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Weeping hives: Hives Information | Mount Sinai


Urticaria, Welts, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment


What are hives (urticaria)?

Hives are raised red bumps (welts) or splotches on the skin. They are a type of swelling on the surface of your skin. They happen when your body has an allergic reaction to an allergen, a substance that’s harmless to most people. But can also occur in autoimmune conditions or systemic conditions, if hives last for a prolonged period of time.

Hives may be itchy, or you might feel them burning or stinging. They can be as small as a pinprick or as big as a dinner plate. The medical name for hives is urticaria.

Sometimes, the welts from hives join together to form larger areas called plaques. Hives tend to fade within 24 hours, although they may be noticeable for several days or longer.

What is swelling (angioedema)?

Angioedema is a kind of swelling that can be related to hives, but can be an isolated event. It most often causes swelling in deep layers of tissue around the eyes, lips and face. Your hands, feet, throat, intestines and genitals may also swell.

People who get hives may get angioedema at the same time. Sometimes people have angioedema without hives.

Swelling from angioedema can be itchy, and can sometimes be painful. It usually goes away in a day or two. In extreme situations, your throat, airway and digestive tract might swell. These reactions can be life-threatening.

How common are hives and angioedema?

About 20% of people will develop hives at least once. Angioedema by itself occurs less often.

Who’s most likely to get hives (urticaria) or angioedema?

Anyone can get hives or angioedema. Hives are more common than angioedema. People who react to many different types of allergens may get hives frequently. Some people get hives just once or only a few times in their lives.

What are the types of hives (urticaria) and angioedema?

There are different types of hives (urticaria) and angioedema, including:

  • Acute: Hives or swelling that last for less than six weeks are considered acute, meaning they come on suddenly. Allergic reactions to certain foods or medications often cause acute hives and swelling.
  • Chronic: When hives linger for more than six weeks, the condition is chronic. In 95% of chronic conditions, nobody knows what causes them, though it is thought to be autoimmune in nature.
  • Physical: Some people develop hives and swelling in specific situations. Hives might pop up when you’re in the cold, heat or sun. Some people react to vibrations or pressure, or exercise and sweating. Physical hives usually appear within an hour after exposure.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema)?

Allergens can causes these reactions. An allergen is a substance your body doesn’t like, and your body’s immune system reacts by releasing chemicals called histamines. Histamines are a chemical made by allergy cells (mast cell) and other immune cells (eosinophils, basophils, etc) that goes into overdrive to get rid of the allergen. But your body may respond to the flood of histamines by having an allergic reaction that causes hives and swelling.

People get hives and angioedema from all kinds of things, including:

  • Airborne allergens like tree and grass pollen, mold spores and pet dander.
  • Bacterial infections, such as strep throat and urinary tract infections.
  • Food allergies to milk, peanuts and tree nuts, eggs, fish and shellfish.
  • Insect stings.
  • Medication allergies, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), codeine and blood pressure medicine, especially ACE inhibitors.
  • Quick changes in body temperature due to heat, cold or physical activity.
  • Viral infections, such as the common cold or mononucleosis.
  • Allergies to other materials, like latex or detergents.
  • Hormonal issues, like changes in your body because of pregnancy, menopause or thyroid disease.
  • Autoimmune conditions.

What are the symptoms of hives (urticaria)?

Hives look different depending on the person and the situation. They can show up anywhere on your body. Signs of hives include:

  • Red, raised welts or bumps on the skin.
  • Blanching (the center of the hive turns white when pressed).
  • Itchy skin.
  • Swelling (angioedema).

What are the symptoms of swelling (angioedema)?

Signs of angioedema include:

  • Puffy or swollen face, especially the eyes and mouth.
  • Digestive problems, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea or nausea and vomiting.
  • Swollen hands, feet or genitals.
  • Swelling in the mouth, throat or airway that may make it harder to breathe.

Diagnosis and Tests

How are hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) diagnosed?

Your doctor can diagnose hives and swelling by looking at your skin. Allergy tests can help identify what’s triggering a reaction. Knowing the cause can help you avoid allergens, hives and swelling. Allergy tests include:

  • Skin tests: During this test, healthcare providers test different allergens on your skin. If your skin turns red or swells, it means you’re allergic to that substance. This type of allergy test is also called a skin prick or scratch test. Skin testing is not commonly done if hives are chronic in nature.
  • Blood tests: A blood test checks for specific antibodies in your blood. Your body makes antibodies to fight off allergens. The process is part of your immune system — but if your body makes too many, it can cause hives and swelling.

Management and Treatment

How are hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) managed or treated?

Most of the time, hives and swelling go away without treatment. Your healthcare provider might recommend medications and at-home care to help you feel better and lower your chances of having hives again. Treatments include:

  • Allergy medications: Medicines called antihistamines block histamine’s effects on your body. Antihistamines relieve itching from hives and prevent allergic reactions. Some antihistamines react fast, like diphenhydramine (Benadryl®). Depending how severe the hives are, your healthcare provider may recommend daily over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription allergy medications, like loratadine (Claritin®). fexofenadine (Allegra®), cetirizine (Zyrtec®) or levocetirizine (Xyzal®).
  • Allergy shots: For hard-to-treat chronic hives, your healthcare provider may recommend a monthly injection of a drug called omalizumab (Xolair®). This medication blocks the body’s allergy antibody, immunoglobin E (IgE), from causing allergy reactions. People with severe allergies can make too much IgE, leading to problems like hives and asthma.
  • At-home treatments: To relieve hives, you can take a cool bath or shower, wear loose-fitting clothing and apply cold compresses. An OTC hydrocortisone cream, such as Cortizone®, can relieve itching and swelling.
  • Epinephrine: Severe allergic reactions and swelling can lead to a life-threatening condition called anaphylaxis. Symptoms include hives, swelling, shortness of breath, wheezing, vomiting and low blood pressure. People experiencing anaphylaxis need an immediate epinephrine injection (EpiPen®) to open a swollen airway.
  • Oral steroids: Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, can relieve hive symptoms that don’t respond to antihistamines.

What are the complications of hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema)?

Anyone who has a severe allergic reaction could have life-threatening swelling (angioedema) of the airways — your throat and lungs. This condition is known as anaphylaxis. It can potentially close off the airways, resulting in death.

Anaphylaxis is often triggered by a severe allergic reaction to a certain food, like peanuts and tree nuts, or a bee sting. People having anaphylaxis need an immediate shot of epinephrine, such as injectable epinephrine (EpiPen® or AUVI-Q®). Epinephrine opens airways, raises blood pressure and reduces hives and swelling. If epinephrine is used outside of the medical setting, a trip to the ER is warranted, since symptoms can return if epinephrine wears off.


How can I prevent hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema)?

Allergy tests can help your healthcare provider figure out which substances bring on hives and swelling. Once you know your triggers, you can avoid them. You may want to:

  • Cut certain foods or liquids out of your diet.
  • Reduce exposure to airborne allergens.
  • Switch to detergents and soaps without scents or dyes.
  • Avoid extreme changes in temperature.
  • Relax and take a break when you’re stressed or overworked.
  • Wear loose-fitting, lightweight clothing.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with hives and swelling?

For most people, hives don’t cause serious problems. Children often outgrow allergies that cause hives.

For some people, angioedema can cause anaphylaxis — severe swelling of the airways and lungs. People with this life-threatening condition should carry injectable epinephrine (EpiPen®) to treat severe allergic reactions.

Living With

When should I call the doctor?

Hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) typically get better without treatment. Call your healthcare provider if you have:

  • Hives or swelling that last more than a week.
  • Infected-looking bumps (red, swollen or pus-filled).
  • Recurring hives that come back every few months.
  • Severe itching.
  • Signs of anaphylaxis, including wheezing, shortness of breath or vomiting.
  • Swollen lips or eyes.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

If you develop hives (urticaria) or swelling (angioedema), ask your healthcare provider:

  • Why did I get hives and swelling?
  • When should the hives and/or swelling go away?
  • Should I get an allergy test?
  • What steps can I take to prevent getting hives or swelling in the future?
  • What’s the best treatment to reduce itching?
  • What’s the best way to get rid of hives?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

Hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) are your body’s way of responding to a substance (allergen) that it doesn’t like. These reactions are a bit uncomfortable, but are not always serious. You may develop hives alone, hives with swelling, or just swelling. Most of the time, these reactions go away in a day or two. If you are prone to hives or swelling, talk to your healthcare provider about getting an allergy test. Once you know what triggers your allergies, you can take steps to avoid your triggers.

Hives & Allergic Skin Problems * Dr. Andrew Engler Allergists * Allergy Doctor Bay Area, CA

Hives are red, itchy swollen blotches on the skin. They often appear suddenly and go away within a few hours but sometimes they can last several days. They frequently appear in clusters and can be very uncomfortable.

Hives are usually caused by exposure to some substance to which you are allergic. Things that cause hives include environmental allergies, foods such as tree nuts, peanuts, shellfish and medications such as antibiotics or even aspirin or NSAID’s. In some, even exposure to the cold can cause hives.

The best way to treat hives is to try to avoid what causes them. Allergy medicines such as antihistamines can also be used to give a patient quick relief. Sometimes, it is necessary to take medication on a regular basis to try to prevent the hives from starting in the first place. For patients who have continual problems with hives or other allergic skin conditions, an allergy evaluation can be helpful. Your allergist will try to identify the source of your problem and then develop an effective treatment plan to help prevent these irritating skin conditions from occurring. Fortunately, most patients who have skin allergies can be given significant relief so that the skin problems bother them less and do not interfere with the quality of their life.

Atopic Dermatitis?

Atopic dermatitis is a long-term skin disease. “Atopic” refers to a tendency to develop allergy conditions. “Dermatitis” means swelling of the skin.

The most common symptoms of atopic dermatitis are:

  • Dry and itchy skin
  • Rashes on the face, inside the elbows, behind the knees, and on the hands and feet.

Scratching the skin can cause:

  • Redness
  • Swelling
  • Cracking
  • “Weeping” clear fluid
  • Crusting
  • Thick skin
  • Scaling
  • Skin Discoloration

Often, the skin gets worse (flares), then it improves or clears up (remissions).

Who Gets Atopic Dermatitis?

Atopic dermatitis is most common in babies and children, but it can happen to anyone. People who live in cities and dry climates may be more likely to get this disease.

When children with atopic dermatitis grow older, this problem can improve or go away. However, the skin may stay dry and have a tendency to get dry and easily irritated. At other times, atopic dermatitis is a problem in adulthood.

You can’t “catch” the disease or give it to other people.

What Causes Atopic Dermatitis?

The cause of atopic dermatitis is not known. It is likely caused by both genetic (runs in the family) and environmental factors. People with atopic dermatitis may go on to develop hay fever and asthma.

How Is Atopic Dermatitis Diagnosed?

Diagnosis is based on the symptoms. Each person has his or her own mix of symptoms that can change over time. Doctors will ask for a medical history to:

  • Learn about your symptoms
  • Know when symptoms occur
  • Rule out other diseases
  • Look for causes of symptoms.

Doctors also may ask about:

  • Other family members with allergies
  • Whether you have conditions such as hay fever or asthma
  • Whether you have been around something that might bother the skin
  • Sleep problems
  • Foods that may lead to skin flares
  • Treatments you have had for other skin problems
  • Use of steroids or medicine.

There isn’t a certain test that can be used to check for this disease. But you may be tested for allergies by a dermatologist (skin doctor) or allergist (allergy doctor).

Things That Make Atopic Dermatitis Worse

Irritants and allergens can make atopic dermatitis worse.

Irritants are things that may cause the skin to be red and itchy or to burn. They include:

  • Wool or manmade fibers
  • Soaps and cleaners
  • Some perfumes and makeup
  • Substances such as chlorine, mineral oil, or solvents
  • Dust or sand
  • Cigarette smoke.

Allergens are allergy-causing substances from foods, plants, animals, or the air. Common allergens are:

  • Eggs, peanuts, milk, fish, soy products, and wheat
  • Dust mites
  • Mold
  • Pollen
  • Dog or cat dander.

Stress, anger, and frustration can make atopic dermatitis worse, but they haven’t been shown to cause it. Skin infections, temperature, and climate can also lead to skin flares. Other things that can lead to flares are:

  • Not using enough lubricants after a bath
  • Low humidity in winter
  • Dry year-round climate
  • Long or hot baths and showers
  • Going from sweating to being chilled
  • Bacterial infections.

How Is Atopic Dermatitis Treated?

Treatment works best when the patient, family members, and doctor work together. Treatment plans are based on:

  • Age
  • Symptoms
  • General health.

You need to carefully follow the treatment plan. Try to notice what is or isn’t helpful. Symptoms usually improve with the right skin care and lifestyle changes.

Atopic dermatitis treatment goals are to heal the skin and prevent flares. Your doctor will help you:

  • Develop a good skin care routine, including aggressive use of moisturizers
  • Avoid things that lead to flares
  • Treat symptoms when they occur.

You and your family members should watch for changes in the skin to find out what treatments help the most.

Medications for atopic dermatitis include:

  • Skin creams or ointments that control swelling and lower allergic reactions
  • Corticosteroids
  • Antibiotics to treat infections caused by bacteria
  • Antihistamines that make people sleepy to help stop nighttime scratching
  • Drugs that suppress the immune system.

Other treatments include:

  • Light therapy
  • A mix of light therapy and a drug called psoralen
  • Skin care that helps heal the skin and keep it healthy
  • Protection from allergens.
  • Atopic Dermatitis and Vaccination Against Smallpox

People with atopic dermatitis should not get the smallpox vaccine. It may cause serious problems in people with atopic dermatitis.

Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on April 7, 2020.

What is Hives (Urticaria)?

Hives, also called urticaria, are circumscribed swellings on the skin that often are itchy. Often they are pink or red, but they don’t have to be. Hives happen when the cells in the skin called mast cells release histamine, a chemical that causes tiny blood vessels (capillaries) to leak fluid. When this leaking fluid accumulates in the skin, it forms the swellings that we recognize as hives.

Hives can be triggered by physical factors such as heat, cold, exercise, sunlight, stress, sustained pressure on a skin area (such as from a belt or shoulder strap), a sudden increase in body temperature (from a fever or a hot bath or shower) or from an irritating chemical, cosmetic or soap applied to the skin. Hives also can be one symptom of a whole-body (systemic) allergic reaction to something that was:

  • Inhaled — Pollens, animal dander, molds
  • Injected — Insect stings or bites, especially bee stings, or injected medication
  • Ingested — Foods (tree nuts; fish and shellfish; dairy products; legumes, especially peanuts), food additives, medications such as penicillin or aspirin

Hives probably affect about 20% of people in the United States at some time in life, with the greatest number of episodes occurring in people aged 20 to 30. In rare cases, allergic reactions that trigger hives set off a chain reaction throughout the body, resulting in a life-threatening condition called anaphylaxis. Sometimes, hives last for six weeks or more, a condition called chronic (or idiopathic) urticaria. Often, no cause is found for this chronic condition, and it usually goes away on its own after several weeks.


