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What are signs of indigestion: Symptoms, Causes, Diet, and Treatments


Symptoms, Causes, Diet, and Treatments


Indigestion is often a sign of an underlying problem, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, or gallbladder disease, rather than a condition of its own.

Also called dyspepsia, it is defined as a persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen.

What Are the Symptoms of Indigestion?

The symptoms of indigestion can include:

These symptoms may increase in times of stress.

People often have heartburn (a burning sensation deep in the chest) along with indigestion. But heartburn itself is a different symptom that may indicate another problem.

Who Is at Risk for Indigestion?

People of all ages and of both sexes are affected by indigestion. It’s extremely common. An individual’s risk increases with:

  • Excess alcohol consumption
  • Use of drugs that may irritate the stomach, such as aspirin and other pain relievers
  • Conditions where there is an abnormality in the digestive tract, such as an ulcer
  • Emotional problems, such as anxiety or depression

What Causes Indigestion?

Indigestion has many causes, including:




  • Eating too much, eating too fast, eating high-fat foods, or eating during stressful situations
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Stress and fatigue

Indigestion is not caused by excess stomach acid.

Swallowing excessive air when eating may increase the symptoms of belching and bloating, which are often associated with indigestion.

Sometimes people have persistent indigestion that is not related to any of these factors. This type of indigestion is called functional, or non-ulcer dyspepsia.

How Is Indigestion Diagnosed?

If you are experiencing symptoms of indigestion, make an appointment to see your doctor. Because indigestion is such a broad term, it is helpful to provide your doctor with a precise description of the discomfort you are experiencing. In describing the symptoms, try to define where in the abdomen the discomfort usually occurs.

Your doctor will rule out any underlying conditions that may be causing your symptoms. Your doctor may perform several blood tests and you may have X-rays of the stomach or small intestine. Your doctor may also suggest you have an upper endoscopy to look closely at the inside of the stomach. During the procedure, an endoscope — a flexible tube that contains a light and a camera to produce images from inside the body — is used to look inside your stomach.

What Is the Treatment for Indigestion?

Because indigestion is a symptom rather than a disease, treatment usually depends upon the underlying condition causing the indigestion.

How Can I Prevent Indigestion?

The best way to prevent indigestion is to avoid the foods and situations that seem to cause it. Keeping a food diary is helpful in identifying foods that cause indigestion. Here are some other suggestions:

  • Eat small meals so the stomach does not have to work as hard or as long.
  • Eat slowly.
  • Avoid foods that contain high amounts of acids, such as citrus fruits and tomatoes.
  • Reduce or avoid foods and beverages that contain caffeine.
  • If stress is a trigger for your indigestion, learn new methods for managing stress, such as relaxation and biofeedback techniques.
  • If you smoke, quit. Smoking can irritate the lining of the stomach.
  • Cut back on alcohol consumption, because alcohol can also irritate the stomach lining.
  • Avoid wearing tight-fitting garments, because they tend to compress the stomach, which can cause its contents to enter the esophagus.
  • Don’t exercise with a full stomach. Rather, exercise before a meal or at least one hour after eating a meal.
  • Don’t lie down right after eating.
  • Wait at least three hours after your last meal of the day before going to bed.
  • Sleep with your head elevated (at least 6 inches) above your feet and use pillows to prop yourself up. This will help allow digestive juices to flow into the intestines rather than to the esophagus.

When Should I Call the Doctor About Indigestion?

Because indigestion can be a sign of a more serious health problem, call your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Vomiting or blood in vomit (the vomit may look like coffee grounds)
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Black, tarry stools or visible blood in stools
  • Severe pain in the abdomen
  • Discomfort unrelated to eating

Symptoms similar to indigestion may be caused by heart attacks. If indigestion is unusual, accompanied by shortness of breath, sweating, chest pain, or pain radiating to the jaw, neck, or arm, seek medical attention immediately.


Symptoms & Causes of Indigestion

What are the symptoms of indigestion?

When you have indigestion, you may have one or more of the following symptoms:

  • pain, a burning feeling, or discomfort in your upper abdomen
  • feeling full too soon while eating a meal
  • feeling uncomfortably full after eating a meal
  • bloating
  • burping

Other symptoms may include

Sometimes when you have indigestion, you may also have heartburn. However, heartburn and indigestion are two separate conditions.

When you have indigestion, you may have pain, a burning feeling, or discomfort in your upper abdomen.

Seek care right away

If you have indigestion and any of the following symptoms, you may have a more serious condition and should see a doctor right away:

  • black, tarlike stools
  • bloody vomit
  • difficulty swallowing or painful swallowing
  • frequent vomiting
  • losing weight without trying
  • pain in your chest, jaw, neck, or arm
  • severe and constant pain in your abdomen
  • shortness of breath
  • sweating
  • yellowing of your eyes or skin

You should also see a doctor if your indigestion lasts longer than 2 weeks.

What causes indigestion?

Some of the causes of indigestion include

  • drinking
    • too many alcoholic beverages
    • too much coffee or too many drinks containing caffeine
    • too many carbonated, or fizzy, drinks
  • eating
    • too fast or too much during a meal
    • spicy, fatty, or greasy foods
    • foods that contain a lot of acid, such as tomatoes, tomato products, and oranges
  • feeling stressed
  • smoking

Some medicines can cause indigestion, such as

Health problems and digestive tract diseases and conditions can cause indigestion, including

Researchers do not know what causes functional dyspepsia. Some research3 suggests that the following factors may play a role in functional dyspepsia:

  • eating
  • gastroparesis
  • problems in the first part of your small intestine, including inflammation and being overly sensitive to stomach acids
  • infection by microorganisms such as H. pylori, Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Campylobacter, giardia, or norovirus
  • psychological problems, especially anxiety
  • genes—a trait passed from parent to child


[3] Talley NJ. Functional dyspepsia: new insights into pathogenesis and therapy. The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine. 2016:31(3):444–456.

This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
(NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

Heartburn and Indigestion – What Are The Differences

Heartburn and indigestion are often used interchangeably, but they’re actually different conditions. Indigestion is a general term that speaks to a wide range of digestive issues. Heartburn, on the other hand, occurs when stomach acid escapes into your esophagus. It’s one type of indigestion.1

What Is Heartburn?

Heartburn is a painful condition that’s caused when stomach acid flows up into your esophagus. The lining of your esophagus simply doesn’t have the same protective layers that allow your stomach to stand up to powerful digestive acids. So when acid flows up into your esophagus, a process called Acid Reflux, it causes a nagging pain in your chest, and possibly even your throat, called heartburn.2

Heartburn is quite common—up to 20% of Americans suffer from heartburn on a weekly basis. It affects men and women, young and old, even infants and young kids.3

Heartburn can last from a few minutes to several hours, and often feels worse after you eat. Not only is heartburn painful, it can also rob you of a good night’s sleep.

What Triggers Heartburn?

Heartburn can be triggered by a lot of things, but eating is the main culprit. It can be caused by the specific foods you eat—we’re looking at you, greasy fries and hot wings—as well as by eating too much, or simply eating a big, heavy meal close to bedtime.

Carbonated and alcoholic beverages can also give you heartburn. People who are overweight often suffer from heartburn. Even a few extra pounds can put pressure on your stomach, causing acid to back up into your esophagus.

What Is Indigestion?

You might call it an upset stomach, a stomachache, or even a bellyache—but the medical term is dyspepsia. Whichever term you use, indigestion is an uncomfortable, sometimes painful, feeling you get in your stomach, usually during or after eating.1

In most cases, indigestion is caused by eating too much, too fast, or by eating foods that your body doesn’t respond well to—typically foods high in fat. Chewing with your mouth open also can lead to indigestion. Swallowing too much air while eating can cause belching and bloating, which is another variation of indigestion.4

Other indigestion triggers include stress, smoking, or drinking caffeinated, carbonated, or alcoholic drinks.4

What Triggers Indigestion?

Depending on what’s causing your indigestion, you may experience abdominal pain, bloating (full feeling), belching and gas, nausea, vomiting, and acidic taste in your mouth, “growling” stomach, and even diarrhea. Symptoms usually get worse when you’re stressed but normally go away in a few hours.

Indigestion can be linked to more serious chronic conditions, including ulcers, pancreas abnormalities, or acid reflux disease. Speak to your doctor if your symptoms are severe or last for more than two weeks.

Indigestion (for Kids) – Nemours Kidshealth

Brandon was having a great day. He got an “A” on his math test, the girl he likes had said “hi” to him, and for lunch he had an awesome steak sandwich with cheese, peppers, and lots of onions.

But later that afternoon he felt a burning sensation in the back of his throat. His chest and stomach started to hurt, too. Brandon had a mean case of … indigestion!

What Is Indigestion?

Indigestion (say: in-dih-JES-chun) is just another name for an upset stomach. It’s also called dyspepsia (say: dis-PEP-shuh).

Indigestion usually happens when people eat too much, too fast, or foods that don’t “agree” with them. It’s fair to say that big cheesesteak sandwich didn’t agree with Brandon!

Brandon had a little heartburn with his indigestion. It doesn’t mean there was anything wrong with his heart. Heartburn is a burning feeling that travels from a person’s chest up to the neck and throat. It’s caused by stomach acid, which isn’t a problem unless it gets out of your stomach.

With heartburn, stomach acid splashes up and irritates the esophagus (say: ih-SAH-fuh-gus), the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. This is called esophageal reflux (say: ih-sah-fuh-JEE-ul REE-fluks) and can leave a sour or bitter taste in the person’s mouth.

Indigestion and heartburn are common problems for both kids and grownups. That’s why you see all those commercials for heartburn and indigestion medicines on TV! But don’t take any medicine for indigestion unless your parents or doctor says it’s OK. Most of the ones that are advertised on TV are meant for adults, not kids.

Stress, not enough sleep, smoking, or drinking alcohol also can make indigestion worse.

Digestive problems, such as ulcers, can cause the symptoms of indigestion and heartburn, too. But they’re not common in kids.


Do I Have It?

In addition to heartburn, if you have indigestion, you’ll probably have one or more of the following symptoms:

  • pain or burning in your upper belly — usually in the middle
  • nausea (feeling sick to your stomach)
  • bloating (that too-full feeling where your stomach sticks out)
  • burping that you have a hard time controlling

When to Go to the Doctor

Usually, indigestion only happens once in a while, like after eating one too many hot dogs.

But you’ll want to see the doctor if you get indigestion even when you’re eating healthy foods, exercising, and getting enough sleep.

You may need to be examined, have stomach X-rays or other tests to make sure your indigestion is not the sign of another problem in your digestive tract. Depending on what the doctor finds, you might need to make changes in your diet or take medicine.

Be sure to tell your parent right way if you:

  • throw up (or vomit), especially if you ever see blood in your throw up
  • think you’re losing weight
  • have no appetite for more than a day
  • ever feel short of breath
  • sweat for no reason
  • have belly pain that won’t go away or feels really bad
  • have poop (bowel movements) that look black or sticky or you see blood in the toilet or on the toilet paper after you wipe

Indigestion Prevention

Some people can eat anything and they never get upset stomachs. But other people are more sensitive to food and they might find certain ones just don’t agree with them. If you discover one of these foods, it’s best not to eat a lot of them or skip them entirely. (For Brandon, the problem was the onions on his cheesesteak!)

In addition to avoiding problem foods, it’s a good idea to eat several smaller meals instead of a couple of really big ones. Here are some other tips to prevent indigestion:

  • As much as possible, avoid fatty, greasy foods, like fries and burgers.
  • Avoid too much chocolate.
  • Eat slowly.
  • Don’t smoke!
  • Find ways to relax and decrease stress.
  • Give your body a chance to digest food. Don’t eat a huge meal and immediately go to sports practice. Try to eat at least an hour beforehand, or eat afterward.

You might do all these things, but still get indigestion once in a while. If you do, just remember to say “excuse me” if it makes you burp!

Signs and Symptoms of Dog Indigestion

One of the hardest experiences for just about any pet owner is when their pup is clearly in distress or discomfort. The problem lies in the fact that it’s obvious that something’s the matter, but your dog can’t communicate exactly what they’re feeling. Instead, you have to be attentive to their actions and changes in behavioral patterns in order to piece together the clues and figure out what’s wrong—that is, in most cases. 

When it comes to dog indigestion or gastric issues, the unpleasant symptoms are often all too apparent. And while all canine breeds are susceptible to stomach problems from time to time, there are signs that you should be on the lookout for that indicate a more serious gastric issue. 

Below, we’ll cover everything you need to know as a pet owner about indigestion in dogs. 

What is Indigestion 

Because your dog’s diet is relatively unvaried, it’s easy to forget that they, like humans, are susceptible to gastric distress. Most people incorrectly assume that dogs have a much tougher and robust digestive system. This is understandable, particularly when you remember that the canine is not so far removed from its wolf predecessors. Amongst other factors, domestication and years of selective genetic breeding have gradually sensitized the average dogs’ stomach. 

All that said, your normal case of canine indigestion is simply gastric distress that comes from eating the wrong food, too much food, or too much of a certain type of food. Often this causes stomach issues that manifest as symptoms related to:

  • Nausea
  • Heartburn
  • Acid reflux

Why Does Indigestion Occur?

Typically, standard dog indigestion comes down to three key gastric issues:

  • Excessive stomach acid buildup — When the body is working properly, this potent substance is used by both human and canine stomachs to break down food into nutrients and wastes as well as aid the digestive process. However, indigestion occurs when your pup’s stomach begins to produce too much stomach acid. 

