immunological markers of these consequences. I cannot tell you more about it yet. These data are now being prepared for publication in the scientific press.

      – Is this your most interesting find while researching a new coronavirus infection?

      – At the moment, yes. I can tell you in more detail a little later, when the work is completed. But, perhaps, the most interesting and most difficult task is different. We want to find biomarkers in those who are not sick, even working in the red zones. It takes a long process of observation, and we are doing it.

      Photo: Izvestia / Pavel Bednyakov

      – Recently an article was published, the authors of which say that in those who have been ill, the virus can hide in exosomes.Can you explain how this happens and does this mean that COVID -19 should be considered a chronic disease?

      – When a virus destroys epithelial cells, they do not disappear without a trace. From them microvesicles remain, and the virus can persist there. Experimental data allow us to speak about the validity of such a model. But this assumption requires evidence on clinical material, it is necessary to conduct an examination of patients and those who have been ill. So far, I have not seen such data in the scientific literature.

      When we talk about chronic infection, it means that the virus has remained in the human body, it constantly exists there in some organs and cells, multiplies and eliminates (completely expelled – Izvestia) it is impossible. This happens with viral hepatitis B, with HIV, which lives in lymphocytes. There is no evidence yet that SARS-CoV-2 lives permanently in any organs or cells. Until proven, COVID-19 cannot be considered a chronic disease, although in some cases COVID-19 is a lingering infection.For example, in immunocompromised patients, in cancer patients who are on long-term or permanent immunosuppression.

      Mosaic of population immunity

      – For more than six months, scientists from the Pasteur Research Institute have been conducting research on population immunity, and in dynamics. 75 thousand people are covered in 26 regions of the country who take tests for antibodies to SARS- CoV -2. Please tell us how the picture is changing, what is the latest data?

      Photo: RIA Novosti / RDIF and the Gamaleya Center

      – This is a large program of Rospotrebnadzor, in which eight research institutes and 20 territorial departments and centers of hygiene of Rospotrebnadzor take part.In total, more than 167 thousand studies have been carried out. Three stages of the program have already been implemented, the last one in December. The first stage began in June and lasted until mid-August. We got a very diverse picture in the whole country: in different regions of seropositive persons (having antibodies to SASRS-CoV-2. – Izvestia) were from 4% to 51%. This is due to the fact that different regions at different times entered the epidemic. For the second stage of the research, we chose the beginning of the school year – September-October, and examined the same volunteers. The cohort, as expected, narrowed from 75 thousand to 50 thousand people, but as a result we did not see much dynamics: the range decreased slightly from 5.5% to the same 51%. But they saw that the largest proportion of seropositive persons were children of preschool and primary school age. They have antibodies.

      – There is no vaccination option for children yet, but it turns out that this age group was the most immunized?

      – Yes. There really is no vaccine for children, but, fortunately, it is not as relevant for them as for adults and the elderly.In most cases, children carry the infection either asymptomatically or mildly. Indeed, 90,185 children are immunized faster than the rest of the population. Even with minimal clinical manifestations or their complete absence, antibodies in children are developed and protection appears. During our research, we saw this clearly.

      Photo: Izvestia / Pavel Volkov

      – Is the third stage completed?

      Yes, it took place in December, the data has been processed and mostly analyzed. Here we have already seen significant dynamics: there is a gradual alignment of the situation in different regions. The range of individuals with antibodies is 21% to 60%.

      – Are Moscow and St. Petersburg among the leaders?

      No. Moscow and Petersburg in the middle peasants.

      – After all, it is in the two largest metropolitan areas of the country that the average daily increase in cases is greatest. How can this be explained?

      The system of formation of population immunity is very multifactorial, and we do not see a direct relationship between the recorded incidence rate and the level of herd immunity.However, we do not yet have a final answer to the question of why this is so.

      Photo: Izvestia / Dmitry Korotaev

      – Will the research be continued? If so, how will it change due to the added factor of vaccination?

      The fourth phase of research is planned for March. It will have a number of features over the previous three stages. The previous three stages took place under conditions of natural acquisition of population immunity, we dealt only with those who had been ill.At the fourth stage, we will already have a certain proportion of those vaccinated, with different vaccines at different stages of vaccination. The data will be very heterogeneous and more detailed analysis will be required.