Hives appear as “wheals” (swellings) on the skin, sometimes pink or red and surrounded by a red blotch. Typically round or oval, hives often itch. Hives vary in size, and some may blend to form larger areas of swelling. Hives can affect skin on any area of the body, especially the trunk, thighs, upper arms and face. Most individual hives fade quickly, but new crops may appear every 24 to 72 hours if the person continues to be exposed to the environment or substance that triggered the hives.

If hives are an early sign of a whole-body reaction, other symptoms to look for include swelling of the tongue, lips or face; wheezing; dizziness; chest tightness; and breathing difficulties. If these symptoms occur, get immediate medical attention. You could be developing anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition.


Your doctor will ask about your history of allergic reactions, and about your recent exposure to pets, plants, insects or new foods or medications. During a physical examination, your doctor usually can distinguish between hives and other types of skin rashes. Also, he or she will check for other signs of a serious allergic reaction.

If the condition occurs frequently, your doctor may order blood tests or perform skin testing for allergies. If your doctor suspects that you are undergoing anaphylaxis, he or she will begin treatment immediately and closely monitor your blood pressure and breathing.

Expected Duration

Individual hives usually fade within eight to 12 hours, but recurrent hives can continue to reappear for weeks or months. In cases of chronic urticaria (hives), the condition may last for six months or more.


You can prevent hives by identifying and avoiding the particular circumstance or substance that triggered your skin reaction. If your doctor determines that you are allergic to insect venom, you may be advised to keep an epinephrine kit for emergency injections to prevent anaphylaxis. Keep the medicine in a convenient place if you work outside or play a sport. Keep an antihistamine in your medicine cabinet and take it the first signs of hives or itching. Older adults and people with heart disease should double check with their doctor before buying or taking antihistamines.


To relieve most uncomplicated episodes of hives, your doctor may suggest a lotion such as Sarna and an antihistamine. There are many over-the-counter antihistamines available. Generic versions work as well as the brand name drugs. It is critical to relieve the itching because scratching can stimulate more hives and itching.

If these medications are not effective, you may be given a prescription medication such as cyproheptadine (Periactin), azatadine (Optimine) or hydroxyzine (Atarax or Vistaril). For cases that are even more resistant to treatment, h3 receptor blockers might be added. These include nizatidine (Axid), famotidine (Pepcid) or cimetidine (Tagamet). Doxepin (Adapin, Sinequan) before bed is particularly helpful for people having a difficulty sleeping because of the itching. When other options fail, corticosteroids such as prednisone or omalizumab may be used to suppress the immune system in chronic urticaria or for frequently recurring episodes.

When To Call A Professional

Call your doctor immediately if hives appear after you have started taking a new medication or after you have been stung by an insect. Get emergency treatment if hives occur with wheezing, dizziness, chest tightness, breathing difficulties or swelling of the tongue, lips or face.


Most simple cases of hives fade quickly, and the affected skin returns to normal within hours. Even when you have episodes that recur over several weeks, without a known cause, they often stop coming back after a few months. Consult your doctor if hives persist for several days or if itching interferes with your ability to sleep or perform normal daily activities.

Learn more about Hives (Urticaria)

Associated drugs
IBM Watson Micromedex

External resources

American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI)


American Academy of Dermatology


Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Medical Disclaimer

What to Do When Stress Gives You Hives

Most people associate hives — the raised, puffy welts on your skin that spread when scratched — with an allergic reaction, but there are a number of factors that can cause them. One of these factors is stress, and if you find yourself breaking out in hives without another likely cause, it’s possible that stress is to blame. We spoke to Mary Stevenson, an assistant professor of dermatology at NYU Langone, to learn more about what causes stress hives, and what to do — and what not to do — if you have them.

What do stress hives look like?
Stress hives can look a little like bug bites: both are red, puffy, and itchy, and may appear initially as individual bumps, says Stevenson. However, hives are more often irregular in shape and can join together in larger patches, especially if you scratch them. A bad case of hives may appear as a single large patch of puffy, raised skin.

What’s the difference between stress hives and a stress rash?
Though “rash” is a commonly used colloquial term, dermatologists don’t really use it descriptively, says Stevenson. If you have an area of skin covered in small, irritated, red papules, or bumps, you might be more likely to call that a rash, but Stevenson says these conditions — rashes and hives — are two points along the same spectrum. “Some people, when they’re stressed out, notice that their skin gets red or itchy, and the more extreme end is that they’re not only itchy and red, but they’re having hives,” she explains. If you already have a skin condition, like psoriasis, eczema, or acne, stress can definitely make those conditions worse. Stress affects different people’s skin in different ways.

Why do I have hives?
If you’re noticing hives or a rashlike reaction, it’s wise to do a survey of your last few days to look for possible causes before deciding stress is to blame, says Stevenson. “Maybe you changed your laundry detergent that week, or you ate all these new foods or started a new medication,” she says. Unlike stress, many of these are factors that can be easily eliminated.

If none of the above apply, and you’re feeling more pressure than usual, it’s very possible stress is responsible for your hives. Most at-risk for stress hives are women in their 30s and 40s who have previously experienced hives for another reason. When our sympathetic nervous system is “revved up,” says Stevenson, it causes histamine release, which causes hives. Histamine is a compound released by cells in response to injury, and in allergic and inflammatory reactions.

What happens if I scratch my hives?
Don’t do that. When you scratch your hives, you cause more histamine to release, which — you guessed it — creates more hives. This starts a vicious cycle. “The more you scratch, the more you itch, the more you itch, the more you scratch,” says Stevenson. “It’s the same advice I’d give about popping a pimple: keep your paws off.”

How long do stress hives last?
Most hives should be gone within 24 hours, says Stevenson, but that’s not to say that new welts can’t be formed, particularly if the causal factor is still at play. If you’re treating your hives (more on that in a minute), and you haven’t seen improvement in a few days, Stevenson recommends making an appointment with a dermatologist.

How should I treat stress hives?
As is often the case, the best treatment is prevention, though it’s obviously not always possible to prevent oneself from feeling stressed. Stevenson acknowledges that being told to “relax” is unlikely to help matters, and may exacerbate the problem. “De-stressing is hard,” she says, but if there are ways to reduce stress in your daily life, doing so will positively impact your health.

If you’re breaking out in hives, it’s a good idea to take an antihistamine, like Claritin or Allegra, to help block the histamine pathway from forming new hives. (You can also take Benadryl, but it’ll most likely knock you out, so it’s probably best to save that for nighttime.) Stevenson says you want to do this as long as your symptoms last, and for a couple of days after the hives are gone, too.

You can also treat hives topically, to help minimize the itching. Applying a cold compress can help reduce itching as well as swelling, as can topical steroids like Hydrocortisone. Some people find milk compresses helpful, says Stevenson, because the fat in whole milk (skim won’t work here) can soothe irritated skin. And again, if those things aren’t helping after a few days, call your dermatologist. “We can use different medications and different doses to help get things under control,” says Stevenson.

Allergic contact dermatitis: Overview – InformedHealth.org


A number of chemical or herbal substances can irritate the skin. Redness, burning or itching are normal skin reactions, for instance, to aggressive cleaning agents.

Allergic contact dermatitis (sometimes simply called “contact allergies”) is different, though. Here the immune system overreacts to certain substances – sometimes to very small amounts – that normally wouldn’t cause a reaction. Common examples include certain metals, scents and latex rubber.

Contact allergies can lead to severe skin reactions. Unlike with many other kinds of allergies, the reaction doesn’t occur immediately, but usually after one to three days. And contact allergies develop gradually over a long period of time, as a result of repeated contact with the substance that triggers them. Some people are then no longer able to carry on doing the same kind of work as before.