In such cases, pressure builds up within the gastric system, which causes pain, discomfort, and bloating. In response, a dog’s body naturally attempts to alleviate the problem by releasing the pressure however possible; and the only way that pressure can go is through your pup’s orifices, i.e. the mouth and anus. 

  • Inflammation of the stomach – This can cause muscles contractions, which lead to vomiting.
  • Inflammation of the intestine – Similarly, this causes muscle contractions within the intestines which speed the contents of your stomach through the tract, leaving it too little time for the fluids to be properly absorbed back into the intestines. This is what causes diarrhea. 

Signs and Symptoms of Dog Indigestion

As you might imagine, stomach issues are a common issue every dog owner runs into. According to Nationwide pet health insurance, diarrhea/intestinal upset and vomiting/upset stomach were cited as the 5th and 6th most common reason for trips to the veterinarian. As the Telegraph notes: 

There are many possible causes of vomiting and diarrhea in dogs: entire textbooks have been written on the topic. The most common cause is simple: scavenging. Dogs have evolved to “eat first and ask questions later.” When a dog eats something that really ought to have been left alone (the list of possibilities is too long to itemize), the consequence is commonly that their digestive tract becomes inflamed (red and irritated).

With everyday gastric problems come several noticeable dog indigestion symptoms. These include:

  • Weight loss – When your dog’s stomach hurts, especially if the problem persists, it will have an impact on their diet. At first, your dog may have trouble with the act of eating itself, regularly choking or hacking as it tries to get the food down. If the matter continues, it may stop eating as much or lose interest in food altogether. Over time, this will result in noticeable weight loss.  
  • Lip smacking and gulping – Repeated lip smack and gulping are noticeable signs that your dog will likely soon vomit. Per Pet Helpful: 

The production of saliva is initiated by the salivary glands and increased saliva can be due to two different scenarios: either too much saliva is being produced or there is a decreased clearance of saliva. In the case of nausea, there is an overproduction of saliva. Because vomit is highly acidic in nature, it can cause potential harm to the dog’s throat, mouth and teeth. An increase in salivation, therefore, helps reduce this damaging effect.

  • Stomach bloat – If you see that your pup’s stomach has been visibly distended, likely by gas buildup, this is a sign that something’s wrong. This may not always be apparent, but you can check by gently feeling your dog’s stomach and local areas. If they react with pain, you know there’s a gastric issue. Also, frequent whimpering is an obvious symptom that they’re in distress. 
  • Vomiting/Diarrhea – The most obvious and unpleasant sign that your dog’s stomach is in distress is the body violently attempting to rid itself of the offending substances. 
  • Bad Breath – Vomiting, choking back bile, and excess stomach acid will leave your dog’s breath smelling less than pleasant. Although it may not generally smell like roses, the odor is especially pungent and acidic.  
  • Change in behavior – If your pup is normally energetic but begins to act differently, especially if their behavior is characterized by lethargy, they’re likely dealing with both discomfort and low energy levels due to weakness caused by improper digestion. 
  • Eating grass – A common phenomenon is that when a dog’s stomach is upset, they’ll eat grass as a form of natural emetic or osmotic. In 2014, a study from Proceedings of the National Academy of Science was released about animals that naturally self-medicate. It states: “Anyone who has seen a dog eat grass during a walk has witnessed self-medication. The dog probably has an upset stomach or a parasite. The grass helps them vomit up the problem or eliminate it with the feces.”
  • Passing gas – Flatulence is a normal doggy pastime, and some breeds are far gassier than others. That said, excess flatulence may indicate that your dog’s stomach is trying to relieve itself of pressure. 

What Can You Do About A Dog with Indigestion? 

If you have a dog with an upset stomach, there are several home remedies you can try for treating canine indigestion. These include:

  • Wait it out – Oftentimes a bout of indigestion may be a singular thing resulting from something bad your dog ate. Sometimes, the best answer is to let nature do its work and see if they can pass the problem on their own. In such cases, avoid feeding your pet for 12 to 24 hours so that you are not compounding the problem.
  • Ice – Although you may be tempted to give your dog a lot of water after they’ve been throwing up or having diarrhea, avoid doing so. Hydration is important, but it’s possible that your dog drinks too much water and only makes matters worse. Instead, give them a bowl of ice chips to chew on once every few hours. If the pup can keep those down, you can move to water. 
  • Canned pumpkin – Per Pet MD, canned pumpkin is one of the best holistic remedies for pet indigestion. They write: 

It has a low glycemic index, so it slowly absorbs, which helps with upset stomach and digestion. Make sure to get canned pumpkin, and not pumpkin pie mix, as you don’t want to feed your dog spices. Smaller dogs (approximately five pounds) can be fed ½ teaspoon of canned pumpkin, while larger dogs (approximately 75 pounds) can be fed 1 tablespoon.

  • Diet change – If the digestive problems are the result of gastric acid buildup, you may want to change your dog’s diet. A change in diet is usually an effective way to improve digestion in a dog’s body. Withhold food for a day or two, and then feed them small and regular meals of low-fat, low-protein foods, since fats and proteins are often the cause of an increase in gastric acid. 
  • Bone broth – One of the best ways to soothe the stomach and hydrate your pup involves feeding them a bone broth soup. This can take up to 24 hours to make, but once you’ve done it, you can freeze it and then break it out whenever stomach issues crop up. For a recipe, check out the one provided by Brindleberry Acres.  

Treating Your Dog’s Indigestion

Although all these can be signs of everyday indigestion in dogs, they can also point to more serious medical conditions. If your dog’s digestive problems are worsening or not subsiding, he may be suffering from something more than just regular digestive issues. Digestive upset is normal for dogs and cats, but when your dog’s health begins to decline, that’s when you have to go see a vet for further examination. You may not want to, but it’s worth it to peruse your dog’s excretions to confirm that there’s no blood in the vomit or fecal matter. In such cases, or should the problem persist, it’s crucial that you take your dog to the veterinarian for further testing in order to determine whether or not there are serious underlying health concerns.



Dr. Melinda J. Mayfield-Davis, DVM, WCHP-AH, brings over 20 years of experience in veterinary medicine.  She is the Technical Services Veterinarian with Innovacyn, Inc., parent company of Vetericyn Animal Wellness. She received her DVM from Oklahoma State University and now resides in Southeast Kansas with her husband, two children, four dogs, and six horses. Prior to working with Innovacyn, Dr. Mayfield owned and operated the Animal Care Center in Columbus, KS.

Understanding Indigestion | Everyday Health

If you’ve ever felt intense fullness and discomfort, perhaps accompanied by a burning sensation, after a particularly large, greasy meal, you’ve experienced indigestion, also known as dyspepsia. Often confused with heartburn — which is a burning pain in the chest, adjacent to the esophagus — indigestion causes upset stomach. Even so, symptoms of indigestion and heartburn often occur together.

Upset Stomach: What Does Indigestion Feel Like?

Indigestion typically leads to one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Feeling uncomfortably full or bloated just after you finish eating
  • Pain or burning in the stomach
  • Frequent burping
  • An acidic taste in the mouth
  • Excess gas
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation

Keep in mind that symptoms of indigestion are often worsened by stress and anxiety.

Upset Stomach: Who Gets Indigestion?

Indigestion can affect anyone, but it is particularly common in people who:

  • Drink a lot of alcohol or caffeine
  • Smoke
  • Eat foods that are greasy and high in fat
  • Eat very spicy foods
  • Eat too quickly or eat too much food
  • Eat while under stress
  • Have a history of heartburn

Swallowing excess air while eating too quickly and exercising right after a big meal can also cause indigestion.

Also, keep in mind that medication may cause an upset stomach; culprits include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen, and certain antibiotics, like erythromycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Upset Stomach: Is Indigestion Serious?

If your indigestion doesn’t go away, even after you’ve changed your diet and lifestyle to try to reduce symptoms, you should see your doctor to find out what treatment might help.

In some cases, doctors aren’t able to determine the specific cause of indigestion. This is what’s known as functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia. Even if the cause is unclear though, indigestion can usually be managed with diet and medication.

Upset Stomach: Health Problems That Cause Indigestion

Indigestion may be uncomfortable, but usually isn’t a serious problem. Nevertheless, it can be a warning sign of an underlying digestive health problem or another condition. If you notice any other symptoms in association with your indigestion such as weight loss, decreased appetite, bloody vomit, bloody or tar-like stools, or difficulty catching your breath, you should see your doctor right away. In these cases, a serious illness like gastritis, pancreatitis, or even cancer could be contributing to your symptoms.

Health problems linked to indigestion include:

Indigestion is your body’s way of telling you what you probably already know — that you ate too quickly or ate too much of the wrong foods. So listen to your body, make healthy food choices, and don’t scarf down your meals. A greasy meal or a too-quick bite to eat isn’t worth the taste when it leaves you feeling uncomfortable long after the meal is finished.

Return to the Digestive Health Awareness Center.

Indigestion…Or Something Else?

Indigestion, also called dyspepsia, is a term that is used to describe discomfort and pain in the upper abdomen that can include symptoms like:

  • Feeling full
  • Bloating
  • Nausea
  • Burning sensation in the stomach
  • Growling stomach

Indigestion is a common enough condition that most people ignore it or take over-the-counter medications like antacids to relieve symptoms. Indigestion can be a condition in and of itself or a symptom of a larger problem.


Contrary to popular belief, heartburn is not the same as indigestion. While both of these conditions can be triggered under similar circumstances, such as overeating, eating too fast, or eating spicy foods, heartburn is often a symptom of indigestion.

Heartburn is caused by acid reflux, or stomach acid reaching the esophagus.

Unlike heartburn, indigestion doesn’t always involve acid reflux and includes symptoms like a growling stomach, even after eating a full meal.

Gallstones Or Gallbladder Disease

Indigestion can be a symptom of gallstones or gallbladder disease, so it is important to understand any other symptoms a patient may be experiencing:

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Pain between the shoulder blades
  • Pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen
  • Pain under the breastbone
  • Pain in the right shoulder

If a patient is experiencing these symptoms in addition to indigestion, it is important to screen patients for gallstones or gallbladder disease. If left untreated, the patient could suffer complications like blockage of the bile or pancreatic duct and gallbladder inflammation.

Stomach Ulcers

A stomach ulcer, also known as a peptic ulcer, can mimic the symptoms of indigestion:

  • Heartburn
  • Burning stomach pain
  • Nausea
  • Feeling full
  • Bloating

These ulcers are most commonly caused by bacteria or taking too many pain relievers like aspirin or NSAIDs and may not show any symptoms if they’re small enough. However, unlike indigestion stomach ulcers can have more serious symptoms like bloody stools, unexplained weight loss, and feeling faint.

Heart Attack

While not as common, indigestion can be a symptom of a heart attack, causing patients to confuse the two conditions. However, unlike indigestion, a heart attack can be accompanied by symptoms like:

  • Chest discomfort
  • Pain in left arm that radiates to jaw
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness

The symptoms of a heart attack will vary from person to person. A heart attack is a serious condition and patients should call 911 immediately if symptoms are present.

90,000 what is it, symptoms and treatment (diet, drugs, folk)

Dyspepsia is a digestive disorder in which a person feels pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen.

The range of symptoms of dyspepsia includes a feeling of fullness in the stomach, heaviness, fast and early satiety, inability to eat the entire portion as a whole. Pain and other unpleasant sensations bother in the epigastric region closer to the middle of the abdomen.


Intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations are fairly conditionally distinguished.

Intestinal manifestations

  • Epigastric pain associated with food digestion;
  • Vague discomfort in the epigastric region;
  • feeling of instant filling of the stomach immediately after the start of a meal – early satiety syndrome;
  • Feeling of fullness in the stomach, which may not be associated with food intake;
  • sensation of food retention in the stomach;
  • sensation of bursting of the epigastrium, which is perceived as swelling – in the absence of objective signs of swelling;
  • mild nausea, bothering often or almost constantly.

Extraintestinal manifestations

Doctors dealing with the problem of dyspepsia note the characteristic personality traits of patients.

These are anxious and suspicious people who suffer from cancerophobia and are extremely attentive to the slightest changes in their well-being.

Patients take a long time to communicate with themselves and are most often unhappy that they received little attention. For them, it is not so much treatment that is important as empathy and compassion.


The reasons for the formation of dyspepsia are multifaceted and are in different planes. An approximate list is as follows:

  • gross supply errors;
  • congenital excessive production of hydrochloric acid;
  • stress;
  • anxious and suspicious personality structure;
  • long-term medication intake;
  • motor disorders of the stomach and duodenum;
  • chronic infection with Helicobacter;
  • violation of the digestion of disaccharides due to congenital defects in carbohydrate metabolism;
  • Infrasound impacts or sound vibrations from 16 Hz to 0. 001 Hz, in nature infrasound is generated during strong winds, hurricanes and storms, lightning strikes, earthquakes.

In general, dyspepsia can be defined as a person’s excessive sensitivity to environmental influences against the background of minor congenital defects in digestion.

Diagnosis of causes

Dyspepsia is a diagnosis of exclusion; it is made only after all other organic diseases of the alimentary canal have been excluded. Therefore, the establishment of the diagnosis is preceded by a thorough clinical examination. In each case, the list of examinations depends on the individual characteristics of the patient.

