About all

What are the organs of endocrine system: What Is It, Functions, Organs & Conditions

What Is It, Functions, Organs & Conditions

The endocrine system is a network of glands and organs located throughout the body. It’s similar to the nervous system in that it plays a vital role in controlling and regulating many of the body’s functions.

However, while the nervous system uses nerve impulses and neurotransmitters for communication, the endocrine system uses chemical messengers called hormones.

Keep reading to discover more about the endocrine system, what it does, and the hormones it produces.

The endocrine system is responsible for regulating a range of bodily functions through the release of hormones.

Hormones are secreted by the glands of the endocrine system, traveling through the bloodstream to various organs and tissues in the body. The hormones then tell these organs and tissues what to do or how to function.

Some examples of bodily functions that are controlled by the endocrine system include:

  • metabolism
  • growth and development
  • sexual function and reproduction
  • heart rate
  • blood pressure
  • appetite
  • sleeping and waking cycles
  • body temperature

What is a gland?

A gland is an organ that creates and releases substances that the body needs to function. There are two types of glands:

  • endocrine glands, which release hormones directly into the bloodstream
  • exocrine glands, like lymph nodes and sweat glands, which are not part of the endocrine system

The glands of the endocrine system are where hormones are produced, stored, and released. Each gland produces one or more hormones, which go on to target specific organs and tissues in the body.

The glands of the endocrine system include the:

  • Hypothalamus. While some people don’t consider it a gland, the hypothalamus produces multiple hormones that control the pituitary gland. It’s also involved in regulating many functions, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, and appetite. It can also regulate the function of other endocrine glands.
  • Pituitary. The pituitary gland is located below the hypothalamus. The hormones it produces affect growth and reproduction. They can also control the function of other endocrine glands.
  • Pineal. This gland is found in the middle of your brain. It’s important for your sleep-wake cycles.
  • Thyroid. The thyroid gland is located in the front part of your neck. It’s very important for metabolism.
  • Parathyroid. Also located in the front of your neck, the parathyroid gland is important for maintaining control of calcium levels in your bones and blood.
  • Thymus. Located in the upper torso, the thymus is active until puberty and produces hormones that are important for the development of a type of white blood cell called a T cell.
  • Adrenal. One adrenal gland can be found on top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that are important for regulating functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, and stress response.
  • Pancreas. The pancreas is located in your abdomen behind your stomach. Its endocrine function involves controlling blood sugar levels.

Some endocrine glands also have non-endocrine functions. For example, the ovaries and testes produce hormones, but they also have the non-endocrine function of producing eggs and sperm, respectively.

Hormones are the chemicals the endocrine system uses to send messages to organs and tissue throughout the body. Once released into the bloodstream, hormones travel to their target organ or tissue, which has receptors that recognize and react to the hormone.

Below are some examples of hormones that are produced by the endocrine system.

HormoneSecreting gland(s)Function
adrenalineadrenalincreases blood pressure, heart rate, and metabolism in reaction to stress
aldosteroneadrenalcontrols the body’s salt and water balance
cortisoladrenalplays a role in stress response
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S)adrenalaids in production of body odor and growth of body hair during puberty
estrogenovaryworks to regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, and develop female sex characteristics; aids in sperm production
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)pituitarycontrols the production of eggs and sperm
glucagonpancreashelps increase levels of blood glucose (blood sugar)
insulinpancreashelps reduce your blood glucose levels
luteinizing hormone (LH)pituitarycontrols estrogen and testosterone production as well as ovulation
melatoninpinealcontrols sleep-wake cycles
oxytocinpituitaryhelps with lactation, childbirth, and mother-child bonding
parathyroid hormoneparathyroidcontrols calcium levels in bones and blood
progesteroneovaryhelps prepare the body for pregnancy when an egg is fertilized
prolactinpituitarypromotes breast-milk production
testosteroneovary, teste, adrenalcontributes to sex drive and body density in males and females as well as development of male sex characteristics
thyroid hormonethyroidhelps control several body functions, including the rate of metabolism and energy levels

Explore the interactive 3-D diagram below to learn more about the endocrine system.