Contact allergies cause eczema (dermatitis). The typical symptoms include:

In severe allergic reactions, the skin may hurt and feel tight. Blisters might form as well. If the blisters burst, the skin “weeps” (oozes a fluid), scabs form and then flake off.

At first, the symptoms affect only the area of the body that comes into contact with the trigger. This is often the hands, particularly the fingers and backs of the hands. Other areas that are often affected include the face (especially the eyelids and lips), the neck, lower legs and feet. The severity of the allergic skin reaction will mainly depend on which substance the skin came into contact with, and for how long.

In contact allergies, allergic reactions can also later occur in other parts of the body that didn’t come into contact with the allergen (trigger).


Substances that commonly trigger contact allergies include the following:

  • Metals (e.g. nickel and cobalt)

  • Latex rubber

  • Adhesives (e.g. the sticky substances in plasters)

  • Plants (e.g. chamomile and arnica)

  • Scents (in cosmetics such as lipsticks, perfumes and soaps)

  • Cleaning agents and solvents

  • Essential oils

  • Medications that are applied to the skin

The body already makes antibodies to fight the trigger (allergen) the first time it comes into contact with it. This makes the skin react more sensitively to the substance when it comes into contact with it again. Noticeable symptoms only start appearing over time, after repeated contact with the substance. For instance, hairdressers may develop contact allergies to substances that they come into contact with every day, such as hair dyes or perm solutions. Some people are generally more prone to allergies. They may develop contact allergies in a shorter amount of time.


About 8% of all adults have a contact allergy. They are more common in women than in men. Contact allergies are responsible for 10% of all occupational (work-related) diseases. They commonly affect hairdressers, beauticians, nursing staff, bakers, office workers, metalworkers and bricklayers.


Contact allergies usually first arise in adulthood. The symptoms often go away if they are treated and the triggers are avoided. But contact allergies might also develop into chronic contact dermatitis. The skin then becomes thick and hard, with painful cracks.


It isn’t possible to determine whether or not someone has a contact allergy based on the symptoms alone. But allergic rashes are often a bit different from rashes that are caused by other things. For instance, a rash without clearly defined edges is more likely to be a sign of an allergic reaction. And allergic rashes often occur in various parts of the body.

The doctor will ask you which substances you came into contact with in the days before the symptoms appeared, and whether you have been repeatedly exposed to certain substances in the past. A patch test can be done to find out whether it is actually an allergic reaction. This involves placing the substance on your skin with the help of a patch which is stuck on your back for one to two days. If a rash appears where the patch was, you are probably allergic to that substance. Patch tests may actually lead to the development of contact allergies, though. So it’s all the more important that the doctor is well informed about contact allergies and is careful when choosing which substances to use in the test.


Allergic skin reactions are usually treated with steroid creams, ointments or solutions.

But the main thing to do is avoid contact with the substance that triggers the reaction. For instance, if you’re allergic to nickel you should make sure that jewelry, buttons or belts that touch your skin don’t have nickel in them. If you can’t avoid coming into contact with the substance at your workplace, things like gloves or protective clothing can help. You may also have to switch to other activities at work.

If you are believed to have a work-related contact allergy, it’s a good idea to have your doctor inform your employer’s liability insurance. The insurance will cover certain costs, like the costs of protective measures, if the allergy is recognized as being work-related.

Further information

When people are ill or need medical advice, they usually go to see their family doctor first. Read about how to find the right doctor, how to prepare for the appointment and what to remember.


  • Biedermann T, Heppt W, Renz H, Röcken M (Ed). Allergologie. Berlin: Springer; 2016.

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Common skin rashes and what to do about them

This article is part of our series about skin: why we have it, what it does, and what can go wrong. Read other articles in the series here.

Everyone has had the unpleasant experience of a rash on the skin – pink, red or purple, flat or bumpy, itchy, scaly, pus-filled, or just plain unsightly. This variety isn’t surprising, because the skin is a complicated organ.

Infections, allergic reactions, immune system problems and even bad reactions to medication can all manifest as a rash.

Here are a few of the most common types.

Drug allergy

Almost every prescription medication available can cause a rash as a side effect, and more than 80% of those are “exanthematous drug eruptions”, meaning a widespread rash accompanied by other symptoms such as headache, fever and feeling generally unwell.

This rash usually appears within two weeks of starting a new medication, as a widespread, symmetrical rash with pink-to-red spots that are flat or elevated and firm, and that might join together in patches.

Read more:
Common lumps and bumps on and under the skin: what are they?

This type of rash is a hypersensitivity reaction, in which the attacking soldiers of the immune system (called “T-cells”) detect the drug and try to clear it from the body by releasing inflammatory proteins.

Exanthematous drug eruption.
DermNet New Zealand.

Very rarely, a drug can cause a severe and life-threatening rash called “toxic epidermal necrolysis” where the skin begins to peel off in sheets. It’s more common in Han Chinese people with a specific genetic variant, and requires intensive care or burn unit treatment.

Most drug eruptions go away within a week once the patient stops taking the problem medication, or within several weeks in protracted cases. In the meantime, or if the drug is essential, steroid creams (which reduce inflammation) and emollient (softening) moisturisers can bring some relief.

Allergic contact dermatitis

Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by direct skin contact with a substance to which the person is allergic. The immune system’s T-cells overreact to the allergen and release proteins that call more immune cells to the area, making it red and swollen.

Read more:
Why does Australia have so much skin cancer? (Hint: it’s not because of an ozone hole)

It’s often itchy and can be blistered or dry but bumpy. The reaction is often delayed by 48-72 hours, so it can be difficult to determine exactly what caused the reaction. It should also die down by itself over a few days, as long as the allergen is no longer on the skin.

Contact allergies can develop suddenly after years of exposure to an allergen. Jewellery containing nickel, fragrances in lotions, household cleaners, preservatives in hair products, and latex in gloves or condoms are common sources. A dermatologist can carry out a patch test to determine whether a substance is the allergen, by applying it to a small patch of skin.

Severe contact dermatitis from a drug patch.
Dr. Khatmando

Active dermatitis is treated with emollient moisturisers and steroid creams, or with oral steroids or drugs to suppress the immune system if very severe. Further episodes can be prevented by becoming aware of the sources of the allergen, reading labels carefully, and using gloves to handle allergen-containing products.


Atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema (often just called eczema) is very common in children from three months old onwards, but appears in adults too, often with hay fever and asthma.

Atopic dermatitis features patches of intensely itchy red skin, sometimes with blisters and weeping patches. Children often have open sores and scabs, because it’s so itchy that it’s hard to refrain from scratching.

Over time the skin becomes thickened and rough from frequent scratching and rubbing. Childhood atopic dermatitis tends to improve as the child grows up, but may continue. Far less commonly, atopic dermatitis can also appear first in adulthood.

Atopic dermatitis is very common in children, but often improves as they get older.
DermNet New Zealand

Atopic dermatitis is a disease of the immune system, in which
structural defects in the skin barrier make it easier for irritants to penetrate into the skin. This throws the delicate balance of the microbial community on our skin out of whack, causing the immune system to go into overdrive. Triggers include stress, sweating, coarse fibres in clothing, inhalation of allergens such as pollen, irritants such as soap or perfumes, and eating food we’re allergic to.

Steroid creams can help treat a bad flare of atopic dermatitis, but shouldn’t be used constantly. In very severe cases, immunosuppressant drugs are prescribed. Ongoing control of atopic dermatitis often includes using emollient moisturisers to combat dry skin, keeping cool, avoiding hot water or irritants, and reducing allergens such as dust mites in the home.

For severe cases that don’t respond to these methods, the drug dupilumab has just been approved for use in Australia. This drug blocks a specific cell receptor to prevent immune cells from detecting two overactive inflammatory proteins.