  • EGD – an objective method that allows you to visualize existing disorders and obtain material for biopsy;
  • Ultrasound – focuses on the gallbladder and pancreas;
  • clinical and biochemical blood test;
  • coprogram and feces for occult blood;
  • bacterial culture of feces;
  • X-ray examination of the digestive tract, if necessary with contrast;
  • Electrogastroenterography or study of gastric and duodenal motility;
  • scintigraphy – research using radioactive isotopes;
  • Helicobacter infection tests;
  • daily pH-metry – a study of the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus;
  • manometry – a study of the contractility of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum 12.

In the presence of concomitant diseases, related specialists are involved and the examinations assigned by them are performed.

The amount of research on a particular patient is a complex issue. On the one hand, it is necessary to exclude the organic causes of digestive disorders, and on the other hand, in an anxious person, a long and detailed examination pushes to form a belief about the presence of an incurable disease. Doctors are very wary of such patients.


Any digestive disorders, including dyspepsia, are formed on the basis of an unsuitable diet for a person.Therefore, the basis of recovery, or at least consistently good health, is adherence to dietary rules.


Basic Principles

  • meals are fractional and frequent, breaks are not more than 4 hours;
  • a small amount of food for dinner, the last time at least 2 hours before bedtime;
  • while eating, do not engage in anything outsiders – TV, reading;
  • chew well, not swallow in chunks;
  • obligatory first – broths, soups;
  • no dyes or preservatives;
  • food temperature – room temperature, not cold or hot;
  • Correct ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates – 1: 1: 4 – unless otherwise recommended by the doctor.


It is advisable to cook food using products from the permitted list, avoiding those that can harm.

Featured Products Products not recommended
  • secondary broths and soups on them;
  • boiled meat and low-fat fish;
  • steam cutlets, meatballs and meatballs;
  • mashed potatoes;
  • boiled porridge;
  • natural jelly and compotes;
  • yesterday’s white bread;
  • white crackers and biscuits;
  • boiled eggs;
  • low-fat fresh cottage cheese;
  • baked apples;
  • stewed vegetables;
  • berry and fruit fruit drinks.
  • fast food;
  • flavors and condiments;
  • coffee with a cigarette;
  • 90,017 smoked, salted and pickled;

  • fatty and fried;
  • spicy and spicy;
  • frying and sautéing;
  • 90,017 carbonated drinks;

  • tomato paste;
  • yeast baked goods;
  • canned food


Recent studies have proven the effectiveness of only two groups of drugs for dyskinesia: proton pump inhibitors and prokinetics.

  • Proton pump inhibitors are Omez and its analogues: Rabeprazole, Esomeprazole and the like.
  • Prokinetics – drugs that improve the motility of the alimentary canal. This is Metoclopramide, Domperidone.

In patients with a confirmed diagnosis of dyspepsia, when these two groups of drugs are ineffective, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs are prescribed. For this, a psychotherapist is involved.

Folk remedies

Used as an aid to improve digestive processes.Decoctions, infusions and teas from traditional plants are used:

  • dill;
  • 90,017 fennel;

    90,017 caraway seeds;

  • celery;
  • calamus;
  • 90,017 mint leaves.

Potential consequences and forecast

The forecast is favorable as there are no organic changes.

In 30 or 50% of cases, complete recovery occurs within a year, sometimes spontaneously and without treatment. Along with this, relapses are possible with the subsequent confluence of unfavorable life circumstances.


There is no specific prophylaxis, but the likelihood of dyspepsia can be reduced if you follow simple rules:

  • enough rest;
  • to diversify the experience;
  • adhere to a diet;
  • Eat balanced, healthy, fresh food;
  • avoid stress as much as possible;
  • If necessary, visit a psychotherapist if you cannot cope with the effects of stress on your own.

Indigestion: symptoms, what to do, causes and treatment of gastric dyspepsia syndrome

Many people experience heaviness in the stomach after eating, discomfort or pain. Bloating, belching, and flatulence sometimes occur. In this case, indigestion is said to have developed. This phenomenon has been known for a very long time, only now in medicine it is called dyspepsia.

Indigestion is a malfunction of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a slowdown in the process of digesting food.This can happen in any person, even in the absence of pathologies of the digestive system. In this case, indigestion appears occasionally and passes quickly.

But most often dyspepsia is one of the symptoms of diseases of the digestive system.

How does it manifest

Indigestion in medicine is not considered a dangerous phenomenon. But it can bring a person serious discomfort, as it is always accompanied by unpleasant symptoms. Without treatment, they may not go away for a long time.

Signs of indigestion can occur unexpectedly, at the most inopportune moment, which can seriously disrupt a person’s usual lifestyle. In addition, many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are also manifested in this way.

Therefore, it is important to recognize dyspepsia in time and begin to treat it.

The most common symptoms of indigestion are:

  • abdominal discomfort;
  • stomach pain or lower;
  • heaviness, a feeling of fullness and fullness of the stomach;
  • belching, nausea and heartburn;
  • increased gassing;
  • bowel dysfunction.

There may also be a burning sensation in the stomach or esophagus, vomiting. All these signs are often not associated with food intake, can occur after exercise or during fasting. But the main symptom of indigestion is fast satiety.

This is a feeling of fullness and a full stomach after eating even a small amount of food. As a result, the patient’s appetite decreases, he refuses to eat. In a healthy person, all these phenomena go away on their own in a couple of days.

If stomach discomfort persists for a long time, it is better to seek medical advice. This is especially important if there is a sudden severe pain, burning sensation in the esophagus, indomitable vomiting, blood in the stool. All of these signs, as well as a fever, can indicate serious damage to the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, inflammation or infection.

The main symptom of indigestion is heaviness in the abdomen and belching even after eating small amounts of food

But even without this, prolonged dyspepsia can lead to serious consequences. A decrease in appetite, a decrease in the amount of food consumed, as well as poisoning of the body as a result of poor digestion of food – all this often causes a deterioration in overall health.

The patient has weakness, decreased performance, the temperature and hemoglobin level in the blood may drop. In addition, the condition of the skin and hair deteriorates. The skin becomes dry, flakes, wrinkles appear on the face. Hair is brittle, dry and lifeless. A white coating appears on the tongue.

All this can be signs of other diseases, but it is still worth examining the state of the gastrointestinal tract.


Depending on what caused this condition, functional and organic dyspepsia are distinguished. In the second case, indigestion is associated with pathologies of the digestive system.

But about half of the cases of dyspepsia are of a functional nature. That is, indigestion appears due to the malfunctioning of the digestive system.

At the same time, there are no serious diseases.

Most often this happens in adults who do not follow the diet and lead the wrong lifestyle. Indigestion can be associated with alcohol or smoking, frequent stressful situations, or prolonged use of certain medications.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and hormonal drugs are especially severely disrupting the work of the digestive system.

And under stress, the body produces many hormones cortisol and adrenaline, which impair the blood supply to the digestive system and can cause spasms of smooth muscles.

There are many reasons for functional dyspepsia. In addition to improper nutrition or bad habits, it can be enzyme deficiency, anatomical features of the structure of the digestive tract, infection with the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori, changes in climatic conditions, and even an incorrect motor regime.

Most often this is a sedentary lifestyle, since intestinal motility is highly dependent on a person’s mobility. In people who spend a long time in a sitting position, metabolic processes and blood circulation slow down, and stagnant processes develop in the abdomen.

But indigestion can also occur due to physical exertion immediately after eating.

With functional dyspepsia, serious disorders in the work of the digestive system are usually not detected, therefore the general condition of the patient is satisfactory.Discomfort in the abdominal cavity occurs intermittently and goes away quickly. Most often, this phenomenon is associated with improper diet.


The most common cause of indigestion is eating disorders and an unbalanced diet. First of all – haste when eating. This leads to the fact that food enters the stomach insufficiently chewed.

And the process of digestion begins in the mouth, where food is moistened with saliva and stimulates the production of gastric juice.

And due to the fact that a person swallows it very quickly, it is not completely digested. As a result, the processes of decay and fermentation develop.

In addition, when eating quickly or talking while eating, a lot of air is swallowed, which then leads to increased gas production.

The second common cause of indigestion is overeating. The stomach can only hold a certain amount of food. And for the normal process of digestion, it is necessary that free space remains in it.The stomach does not accept food that exceeds this volume. The result is belching and heaviness in the abdomen.

Often indigestion occurs when overeating

A similar problem occurs with an improper diet, when a person often eats foods that are difficult to digest or eats at night. In this case, the stomach does not digest food, and it begins to rot. But long breaks between meals are also harmful for the body.

Another common cause of dyspepsia is an unbalanced diet.If the diet is low in fiber, but high in protein and carbohydrates, digestion will be slowed down. Some foods can also lead to indigestion:

90 016

  • carbonated drinks;
  • fatty meat and fish;
  • hot dishes, spices;
  • fried food;
  • coffee and other caffeinated beverages.
  • Children

    Indigestion can also occur in a child. Most often this happens in the first years of life, which is associated with imperfection of the digestive system, insufficiency of secretory functions and with a completely unformed intestinal microflora.

    In infants, dyspepsia manifests itself with slightly different symptoms. They immediately have a stool disorder. There is also frequent regurgitation, bloating, and colic.

    In this condition, it is necessary to immediately take action, since at this age dehydration rapidly develops due to diarrhea and developmental delay due to insufficient nutrition.

    In older children, gastric dyspepsia appears for the same reasons as in adults, and its manifestations are also similar. Indigestion can develop with severe stress or psycho-emotional arousal. This usually results in diarrhea in the child. In addition, indigestion is often caused by poor nutrition.

    During pregnancy

    Indigestion is a common problem in women who are carrying a baby. It is further aggravated by the fact that almost no medication can be taken during pregnancy.

    Therefore, it is important to know what causes indigestion and try to prevent it.

    Usually, this condition is not associated with serious pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, but arises from hormonal changes in the body and squeezing of the digestive tract by the growing uterus.

    Therefore, a woman should try to eat right, giving up heavy food, not overeating and not eating at night. It is recommended to sleep on a high pillow, and not to lean forward during the day.

    Abdominal heaviness and other symptoms of indigestion are common during pregnancy

    What diseases cause indigestion

    If there is a constant disturbance of digestion, which is manifested by periodic pain, frequent heartburn and lack of nutrients, they talk about organic dyspepsia.

    This condition appears in various pathologies of the digestive tract. It is advisable to undergo an examination in time and determine why indigestion has arisen.

    After all, without treatment, gastrointestinal diseases will progress and lead to serious complications.

    The most common causes of indigestion symptoms are:

    • gastritis;
    • peptic ulcer;
    • gastroesophageal reflux;
    • acute or chronic pancreatitis;
    • cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia, cholelithiasis;
    • irritable bowel syndrome;
    • acute intestinal infections;
    • tumors anywhere in the digestive tract.

    Treatment details

    Stomach dyspepsia is not considered a very dangerous pathology, especially if it is not associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. But its manifestations cause a lot of trouble to a person. Therefore, it is advisable to get rid of them immediately.

    Effective treatment of indigestion is only possible when the cause of the disorder has been eliminated. Therefore, first of all, it is recommended to undergo an examination. You cannot take medications without a doctor’s prescription.

    And in many cases it is impossible to eliminate dyspeptic syndrome only with the help of drug therapy. Complex treatment is necessary, the features of which depend on the cause of the pathology.

    With frequent signs of indigestion, you need to see a doctor, you can see a therapist. He will prescribe the necessary diagnostic procedures and advise on what to do to get rid of the discomfort. And if necessary, the therapist will give a referral to a gastroenterologist.

    Timely examination will help to diagnose serious diseases in time and begin their treatment.It is especially important to exclude the presence of any tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. For this, fibrogastroduodenoscopy and tissue biopsy are necessarily prescribed.

    Ultrasound examinations of the abdominal organs are also often performed. It helps to identify abnormalities in the functioning of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Sometimes other diagnostic procedures are needed: blood tests, feces, intragastric PH-metry, colonoscopy.

    They are prescribed by the doctor individually.

    If no diseases were found during the examination, the therapy for indigestion consists in changing the patient’s lifestyle and diet. This is usually sufficient, but sometimes your doctor may prescribe medication to relieve symptoms.

    How it hurts with gastritis

    But usually you can get rid of functional dyspepsia by observing the following rules:

    • you need to eat 3-4 times a day, there should not be long breaks between meals, and the last time you can eat no later than 3 hours before bedtime;
    • you should not talk while eating, all food must be chewed thoroughly;
    • you can not overeat, it is recommended to stop eating before the stomach is completely full;
    • you need to give up food that is poorly absorbed, most often it is mushrooms, legumes, fatty meats, canned food, fried and spicy foods;
    • Limit the use of carbonated drinks, alcohol, fruit desserts, coffee, and it is better to eat fruits separately or half an hour before meals;
    • any physical activity should be no earlier than an hour after eating;
    • need to quit smoking;
    • It is advisable to observe a balanced diet and the correct daily regimen;
    • try to avoid stressful situations.

    With frequent onset of symptoms of indigestion, it is advisable to be examined in order to detect pathologies in time

    These measures will help alleviate the patient’s condition, relieve most of the symptoms of indigestion and prevent attacks of dyspepsia. But in serious cases, only medications can help.

    In addition, it is recommended to use physiotherapeutic procedures, for example, acupuncture, massage or the intake of mineral waters.Treatment with folk remedies is also effective.

    In addition, the patient is advised to intensify physical activity, it is best to perform special exercises that improve intestinal motility.

    Drug treatment

    Special medications are the best way to relieve the unpleasant symptoms of indigestion. It is advisable to take them only as directed by a doctor, since their choice depends on the cause of the ailment and the symptoms manifested.