      Our strategic goal is to continue research on population immunity. After all, mass vaccination is carried out in order for us to reach the level of herd immunity, which will protect the entire population as a whole, the entire population. Until we reach such a situation, we will continue to research.According to my forecasts, this will take all of 2021.

      – What do you think, if there was no vaccination, would herd immunity ever develop?

      Someday – of course, yes. Only this would be a lengthy process that would take several years.

      HOW LONG IS THE CHILD’S ORGANISM RECOVERED AFTER ILLNESS? – IPM clinic for children in Krasnoyarsk

      We often come across the fact that immediately after an illness, a child immediately begins to attend a kindergarten, school.At the same time, parents often do not think about whether the child’s body has managed to fully recover, get stronger? Often this is due to the busyness of the parents, the inability to leave the child at home under supervision.

      The immunity of each child is different and the recovery period will be different for everyone. It also depends on the disease and the severity of its course. The common cold weakens the child’s body for a period of 4 to 10 days, which requires recovery, even with a seemingly complete recovery when there are no symptoms. A receding illness does not mean that the child is completely healthy. The body has not yet recovered and cannot fully resist new viruses. And the task of the parents is to support him during this period. Therefore, the post-illness period is very important. Only for some reason this is often forgotten. And the result of such forgetfulness is 2-3 or more sick leaves in the autumn-winter period.

      Parents should teach their baby the right attitude to himself and his health. From early childhood, the baby should know what is harmful, what is useful.And also teach your baby to be healthy, and in case of illness – to be treated correctly, to be ill and to recover correctly. It is important for the child’s conscious attitude to all the manipulations carried out, from taking medications to not being in the room when it is ventilated in winter.

      Why is the recovery period important? During illness, all systems of the child’s body are affected. During the recovery period, the child may sweat a lot, the appetite has not yet fully recovered, pale skin, general lethargy, weight loss, fatigue, problems with maintaining attention. Even with an apparent complete recovery, the recovery processes in the body continue in all organs and systems. Therefore, it is necessary after a certain period of time to retake all tests, and to appear again to the pediatrician. This is necessary to make sure whether your child’s body has really recovered and to prevent possible long-term complications of the previous disease.

      What are the most frequent disorders:

      • the work of the digestive system is disrupted, for the normalization of which, give your child fermented milk products, products containing fiber, lacto- and bifidobacteria (Bifilis, Bifidum, Primadophilus, Floradophilus, Linex and others).This will help get rid of stagnant processes in the intestines and restore a healthy microflora, which in turn will help increase immunity. A recovering body needs simple, but at the same time tasty and vitamin-rich food: fruits and vegetables, herbs, cereals (buckwheat, rice, oatmeal), boiled chicken, stewed turkey or beef, light vegetarian soups (no meat broths), a minimum of mayonnaise and butter . .. Carefully and gradually introduce chicken eggs into the diet, and it is better to replace them with quail eggs.In the cold season, it is necessary to fortify food with fish oil, for example, pouring it with vinaigrette or sauerkraut. A broth of oats in age doses for 1 month is very useful. Oatmeal broth is prepared as follows: half a glass of washed oats (not oatmeal!) Pour 1.5 liters of spring water in an enamel bowl in the evening, and in the morning boil over low heat for 1.5 hours in a saucepan with a closed lid. All heat-resistant B vitamins contained in the husk are evaporated and extracted into water. Then, when the broth has cooled, it must be filtered and squeezed well.The broth can be cooked for two days and stored in the refrigerator. Give the oatmeal broth to the child before meals, without adding honey or sugar, cinnamon or vanillin. The taste of this “medicine” is pleasant, the baby will get used to it quickly. The oats weakens, loosens the stool. Therefore, individual options are possible – if the child has a tendency to constipation, then you can slightly increase the dose. Oat broth is a “medicinal” product that has B vitamins, which are used to restore the nervous system, improve the functioning of the liver and pancreas.
      • the condition of the nasopharyngeal mucosa and its microflora is disturbed. To do this, it is recommended to rinse or inhale with chamomile, eucalyptus, calendula, St. John’s wort, yarrow.
      • the urinary system is disrupted. To maintain it, it is recommended to maintain a water regime – 30 ml per 1 kg of the child’s weight per day.
      • the respiratory system is disrupted. During illness, it is advisable to exclude food with a mucus-forming effect for several days – cow’s milk, fresh bread, buns.It is more rational to use dried bread and crackers. A small child (from one and a half to five years old) does not need to limit the consumption of whole cow’s milk. An excellent tonic is oat and buckwheat decoctions: 2 parts of goat’s milk and 1 part of strained steamed oats or buckwheat with bran. If the baby will like the “medicine”, it is advisable to drink it within a month (but not less than 2 weeks).