Atopic dermatitis can have a big impact on quality of life, due to insomnia from the constant itchiness, and restrictions on clothing, body products, pets or activities. Its presence on prominent parts of the body like the face and hands can also reduce self-esteem. Evening sedatives to improve sleep and psychotherapy can help reduce the impact on everyday life.


Psoriasis is another chronic immune disorder. It can start at any age and can be lifelong, and is usually present as red plaques (raised or thickened skin) with well-defined edges and silvery-white scales, ranging from a few millimetres to several centimetres across. The overactive inflammation can also damage the joints and lead to psoriatic arthritis.

Read more:
The skin is a very important (and our largest) organ: what does it do?

Often the plaques feel itchy or sore, and because psoriasis is long-lasting and can appear prominently on highly visible parts of the body, it often comes with severe psychological effects.

Psoriasis lesions are raised, red and often have white scales.
DermNet New Zealand

Psoriasis is caused by too many new skin cells being produced and moving up to the surface of the skin too quickly. It’s not known exactly why, but there’s usually an overabundance of inflammatory messenger proteins in the skin.

It can be triggered or aggravated by a streptococcal infection such as tonsillitis, smoking, hormonal changes such as menopause, and some medications. Genetics play an important role in susceptibility to psoriasis and also in what treatments are effective.

Chronic plaque psoriasis, the most common form, can be very resistant to treatment. Small areas can be treated with creams containing steroids, coal tar, or vitamin D. If a lot of the body is covered by plaques, oral immunosuppressant drugs are used, or phototherapy, which uses targeted UV light to destroy over-active immune cells. Moderate sun exposure sometimes improves psoriasis, but sunburn can worsen it – a tricky balance in Australia’s high-UV environment.

These treatments can usually improve the plaques, but it can be very difficult to clear it completely. There are several new drugs coming onto the market for severe psoriasis that hasn’t responded to other treatment.


Tinea, or ringworm, is not caused by worms at all but a fungal infection. Tinea is usually named according to the body site it’s on, but the same few kinds of fungus can cause tinea in many parts of the body and it can be spread from one part of the body to another, such as by scratching or using a contaminated towel.

Tinea pedis, on the foot, is an important type because spores can live for weeks in communal showers and changing rooms, making it a common source of infection that can then spread to the trunk, arms and legs (tinea corporis) or groin (tinea cruris, or jock itch). Cats, dogs and other animals are a common source of ringworm fungus, but many types can be spread between people too.

The fungus continues to spread further out while the inner area heals, forming a distinctive ring shape.
Grook Da Oger

Typically, tinea spreads in a circular or oval patch, often healing in the middle so that it appears to be a red scaly ring of infection. Sometimes it can also become a fungal abscess that looks like a boil, feels boggy, and has pustules.

On the feet it can look like ringworm circles, patchy fine dry scales on the sole, blisters on the instep or a moist, red peeling area between the toes (athlete’s foot).

In the groin, it can have a scaly, red raised border and be extremely itchy.

Tinea is diagnosed by microscopic examination and laboratory culture of skin scrapings. It’s usually treated with antifungal creams, or oral antifungal drugs if it persists. It can become chronic in the warm, moist folds of the body.


Shingles is a famously painful, blistering rash caused by the reactivation of chicken pox virus, varicella-zoster virus, usually years or decades after the original infection.

The virus lies dormant in nerves near the spine and migrates down the sensory nerve to the skin when it is reactivated, but it’s not known why the virus is reactivated. Some possible triggers are radiotherapy, spinal surgery, other infections, or cancers.

Shingles forms a painful, blistered red rash along the line of a sensory nerve.

Shingles starts with pain in the skin that is often described as burning or stabbing, followed in one to three days by a rash of raised red bumps that become blisters and then crust over. The rash is usually confined to a narrow arc of skin, along the sensory nerve that was harbouring the virus.

Patients often have a fever, headache and swollen lymph nodes. Recovery takes two to four weeks but the pain can persist after the rash has healed, called post-herpetic neuralgia.

If it’s caught within three days of onset, antiviral medication can reduce the severity of symptoms and length of the infection. Otherwise, treatment consists of powders or solutions to dry out the rash, as well as pain relief and rest.

Australians aged over 70 are eligible for a free zoster vaccine, which reduces the risk of shingles by half.

Skin rashes in babies | nidirect

It’s normal for babies to develop rashes from as early as a few days old. If your baby has a rash but doesn’t show signs of illness, speak to your midwife, health visitor, or your GP. If your baby appears unwell, call your GP or GP out of hours service.

About skin rashes in babies

It’s important to be aware of the symptoms of meningitis, see section below.

Also below is information on some of the most common rashes in babies. Most rashes are harmless and go away on their own.

This guide may give you a better idea of the cause of the rash. But don’t use it to diagnose your baby’s condition. Always speak to a health professional for a proper diagnosis.

Baby acne (neonatal acne)

Baby acne is where pimples sometimes develop on a baby’s cheeks, nose and forehead within a month of their birth. 

About baby acne

  • pimples tend to get worse before clearing up completely after a few weeks or months
  • washing your baby’s face with water and a mild moisturiser can improve the appearance of their skin
  • avoid acne medicines intended for older children and adults

Pimples or blackheads that develop after three months of age (infantile acne) tend to be more severe. These often need medical treatment.

Cradle cap

Cradle cap is where yellowish, greasy, scaly patches develop on a baby’s scalp. 

About cradle cap

  • occasionally, as well as the scalp, the face, ears and neck are also affected
  • it isn’t itchy and shouldn’t bother your baby- if your baby is scratching or upset, they may have eczema (see below)
  • it is a common condition that tends to develop within two or three months after birth
  • it usually gets better without treatment in a few weeks or months

Gently washing your baby’s hair and scalp with baby shampoo may help to prevent further patches developing.


Eczema is a long-term condition that causes the skin to become itchy, red, dry and cracked.

The most common form is atopic eczema. It mainly affects babies and children but can continue into adulthood.

About atopic eczema

  • eczema in babies under six months is sometimes associated with allergies to milk and egg
  • it often starts in young babies as a red, itchy rash on the face, scalp and body
  • as the child gets older, it usually starts to develop in areas with folds of skin, such as behind the knees or on the front of the elbows

Creams and ointments can often relieve the symptoms.

Erythema toxicum

Half of all newborns develop a blotchy red skin reaction called erythema toxicum. This is usually at two or three days old.

It’s a normal newborn rash that won’t bother your baby and clears after a few days.

Hand, foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease is a common, viral illness. 

About hand, foot and mouth disease

  • it causes a blistery rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, as well as ulcers in the mouth
  • your baby may also feel unwell and have a fever

Treatment isn’t usually needed, as the baby’s immune system clears the virus. The symptoms go away after about seven to 10 days. If you’re worried, see your GP.

Hives (urticaria)

Hives is also known as urticaria. 

About hives

  • causes a raised, red itchy rash that appears on the skin
  • happens when a trigger (such as a food that your baby is allergic to) causes a substance called histamine to be released into their skin

If your baby gets urticaria during feeding, the condition may be triggered by something they’ve had to eat or drink. The most common foods are egg and milk, but many other foods can sometimes be the cause.

The urticaria rash is usually short-lived and can be controlled with antihistamines. If your baby gets hives repeatedly, it’s important to see your GP to discuss possible allergies.


Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial infection of the surface layers of the skin. It causes sores and blisters.

It’s not usually serious, but you can visit your GP for a prescription of antibiotics. This should clear the infection within seven to 10 days.


About half of all newborns develop tiny (1-2mm) white spots on their face. These are called milia. 