    It is especially dangerous to take pain relievers or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They will not alleviate the patient’s condition, but can only worsen it. Therefore, in case of pain, it is better to take an antispasmodic, for example, No-Shpu or Buscopan.

    But it is best to eliminate its cause.

    The following drugs are used for this:

    • antacids that reduce the acidity of gastric juice and protect the mucous membrane from its damaging effects – Almagel, Fosfalugel, Rennie, Maalox;
    • proton pump inhibitors, such as omeprazole, reduce gastric acid production;
    • tablets to stimulate the motility of the digestive tract will help free it from food faster – Cerucal, Motilium, Domperidone;
    • in case of severe flatulence, antifoaming agents, for example, Espumisan, can be prescribed;
    • sorbents, for example, Smecta or Enterosgel, help well in mild cases.

    Folk remedies

    Diet is the basis for a successful cure of any pathology of the digestive system. The choice of the regimen and diet depends on the individual characteristics of the patient. But more often than not, it is recommended to limit the use of heavy-to-digest foods, sodas, caffeine and alcohol. In addition, it is beneficial to include various herbs in the diet for indigestion.

    It is useful for the normal functioning of the digestive tract to eat herbs, fresh vegetable salads with olive oil.

    Instead of coffee, it is recommended to drink a decoction of chicory, and instead of tea – decoctions of medicinal herbs. For dyspepsia, chamomile, sage, mint, burdock root, dandelion are effective.

    Dill, cumin or fennel seeds help with bloating and flatulence. And for pain in the abdomen, it is recommended to drink potato juice.


    Indigestion is such a common problem that many people face it all the time. But it must be remembered that the frequent appearance of such symptoms indicates the presence of pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Therefore, it will not be possible to get rid of indigestion by conventional methods, it is imperative to treat the underlying disease.

    And for this, as a rule, complex therapy is needed, including special drugs, diet and folk remedies.

    ( 1

    Dyspepsia – symptoms, treatment, diet for indigestion

    Dyspepsia is a violation of the functional activity of the stomach caused by a chronic or recurrent disorder of the main organ of the digestive tract.

    Patients complain of stomach discomfort, especially worse after eating. Diseases have very diverse causes, although frequent functional dyspepsia usually develops on a psychogenic basis.

    Consider what symptoms accompany dyspepsia, how the diagnosis and treatment of the disease looks like.

    What is stomach indigestion?

    Dyspepsia is one of the most common complaints of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract.It is characterized by recurrent or long-term, that is, chronic, symptoms of indigestion.

    Studies show that, in general, dyspepsia affects up to 60% of the population.

    Of these people, about 20% occasionally complain of an upset stomach, while in about 60% of patients, these pain symptoms are a chronic problem.

    The clinical and functional unit covers three types of dyspepsia:

    • Undiagnosed dyspepsia applies to patients who are seeking help for the first time with so-called dyspeptic symptoms (digestive problems), as well as to those who have previously reported such symptoms but the cause has not been established.
    • Organic dyspepsia is diagnosed in people with recognized organic changes in the digestive tract. Symptoms of indigestion are most often the result of diseases of the digestive system.
    • Functional dyspepsia is diagnosed in patients who have no known abnormalities in the structure or functioning of the digestive system. Despite this, people suffer from aching pain, chronic digestive problems, and symptoms of indigestion.Causes of dyspepsia

    In most cases, functional disorders of the digestive system are responsible for the development of dyspepsia. After eating, the lower stomach should be relaxed by the action of the vagus nerve.

    When this mechanism is disturbed, the patient feels satiety and unpleasant fullness in the stomach too early. Sometimes stomach discomfort is caused by an increased sensitivity of the stomach lining to hydrochloric acid.

    Dyspepsia is not the same as temporary digestive problems.Temporary stomach upset can occur after eating too heavy or hard-to-digest food. Dyspepsia is a condition for chronic stomach dysfunction.

    The following factors that can contribute to the development of dyspepsia:

    • visceral hypersensitivity;
    • Helicobacter pylori infection, in particular chronic gastritis caused by it;
    • 90,017 medications taken, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetylsalicylic acid;

    • improper nutrition;
    • inability to cope with stress;
    • anxiety, depression and so on.

    There is also dyspepsia associated with gastrointestinal diseases:

    • In 15-25% of cases, patients with symptoms of dyspepsia have stomach and duodenal ulcers;
    • in 5-15% of cases, dyspepsia coexists with gastroesophageal or gastroduodenal reflux disease;
    • 90,017 Less than 2% of the population is diagnosed with cancer of the stomach or esophagus.

    What is functional dyspepsia?

    This type of dyspepsia causes the greatest diagnostic problems, which further explains the choice of treatment.Experts distinguish two types of this disease:

    • Postprandial Discomfort Syndrome (PDS). Postprandial distress syndrome is the main symptom, a feeling of early satiety and a feeling of fullness in the stomach after eating.
    • Epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). With epigastric pain syndrome, patients generally complain of pain and burning sensation in the upper abdomen after eating for an hour. felt a burning sensation in the upper abdomen after eating and for another hour after eating.

    Functional dyspepsia has a clear relationship with certain characteristics of sick people. They usually find it difficult to cope with stress. They are characterized by frequent anxieties in everyday life, as well as fear of a serious illness.

    The described correlation is observed in both women and men. These are the so-called somatization symptoms that occur when psychological problems manifest in the form of physical ailments.

    Functional dyspepsia – symptoms

    Dyspepsia is characterized by the appearance of nonspecific symptoms that also occur in other gastrointestinal diseases.The dyspeptic symptoms most commonly reported by patients include:

    • Rapid onset of unpleasant satiety after eating;
    • pain in the middle epigastric region, typical for heartburn;
    • bloating;
    • nausea and vomiting;
    • sensation of delayed food and slow digestion;
    • belching.

    Patients also suffer from depressed mood, but they usually cannot determine if stomach discomfort is the cause of the depressed mood, or rather vice versa.Spontaneous periods of remission and relapses of diseases are also characteristic.

    Diagnosis of dyspepsia

    Functional dyspepsia is established on the basis of diagnostic criteria developed in Rome in the 90s of the last century, hence the name Roman III criteria.

    Dyspepsia is diagnosed when the disease has been present for at least three months.

    Diagnosis of dyspepsia requires differentiation from many diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome or reflux disease.The basis of diagnostics is an interview and a medical examination.

    The medical interview is dominated by lifestyle issues, daily eating habits and stress levels. After collecting the data, the physician should refer the patient to a gastroenterologist.

    If the patient is over 45 years of age and has other symptoms that cause anxiety in the doctor, the first examination is a gastroscopy of the tumors.

    Alarming symptoms are:

    • unexplained weight loss;
    • 90,017 nighttime abdominal pain;

    • problems with swallowing;
    • gastrointestinal bleeding.

    In other cases, the first examination performed in the diagnostic process is endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. During the procedure, a section of tissue is taken to check for the presence of the bacteria Hylobacter pylori, which contributes to the development of stomach ulcers.

    If the test excludes the presence of Hylobacter pylori, or treatment with a prescribed antibiotic does not improve the patient’s condition, then treatment is carried out with proton pump inhibitors, which reduce the secretion of hydrochloric acid.

    If this treatment fails, the physician diagnoses functional dyspepsia and diagnoses other gastrointestinal conditions often associated with dyspepsia.

    Functional dyspepsia – treatment

    Dyspepsia is a disease that cannot always be cured by standard methods.

    Symptomatic treatment is ineffective, therefore, it is recommended to take a placebo – a drug without obvious healing properties, which is closely related to psychological symptoms.

    The neutral effect of the drug improves the patient’s well-being, thanks to his belief in the effective effect of the medication prescribed by the doctor.

    As a rule, the treatment of dyspepsia begins with the use of various drugs against flatulence, antacids, prokinetics, and so on, the effect of which is almost the same as when taking a placebo:

    • Antacids contain compounds that form a base of aluminum, calcium or magnesium, the latter two being recommended.An exception is often used in dyspeptic patients in whom aluminum is not absorbed significantly. However, commonly available drugs in this group work only temporarily, and therefore the best results are achieved with an alkaline diet and daily consumption of alkaline water, preferably with a pH above 8.
    • Anti-flatulence drugs – simethicone, which reduces the surface tension of gas bubbles in the intestine, causing them to burst. This allows intestinal gas to escape and relieves painful intestinal tension.
    • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are drugs with fairly high efficacy. These medicines interfere with the production of hydrochloric acid. These are the strongest substances available for this action. They rarely show side effects and are inexpensive and readily available. Many dyspeptic patients benefit from proton pump inhibitors, so they are used first, within 4-8 weeks. Only the lack of improvement is an indication for other treatments.
    • Prokinetic drugs are a group of rather controversial drugs that accelerate the emptying of the stomach and intestinal tract.In some patients, they have an effect, but, unfortunately, in the majority they cause side effects. The drugs in this group are Cisapride and Metoclopramide. The first substance can cause irregularities in the heart rhythm, and is permitted in exceptional cases. Metoclopramide should not be taken all the time, but only on a one-off basis. It should not be used for chronic stomach upset and pregnancy.
    • Antidepressants. The effect of tricyclic antidepressants has been confirmed, but little is known about the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Treatment for patients without symptoms of depression begins with very low doses of these drugs. If dyspepsia is accompanied by depressed mood, antidepressant therapy and treatment can help eliminate the psychogenic causes of discomfort.
    • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. In some patients, dyspepsia is not treated with any available substance. In such cases, the patient is advised to undergo cognitive behavioral therapy. In diseases with a known psychogenic background, and this is functional dyspepsia, therapeutic actions can significantly alleviate the symptoms.

    With psychotherapy, patients learn to better deal with stress, effectively relax and relieve anxiety symptoms. This, in turn, leads to the fact that the activity of the digestive system is significantly improved.

    Hypnosis is also quite effective, while about 30% of patients with dyspepsia have improved their condition with the help of self-hypnosis. The process of diagnosing and treating a gastrointestinal disorder can be lengthy and difficult.

    It is important that the patient is aware of the nature of the disease and is informed about the course of treatment.Good, honest contact with your doctor is an extremely important part of the treatment process.

    Without this, patients are often frustrated and feel that no one can help them, which in turn aggravates the symptoms. Patients should also be aware that relapses are common with dyspepsia.

    Nutrition for gastric dyspepsia

    It is known that the symptoms of dyspepsia are usually worse after eating. Therefore, the diet used should be easily digestible.While this is still the subject of research, the results suggest that the occurrence of severe symptoms of indigestion is related to the consumption of certain foods, such as:

    • fats;
    • 90,017 wheat;

      90,017 carbohydrates;

    • hot spices;
    • caffeine.

    Patients with dyspepsia are advised to stop drinking alcohol, fried and spicy foods, coffee and reduce the consumption of cereal products. It is also helpful to limit your fat intake, especially from animal sources.

    Treatment of dyspepsia with traditional and folk methods

    Dyspepsia refers to the totality of symptoms that appear in disorders of the digestive tract.

    Often, this syndrome makes itself felt when the process of digestion in the stomach is disturbed and the emptying of the intestines is delayed.

    The impetus for the development of pathological signs can be various factors, including all kinds of diseases of the internal organs. If dyspepsia is diagnosed, treatment should be started immediately.

    Gastroenterologist Mikhail Vasilievich:

    ‘It is known that for the treatment of the gastrointestinal tract (ulcers, gastritis, etc.), there are special drugs that are prescribed by doctors. But we will not talk about them, but about those medicines that you can use yourself and at home … ’Read more >>>


    Dyspepsia is divided into two main forms:

    1. Functional. Functional dyspepsia is characterized by the absence of organic lesions of the digestive organs.Exceptionally functional dyspepsia is present.
    2. Organic. In this case, dyspepsia is accompanied by structural changes in the cellular and tissue systems of the digestive system. With the organic form of pathology, the signs are characterized by greater severity.
    • In accordance with the reasons that caused the pathological syndrome, dyspepsia occurs:
    • 1. Alimentary
    • In this form, there is a direct link between the onset of symptoms and malnutrition.It is subdivided into the following types:
    • fermentation. Occurs with the abuse of products enriched with carbohydrate components, as well as drinks, the preparation of which was carried out by the fermentation method;
    • putrid. Often it develops in the case of eating a large amount of protein products and meat;
    • soapy. It occurs when an excess amount of fat enters the body, which is most often observed when eating pork and lamb meat.

    2. Arising as a result of deficient excretion of food enzymes

    This process significantly complicates the digestion of food in the stomach. In turn, this type of dyspepsia is divided into:

    • enterogenic, when an insufficient amount of gastric juice is secreted;
    • gastrogenic, in which there is a deficiency of gastric enzymes;
    • hepatogenous, characterized by impaired production of bile by the liver;
    • pancreatogenic, when the pancreas flies out a deficient amount of its own enzymes.
    1. 3. Associated with impaired intestinal absorption
    2. This type of dyspepsia develops against the background of malabsorption syndrome, which is understood as a congenital disease, accompanied by impaired absorption of nutrients into the blood.
    3. 4. Developing against the background of intestinal infections
    4. In this case, dyspepsia gets its secondary development. May occur on background:
    • dysentery, which is a pathology in which the large intestine is affected.The most characteristic feature is the presence of blood and mucous impurities in the feces;
    • salmonellosis, when there is a combination of the gag reflex, diarrhea, dizziness.