Sometimes, hormone levels can be too high or too low. When this happens, it can have a number of effects on your health. The signs and symptoms depend on the hormone that’s out of balance.

Here’s a look at some conditions that can affect the endocrine system and alter your hormone levels.

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism happens when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormone than necessary. This can be caused by a range of things, including autoimmune conditions.

Some common symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:

  • fatigue
  • nervousness
  • weight loss
  • diarrhea
  • issues tolerating heat
  • fast heart rate
  • trouble sleeping

Treatment depends on how severe the condition is, as well as its underlying cause. Options include medications, radioiodine therapy, or surgery.

Graves‘ disease is an autoimmune disorder and a common form of hyperthyroidism. In people with Graves‘ disease, the immune system attacks the thyroid, which causes it to produce more thyroid hormone than usual.

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism occurs when your thyroid doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormone. Similar to hyperthyroidism, it has many potential causes.

Some common symptoms of hypothyroidism include:

  • fatigue
  • weight gain
  • constipation
  • issues tolerating the cold
  • dry skin and hair
  • slow heart rate
  • irregular periods
  • fertility issues

Treatment for hypothyroidism involves supplementing your thyroid hormone with medication.

Cushing syndrome

Cushing syndrome happens due to high levels of the hormone cortisol.

Common symptoms of Cushing syndrome include:

  • weight gain
  • fatty deposits in the face, midsection, or shoulders
  • stretch marks, particularly on the arms, thighs, and abdomen
  • slow healing of cuts, scrapes, and insect bites
  • thin skin that bruises easily
  • irregular periods
  • decreased sex drive and fertility in males

Treatment depends on the cause of the condition and can include medications, radiation therapy, or surgery.

Addison’s disease

Addison’s disease happens when your adrenal glands don’t produce enough cortisol or aldosterone. Some symptoms of Addison’s disease include:

  • fatigue
  • weight loss
  • abdominal pain
  • low blood sugar
  • nausea or vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • irritability
  • a craving for salt or salty foods
  • irregular periods

Treatment for Addison’s disease involves taking medications that help replace the hormones your body isn’t producing enough of.

Diabetes

Diabetes refers to a condition in which your blood sugar levels aren’t regulated within a certain range.

People with diabetes have too much glucose in their blood (high blood sugar). There are two types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Some common symptoms of diabetes include:

  • fatigue
  • increased hunger or thirst
  • frequent urge to urinate
  • irritability
  • frequent infections

Treatment for diabetes can include blood sugar monitoring, insulin therapy, and medications. Lifestyle changes, such as getting regular exercise and eating a balanced diet, can also help.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

This common condition is caused by unbalanced reproductive hormones in people with ovaries, which can create issues in the ovaries. Living with PCOS can mean that an egg may not be released every month, or may not develop as it should when it is released.

Some of the common symptoms of PCOS are:

  • irregular periods
  • fertility issues
  • cysts that form on the ovaries
  • acne
  • hirsutism, which is an unusual amount of hair growth on the face or chin
  • thinning hair
  • weight gain
  • skin tags

Treatment for PCOS focuses on easing the symptoms. Treatments include medications, like birth control and metformin, and lifestyle changes, such as focusing on nutrition and trying to reach a moderate weight if your doctor has recommended it.

Hypogonadism

A common condition, especially in older males and occasionally in females, hypogonadism is caused by a lowered production of the sex hormone testosterone. This can lead to lowered libido, as well as a variety of other symptoms, such as:

  • erectile dysfunction in people with a penis
  • reduced energy
  • reduced muscle mass
  • depressed mood
  • increased irritability

Treatment for hypogonadism focuses on improved testosterone levels. Testosterone replacement therapy and lifestyle changes (such as working toward a moderate weight if your doctor has recommended it) are two popular methods.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is an abnormal loss of bone mass and changes in bone tissue. It can be caused by a variety of issues, but two common causes are lowered estrogen levels in people with ovaries and lowered testosterone levels in people with testicles. These lowered hormone levels can be caused by age, as well as other diseases.