These are just blocked pores. They usually clear within the first four weeks of life.

Nappy rash

Nappy rash occurs when the skin around the baby’s nappy area becomes irritated. 

About nappy rash

  • is often caused by exposure to wee or poo for a long period of time
  • can sometimes be the result of a fungal infection or rare skin condition

You can usually reduce nappy rash by taking simple steps to keep your baby’s skin clean and dry. You can use a barrier cream if needed. Antifungal cream may be necessary if the rash is caused by a fungal infection.


Ringworm is a common fungal skin infection. It causes a ring-like red rash almost anywhere on the body (the baby’s scalp, feet and groin are common areas). 

It’s usually easily treated using over-the-counter creams.

Ask your pharmacist if you need advice about treatment.


Scabies is a common infestation of the skin that can affect people of all ages.

About scabies

  • it’s caused by tiny mites that burrow into the skin
  • it’s often spread between family members, so when babies get scabies it’s usually because someone else in the family had it recently
  • babies with scabies develop tiny and very itchy spots all over the body, including on the soles of the feet, armpits and genital area

Treatment with creams that kill the scabies mite needs to be given to the whole family at the same time for it to be effective.

Visit your GP if you think your baby has scabies. It’s not usually a serious condition, but it does need to be treated.

Your GP will discuss treatment with you. The treatments most widely used are a cream and lotion.

Slapped cheek syndrome

Slapped cheek syndrome is a viral infection particularly common in children and babies.

About slapped cheek syndrome

  • it typically causes a bright red rash on both cheeks and a fever
  • most babies won’t need treatment, as slapped cheek syndrome is usually a mild condition that passes in a few days

Sweat rash (miliaria)

A heat rash is sometimes called miliaria or prickly heat. It may flare up when your baby sweats. For example, because they’re dressed in too many clothes or the environment is hot and humid.

It’s a sign your baby’s sweat glands have become blocked.

They may develop tiny red bumps or blisters on their skin, but these will soon clear without treatment.


Meningitis is an infection of the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord (meninges).

About meningitis

  • the classic rash associated with meningitis usually looks like small, red pinpricks at first
  • it then quickly spreads over the body and turns into red or purple blotches
  • it is a blotchy rash that doesn’t fade when a glass is rolled over it (this won’t always develop) 


Meningitis warning signs

It’s important to be aware of the warning signs of meningitis in your baby, which include:

  • becoming floppy and unresponsive, or stiff with jerky movements
  • becoming irritable and not wanting to be held
  • unusual crying
  • vomiting and refusing feeds
  • pale and blotchy skin
  • loss of appetite
  • staring expression
  • very sleepy with a reluctance to wake up
  • fever 

Some babies develop a swelling in the soft part of their head (fontanelle).

Trust your instincts. If you think your baby has meningitis, see your GP or GP out of hours service immediately or go to your nearest emergency department. 

More useful links

The information on this page has been adapted from original content from the NHS website.

For further information see terms and conditions.


618.75 RUB

Bai Zhu Atraktylodesa large-headed rhizome Bai Zhu.
Dang Gui Angelica Chinese root Dang Gui.
Fang Feng Shoemaker and root Fang Feng.
Huang Bai (Huang Bo) Velvet bark Huang Bai (Huang Bo).
Mu Dan Pi Peony mudan root bark (Peony tree root bark) Mu Dan Pi.
Niu Huang Gallstone of cows (bezoar) Niu Huang.
Ku Shen Sophora yellowing root Ku Shen.
Wu Shao She Chinese rat snake Wu Shao She.
She Chuang Zi Zhgong-root fruit She Chuang Zi.
Hong Shen Ginseng root red Hong Shen.
She Dan Serpentine bile She Dan.
Indications for use
Skin rash.
Itching of the skin.
Skin rash.
Dry skin.
Skin redness.

Clinical indications. Itchy skin. Hives.Itching of the vulva in women.

Action from the point of view of TCM.
Replenishes Blood.
Banish the Wind.
Strengthens the Spleen, removes dampness.
Eliminates Stagnant Internal Heat.
Soothes itching.

Pharmacological action.
Antipruritic, antihistamine.

Description of the dosage form
Water pills – 30 g (240 balls) in a bottle.

Dosage and administration
Is taken orally 2.5 g (20 balls) 3 times a day 30 minutes before or 1 hour after a meal, washed down with warm boiled water, or as prescribed by a doctor.

Special instructions
Avoid the use of cold, raw, spicy and fatty foods.
Five Elements Formula 1415. Wu She Zhi Yang Wan.乌 蛇 治 痒 丸.

Contraindications and precautions:
individual intolerance to the components;
do not use for colds;
is not recommended with tea and radish.
Do not eat fatty and spicy foods while taking the drug.
It is recommended to consult a doctor before use.

30 g (240 balls) in a bottle.

doklad-o-sostoyanii-i-ob-okhrane-okruzhayushchey-sredy-gorodskogo-okruga -_- goroda-barnaula-altayskogo-kraya-v-2014-godu – Page 3


Chiffchaffs and willow warblers, linnet, oriole, chaffinch, common lentil, warblers – gray, garden and accentor are common in parks.

Forest pipit, gray flycatcher, common nightingale, red-necked nightingale, common bunting, field thrush nest in large parks.Fragments of natural landscapes wedging into the city boundaries enrich its avifauna. In the Ob floodplain mallards, teal cracks, red-headed ducks, black-necked and great toadstools, coots, black and river terns, great bittern, lapwing,

nest in the Ob floodplain.

marsh harrier, white-backed and lesser woodpeckers, long-tailed lentils, bluethroat, pendulum.

The upland forest is inhabited by the variegated woodpecker, the brown-headed tit, the common nuthatch, the bullfinch, the great turtledove, hawks (goshawk and sparrowhawk).

In winter, there are fewer birds in the city of Barnaul, among them there are sedentary species that fly here for wintering from the north, and species that visit the city at this time of the year. In addition to the two species of sedentary sparrows, the rock dove, the hooded crow and the magpie, the black crow, which arrives here from Eastern Siberia, is not uncommon, a jackdaw. Great tit, waxwing, common tap dance are often found in winter. The last two species arrive for wintering from the northern taiga. The common blackbird, the common bullfinch, the grosser, the variegated, the white-backed and the lesser woodpeckers, the common nuthatch are not uncommon; the gray-headed and three-toed woodpeckers are less common.In the floodplains, on thickets of weeds, willows and wastelands, the black-headed goldfinch, long-tailed tit, and blue tit live.

Among the birds listed in the Red Book, in the vicinity of the city there are small bittern, black stork, snake eagle, white-tailed eagle, saker falcon, pink starling, white-eyed duck, little sparrowhawk, dwarf eagle, steppe grater, wren and others. There are about 35 species of birds in the Red Book. However, some representatives of these species are on the verge of extinction, for example, white-eyed duck, snake eagle, steppe grater, and therefore some species are grown in nurseries of the city, as in the nursery of Altai State University “Altai Falcon” Saker Falcon are grown.


Salix alba willow bark is a well-known antipyretic traditional medicine. It contains a bitter-tasting substance called salicylic acid glycoside. It was salicylic acid that became the precursor to aspirin.

Initially, aspirin was produced in the form of a powder, packaged in glass vials. Tablet production began in 1914.

This is what the Bayer chemical laboratory looked like in 1900, where aspirin was obtained at the end of the 19th century.

Schematic representation of an aspirin molecule. The acetyl group (top left) is connected through an oxygen atom (marked in red) with salicylic acid.