    5. Intoxication

    Occurs as a result of poisoning during the development of various pathological processes in the form of infections of a purulent nature, poisoning with poisonous substances.

    Click on the picture to enlarge

    Methods of therapy

    The choice of how to treat dyspepsia is largely determined by the existing symptoms.With dyspepsia, treatment also involves adjusting the factors that contribute to the development of pathology. An integrated approach is important, which should consist of:

    Drug treatment

    Drug therapy is aimed at eliminating the clinical manifestations of dyspepsia. In this case, the following groups of medicines are used:

    1. Prokinetics. They are means that contribute to the normalization of the motor function of the digestive tract. These drugs are prescribed primarily for indigestion, as dyskinesia is the main and most common risk factor for dyspepsia.
    2. Antibiotics. They become relevant when Helicobacterium is detected. However, the diagnosis of such a pathogenic microorganism sometimes becomes quite difficult, as a result of which a breath test is used, according to the results of which the choice of specific groups of antibacterial drugs is determined.
    3. Antacids. This group of medicines shows high therapeutic efficacy in the ulcerative form of dyspeptic disorders. Medicines help neutralize increased stomach acidity, thereby relieving soreness.

    It should be noted that dyspepsia has various forms and can develop as a result of numerous diseases of a chronic nature. Weakened immunity and mental health instability are predisposing factors for the onset of dyspepsia. For this reason, a medical consultation is advisable.

    Self-treatment is undesirable, since it can aggravate the course of the pathological condition. Sometimes it is allowed to take medications containing active enzyme components.

    It is important to know that regular intake of such funds is undesirable, which is due to a decrease in the synthesis of enzymes in the body, provided that the described funds are used for a long time. Useful to receive:

    90 016 90 017 pepsin;

  • pancreatin;
  • pancrelipase;
  • panzinorma.
  • In the presence of profuse diarrhea, it is important to restore lost fluids. For this purpose, it is necessary to take rehydron, a powdery agent, a sachet of which is dissolved in a liter of water.

    Diet correction

    Changing eating habits is one of the main conditions for the successful treatment of dyspepsia. When the first signs of such a disorder appear, you should go on a hunger strike for a couple of days.

    In cases where fasting becomes impossible, you should refuse the evening meal, and all meals should be consumed in pure form. At the same time, it is necessary to observe the drinking regime, in which 2.5 liters of water are drunk during the day.

    This measure is necessary in order to prevent intoxication and dehydration of the body, which develop due to diarrhea.

    Click on the picture to enlarge

    After a couple of days, a therapeutic diet is prescribed. The type of diet is appropriate for the type of disorder present. For example, an abundant amount of loose stool, which does not have a pronounced odor and is accompanied by increased gas formation, are signs of a fermentative form of dyspepsia.

    In this case, the diet consists in limiting or completely avoiding foods containing carbohydrates. In the presence of a stool with a fetid odor and the absence of flatulence, one should speak of putrefactive dyspepsia. In this case, it makes sense to give up protein foods, giving preference to carbohydrates.

    Folk remedies

    Traditional medicine also offers a variety of remedies to help fight dyspeptic disorders. Some of these are medicinal plants.The most effective for dyspepsia are:

    1. Dandelion

    The roots, leaves and flowers of the plant are used for therapeutic purposes. Dandelion tea is very useful, which must be drunk at the end of the course of antibacterial therapy used to restore bowel function.

    It is also possible to use juice obtained from fresh leaves, as well as decoctions from dried roots. A great dandelion-based home remedy for dyspepsia is a salad made with fresh plant leaves that contain teraxacin.

    The action of this substance is aimed at stimulating the digestive system. Its beneficial properties contribute to the production of bile and gastric juice.

    Treatment of toxic dyspepsia in adults and children of the population is treated with dandelion leaves and roots, which are pre-mixed with carrot or apple juice. In order to suppress the disease, it is necessary to give such a mixture throughout the day in the amount of half a glass.

    In the presence of a toxic form of dyspeptic disorder, dandelion tea will be effective.For its preparation, it is necessary to use dried parts of the plant. A tablespoon of raw materials is carefully crushed and poured into a glass of boiling water.

    A little honey can be added to the finished drink.

    2. Cumin

    Cumin contains carvone, limonene, flavonoids and organic acids. Caraway fruits stimulate the production of digestive juices, and also have antispasmodic properties, while restoring normal intestinal microflora.

    It is useful to use cumin in fermentative and putrefactive forms of dyspepsia, as well as in the presence of increased gas production. To do this, pour half a teaspoon of the fruit with a glass of boiling water. The medicinal composition should be consumed warm three times during the day.


    Rich mint:

    • essential oils;
    • tannins;
    • 90,017 flavonoids;

    • vitamin C;
    • carotene.

    Infusion made from the leaves of the plant is excellent for gastritis and enteritis, accompanied by flatulence and dyspepsia. Mint tea helps to improve digestion, which is why it is advisable to drink the drink after taking heavy meals.

    In case of the development of an acute form of dyspeptic disorder, an alcoholic tincture of mint is attached, which can be purchased at pharmacies or prepared on your own.

    To do this, pour 250 ml of alcohol into fresh and pre-chopped grass in the amount of 100 grams, and then infuse for a week.Taking such a remedy relaxes the muscle structures of the intestines, relieving pain.

    The dosage is 20-30 drops with a little water.

    Click on the picture to enlarge

    Remedial gymnastics

    Therapeutic exercises are excellent for dyspeptic disorders. One of these is an activity that helps to improve intestinal motility. Starting position – lying on your back.Next you need:

    • Bend your legs at the knee joints and press to your chest;
    • 90 017 straighten your legs and take your feet with your hands;

    • with slow movements, pull the feet towards you, and then away from you.

    Repeat the exercise after a few seconds. It is also helpful to do normal flexion and extension of the raised lower limbs. Such gymnastics can be supplemented with a massage of the abdomen, for which use stroking movements in a clockwise direction.This tactic is especially effective in treating lazy stomachs.

    90,000 Most common gastric diseases


    Outside the window is a pandemic, quarantine, many are sitting at home in self-isolation. The weather is cool, the days are short, dark and cloudy. The holiday period has come. Even in a narrow circle, we will sit, and more than once, at heavily loaded tables. Unfortunately, holiday meals can be fatal for the stomach. Moreover, many are now experiencing severe tension, stress, and slow digestion.An upset stomach can be caused by many factors and diseases, not necessarily directly related to the activity of the stomach, but in any case, do not lose your vigilance. If you are experiencing pain in the upper abdomen, in case of unusual complaints from the digestive system, do not hesitate and contact experienced specialists – gastroenterologists , who will have the opportunity, funds and experience to solve these problems.

    So about the stomach:

    The stomach is an important digestive organ located in the upper left corner of the abdomen.This is the first part of the gastrointestinal tract. The stomach consists of a mucous membrane that produces digestive juices, several muscles, an outer layer that allows the stomach to change its shape, size and volume while eating or changing body position. The stomach plays an important role in the digestion process.

    The role of the stomach in the digestive process

    After eating, food goes down the stomach into the stomach, passes through the lower esophageal sphincter (wrinkle) and enters the stomach.The stomach has three functions: it temporarily stores and stores swallowed food and fluids produces digestive juices displaces the digested mixture into the duodenum. The duration of this process depends on the function of the eaten and processed food and the abdominal muscles. Certain foods, such as foods rich in carbohydrates, travel further faster, and protein foods stay in the stomach longer. Fat is processed most of the time. Which are the most common gastric diseases are the most common?

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

    This is a condition in which gastric reflux (i.e. entering the esophagus) damages the lining of the esophagus and / or other organs (e.g. throat, bronchi) and / or impairs quality of life due to the symptoms caused by this reflux.


    • burning behind the breastbone,
    • vomiting of acidic stomach contents,
    • feeling of discomfort pain in the upper abdomen

    Risk factors for GERD include:

    • obesity
    • smoking
    • pregnancy
    • asthma
    • diabetes
    • diaphragmatic hernia
    • delayed gastric emptying
    • scleroderma

    This is usually treated with over-the-counter medications and dietary changes.In severe cases, prescription medications are prescribed or surgery is recommended.

    Gastritis (inflammation of the stomach)

    Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining. Acute gastritis can come on suddenly. Chronic gastritis develops slowly and lasts a long time. Statistics show that 8 out of 1,000 people suffer from acute gastritis, and 2 out of 10,000 have chronic gastritis.

    Symptoms of gastritis include:

    • hiccup
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • indigestion
    • bloating
    • loss of appetite
    • Black stools due to stomach bleeding


    • stress
    • small intestine bile reflux
    • Excessive alcohol consumption
    • frequent recurrent vomiting
    • taking aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
    • bacterial or viral infections
    • pernicious anemia
    • Autoimmune diseases

    Treatment usually consists of medication.Medicines reduce stomach acidity and inflammation. You should avoid foods and drinks that are causing the symptoms. The key is to change your eating habits according to your doctor’s recommendations.

    Peptic ulcer (stomach ulcer)

    Ulcer is a chronic recurrent disease that progresses to duodenal or stomach ulcers. Superficial wounds of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum are called erosions. If the lesion is deeper, a mucosal wound is formed – an ulcer.If the integrity of the stomach lining in the stomach lining is compromised, peptic ulcer disease may develop. Most of them are found in the superficial layer of the mucous membrane. An ulcer that runs deep in all layers of the stomach wall is called a perforated ulcer and is a medical emergency.

    Stomach ulcer symptoms:

    • upper abdominal pain
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • inability to drink liquids
    • Immediately after eating he feels hungry again
    • fatigue
    • weight loss
    • black stools

    Risk factors include:

    • Helicobacter pylori
    • Excessive alcohol consumption
    • Excessive use of aspirin or NSAIDs
    • tobacco
    • radiation therapy

    Only endoscopic examination of the stomach (gastroscopy) helps to make an accurate diagnosis.Treatment depends on the cause. This can be both medical and surgical treatment.

    Viral gastroenteritis (viral inflammation of the stomach and small intestine)

    Viral gastritis occurs when a virus causes inflammation in the stomach and small intestine.

    Main symptoms

    • vomiting and diarrhea
    • convulsions
    • headaches
    • fever

    Many people recover in a matter of days.Very young children, the elderly, and people with underlying medical conditions are at a higher risk of dehydration (dehydration). Viral gastroenteritis is spread through close contact or contaminated food and drink. Outbreaks are more likely to occur in enclosed spaces such as schools and nursing homes.

    Diaphragmatic hernia

    Protrusion of the upper part of the stomach into the chest through a gap or click in the diaphragm.

    Symptoms of a diaphragmatic hernia include:

    • bloating
    • burp
    • pain
    • bitterness in the throat

    The cause is not always known but may be trauma or stress related.

    The risk increases if:

    • you are overweight
    • over 50 years old
    • you are a smoker.

    Symptomatic drugs are prescribed initially. In more severe cases, surgery may be required. Your doctor may recommend: Maintain the recommended weight Limit fatty and acidic foods Raise the head of the bed

    Gastroparesis (slowing down the digestion of digested food from the stomach)

    Gastroparesis is a condition where gastric emptying takes too long.

    Symptoms include:

    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • weight loss
    • bloating
    • heartburn


    • diabetes
    • drugs that affect the intestines
    • surgery of the stomach or vagus nerve
    • anorexia
    • post-viral syndromes
    • disorders of muscles, nervous system or metabolism

    Drug treatment and correction of eating habits.In severe cases, surgery may be required.

    Stomach cancer.

    Stomach cancer develops slowly and is usually asymptomatic at first. In most cases, the process begins in the inner layer of the gastric mucosa in the form of erosion, ulcers or polyps. If untreated, stomach cancer spreads to the stomach wall and spreads to nearby organs.

    Treatment is usually surgical or complex. The sooner stomach cancer is diagnosed and treated, the better the chances.

    90,000 Diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum

    Pathologies of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum play a leading role in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. This directly affects the quality of life of patients.

    Disturbances in the work of the esophagus are mainly associated with malfunctions of its motor function. The cause of pathologies of the stomach, esophagus, duodenum is most often the activity of bacteria (Helicobacter pylori), inflammatory processes, congenital features of the body, neoplasms.


    • with a range of services for accurate diagnosis of diseases
    • special treatment programs
    • consultations are carried out by doctors with scientific degrees.

    When concomitant diseases are identified, consultations are held with specialists in related fields (otorhinolaryngologists, endocrinologists, neurologists, gastroenterologists, dermatovenerologists), consultations with doctors of medical sciences.

    Attention! Helicobacter pylori is a provocateur of oncological neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract.


    Diseases of the esophagus are characterized by the following symptoms:

    • chest pain,
    • difficulty swallowing,
    • heartburn,
    • nausea,
    • belching.

    Often the clinical picture is similar to the manifestations of pathologies of other systems – respiratory, cardiovascular (dry cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, shortness of breath).

    If these symptoms appear, you should consult a gastroenterologist-hepatologist!

    For chronic diseases of the stomach and duodenum, pain in the epigastric region (epigastric region) will be characteristic symptoms. As a rule, they are associated with food intake. The pathology of the stomach is characterized by the appearance of pain 15-20 minutes after eating. They last for several hours and can go away on their own. In diseases of the duodenum, pain begins 1.5-2 hours after eating.

    With the development of tumors, the pain syndrome is expressed in different ways: it can be associated with or not associated with food. The development of malignant tumors of the stomach is characterized by pain outside the connection with food (“hungry” pains, pain at night). Appetite is lost, pronounced weight loss occurs. Disgust for previously favorite dishes appears. Sometimes – belching of undigested food.