Osteoporosis doesn‘t always cause obvious symptoms. But some of the more common symptoms are bone fractures and injuries related to minor falls, lifting, and even coughing.

Treatment for osteoporosis focuses on slowing or stopping bone loss. Proper nutrition, exercise, and medications are three of the most common treatments.

Acromegaly

This rare disease is caused when the body makes too much growth hormone, which is mainly produced in the pituitary gland. Mostly diagnosed in middle-aged adults, it can cause organs, bones, cartilage, organs, and certain tissues to grow in size.

The common symptoms of acromegaly include:

  • swollen nose
  • swollen ears
  • swollen hands and feet
  • joint aches
  • a deeper voice than usual
  • an increase in sweating and body odor

Treatment for acromegaly includes medications, radiation therapy, and surgery.

The endocrine system is a complex collection of glands and organs that helps regulate various bodily functions. This is accomplished through the release of hormones, or chemical messengers, produced by the endocrine system.

Endocrine System – Definition, Function & Parts

Definition

The endocrine system is a collection of ductless glands that produce hormones and secrete them into the circulatory system. Endocrine glands work without ducts for carrying secretions towards target organs. Instead, hormones can act as chemical messengers for a large number of cells and tissues simultaneously.

Overview

The endocrine system consists of many glands, which work by secreting hormones into the bloodstream to be carried to a target cell. Endocrine system hormones work even if the target cells are distant from the endocrine glands. Through these actions, the endocrine system regulates nearly every metabolic activity of the body to produce an integrated response. The endocrine system can release hormones to induce the stress response, regulate the heartbeat or blood pressure, and generally directs how your cells grow and develop.

Endocrine glands are usually heavily vascularized, containing a dense network of blood vessels. Cells within these organs produce and contain hormones in intracellular granules or vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane in response to the appropriate signal. This action releases the hormones into the extracellular space, or into the bloodstream. The endocrine system can be activated by many different inputs, allowing for responses to many different internal and external stimuli.

Endocrine System Function

The endocrine system, along with the nervous system, integrates the signals from different parts of the body and the environment. In addition, the endocrine system produces effector molecules in the form of hormones that can elicit an appropriate response from the body in order to maintain homeostasis. The nervous system produces immediate effects. The endocrine system is designed to be relatively slow to initiate, but it has a prolonged effect.

As an example, the long-term secretion of growth hormone in the body influences the development of bones and muscles to increase height and also induces the growth of every internal organ. This happens over the course of many years. Hormones like cortisol, produced during times of stress, can change appetite, and metabolic pathways in skeletal and smooth muscle for hours or weeks.

The endocrine system is involved in every process of the human body. Starting from the motility of the digestive system, to the absorption and metabolism of glucose and other minerals, hormones can affect a variety of organs in different ways. Some hormones affect the retention of calcium in bones or their usage to power muscle contraction. In addition, they are involved in the development and maturation of the adaptive immune system, and the reproductive system. Crucially, they can affect overall growth and metabolism, changing the way every cell assimilates and utilizes key nutrients.

Endocrine System Parts

The endocrine system consists of a number of organs – some of which have hormone production as their primary function, while others play important roles in other organ systems as well. These include the pituitary and pineal glands in the brain, the thyroid and parathyroid glands in the neck, the thymus in the thoracic region, the adrenals and pancreas in the abdominal region and the gonads in the reproductive system.

Endocrine System Diagram

Endocrine System in the Brain

Starting from the brain, the hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands are involved in the regulation of other endocrine organs and in the regulation of circadian rhythms, changing the metabolic state of the body. The pineal gland is located near the center of the brain, in a region called the epithalamus. The pituitary gland is seen very near the hypothalamus and has some direct interactions and feedback loops with the organ for the production of hormones.