At the beginning of the 18th century, the bark of the “febrile tremor” tree was brought from Peru to Europe, which the Indians used to treat “swamp fever” and which was called kinakina. The powder of this bark was renamed “quin” and was used for all kinds of “fevers” and “fevers”, since malaria had not yet been able to distinguish among other diseases that occur with chills and fever.But china, and subsequently its active principle, quinine, were expensive, so they were looking for a substitute for it. In 1850, salicylic acid was obtained from willow bark (in Latin “salix”), which had a rather strong anti-febrile effect. However, since obtaining it from willow bark was also not cheap, they were looking for a replacement for it. And they found it. It turned out that there is a lot of salicylic acid in another shrub plant – Spirea (Spirea salicifolia). Unfortunately, salicylic acid is highly irritating and not very suitable for ingestion.After the acetyl (acetic) radical was attached to salicylic acid, the long-sought drug was obtained. Taking the prefix “a-” from acetyl and the root “-spir-” from the spirea, we got “a-spir-in”. Aspirin received wide clinical use only after salicylic acid was obtained from phenol, which made it possible to establish its industrial production. This happened in 1893, although the substance itself – acetylsalicylic acid – was discovered 40 years earlier.

Immediately after its release, the drug gained very great popularity and has not left the shelves of all pharmacies in the world for more than 100 years.Only in the USA, where aspirin for some reason enjoys the special love of the population, it is produced in an amount of 12 thousand tons, or 50 billion single doses, per year! In our country, aspirin began to be produced under the chemical name – acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), but in general it is produced by different companies under more than sixty names, which also testifies to its popularity. Initially, ASA was ranked among antipyretic drugs, although it is impossible to explain all its positive properties by a decrease in temperature, in particular in rheumatism.When phenacetin and paracetamol appeared, which reduced elevated body temperature, but did not have an anti-inflammatory effect, like ASA, it was these drugs that began to be considered antipyretic (antipyretics).

After World War II, special attention began to be paid to obtaining substances that would suppress pain without the risk of a painful addiction to the drug. Initially, ASA was such a substance. However, then other compounds were created, which are now included in a new subgroup of drugs – “non-narcotic analgesics” (algos – pain and an- – denial).These include, in particular, no-shpa, clonidine, diphenhydramine, amitriptyline, ketamine, nimodipine, tramadol and others. As a result, those substances that have both analgesic and antipyretic effects, namely amidopyrine (pyramidon), analgin, paracetamol and their combined preparations, began to be distinguished into a special subgroup of analgesics – analgesics-antipyretics. In this subgroup, ASA stood apart, since it still surpassed all the others in anti-inflammatory action.

When in the post-war years rheumatism began to be treated with adrenal cortex hormones and their synthetic analogs (corticosteroids), it turned out that these drugs are not without side effects.Therefore, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were required, the first of which was ASA. Naturally, it was impossible to obtain new drugs without knowing the mechanism of its action.

In the 30s of the XX century, it was discovered that the prostate gland (prostate) of sheep contains special substances with high biological activity. Since the gland is called glandula in Latin, they are called “prostaglandins”. Subsequently, it was found that these substances are contained in all tissues and are involved in the development of the inflammatory response.So, in a swollen gum around a diseased tooth, their content is 20 times higher than in a healthy one. Under the influence of microbial toxins, the content of prostaglandins in the brain also increases. They are the cause of a number of reactions typical of infectious diseases: headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. When prostaglandins are injected under the skin, severe pain occurs at the injection site, since these substances irritate the nerve endings, and a typical inflammatory reaction with redness and swelling develops.

English professor J. Wayne found that ASA suppresses the formation of prostaglandins in all organs and tissues (Nobel Prize 1982). The search for new substances that inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins has been successful. ASA, as well as ibuprofen, butadione, indomethacin, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, niflumic acid, ortofen, piroxicam, sulindac, chlotazole, and meloxicam, were assigned to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. All of these drugs also have an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was considered a secondary effect.Aspirin is not the best among them, but it is universal. To enhance the analgesic effect of ASA, there are combination drugs: asphen, which is a mixture of ASA with phenacetin, and tomapirin-C, which, in addition to ASA, includes paracetamol and vitamin C. These tablets are “effervescent”, that is, they quickly dissolve in water. Both drugs are used for acute respiratory infections, joint pain, inflammation of muscles, ligaments and nerves, toothache, painful menstruation. If caffeine is added to asphen, then more active remedies for headaches are obtained: ascofen, citramon, kofecil.Ascofen-P contains paracetamol instead of phenacetin. Sedalgin is even more active (phenobarbital and codeine are added to the three substances).

To enhance the anti-inflammatory effect, especially in cases where the inflammation proceeds with edema and hemorrhages (pleurisy, tonsillitis, flux, pneumonia, influenza), the most successful is the use of a combined drug, which has the unfortunate name of “antigrippin”. This drug consists of ASA, diphenhydramine, rutin (vitamin P) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C).Diphenhydramine enhances both the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, rutin enhances the anti-inflammatory and weakens the toxic effect, and ascorbic acid increases the overall resistance of the body. Although the drug is called antiinfluenza, it does not work on the influenza virus, however, the course of influenza and many other inflammatory diseases, including acute respiratory infections, tonsillitis, nephritis, myositis and other diseases already mentioned, is significantly facilitated, and recovery is accelerated.

In recent years, ASA began to be used for a long time, but in small doses, 0.1-0.3 grams once a day, to reduce blood clotting in people with a predisposition to thrombosis. This happens with varicose veins, venous stasis, liver disease, in the postinfarction period. There is also a special drug aspirin-cardio, which is recommended to be taken for unstable angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, for the prevention of repeated heart attacks, cerebrovascular accidents, migraine attacks.

The issue with the side effects of ASA, the frequency of which is relatively high, has also been clarified. According to American doctors, adverse reactions were noted in 5% of patients who received pure ASA, and mainly in women. The most common symptoms of stomach irritation (nausea and vomiting). Less commonly – ringing in the ears, hearing and vision impairment, dizziness and headaches. In 1% of cases, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract and stomach ulcers were registered.

The last complication, as the most dangerous, has become the subject of a special study.It turned out that ASA sharply disrupts the formation of mucus, which, as you know, performs a protective function, and at the same time increases the release of hydrochloric acid. Add to this the ability of ASA to dissolve epithelial cells, a general irritant effect, and the almost inevitable result of improper use of the drug becomes clear. Naturally, the risk of stomach damage is especially high if a person has a predisposition, for example, with increased acidity of gastric juice, gastritis or an existing stomach ulcer.In such cases, the use of ASA is contraindicated. To mitigate the irritating effect, ASA began to be produced in the form of special preparations. Alka Seltzer contains baking soda, which neutralizes hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Aspirin-C and Aspirin UPSA include Vitamin C and are available as quick dissolving effervescent tablets. Aspiphat contains sucralfate, a substance that forms a protective film in the stomach. Acelysin is a soluble form of ASA, which provides faster absorption. It comes with sugar and citric acid in granules, which dissolve before taking.Safer and more enjoyable.

ASA is contraindicated in case of increased bleeding. It should not be used by patients with bronchial asthma, in whom it can cause deterioration, and in some cases, other phenomena of intolerance: edema, urticaria, rash. It is not recommended to use ASA during pregnancy. Taking the drug in the early stages can affect the development of the fetus, and in the later stages it can cause postpartum hemorrhage. Since ASA easily passes into milk, it is better for nursing mothers to refrain from medication.