    Diseases of the esophagus

    Among the diseases of the esophagus, the most common gastroesophageal reflux disease, tumors, manifestations of pathology of other organs and systems.

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) – failure of the motor and evacuation functions of the esophagus. With these violations, there is a systematic reflux of food from the stomach into the esophageal canal. This causes damage to the mucous membrane of the lower esophagus. As a result, dystrophic changes develop in it, which provokes many complications. The reasons for the development of GERD are a decrease in the tone of the lower sphincter of the esophageal tube, a decrease in the peristalsis of the esophageal canal, and a change in the composition of gastric juice.

    Non-erosive and erosive forms occur. A complication of the erosive form is the so-called Barrett’s esophagus.

    The erosive form of GERD occurs as a result of systematic damage to the esophageal mucosa. Gastric acids gradually erode the membrane. It is clinically manifested by heartburn, which is aggravated by overeating, the intake of fatty, fried foods, and alcohol. Dysphagia is a characteristic symptom.

    It is difficult to swallow food and liquids.Liquid food is difficult, solid does not cause difficulties. The occurrence of heartburn is also affected by the position of the body: bending, lying after eating.

    Barrett’s Esophagus

    Barrett’s esophagus is a pathological process during which the cells of the mucous membrane of the esophagus are replaced by intestinal-type epithelium. It occurs as a reaction to regular exposure to acids in the contents of the stomach during reflux. As a result, the risk of developing cancer of the esophageal canal increases dramatically.Symptoms – heartburn, belching, burning sensation and pain behind the breastbone, dry cough, a feeling of disturbed heart function.

    Neoplasms and tumors of the esophagus

    Neoplasms are manifested symptomatically by vomiting, impaired swallowing. Benign tumors are rare, presented by leiomyoma, polyps, diverticula.

    Malignant tumors are more common. The clinical picture remains unclear only at the onset of the disease. In the future, progressive pain when swallowing, belching, increased salivation is characteristic.Dysphagia manifests itself first in the difficulty in swallowing solid food, then liquid, until the complete cessation of food intake.

    Diseases of the stomach

    Diseases of the stomach often have mild symptoms. These include gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, neoplasms. The leading role in the appearance of gastritis, ulcers, and stomach cancer is the Helicobacter pylori bacterium. It contributes to the disruption of the protective properties of the gastric mucosa with the development of inflammation.As a result, it is destroyed by aggressive factors of gastric juice. The provoking factors are stress, a violation of the diet (overeating, starvation), bad habits, the use of foods with a strong effect (coffee, strong tea, drugs, alcohol, spicy and fatty foods).


    Gastritis is an inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa. Often, the acute form becomes chronic. Symptoms are upper abdominal pain, heartburn, nausea, flatulence, belching, bitterness in the mouth, stool disorders.

    Peptic ulcer

    Stomach ulcer is often caused by Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Sometimes the appearance is associated with uncontrolled intake of anti-inflammatory drugs. Symptoms are pain associated with food. Pain syndrome can appear 30 minutes after eating, sometimes “hungry” pains appear.

    The ulcer can be asymptomatic or with mild symptoms in the initial stages. The danger is that gastric ulcers without treatment with asymptomatic course can cause severe complications – stomach cancer, ulcer bleeding, ulcer perforation, penetration and perforation of the ulcer.Such conditions often require urgent surgical care due to the threat to the patient’s life.

    In view of the danger of developing difficult situations that require urgent surgical intervention, patients with an established ulcer are recommended to stay close to the points of medical care.

    Neoplasms and tumors of the stomach

    Gastric neoplasms are common, benign tumors occupy no more than 4% in the diagnosis. They are mainly represented by polyps.As a rule, they are asymptomatic. Sometimes they are manifested by heartburn, aching pain after eating, dizziness and stool disorders.

    Malignant neoplasms are diagnosed more often. The main factors are chronic H. pylori infection and chronic peptic ulcer disease without treatment. In the early stages, it is manifested by a decrease in appetite, a perversion of taste – aversion to previously loved food, weight loss. In the later stages, vomiting of yesterday’s food joins, severe pain syndrome, stool with blood.

    Diseases of the duodenum

    Diseases of the duodenum are most often diagnosed in the form of duodenitis, duodenal ulcers.


    Duodenitis is an inflammatory process in the transitional part of the duodenum. It is manifested by nausea, vomiting, weakness, spasms. The causes are Helicobacter pylori, provoking factors – unhealthy diet, bad habits (smoking, alcoholism).

    Duodenal ulcer

    Duodenal ulcer is a chronic disease that gives relapses with a pronounced seasonality.An ulcer appears as a result of the activity of Helicobacter pylori infection, uncontrolled intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. During the period of remission, the course of the disease is asymptomatic. Clinical manifestations become apparent during an exacerbation. These include “hunger pains” that are eliminated after eating. A symptom of an ulcer will also be severe acute pain at night, belching, heartburn. Complications of the lack of treatment for duodenal ulcers are bleeding, perforation with peritonitis, stenosis.Complications require urgent surgical intervention.


    Urea breath test – the most innovative and accurate Helicobacter pylori test!
    The best method of quality control of treatment!

    Diagnostic basis for the detection and differentiation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract allows you to make the diagnosis quite accurately.

    1. Laboratory research methods. Establish anemia, which may indicate bleeding.Confirms the presence of Helicobacter pylori. According to the results of the study of gastric juice, the functional state of the gastric mucosa is assessed.
    2. Fibrogastroduodenoscopy (FGDS) gives a detailed picture of the state of the stomach lining. Identifies small tumors, early stages of malignant tumors, ulcers. An informative method with which you can do a biopsy to clarify the nature of the disease.
    3. Fluoroscopy is an additional method to EGD that diagnoses gastric and duodenal ulcers.X-ray examination reveals a picture of stenosis, helps to see motility and evacuation through the stomach and duodenum;
    4. Ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs is an additional method in some cases.


    Treatment is prescribed by a gastroenterologist individually for each patient!

    Today’s methods allow to treat diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum conservatively.Drug treatment and diet therapy in most cases give good results.

    Treatment with medicines is aimed at suppressing the activity of Helicobacter pylori infection (taking antibiotics), normalizing motor function and acidity of gastric juice.

    With the development of complications that occur in 25-30% of cases, surgical treatment is possible. It involves excision of ulcers, tumors, resection of a part of the stomach.

    Diet therapy is an indispensable component in complex therapy, it is necessary for rest and stabilization of the gastrointestinal tract.Physiotherapy and spa treatment are also indicated for the treatment and prevention of relapse.


    The selection of drug therapy should be made individually, taking into account the severity of the course of the disease, the presence of concomitant diseases, the age of the patient and the risk of possible side effects.

    We ask you not to self-medicate on the basis of Internet data!

    Branch phone: +7 (495) 695-56-95

    Prevention of indigestion and indigestion

    Dyspepsia is a condition associated with indigestion due to malnutrition and a sedentary lifestyle.

    The feeling of heaviness in the stomach after eating is familiar to almost every modern person, and many people often also feel pain and other unpleasant symptoms: bloating, “gurgling” and increased gas formation, frequent and frothy stools, diarrhea with a putrid odor. Often, such states become fixed, and the person’s appetite disappears, he feels weak and cannot work. In the old days it was called “indigestion”.

    Dyspepsia is classified according to the underlying cause of indigestion.In case of malfunctions in the work of certain “links” of the digestive system, hepatic, gastric, intestinal dyspepsia may occur, and in case of serious violations of the principles of normal nutrition, fatty, putrefactive or fermentative dyspepsia occurs. All of these symptoms are serious, self-medication should be ruled out. In order to avoid deterioration in health, it is necessary to consult a doctor for a correct diagnosis.

    Help for dyspepsia is aimed at eliminating the symptoms of this condition that bother a person.Help also involves correcting the factors that contribute to the development of this disorder. It is not recommended to regularly take independent measures to improve the patient’s well-being. If signs of dyspepsia appear frequently, medical advice is required. The doctor will establish the causes of the disease and prescribe adequate therapy.

    Measures for dyspepsia are:

    – correction of the diet;

    – taking medications prescribed by a doctor;

    – the use of folk remedies;

    – therapeutic exercise.

    Correction of the diet is the main measure to help with dyspepsia. At the first symptoms of this disorder, the patient is advised to refuse food for 1 to 2 days. If fasting is not possible, suppers should be excluded, and all food should be consumed in mashed form. At the same time, you should drink at least 2.5 liters of liquid per day in order to prevent intoxication and dehydration, which can happen due to frequent loose stools. After 1 – 2 days, the patient with dyspepsia should switch to a therapeutic diet.The type of diet depends on the form of the disorder. So, abundant loose stools without a pronounced odor and strong gas formation can be signs of fermentative dyspepsia. In this case, a diet with a limited amount of carbohydrates is indicated. If the stool has a fetid odor, but there is no flatulence or it is not pronounced, it may be putrid dyspepsia. With this disorder, you should limit the amount of protein foods and focus on carbohydrates.

    Dyspepsia has many forms, medication therapy is prescribed only after a medical examination.Self-treatment can aggravate the course of the disease and contribute to its transition to a chronic form. In some cases, the patient may take preparations containing enzymes to relieve their well-being. It is impossible to take such medications regularly, since as a result of their prolonged use, the synthesis of enzymes in the body decreases.
    In order to prevent gastrointestinal diseases, it is necessary to eat properly and fully, to exclude fatty, smoked and salty foods from the diet as much as possible.

    90,000 Types of gastritis and its treatment

    March 28, 2013

    Unpleasant stomach pains are familiar to many. Most often, the discomfort in this area is associated with gastritis. This disease can occur at any age due to malnutrition, overeating, nervousness, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption. As a result, the body is attacked by the Helicobacter pylori bacterium.Scientists have made this discovery recently, but after that the preventive measures of gastritis and its treatment have changed dramatically.

    With gastritis, the gastric mucosa is irritated, it becomes inflamed and painful sensations appear from this. It is this bacterium that irritates the walls of the stomach. Helicobacter pylori infection affects the membrane and destroys it. If the walls of the stomach are damaged superficially, then this is gastritis, although there may be deeper wounds – an ulcer. However, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori can live in the body for a long time without showing its symptoms.It is activated with favorable factors for it – a weakening of immunity in a person, improper nutrition.

    The process of the appearance of gastritis is very simple: due to nutritional problems, the walls of the stomach are damaged. In response to such a problem, the body reacts as follows: it produces a large number of immune cells. Outwardly, it manifests itself as an inflammatory process. So an exacerbation of gastritis is also an attempt by the body to cure itself. There are other reasons for the appearance of gastritis: a burn of the stomach lining.If a person drinks strong alcohol or another chemical, such as alkali or acid, gets into the stomach. In addition, certain medications, such as acetylsalicylic acid, anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics, can irritate the stomach walls.

    Severe gastritis pains have the character of attacks. And often when the painful sensations pass, the patient no longer wants to go to the hospital. However, this is not correct, because the cause of the pain has not been eliminated and the gastritis is progressing.The manifestation of symptoms in adults and in children is no different, but children are more difficult to tolerate. Sharp and sharp pains appear either on an empty stomach, or some time after eating. Also, one of the symptoms of indigestion is increased salivation. The body thus tries to protect the walls of the stomach from the effects of acidic juice. Also, if a person has heartburn, you should consult a specialist, as this is the first sign of gastritis. After eating, nausea and even vomiting may appear, as well as belching with a slightly sour smell and taste.With gastritis, the stool is necessarily disturbed: diarrhea or constipation occurs. And the general condition of the body leaves much to be desired: weakness, irritability, drowsiness, fatigue – all these are symptoms of gastritis. It is worth noting that with this disease, a person dramatically loses weight.

    There are two types of gastritis: acute and chronic. The second is much more complicated than the first, and it manifests itself due to untimely admission to the hospital with acute gastritis, due to frequent acute attacks.

    It is much more difficult to cure chronic gastritis, since in this case it is not just the surface membrane of the stomach walls that is irritated, as in acute gastritis, but the inflammatory process is directed deeper, and the affected area is larger. True, chronic gastritis sometimes develops as an independent disease, and not as a consequence of an acute one. Due to the fact that its course is often calm, it is detected only in the later stages, when the treatment is more demanding. That is why everyone should be more attentive to himself and his body.If a person feels unwell, he has problems with the work of the gastrointestinal tract, then it is imperative to inform your doctor about the discomfort. Diagnosing this disease will not hurt anyone.

    Also, chronic gastritis can cause permanent dental caries or mental disorders, in addition, if a person works in hazardous industries and inhales poisonous fumes, this form of this disease can also develop. Chronic gastritis proceeds in different ways: with decreased secretion of gastric juice, with normal and increased secretion.The symptoms of the disease depend on this. If the patient has a secretory deficiency, then his appetite decreases, an unpleasant smell and taste of metal appears in his mouth. Belching with gastritis with reduced secretion of gastric juice gives off a rotten egg. The stomach regularly feels heaviness, and after eating, nausea and vomiting are possible.

    Disease with normal or increased secretion of gastric juice usually begins at a young age. At the same time, there are frequent eructations of a sour taste, constant heartburn, heaviness in the pancreas.Two to three hours after eating, there is a feeling of fullness of the stomach, heaviness, pain begins. All these symptoms disappear after eating. It is worth noting that gastritis with high acidity is exacerbated if the patient has taken stale food.