Together, the hypothalamus and pituitary can regulate a number of endocrine organs, particularly the gonads, and the adrenals. In fact, the hypothalamus can be considered as the nodal point that integrates two major pathways for regulation – the nervous and endocrine systems. It is made of a collection of neurons that collect information from the body through the nervous system and integrate it into a response through the endocrine system, especially the anterior and posterior parts of the pituitary gland.

Endocrine System within the Neck

The neck contains the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The thyroid gland consists of two symmetric lobes connected by a narrow strip of tissue called the isthmus glandularis, forming a butterfly-like structure. Each lobe is about 5cm in height, and the isthmus is approximately 1.25 cm in length. The gland is situated in the front of the neck, behind the thyroid cartilage. Each lobe of the thyroid gland is usually positioned in front of a pair of parathyroid glands. Each of the four parathyroid glands is approximately 6x3x1 mm in size, and weighs between 30 and 35 gms. There can be some variation in the number of parathyroid glands among individuals, with some people having more than 2 pairs of glands.

Endocrine System within the Body

The thymus is an endocrine organ situated behind the sternum (also known as the breastbone), between the two lungs. It is pinkish-gray in color and consists of two lobes. Its endocrine function complements its role in the immune system, being used for the development and maturation of thymus-derived lymphocytes (T-cells). This organ is unusual because of its activity peaks during childhood. After adolescence, it slowly shrinks and gets replaced by fat. At its largest, before the onset of puberty, it can weigh nearly 30 gms.

The adrenals are placed above the kidney and therefore also known as suprarenal glands. They are yellowish in color and surrounded by a capsule of fat. They can be seen just under the diaphragm and are connected to that muscular organ by a layer of connective tissue. The adrenal glands consist of an outer medulla and an inner cortex, having distinct secretions and roles within the body.

The pancreas plays a dual role, being an integral and important part of both the digestive and endocrine systems. The glandular organ located close to the C-shaped bend of the duodenum, and it can be seen behind the stomach. It contains cells with an exocrine function that produce digestive enzymes as well as endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans that produce insulin and glucagon. The hormones play a role in the metabolism and storage of blood glucose and thus the two different functions of the organ are integrated at a certain level.

The gonads also have important endocrine functions that influence the proper development of reproductive organs, the onset of puberty, and maintenance of fertility. Other organs such as the heart, kidney, and liver also act as secondary endocrine organs, secreting hormones like erythropoietin that can affect red blood cell production.

Endocrine System Structure

Unlike some body systems, the endocrine system is widely distributed within the body. Further, unlike some systems, the parts of the endocrine system can function independently from one another to regulate and coordinate the body. For example, the pineal gland in the brain responds to light received in the eyes, which causes it to release the hormone melatonin. This action can be completely separate from the actions of the reproductive endocrine glands, which are responding to a different set of signals to enable a different outcome.

However, some glands like the thyroid and hypothalamus also control other glands and their functions. These glands can help to coordinate the overall actions of the system and the body as a whole. A release of hormones from these glands can create a cascade of effects from the release of a single hormone. This makes the endocrine system one of the most complexly structured body systems.

Diseases of the Endocrine System

Endocrine system diseases primarily arise from two causes – either a change in the level of hormone secreted by a gland, or a change in the sensitivity of the receptors in various cells of the body. Therefore, the body fails to respond in an appropriate manner to messenger signals. Among the most common endocrine diseases is diabetes, which hampers the metabolism of glucose. This has an enormous impact on the quality of life since adequate glucose is not only important for fueling the body, but it is also important in maintaining glucose at an appropriate level to discourages the growth of microorganisms or cancerous cells.