      In order to support a weakened body after an illness and finally recover and get stronger, you must adhere to a number of simple rules: strengthening immunity after antibiotics

      – proper nutrition, eat more fermented milk products

      – positive emotions.Being in a good mood after an illness is just as important as any of the other items. So take a break from the TV or computer and pay maximum attention to your baby

      – to strengthen the immune system with folk and medicines, for example, based on echinacea

      – dressing the child for a walk, do not overdo it: you do not need to wrap it up like cabbage, it is equally bad after an illness overcooling and overheating

      – regularly ventilate rooms, if necessary – humidify the air

      – useful water procedures.After the illness, the child sweats a lot, so a nightly shower is required

      – therapeutic exercises:

      • Lion pose – ask the child to reach the sternum with the tip of his tongue, tilting his head, and stay in this position for 3 to 10 seconds, while exhaling. The lion is very scary in anger, so the baby must open his mouth wide and portray the angry king of beasts. This posture of tension of the tongue and pharyngeal arches improves blood flow, lymph flow, with it the pharynx is sanitized, stagnant mucus and caseous plugs are evacuated.
      • Exercises for the neck – slow rotations to the right and to the left, circular rotations – normalize the lymph glands behind the ear that have enlarged during the illness.
      • Exercise “Drummer” helps in the restoration of the bronchopulmonary system. Teach your baby to gently beat himself on the chest on exhalation with his hands folded into fists, with the sounds “a”, “o”, “y” – this is a kind of fun self-massage of the chest.

      When to go to kindergarten and school?

      Even if you need to go to work urgently, try to keep your baby at home for a few days after the illness, entrusting him to the care of his grandmother or nanny.Especially if the baby was sick for a long time and hard. It takes at least 3-4 days of adaptation to recuperate. Here the law of gradual and adequate stress comes into force: it will not be easy for a baby to get used to emotional and physical stress in child care facilities, to the desired daily routine (it is very difficult to get up at 7 in the morning after a two-week rise by noon), even to the fresh street air, from which the child is also out of the habit.

      Your child’s health is in your hands! Be healthy!

      Learn about battery consumption for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch

      Learn how to check the battery consumption of each app on your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch.

      Checking the consumable charge of the battery

      To view the battery level and usage for the last 24 hours and up to 10 days, select Settings> Battery.

      By clicking on one of the columns on the screen, you can see which programs and in what ratio have consumed battery power over a certain period of time.

      To see how long each program has been in active or background mode, click Activity. The following usage types are displayed for each program.

      • “Background activity” – the battery was used while programs were running in the background.
      • “Audio” – while running in the background, programs play audio files.
      • No cellular coverage or Weak signal — The device is searching for a network or is using a network with a weak signal.
      • “Copier. and restored. ” – backing up your device using iCloud or restoring from an iCloud backup.
      • “Connected to charger” – the program was used only when the device was in the process of charging.

      You can also view the last time the device was connected to the charger and the last charge level.

      Adjust settings to increase battery life

      Using Power Save Mode

      If you want to conserve battery life on your iPhone, turn on Power Saving Mode. This will reduce power consumption until the iPhone is turned off or charged up to 80%. When in power saving mode, certain settings and features, such as program updates, downloading new TV shows or podcast episodes, checking mail, and visual effects such as True Tone, are slower or disabled.