    Treatment of gastritis should be started as early as possible. To begin with, you need to go on a diet, excluding fried, smoked, salty and other food heavy for the stomach from your diet. Diet for gastritis can be invisible if all family members change their diet.The menu is prescribed by the attending physician, as it is very individual. The level of gastric secretion and physiological characteristics are taken into account. However, it is known for sure that a patient with gastritis should never drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes, drink carbonated drinks and coffee. What medicines to prescribe to the doctor will show fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy (FGDS). This study reveals the degree of neglect of the disease and the level of acidity. Nevertheless, there are drugs, the use of which for any form of gastritis is possible, these are Gaviscon, Maalox, Gastal.They will help relieve pain, normalize the stomach.

    It is not worth excluding folk remedies in the fight against gastritis. Even doctors agree with at least some of the advice. So, the use of herbal medicine for stomach diseases helps to get rid of pain. However, herbs alone cannot cure gastritis completely, so you should still consult a doctor, and herbal medicine should be used as a concomitant treatment.

    There is a severe degree of this disease – erosive gastritis.It is also called hemorrhagic gastritis. This definition is given for internal bleeding. You can identify this form of the disease by passing tests. If the stool is very dark, almost black in color, this is the first sign that there is blood. You should urgently consult a doctor. Blood is secreted from the walls of the stomach, and not from the surface layer – this is a consequence of deep damage. How to treat erosive gastritis can only be decided by a specialized doctor, having carried out a full diagnosis. The most important thing in treatment is diet and regular food intake.There are a few dietary rules to consider. Firstly, you really need to chew food thoroughly, and secondly, eat in small portions and not two or three times a day, but five or six. Thirdly, smoked, fried and salty foods should be completely excluded from your diet. In addition, the food eaten by the patient should be neither too hot nor too cold. Stop eating rough, tough foods that can irritate your stomach. It is better to give your choice to puree-like milled dishes.Since this is a very complex degree of the disease, treatment is carried out in a hospital. There are chances for the patient to recover if erosive gastritis is not started, which is why timely admission to the hospital is so important.

    Phlegmonous gastritis is an equally complex form of this disease. It appears as a result of damage to the gastric wall by a foreign object. For example, if a fish bone is stuck into the wall of the stomach, and a wound remains there, then it subsequently begins to fester. Thus, a pyogenic infection develops.The symptoms of this form of gastritis are different from others. With the phlegmonous form of this disease, the patient’s temperature rises, and severe pains appear in the stomach area. It is not possible to cure pyogenic gastritis on your own. Moreover, with an advanced degree, a complication occurs in the form of inflammation of all organs of the abdominal cavity. The result of this disease without the intervention of specialists is lethal.

    In children, gastritis is detected less often than in adults. The main cause of children with gastritis is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.In second place is the malnutrition. Also, the cause of this disease in children is rotavirus infection and food poisoning. Many parents believe that gastritis develops in children as soon as they start school. Allegedly, in educational institutions, they feed differently from at home, and children’s stomachs are used to homemade food, which is why gastritis develops. And the diet suffers from this. It is worth noting that children tolerate gastritis much more difficult than adults. But diagnosis and self-medication does not differ from adults.

    It should be remembered that gastritis can develop into a stomach or duodenal ulcer. There are also much more complex consequences, such as stomach cancer. After gastritis, vitamin deficiency usually occurs. Therefore, it is impossible to leave gastritis without treatment, so as not to get complications.

    90,000 treatment of the disease in just 7 sessions.

    Indigestion: definition and characteristics of the disease.

    Indigestion is a disorder of the gastrointestinal tract caused by internal and external factors.

    This disease can manifest itself in the form of abdominal pain, belching, heartburn.

    The disease can appear regardless of the person’s age, including in children. The reason may be, for example, poor nutrition, overeating.

    Treatment of any disease should not be postponed. If something went wrong in your body, then there is a reason for it. What body bells can tell you that you are developing indigestion, we will consider further.

    Indigestion: prerequisites for the formation of the disease in the patient’s body.

    • Heartburn

    • Belching

    • Abdominal pain

    • Bloating

    • Vomiting

    • Feeling full at the beginning of a meal

    Here’s what you should pay attention to.As mentioned above, if you develop abdominal pain, heartburn, belching, then it is possible that you develop indigestion.

    Thus, if some or all of the symptoms present in the lists are manifested by you, then it’s time to take care of your health.

    Remember, the disease is easier and faster to treat in the early stages, when it has not yet taken root deep into your body.

    Do not start it and do not leave it to chance or “maybe it will pass by itself.”Undoubtedly, the body’s resources are great. And Tibetan medicine is for the body to cope with the disease itself.

    However, in the conditions of our modern life and not knowing the true causes of the disease, you should contact a specialist and undergo a free diagnosis in our clinic. At the very least, you will know your exact diagnosis, the cause of the illness, and recommendations for a quick recovery.

    Let’s continue our research, and first let’s find out where the roots of all diseases come from, in particular and indigestion.

    Indigestion: factors in the formation of the disease.

    Our world is diverse and complex for some, but simple and great for others. The ability to behave, to subordinate thoughts to one’s will, to manage one’s condition in different situations, to launch the correct biochemical processes, allows a person to have strong energy and strong immunity, which means resistance to any diseases.

    The integrity of the body begins to break down with psychoemotional factors that affect us every day.If a person knows how to cope with them, processing any emotional leaps towards a positive shift for himself, he will be able to react easily to any uncomfortable situation, remain in good health and, moreover, develop his energy potential.

    Otherwise, under the influence of the crazy pace of life, stressful situations at work, at home or on the road, a negative energy charge begins to accumulate, gradually destroying a person’s energy shell.

    At first, this affects the psychological health of a person, later, the destruction goes to the physical level, where internal organs begin to suffer and various sores begin to creep out.

    Let’s go directly to the causes and factors that contribute to the appearance of pain in the abdomen.

    “Hope to recover is half recovery.”


    Indigestion: the main causes of the disease becoming significant.

    • Malnutrition
    • Bad habits
    • Overeating
    • Malnutrition
    • Drinking highly carbonated drinks
    • Exercise after eating
    • Excessive
    • Abrupt climate change (pressure)

    Why can a disease not respond to treatment, and when everything seemed to be gone, there is a relapse? Because at the stage of diagnosis, the doctor did not determine the cause of the disease.

    To treat symptoms means to drive the disease even deeper inside, where it will infect more and more new areas, developing a whole “network” of associated diseases.

    And, one “fine” day, they will make themselves felt with all their bouquet, which will also be joined by side effects from drugs. Is it worth it? Of course not. There is always a choice

    Next, consider the approach of Tibetan medicine to the treatment of indigestion.

    Indigestion: A Tibetan Medicine Method for Healing and Restoring the Body.

    Rapid recovery of the body in Tibetan ways occurs thanks to the methods of external and internal influence. Anything that can contribute to a quick recovery is taken into account. Lifestyle and nutrition also play an important role here.

    On a free pulse diagnosis, you are given an accurate diagnosis, your prevailing constitution is determined, which is one of the most important points for setting the correct treatment, the causes of the disease, concomitant diseases, and already, based on these data, treatment is prescribed.

    Again, diet and lifestyle play an important role in the healing process. Therefore, it is important to know your natural constitution and the state of affairs in general. And already on the basis of these data, determine the necessary diet, with the presence of abundant drink and the exclusion or limitation of foods that are not suitable for you by nature.

    In combination with herbal medicine, the procedures give a tremendous healing effect and allow you to quickly relieve pain and alleviate the condition.

    Correctly selected phytopreparations have an immunomodulatory, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect, harmonizing the state of the internal systems of the body.

    An integrated approach is the basis of Tibetan medicine. External exposure to the above procedures leads to the following:

    • The stomach is restored
    • Its functionality is improved
    • Stagnation is eliminated
    • Immunity is increased
    • Pain and discomfort are relieved
    • Concomitant diseases disappear
    • The general condition of the body improves
    • Improves the physical and emotional state
    • And other manifestations of the disease.

    Tibetan medicine has helped many patients recover their lost health. Even in cases where ordinary doctors refused a patient, saying that he could no longer be helped, Tibetan medicine helped.

    Not because she has some kind of magic pill, but because she has tremendous knowledge about the nature of man and his interaction with this world. This experience has been accumulating for millennia and is now gaining popularity very quickly due to its amazing results.

    Without chemistry, antibiotics, painful procedures and surgeries, we manage to lift and put people on their feet, significantly improving their condition.

    People come to us for the prevention of diseases. Relax, relieve your emotional state, raise your vitality and restore energy.

    After complex procedures, a person gains harmony with himself and the outside world for a long time. He just glows with love, energy and life.

    Therefore, if you have any health problems, come, we will help you.

    Health to you and your loved ones!


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    The choice of treatment method for gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer / Dudenko G.I., Kovalev A.P., Mazurik S.M. // Surgery. – 1992. – No. 2. – P. 14-16.

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    Glinina N.N., Shkatova E.Yu. Assessment of the motor function of the stomach in the dynamics of treatment of patients with difficult-to-scar gastroduodenal ulcers // Seventh Congress of the Scientific Society of Gastroenterologists of Russia.Abstracts of reports. Appendix # 1 to the journal “Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology”. – M .: 2007. – S. 41–42.

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    Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in children: diagnosis and possibilities of antispasmodic therapy | Yablokova E.A., Gorelov A.V.

    The article is devoted to the problem of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in children and the issues of their diagnosis and treatment

    For citation. Yablokova E.A., Gorelov A.V. Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in children: diagnosis and possibilities of antispasmodic therapy // RMZh.2015. No. 21, pp. 1263–1267.

    Functional disorders (FN) of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the most common problems in pediatric gastroenterology. According to various authors, FN of the gastrointestinal tract is found in 55–75% of children in the first months of life [1]. As the child grows up, the frequency of functional disorders increases, their forms become more diverse. In many children, with age, there is an evolution of FN symptoms, for example: regurgitation in children under 1 year old, cyclic vomiting in children 3–8 years old and abdominal pain, dyspepsia in children over 8 years old [2].This is facilitated by the anatomical and physiological age-related features of the development of the gastrointestinal tract in children, violations of the regime and technique of feeding in infants, the regime and nature of nutrition in older children, as well as increasing physical and psycho-emotional stress, and frequent combined pathology of the central nervous system. The peculiarities of childhood are the non-specificity of complaints that a small patient can present, the impossibility of localizing pain in young children. The child’s numerous complaints are of great concern to the parents.To their simple questions “What’s wrong with my child? Why is this happening? How long it will be going on? Can this be cured? ” the pediatrician must answer.

    Terminology and classification
    According to the Rome III revision criteria (RC III, 2006) [3] (Table 1), gastrointestinal FN in children and adolescents includes a varied combination of chronic or recurrent symptoms without structural or biochemical abnormalities.
    The task of the pediatrician at the initial appointment, when collecting an anamnesis of the disease and examining a child, is to pay attention to possible “symptoms of anxiety” (“red flags”) (table.2) to exclude organic pathology of the gastrointestinal tract [4-5]. Such changes require in-depth, often invasive examination.
    The predominant symptom of FN makes it possible to establish a diagnosis and determine approaches to therapy. PK III are an important diagnostic tool in the daily work of a pediatrician.
    The most common among children and adolescents are the following FN of the gastrointestinal tract: abdominal pain (25-40% of cases), functional dyspepsia (FD) (up to 27% of cases), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (up to 45% of children) and functional constipation (FZ ) (up to 25% of cases).Other disorders (vomiting and aerophagia, abdominal migraine, children’s functional abdominal pain, stool incontinence) are observed much less frequently [2, 3, 5, 14, 21].
    h3. Functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with abdominal pain
    Abdominal pain is the most common, frightening, but nonspecific complaint in children with gastrointestinal fN. She forces patients and their parents to seek medical help. 10-15% of children and adolescents who do not have any organic diseases complain of abdominal pain [6], i.that is, they have FN. On the other hand, abdominal pain in a child is functional in 90% of cases.

    Diagnostic PK III [3] allow to establish the predominant form of FN.
    h3a. Functional dyspepsia (Table 3)
    Dyspepsia worries from 3.5 to 27% of children and adolescents in various countries [2, 5]. The differentiation of dyspepsia into variants – ulcerative and dyskinetic – in younger children is not justified due to the non-specificity of complaints, the impossibility of distinguishing between feelings of pain and discomfort in the abdomen [3].
    The mandatory need for endoscopic examination when making such a diagnosis is questioned. The frequency of changes in the mucous membrane of the upper gastrointestinal tract, explaining dyspeptic complaints, in children is much less than in adults [7]. In case of “anxiety symptoms” (Table 2), esophagogastroduodenoscopy, confirmation of the association with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is necessary, especially in the presence of dysphagia and persistent symptoms persist or recur against the background of antisecretory therapy [8].Dyspepsia can persist for a long time after suffering intestinal and respiratory viral infections [9]. Therefore, the presence of moderate inflammatory changes in biopsies of the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum during morphological examination does not contradict the diagnosis of FN [9]. In children with FD, the following are observed: disorders of the myoelectric activity of the stomach, delayed evacuation of food from the stomach, changes in antroduodenal motility, and a decrease in the response of the stomach wall to a load of food volume [10–12].
    Principles and approaches to PD therapy in children: refusal to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diet with exclusion / limitation of provoking foods (such as caffeine, spices, fatty foods). With predominantly pain syndrome, antisecretory drugs (proton pump inhibitors) are used, prokinetics – for discomfort in the upper abdomen [3]. When the H. pylori etiology of functional disorders is confirmed, eradication therapy is indicated [13].
    h3b.Irritable bowel syndrome (Table 4)

    According to Western researchers, IBS occurs in 22–45% of children aged 4–18 years [14].
    The diagnosis of IBS is confirmed by a combination of discomfort or pain in the abdomen with stool changes: frequency (4 or more times a day or 2 or less times a week), shape (from “sheep” / hard stools to loose / watery), impaired stool passage (straining , sudden urge to defecate or a feeling of incomplete emptying of the rectum), passage of mucus, flatulence [3].
    The main pathogenetic component of IBS is visceral hypersensitivity [15], which occurs due to a number of pathological processes: infections, inflammation, intestinal trauma, allergies, impairing intestinal motility [16]. Also, genetic predisposition, stressful situations, the presence of similar disorders in parents are important. Often the symptoms of IBS are accompanied by anxiety, depression, and a range of various somatic complaints.
    Depending on the leading clinical syndrome, there are 3 variants of the course of IBS: with a predominance of pain and flatulence, with constipation, with diarrhea.Although there are frequent combinations and alternation of the main symptoms of IBS.