Imbalances of hormones from the reproductive system are also significant since they can influence fertility, mood, and wellbeing. Another important endocrine gland is the thyroid, with both high and low levels of secretion affecting a person’s capacity to function optimally, even affecting fertility in women. The thyroid also needs a crucial micronutrient, iodine, in order to produce its hormone. Dietary deficiency of this mineral can lead to an enlargement of the thyroid gland as the body tries to compensate for low levels of thyroid hormones.

Diabetes

Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, refers to a metabolic disease where the blood consistently carries a high concentration of glucose. This is traced back to the lack of effective insulin hormone, produced by the pancreas, or a lack of functioning hormone receptors. Diabetes mellitus could either arise from a low level of insulin production from the pancreas or an insensitivity of insulin receptors among the cells of the body. Occasionally, pregnant women with no previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels. This can threaten the health of the mother and fetus, as well as increase all the risks associated with childbirth.

Insulin is an anabolic hormone that encourages the transport of glucose from the blood into muscle cells or adipose tissue. Here, it can be stored as long chains of glycogen, or be converted into fat. Concurrently it also inhibits the process of glucose synthesis within cells, by interrupting gluconeogenesis, as well as the breakdown of glycogen. A spike in blood sugar levels causes the release of insulin. Its release protects cells from the long-term damage of excess glucose, while also allowing the precious nutrient to be stored and utilized later. Glucagon, another hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha cells), acts in an antagonistic manner to insulin and is secreted when blood sugar levels drop.

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a condition where the body has an insufficient supply of thyroid hormones – thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Both these hormones contain iodine and are derived from a single amino acid – tyrosine. Iodine deficiency is a common cause for hypothyroidism since the gland is unable to synthesize adequate amounts of hormone. This can arise due to damage to the cells of the thyroid gland through infection or inflammation, or medical interventions for excessive thyroid activity. It can also arise from a deficiency in the pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid. Alternatively, it could be due to defects in the receptors for the hormone. Thyroxine is the more common hormone in the blood and has a longer half-life than T3.

Hypogonadism

Hypogonadism refers to a spectrum of disorders where there is an insufficiency of sex hormones. These are usually secreted by the primary gonads (testes and ovaries) and affect the development, maturation, and functioning of sex organs and the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. It can arise due to a low level of sex hormone production by the gonads itself, or the insensitivity of these organs to cues from the brain for hormone production. The first condition is called primary hypogonadism and the latter is called central hypogonadism.

Depending on the period of onset, hypogonadism can result in different characteristics. Hypogonadism during development can cause ambiguous genitalia. During puberty, it can affect the onset of menstruation, breast development and ovulation in females, delay the growth of the penis and testicles, and affect the development of secondary sexual characteristics. It can also impact self-esteem and confidence. In adulthood, hypogonadism leads to reduced sex drive, infertility, fatigue or even loss in bone and muscle mass.

Quiz

1. Which of these organs secretes glucagon?

A.Pancreas

B.Pituitary

C.Hypothalamus

D.Adrenal Glands

2. Which of these endocrine glands situated in the brain interacts closely with the hypothalamus?

A. Pineal

B.Thyroid

C.Pituitary

D.Thymus

3. Which of these endocrine disorders can specifically affect women during the course of pregnancy?

A.Hypogonadism

B.Diabetes

C.Thymus gland development

D.None of the Above

4. Which area of the body DOES NOT have an endocrine gland?

 

A.The brain

B.The neck

C.The gonads

D.None of the above.

5. What is the role of the pancreas within the endocrine system?

A.To produce digestive enzymes.

B.To produce hormones like insulin and glucagon.

C.Neither of these functions

 

What organs belong to the endocrine system? — Endocrin Clinic

Contents:
1. What are hormones responsible for in our body?
2. What are the main components of the endocrine system?

What are hormones responsible for in our body?