Prescribing ASA to children under three years of age is prohibited, since their bodies do not inactivate this drug quickly enough. Remember: ASK tablets, which are relatively harmless for adults, are poisonous for young children. They need to be hidden in places inaccessible to kids. Taking just four pills can end tragically. But this, unfortunately, is not all. In 1963, the American physician R. Reye described 20 cases of brain damage (encephalopathy) with a lethal outcome in children who received ASA for influenza.Later it was found that Reye’s syndrome most often occurs in children 4-16 years old, and with any viral infections of the respiratory tract, and also sometimes with chickenpox. The initial symptoms are manifested in indomitable vomiting and darkening of consciousness with bouts of pronounced anxiety, which requires immediate hospitalization of the child. However, even with qualified assistance, mortality decreases from 80% to only 20%. From 1974 to 1984, from 8 to 90 cases of Reye’s syndrome per 1 million were recorded annually in English-speaking countries.children under the age of 18. In adults, this condition is very rare. Since 1986, in these countries, they began to inform the population about the dangers of aspirin for children, as a result, in the period from 1987 to 1996, the incidence of the syndrome decreased by 5-7 times. Currently, the use of salicylates for viral infections is limited, and children under 12 years old are prohibited for all diseases except rheumatic ones.

The listed unpleasant features of the drug’s action only slightly reduce its value.If there are contraindications, then substitutes can be used. The irritant effect of the drug can be completely prevented if the tablets are taken correctly. First of all, it is categorically not recommended to swallow them whole, but should first be dissolved in water – pour warm water into a glass and throw a pill. Even without stirring, it will soon disintegrate. It is better to take the drug after meals and drink it with milk or alkaline mineral water.

Home – NovaSport

Fat Burner “Black Spider” with ephedra extract stands alongside other powerful drugs for burning fat.”Black Spider” is close to the original ECA stack in terms of power, which contains the strongest formula of ephedra, caffeine and aspirin. This promotes optimal weight loss and sustainable energy storage.
– increased energies.
– impressive fat burning rates.
is a great pre-workout stimulant.
– cheers up.
– fast weight loss.

ECA (Ephedra Extract / Caffeine / Aspirin).

How does the mixture work?
The most important and Sami powerful of all the ingredients in the mixture is ephedra extract.It was long considered a very powerful thermogenic drug in its own right, but it was later discovered that when mixed with caffeine and aspirin, the results were incredible. Although caffeine is also a pretty strong thermogenic, it is much weaker than ephedra extract. Studies have shown that if these two components are mixed in an arbitrary ratio, then their thermogenic properties add up (1 1 = 2). But if they are combined in strict proportions, the results are synergistic, i.e.that is, their thermogenic forces are multiplied (1 1 = 6). And if you add more aspirin to this composition, incredible results.
Ephedra plant
More than 5 thousand. years ago, people used this plant for medicinal purposes. They treated them for cough, fever, poor circulation and even fatigue. Time passed and they began to use it in India and Spain. In those days, all plants containing its extract were called ephedra. In fact, ephedra is a bush 30-50 cm in height, outwardly similar to a horsetail. The plant has no green leaves, but its flowers are inconspicuous.In whorls, there are twig-shaped jointed branches.
The plant is rich in nutrients and trace elements, but the main strength is given by the ephedra extract. Ephedra extract cures urticaria, bronchial asthma and similar diseases. The extract narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure. It also perfectly showed its healing properties in cases of poisoning with hypnotics, in ophthalmological and otorhinolaryngological practice (used to narrow blood vessels and dilate the pupil).Precursor to Aspirin (White Willow Bark Extract)
White willow, or as it is also called “weeping willow”, this tree loves wet places. Over 1000 years ago, Chinese healers used white willow bark to relieve pain.
The harvesting of willow bark occurs during the period of sap flow, at which time it is easily separated. The bark is removed from young 2-3-year-olds, after which it is dried in rooms with good ventilation.
The main trace elements that are contained in the bark of the white willow are the glycoside salicin. As soon as the glycoside salicin enters the human body (in the form of a decoction, infusion or extract), salicylic acid is released from it, which acts like aspirin.It is because of this that extracts from the bark of white willow are considered the most real and purest natural aspirin. Willow bark extracts have far fewer side effects than regular aspirin. It has been proven that aspirin in large doses is highly traumatic for the digestive system.
Healing properties:
This white willow bark extract is excellent for colds, headaches, rheumatism and arthritis. It works great as an antipyretic agent. A decoction of white willow bark will help with internal bleeding, inflammatory processes in the stomach and intestines, relieve joint pain.It can also be used for problems with the liver, kidneys and heart. It is recommended to drink a decoction of white willow after 50, if only because it protects the body from a heart attack.
Ephedra extract
In clinical studies conducted by American scientists in the state of Kentucky, it was found that ephedra extract is primarily a stimulant of the central nervous system, that is, ephedra extract increases the basal metabolic rate (BMR), which also leads to heating the body’s food by raising the temperature body by a few degrees.As a result, the body burns a colossal amount of fat. All experiments that have been conducted have shown incredible weight loss in all studies. The results of the study were published in the Journal of Clinical Nutrition (USA).
Ephedra extract caffeine
In the case of the use of an extract of ephedra with caffeine, the results of the studies amazed scientists even more. When added to the extract of caffeine, the strength of the drug increased synergistically (1 1 = 6). In addition, it has been found that this mixture discourages the desire to enjoy nicotine.This product will be useful for people who want to quit smoking and not gain excess weight!
For best results:
• break your meal into 5-6 meals a day.
• drink plenty of fluids.
• Limit intake of caffeine-containing products.
• reduce the intake of fast carbohydrates in the diet, for example: sugary carbonated drinks, flour, sugar.
• Eliminate fast food and soda from your diet.
Dosage: Take 1 capsule daily after meals, not exceeding 3 capsules per day !!!

Hanging birch (Betula pendula Roth) is a medicinal plant.Description, action, application, substances, useful properties and contraindications. Medicinal tree. Uses Leaves, Buds, Resin, Pollen. 5 photo

Pharmacological group: Choleretic, Diuretic, Expectorant, Diaphoretic, Anti-inflammatory, Phytoncidal

Preparations of birch buds and leaves have diuretic, choleretic, expectorant, diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory and phytoncidal properties.

Tincture of birch buds exhibits antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant strains of staphylococci isolated from patients with various forms of purulent infection (mastitis, furunculosis, phlegmon, abscesses, peritonitis).In the experiment, alcohol preparations from birch leaves were found to be active against lamblia and Trichomonas.

Infusion of birch buds is approved for use in scientific medicine as a diuretic. Tinctures, infusions and decoctions of buds and leaves are used for urolithiasis, chronic inflammatory diseases of the bladder and kidneys.

In folk medicine, tincture and decoction of birch buds are used for stomach inflammation (gastritis), gastric ulcer, rheumatism, gout and is used as a blood purifier for various skin diseases.In addition, the tincture on 70% alcohol is recommended to be used externally for rubbing, compresses and lotions for inflammation of the joints (rheumatic, gouty and other nature), with long-term non-healing and suppurating wounds, ulcers, bedsores, etc.

Birch sap – a tonic and stimulating agent, it is used as a diuretic for kidney and bladder stones. It is drunk without restriction for chronic calculous pyelonephritis and after surgical removal of urinary stones from the renal pelvis, ureters and bladder.Birch sap is also taken orally for gout, rheumatism, edema, furunculosis, sore throat, diseases of the bronchi and lungs. The juice is also used as an external remedy for eczema and other skin diseases.

Pollen is used for adenoma and prostate cancer. Pollen is a ready-made concentrate of various vitamins, microelements and other biologically active substances. In its action, it is close to adaptogenic plants such as ginseng, which increase the body’s resistance to adverse environmental conditions, tone and stimulate it.

In a mixture with other plants, birch buds and leaves are used for prostate adenoma, male infertility, chronic glomerulonephritis, urinary retention, as well as for prostatitis, cystitis and as a general tonic for spring weakness.