      Additional information on power saving mode.

      Additional information

      Published Date:

      How to improve the immunity of a pregnant woman | Encyclopedia Barrier

      During childbearing, the protective properties of the female body are reduced. The deterioration of the health of the expectant mother can negatively affect the baby, so a woman should be especially careful about how to raise the immunity of a pregnant woman. During this period, especially against the backdrop of the coronavirus pandemic, it is very important to monitor your condition, prevent diseases and maintain the immune system at its best.In this case, the pregnancy will proceed without complications.

      Causes of decreased immunity in pregnant women

      Immunosuppression (suppression of the immune system) during pregnancy is a normal process that prevents embryo rejection. The female body perceives the fetus as a foreign body, therefore, if the mother’s immune functions do not decrease, there is a high probability that the pregnancy will terminate by itself. On the other hand, immunity can deteriorate due to external reasons that make a woman vulnerable to infections.These include:

      • improper nutrition;
      • hormonal imbalance;
      • stress, anxiety;
      • low physical activity;
      • bad ecology;
      • lack of minerals and vitamins;
      • Incorrect sleep mode;
      • poor work of the digestive tract.

      Against the background of these reasons, it is extremely important to take care of supporting the immunity of pregnant women in order to gain additional strength for bearing a child and to prevent the development of various diseases.

      Signs of impairment of immunity

      With a decrease in protective functions, a woman experiences general malaise, which is associated with hormonal changes in the body. Toxicosis, although it causes some concern, is a natural condition that accompanies the gestation process. It’s another matter if a woman’s immunity is greatly reduced, which is accompanied by the following symptoms:

      • headaches;
      • pallor, dry skin;
      • dizziness;
      • increased sweating;
      • exposure to colds;
      • insomnia;
      • delamination of nails;
      • hair fragility;
      • bleeding gums.

      All these signs indicate that a woman should think about improving the functioning of her immune system.

      Pregnancy and coronavirus

      As statistics show, during the entire period of the coronavirus pandemic, not a single case of death of a pregnant woman was recorded. However, this does not mean that women can forget about precautions. Like other people, they are susceptible to infection, and a viral infection is an additional risk for the baby.The immunity of pregnant women to coronavirus is not fully understood, and the disease can result in spontaneous miscarriage, frozen pregnancy, premature birth. Therefore, expectant mothers need to follow the standard prophylaxis:

      • avoid contact with sick people;
      • wash hands frequently, treat them with disinfectants;
      • to minimize shopping and beauty salons;
      • eat rationally;
      • Wear a mask when visiting crowded places.

      How to increase immunity in pregnant women

      During pregnancy, it is recommended to limit the intake of medicines as much as possible, therefore, only general methods of improving health can help to increase the protective properties of the female body.

      Healthy food

      Approximately 70% of immunity depends on the proper functioning of the intestines. For this reason, it is very important for a woman to maintain a healthy and nutritious diet that is high in fruits and vegetables.During pregnancy, it is better to give up preservation, fried, fatty, smoked food. Preference should be given to lean meats, dairy products, nuts, cheese, and wholemeal bread. It is worth eating more often, but in small portions, to avoid excessive weight gain.


      Considering how to increase the immunity of a pregnant woman, do not forget about vitamins. In addition to the nutrients that are included in food, expectant mothers need to use vitamin complexes for pregnant women, containing essential minerals, macro- and microelements.Especially important when carrying a child are folic acid, iodine, zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, vitamins E, C, group B. The attending physician will tell you which vitamins to take during pregnancy.

      Fresh air and exercise

      To improve health, a woman should move actively and be outdoors more often. It is recommended that expectant mothers regularly go for walks in squares or parks, and, if possible, go out of town to nature. However, do not be overly zealous with physical activity.Exercising in the morning is enough to keep your muscles toned. In addition, there are various exercises during pregnancy that not only increase immunity, but also help the expectant mother prepare for childbirth.