Recently, all the inhabitants of our planet (not only doctors) have been very active in studying hormones.
“Harmony in hormones” is practically the slogan of a healthy person. And it doesn’t make sense. What are hormones responsible for in our body? The endocrine system or hormonal system is responsible for the regulation of all biological processes in the body from conception to old age.
Hormones (in parallel with the immune and nervous systems) clearly affect:

  • growth and development of the whole organism,
  • reproductive system function affect our psycho-emotional state! Just one of many examples is the so-called adolescence! How many “defeats” adults have won in the fight against unbridled teenagers. And in this war, one of the leading commanders has hormonal changes in the child’s body.
    So what are those very invisible “soldiers” of our body that actively influence our lives? Hormones are, in fact, the “couriers” of our body, such carriers of health (with the proper functioning of all organs and systems). Once in the blood, they deliver chemicals to the cells of the whole body. Hormones are produced in the endocrine glands and are proteins, steroids or protein derivatives.
    In addition to the endocrine system, the organs of our body are also involved in the production of hormones.
    Such as:

    • brain,
    • liver
    • heart and others. Do not follow the regime of the day, stress, lack of age-appropriate physical activity – all this entails the body’s inability to correctly and most importantly, release the necessary hormones that are so necessary for our body in time.

      What are the main components of the endocrine system?

      1. The hypothalamus is that part of the brain that is, in a way, a bridge between the endocrine and nervous systems. Its main task is to instruct the pituitary gland to start or stop producing hormones.
      2. The pituitary gland is the emperor of our endocrine system. He gives a command what to do to other glands of the body. We list only a few main spheres of influence of the pituitary gland:
        • affects the growth of the body
        • babies will never be deprived of mother’s milk with the smooth functioning of the pituitary gland
        • estrogen – female hormones
        • testosterone – male hormones.
        • Pineal gland – produces melatonin, the lack of which we suffer from insomnia and, as a result, an unstable emotional state
        • Thyroid gland. Instability in its function contributes to disturbances in physical and mental development, in the functioning of the cardiovascular system and in metabolism. We should not forget that the thyroid gland is a repository for iodine (such an essential substance, and especially in our region).
      3. Parathyroid gland is a calcium and phosphorus regulator.
      4. Thymus is the main violin in the development of the child’s immune system.
      5. Adrenal glands – promotes the production of an amazing hormone under the pseudonym “fight or flight” – adrenaline. In any extreme situation, it gives the human body incredible power to make a decision to either run or fight. The adrenal glands also produce hormones called corticosteroids. They affect your metabolism, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood flow and sexual function.
      6. Pancreas. This organ is part of our digestive system. But, oddly enough, the endocrine system too. In addition to its main function of producing digestive enzymes and breaking down food, the pancreas also produces hormones such as insulin and glucagon. Pancreatic control ensures that you have the right amount of sugar in your bloodstream and cells. (an example is the “plague of the 21st century” – diabetes).
      7. Ovaries – produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. These hormones promote breast development during puberty, regulate the menstrual cycle, and support pregnancy.
      8. Testicles . In men, testosterone is produced by the testicles. This helps them grow facial and body hair during puberty. It also causes the male sexual organ to grow in size and plays a role in the production of semen.

      Endocrine system – Medical Association “ONA”

      The endocrine system ensures the stable operation of the human body in a constantly changing environment, its protection from stress.

      The endocrine system includes the following main organs: hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, mammary gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries (testes in men), gallbladder and appendix. ES organs are glands that provide growth, physiological development, reproductive functions of a person, as well as the course of the most important processes of balancing the activity of the whole organism under continuously changing external influences. Management of all this work and control over the correctness of its implementation is carried out in the body by hormones, which are produced by the glands of the ES. Each hormone is responsible for its own organs and functions, but works in a delicate balance with hormones produced by other glands. Depending on the function being performed at the moment, a different balance of hormones is required. Its failure causes disruption of the corresponding systems, organs, the flow of necessary reactions, which leads to the appearance of abnormalities in the body, and then diseases. Therefore, regular monitoring of hormonal levels is the key to the timely detection of violations and their curability. Another feature of ES should be noted: the interconnection and interdependence of its glands is so great that a violation found in one of the organs almost automatically means the presence of problems in others – after all, there is a hormonal failure.