    Careful study of the history of the disease, possible trigger factors for the onset of IBS in the patient, the absence of “anxiety symptoms”, normal physical examination data, unchanged growth curves of the child allow avoiding invasive procedures in most cases [17].
    The principles and approaches to therapy are diverse: a conversation with parents and the patient himself (reducing anxiety, explaining the causes and mechanisms of development of these disorders), psychological correction, diet therapy, pharmacotherapy (depending on the course of IBS – antispasmodics, laxatives or antidiarrheals, sedatives, pre – and probiotics), exercise therapy and physiotherapy, incl.h. acupuncture.

    IBS treatment begins with lifestyle changes, the development of certain stereotypical behavior in relation to the toilet: regular visits to the toilet and keeping a stool diary, encouraging productive use of the toilet.
    Diet therapy for prevailing constipation is enriched with dietary fiber, includes a sufficient volume of fluid, foods that stimulate the motility of the colon (fruits and vegetables, lactic acid products). When diarrhea predominates, foods with a fixing effect are included.With the predominance of flatulence, exclude gas-forming products.
    Pharmacotherapy of IBS depends on the variant of its course [18–20, 30]; the general requirement is the mandatory use of sedatives, adaptogens, which can be prescribed by a pediatrician or neurologist. Herbal sedatives with proven efficacy based on peppermint, lemon mint, and valerian are preferred in pediatrics. Their additional antispasmodic effect is useful. Also, an additional therapeutic effect for any type of IBS is provided by the addition of enzymes (for constipation – bile-containing), pre- and probiotics to therapy.

    With a predominantly pain syndrome, antispasmodics of various groups and agents that reduce flatulence (simethicone) are used.
    For constipation, laxatives are shown that increase the volume of feces (lactulose, macrogol, etc.), short courses of stimulating laxatives, antispasmodics. For diarrhea, antidiarrheal agents (loperamide), sorbents, antispasmodics are used. It is interesting to use a complex preparation containing release-active antibodies to histamine, tumor necrosis factor-a, protein S-100, used in various types of IBS [20].Therapy is aimed not only at relieving the main symptoms of IBS, but also at normalizing intestinal motor disorders, reducing visceral hypersensitivity, and correcting the mechanisms of pain perception.
    h4. Functional constipation (Table 5)

    Every fourth child suffers from constipation [21], in more than one third of children with this problem, the disease takes on a chronic course. The true frequency of constipation is unknown, since not all parents understand the severity of the problem and do not seek medical help, self-medicating.In addition, there are many age-related and individual children’s features of the structure and development of the large intestine, which leads to significant variability in the frequency of stool in the child.
    Constipation (from Lat. Constipatio) (according to WG Thommpson, 1999 [22]) is a dysfunction of the intestine, expressed by an increase in the intervals between acts of defecation compared to the individual physiological norm, difficulty in defecation, a feeling of incomplete emptying of the intestine, the discharge of a small amount of high-density feces (tab.6).
    Constipation is usually subdivided into primary (functional, idiopathic) or secondary, associated with a variety of pathogenetic mechanisms. Secondary constipation is more often associated with organic and neurological causes and very rarely – with endocrine causes [23]. Chronic constipation due to organic causes, as a rule, develops gradually, worsens with the growth of the child, and reflects the decompensation of bowel function. Most of the children (up to 95%) suffer from FL [24].
    When collecting an anamnesis of the disease and examination, one should pay attention to possible “symptoms of anxiety” [25, 26], suspicious of congenital organic pathology of the colon, anomalies in the development of the spinal cord and metabolic disorders: constipation from birth, later (more than 48 hours) discharge meconium; lag in the development of the child; severe flatulence and vomiting; disorders of early motor development.

    Evaluation of a set of anamnesis data and a specialized physical examination of a child with constipation, including examination of the perianal region, buttocks, back, assessment of muscle tone, strength and reflexes in the lower extremities, in some cases – digital rectal examination, makes it possible to resolve the issue of the need for further diagnostic measures … If constipation is functional in nature, starting therapy is prescribed. In most cases, no further instrumental studies are required.Detection of “symptoms of anxiety” is an indication for additional examination of the child [26].

    Successful treatment of constipation requires an individual approach to each child. It is necessary to take into account all possible factors: the age of the child, the etiology and duration of constipation, the presence of combined pathology, the effectiveness of previous treatment. Complex treatment of constipation includes lifestyle changes, nutritional correction, medication and non-medication methods of treatment (physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapy procedures, spa treatment, biofeedback technique).
    For an older child, “information support” is extremely important: in a conversation with the child and parents, questions about the frequency and quality of stool, constipation are discussed, material on the content of the diet, physiotherapy exercises, a reminder about taking medications, information about observation for the district pediatrician are given. In the diet of a child over 1 year old suffering from constipation, there should be food with a high content of dietary fiber (bran, vegetables, fruits), lacto- and acidophilic bacteria.
    To prevent constipation in older children, constant physical activity is a prerequisite.Physiotherapy should be aimed at increasing the pressure in the abdominal cavity, stimulating intestinal motility, and strengthening the muscles of the pelvic floor. Observance of the daily regimen, prevention of acute infectious diseases are necessary.
    According to most researchers, even initial therapy for constipation should not be limited to recommendations regarding regimen and diet (adequate intake of fluids and dietary fiber) [26]. The laxatives available in the pediatrician’s arsenal are divided into groups according to the mechanism of action (tab.7) [23].
    Drug therapy for constipation for children under 1 year of age: lactulose, sorbitol, corn syrup, occasionally stimulant laxatives are shown as softeners, mineral oils are not shown. Children over 1 year old: dietary correction is possible (fruits, vegetables, grains), mineral oils, magnesium sulfate, lactulose, sorbitol, short courses of stimulating laxatives are used from medicines (it is possible to use sodium picosulfate (Guttulax®) in children under 4 years old at a dosage of 1 drop per 2 kg of body weight), long-term use of polyethylene glycol (macrogol) in low doses in children with persistent constipation [3, 23-28].

    Additional prescription of drugs is determined by the predominant mechanism of development of constipation and the spectrum of combined pathology, antispasmodics, prokinetics, choleretic drugs, enzymes with bile acids, pre- and probiotics are used.
    Correct toilet habits formation, biofeedback method are highly effective in anorectal dysfunction [27, 28].
    Smooth muscle spasm is often the pathogenetically the last link and the main cause of many gastrointestinal tract FN in children, especially the syndrome of abdominal pain, IBS, and most cases of FD.
    In the arsenal of a pediatrician there is a wide range of antispasmodic drugs, the list is constantly updated [29].
    Regulation of the activity of smooth muscle cells is carried out by the central and autonomic nervous systems, as well as by acting on opioid and serotonin receptors using neuropeptides. Antispasmodic drugs can be divided into 2 groups: neurotropic and myotropic.

    Neurotropic drugs affect the conduction of impulses in the autonomic nervous system by acting on choline and adrenergic receptors.The most famous and actively used in pediatrics drug is trimebutin, which acts on the enkephalin receptors of the nerve plexuses of Meissner and Auerbach, which has a prokinetic and antispasmodic effect. Indications for the use of anxiolytics and antidepressants, which also have neurotropic antispasmodic effects, are limited in pediatrics.
    In practical pediatrics, myospasmolytics are most widely used. Excitation of M-cholinergic receptors causes the opening of sodium channels, the entry of sodium ions into the cell leads to membrane depolarization, the opening of voltage-dependent calcium channels and the entry of calcium ions into the cell.This is followed by a cascade of biochemical reactions, leading to the formation of an actin-myosin complex, a reduction in the myocyte. Relaxation of the myocyte occurs due to the accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in the cell.
    Currently, several groups of myotropic antispasmodics are known, differing in their mechanism of action.

    Drotaverine and papaverine have long been used in pediatrics and have proven their effectiveness. The drugs inhibit type 4 phosphodiesterase, which leads to the accumulation of cAMP and relaxation of the myocyte.However, the systemic nature of their action on smooth muscle organs, the presence of post-spasmodic hypotension limit the course use, drugs are often used on demand.
    The need for a selective action of antispasmodics has led to the creation of new drugs.

    Mebeverin is a myotropic antispasmodic that blocks sodium channels. The effectiveness of the drug is higher than that of traditional antispasmodics, it is well tolerated, acts for a long time (up to 12 hours), is included in the treatment regimens for diseases of the intestines, biliary tract, pancreas, but has age restrictions – it is used only from the age of 18.
    The combined effect of pinaverium bromide is associated with a blockade of calcium channels, suppression of spasm caused by cholecystokinin and substance P, and a moderate M-anticholinergic effect. The drug is widely used in gastroenterology for many FN of the gastrointestinal tract in adult patients. The experience of using it in pediatrics is limited, the drug is not recommended until the age of 18.
    A number of requirements are applied to antispasmodics of the first stage: a high level of safety, high antispasmodic activity, long-term antispasmodic effect, extensive international experience of use, availability (low cost), the possibility of self-medication (over-the-counter), the availability of oral forms.
    Hyoscine butyl bromide (Buscopan®, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Germany) has been known as a medicine since the 1950s, was first obtained and applied in Germany and has repeatedly proved its effectiveness and safety in many countries for various diseases accompanied by pain [30 ]. Hyoscine butybromide is a natural M-anticholinergic blocker (obtained from the leaf of the Datura stramonium plant) and is a unique targeted antispasmodic tropic to the smooth muscle cells of the walls of internal organs: the gastrointestinal tract, biliary and urinary tract [31].Buscopan® also has an antisecretory effect, reducing the secretion of the digestive glands. The rapid clinical effect (after 15 minutes) is explained by the direct M-anticholinergic action. The effect of anticholinergic drugs is the stronger, the higher the initial tone of the vagus nerve, which is important in case of autonomic dysfunction, which is the background of the gastrointestinal tract FN.

    Hyoscine butyl bromide is a quaternary ammonium derivative and does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier [31], therefore it does not have an anticholinergic effect on the central nervous system, which is important for a more free and safe use of Buscopan® in pediatrics.The great advantage of this drug is the selectivity of its antispasmodic action – only at the site of the occurrence of spasms. Preservation of the peristaltic activity of the gastrointestinal tract during FN contributes to the normalization of the motor function of the colon.
    Buscopan® has a wide range of indications for use: various spastic conditions – biliary, intestinal and renal colic, spastic dyskinesia of the biliary tract, pylorospasm, complex therapy of exacerbations of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, cholecystitis.A clear advantage for use in pediatrics is the presence of various forms of the drug: Buscopan® is available in the form of sugar-coated tablets and rectal suppositories of 10 mg; prescribed for children over 6 years of age, 1-2 tablets (10 mg) 3 r. / day or 1 suppository (10 mg) 3 r. / day per rectum [31].

    Numerous studies [33–36] have shown the safety and efficacy of using Buscopan® in pediatrics to relieve abdominal pain syndrome, various dyspeptic disorders, IBS symptoms, and improve the quality of life of such patients.It is interesting to use various forms of the drug in the complex therapy of chronic FD in children, depending on the predominant mechanism of their occurrence [36]. The additional advantage of the rectal form of the drug (direct antispasmodic effect on rectal sphincters and local irritating effect) in case of anal sphincter dysfunction is emphasized.
    Thus, FN of the gastrointestinal tract is a common problem among children of different ages. The manifestations of FN of the gastrointestinal tract are diverse; there are certain dynamics and evolution of symptoms with age.FN of any localization is characterized by a recurrent course, increased anxiety of the patient, combined disorders from other organ systems, which significantly reduces the quality of life of the child.

    Considering the need to reduce the invasiveness of procedures in childhood, the diagnosis of functional states of the gastrointestinal tract by a pediatrician is possible on the basis of RC III, but it is necessary to carry out mandatory dynamic control of “anxiety symptoms”.
    Pathogenetic therapy of FN of the gastrointestinal tract can only be complex with the obligatory correction of concomitant neurogenic disorders, the combined use of drug and various methods of non-drug therapy.
    Hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan®) is a highly effective safe antispasmodic for relieving spastic conditions in various FN of the gastrointestinal tract in children, especially in FN with dyspepsia, abdominal pain, IBS, FZ. The presence of oral and rectal forms of the drug is convenient in pediatrics, including for constipation with anorectal dysfunction.