      Drinking water

      Women are advised to consume more fluids during pregnancy. But remember that ordinary tap water contains many harmful impurities, so it should be thoroughly cleaned before drinking. Filters “Active Strength of Immunity” from the manufacturer BARRIER, which are specially designed to increase the protective properties of the body, will help in this.Filtration systems perform the following functions:

      • remove chloride compounds and other harmful substances from water;
      • enrich water with magnesium and zinc;
      • remove extraneous tastes and odors;
      • prevent the formation of limescale in kettles.

      Enrichment of water with magnesium helps women cope with stress and nervousness more easily, supports the immune system, improves lung and heart function. Zinc increases the ability of immune cells to prevent external threats, normalizes hormonal levels, and reduces the risk of allergic reactions and colds.Thanks to this, BARRIER filters provide effective strengthening of the immune system for pregnant women and make it easier to endure the ailments associated with bearing a baby.

      “Fake education”. How the pandemic revealed the problems of online learning

      • Olga Smirnova
      • BBC

      Photo author, Getty Images

      Photo caption,

      communicate with each other.

      When schools and universities had to switch to virtual learning in the spring of 2020, many said that the future had finally arrived and online education was becoming the norm before our very eyes. However, after months of virtual learning, both students and teachers are increasingly saying that it is necessary to return to traditional methods, and online education in the pandemic has demonstrated all its limitations and weaknesses.

      “Online learning helps to retain more information, to do everything faster.And this means that, probably, the changes in the field introduced because of covid will remain when the epidemic is over, “- this is the conclusion made by experts of the World Economic Forum in April.

      ” If you want a future in which students are simply given facts , information, and they memorize it, then online learning is quite suitable. But this is not a real education, “says one of the professors at Oxford University, who asked not to be named, after several months of a global experiment.

      “The goal of education is to learn to think critically, to think about information, to debate, to question facts, opinions, including your own, – continues the professor. – Learning on the Internet is not a suitable environment to achieve this goal.”

      Virtual (correspondence) Cambridge

      Photo author, Getty Images

      Photo caption,

      Cambridge became the first British university to announce that all lectures in the new academic year will be delivered virtually

      The famous University of Cambridge was the first of universities in Britain announced that all lectures in the next academic year will be held virtually.Many British universities soon followed suit to one degree or another, effectively switching to a correspondence system. At the same time, in different cases, personal communication with a research supervisor or teacher is allowed “one-on-one”, but most of the communications will take place virtually. Some universities announced that a student, for example, will be able to communicate in person only with his supervisor no more than once a week and no longer than half an hour.

      Before the start of the academic year, the universities tried to improve the existing online service.But in the spring it became fundamentally clear how it works and where the weakest points of the new system are.

      “Our anatomy instructor usually gives us a hold of a bone and then asks us to name different parts of it,” says Jane, a first-year Cambridge Medical School student.

      The news that Cambridge will teach students online by the end of the next academic year first excited the students.One-to-one tuition, often one-on-one with a tutor, is what sets Cambridge and Oxford apart from other UK universities.

      “Initial press reports were that in general all training would be brought online, including small group workshops,” adds Jane.

      Students were less worried about the cancellation of mass lectures. “I learn much better when I listen to a recorded lecture online,” says Jane. “I can pause it to take notes without haste, I can take a break when I need to. Or I can quickly listen to the material if I know it well. Recorded online lectures help to review material in preparation for the exam. “

      In many universities, such lectures were available before the pandemic. But most of the Cambridge lecturers refused to post their lectures on the Internet.” I hope that when the epidemic ends, lectures will continue to be recorded on video “, – hopes Jane.

      ” This is an artificial environment “

      Photo author, Getty Images

      Photo caption,

      Lectures recorded on video can be watched many times

      ” How you can infect the audience with love for your subject if you lecture virtually? There is no incentive to be public speaking when you are giving a lecture in front of a black screen, “says a professor at Oxford University.

      Like many universities, Oxford seminars moved online back in March. “The most active in virtual seminars are those students who are more confident and know more than others. Students who are not confident in their knowledge participate in discussions even less actively than usual,” says the professor.

      In addition, he adds, constructive discussion of topics does not work online either: “Students can ask questions via chat, but chat is very distracting if you try to focus on what the speaker is saying.”