      Endocrine glands (EG) do not have excretory ducts, and the substances they secrete (hormones) enter directly into the blood and lymph. By sending hormones into the blood, EJs create a communication system and control the work of literally every cell in the body. Hormones provide its chemical balance, give the cells an indication of how to act, given their abilities and capabilities. The purpose of the EJ is to ensure the well-being of the whole organism, the balance in the work of internal organs, regardless of changes in the external environment, to protect the body from the destructive effects of stress.

      Hypothalamus. Regulates the temperature reaction, establishes the correct ratio between heat release and heat transfer, controls the pituitary gland.

      Pituitary gland. Manages the operation of the entire system. Incoming and outgoing messages are coordinated and make the ES work efficiently and harmoniously. The pituitary gland controls the body’s chemical balance by influencing most of the body’s chemical processes (for example, regulating water-salt and fat metabolism).

      There is a constant need for the body to adapt to external changes, and this is also part of the task of the pituitary gland. The human body grows, wears out, and the pituitary gland is engaged in ensuring growth and repair. In addition, it provides reproductive function.

      The pituitary gland performs its functions with the help of hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands. Those, in turn, secrete hormones that affect the pituitary gland itself and the nervous system. What happens in the body when the production of only one hormone is disrupted can be seen in the example of growth hormone. If it is produced more than the norm, a person becomes a victim of gigantism, if it is less than the norm, he remains a dwarf.

      The pituitary gland is called the conductor of the ES, and sometimes its “brain”.

      Thyroid. If the pituitary gland is the conductor of ES, then the thyroid gland (TG) is its metronome. It kind of sets the pace for all the cells of the body. The main function of the thyroid gland is to control the proper metabolism, the absorption of oxygen. It can speed up the metabolism if it increases the amount of hormones sent to the blood stream, or slow it down by reducing their amount. However, this does not happen, since its work is under the control of thyroid-stimulating hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. And that, in turn, manages the thyroid hormone, which provides feedback to the pituitary gland. That is, between the pituitary gland and the thyroid gland, there is a self-regulating mechanism of balance and control, working in a certain cycle.

      Normal thyroid function promotes growth, puberty, childbearing, mental development, emotional balance, vitality.

      Adrenals. Their bark is actually a gland, also called adrenal. It produces adrenaline, which increases vascular tone and blood pressure. The adrenal cortex affects the performance of the body, its resistance to stress. Women’s adrenal glands also help the ovaries – they also produce sex hormones. Moreover, during menopause, when the ovaries stop their production.

      Pancreas. It produces insulin, which enhances the process of burning glycogen in muscles, which proceeds with the release of energy.

      Gallbladder. During stress, it releases bile, as a result of which the peristalsis of the small intestine increases, the rotting masses are quickly pushed into the large intestine, into the rectum. There is an accelerated release of toxins, thereby preventing their entry into the blood.

      Appendix. At the moment of stress, the release of the hormone occurs, as a result of which the peristalsis of the large intestine increases and the rotting masses are released through the rectum (often this process is called “bear disease”).

      Ovaries. In the broadest sense, the ovaries provide a woman with femininity. They perform this function with the help of two main hormones: estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone promotes fertility, while estrogen provides other signs of femininity, including the complex function of the menstrual cycle. And when the ovaries reduce its secretion, menopause occurs.

      Hormones. This is a Greek word meaning “I excite,” “I set into action.” These are a kind of chemical messages, ordering the actions of certain organs. The hormone does not explain to the cells what kind of work they should do, but only determines how much and how quickly it should be done. Each hormone has its own controlled organs, but circulating through the body, it affects others, having a specific and general effect.

      The pituitary gland produces three main hormones: gonadotropic (stimulates the ovaries and sex glands) and mammotropic or prolactin (affects the mammary glands, promotes the formation of milk after the birth of a child) and thyrotropic.