      Often, because of the weak Internet, you have to turn off the video, and without video it is difficult to establish a working contact: you don’t even know if a student is listening or going about his business.

      “People are social creatures, they learn better and assimilate information through ordinary communication, and not in front of a computer. This is an artificial environment,” the professor believes. “In any non-virtual classroom, a certain social environment is created where students want to communicate and make friends. They encourage each other express their thoughts.You can’t create such an environment on the Internet.

      According to him, all the reasoning that the future is already here comes from people who are” used to briefings using Powerpoint, where you do not need to strain and think too much. “

      Disadvantage communication

      When it became known that universities were switching to online education, 300,000 British students signed a petition calling for lower tuition fees.

      In 2018, the Times interviewed 200 leaders of different universities, and they all believed that online learning can never replace full-time education and stay in a real university

      For many students, the value of a university education is not only in obtaining a qualification.Nearly 60% of students and alumni surveyed recently responded that university life helped them socially, they became more independent and confident, learned to work in a team and manage their time.

      Photo author, Getty Images

      Photo caption,

      Students’ access to laboratories and practical exercises, limited by covid, can greatly affect their skills

      Cambridge student Jane and her friends also care about their social circle narrowed due to the transfer of lectures to the Internet: “It was in lectures that we met students studying the same subject, but living in other colleges,” says Jane.

      But online learning also has objective advantages. It is believed that the dock-era education model is outdated and that the pandemic will still force the transition to new teaching methods.

      “Classroom teaching, with students sitting in front of the teacher and he is talking, is the type of education we have adopted from the era of industrial development,” developmental psychologist Alison Gopnik of the University of California, Berkeley told the BBC. thus skills were needed in the distant past.These skills are needed to complete tasks that robots will do in the near future. ”

      Alison Gopnik believes that in the future, teachers will be more like mentors. guide students, give them the opportunity to try different learning methods and intervene when additional help is needed.

      “What we see during the pandemic is not a new model of education. This is just a fallback, until the pre-existing model of education cannot be restored, “says the Oxford professor, who believes face-to-face education is the gold standard.

      But this professor also recognizes certain advantages of the current situation. Virtual teaching helps students with disabilities. And the more programs become available virtually, the better it is for them.

      In addition, well-known guest lecturers or busy politicians who were invited by universities to speak to students were more willing to give their lectures in the comfort of their homes.

      It has become easier for students in general to communicate with teachers.For example, in the past it was very rare for students to “disturb” lecturers during vacations. This is now more acceptable. How teachers treat this, many of whom are engaged in research activities during the holidays, is another question. But for some students, the virtual environment has opened up new opportunities.

      “Easier access to the teacher via the Internet is especially important for international students who went home during the pandemic,” says a professor at the University of Oxford.

      Lessons for the Future

      University College London published a new study in June that showed that during the quarantine, two million British schoolchildren were actually doing nothing at all while studying from home. It turned out that, on average, on the Internet, schoolchildren studied only two and a half hours a day.

      Photo author, Getty Images

      Photo caption,

      A study by University College London showed that millions of children, studying and at home, actually did nothing

      In part, these and other data became the reason for governments and experts around the world to talk about that primary and secondary schools should be reopened as a priority.

      “If something is not clear, it is difficult to immediately ask for help. Of course, you can fill out a special Google form with a question and send it to the teacher, but teachers do not always answer,” recalls distance learning in the spring, Jessica, a 15-year-old student of one from high schools in the same Oxford.

      “The value of personal communication between teacher and student is to immediately understand if the student misunderstood something,” says Daisy Christodoulou, a British researcher and author of the book “Seven Myths about Education”.

      Some quarantine innovations are proposed to be retained. Recorded video tutorials that can be revisited multiple times, for example, are especially helpful for students who are lagging behind.

      “During the pandemic, our school has a new position for virtual learning,” says Spanish teacher Alice Johnston. “And we would like to keep the online platforms that were used during the quarantine.”

      Online education is cheaper. If you record a lecture on video, it can be shown to several generations of students, which is alarming for some teachers.

      Experience from the times of the pandemic may be useful in the future. According to experts, in the coming years, the country may face an acute shortage of teachers.