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What are the side effects of cefdinir: Cefdinir Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing


Cefdinir Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing

Diarrhea, headache, or nausea may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

This medication may cause your stools to turn a reddish color, especially if you also take iron products. This is harmless.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: stomach/abdominal pain, persistent nausea/vomiting, yellowing eyes or skin, dark urine, unusual fatigue, new signs of infection (e.g., persistent sore throat, fever), easy bruising/bleeding, signs of kidney problems (such as change in the amount of urine), mental/mood changes (such as confusion).

This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea) due to a resistant bacteria. This condition may occur weeks to months after treatment has stopped. Do not use anti-diarrhea or opioid medications if you have the following symptoms because these products may make them worse. Tell your doctor right away if you develop: persistent diarrhea, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, or blood/mucus in your stool.

Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new vaginal yeast infection (oral or vaginal fungal infection). Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth, a change in vaginal discharge or other new symptoms.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction may include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US –

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

This information from Lexicomp® explains what you need to know about this medication, including what it’s used for, how to take it, its side effects, and when to call your healthcare provider.

Brand Names: Canada


What is this drug used for?

  • It is used to treat bacterial infections.

What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take this drug?

  • If you are allergic to this drug; any part of this drug; or any other drugs, foods, or substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had.

This drug may interact with other drugs or health problems.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this drug with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.

What are some things I need to know or do while I take this drug?

  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take this drug. This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • Do not use longer than you have been told. A second infection may happen.
  • If you have high blood sugar (diabetes) and test your urine glucose, talk with your doctor to find out which tests are best to use.
  • If you have high blood sugar (diabetes), talk with the doctor. Some of these products have sugar.
  • This drug may affect certain lab tests. Tell all of your health care providers and lab workers that you take this drug.
  • If you take this drug with an iron product, your stools may turn a reddish color. This is normal.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan on getting pregnant, or are breast-feeding. You will need to talk about the benefits and risks to you and the baby.

What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Not able to pass urine or change in how much urine is passed.
  • Dark urine or yellow skin or eyes.
  • Seizures.
  • Fever, chills, or sore throat; any unexplained bruising or bleeding; or feeling very tired or weak.
  • Diarrhea is common with antibiotics. Rarely, a severe form called C diff–associated diarrhea (CDAD) may happen. Sometimes, this has led to a deadly bowel problem. CDAD may happen during or a few months after taking antibiotics. Call your doctor right away if you have stomach pain, cramps, or very loose, watery, or bloody stools. Check with your doctor before treating diarrhea.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

You may report side effects to your national health agency.

You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You may also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

How is this drug best taken?

Use this drug as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.

All products:

  • Keep taking this drug as you have been told by your doctor or other health care provider, even if you feel well.
  • Take with or without food. Take with food if it causes an upset stomach.
  • Do not take antacids that have aluminum or magnesium in them within 2 hours of this drug.
  • Do not take iron products within 2 hours before or 2 hours after taking this drug.

Liquid (suspension):

  • Shake well before use.
  • Measure liquid doses carefully. Use the measuring device that comes with this drug. If there is none, ask the pharmacist for a device to measure this drug.
  • You may give this drug with infant formula that has iron in it.

What do I do if I miss a dose?

  • Take a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.

How do I store and/or throw out this drug?


  • Store at room temperature in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.

Liquid (suspension):

  • Store liquid (suspension) at room temperature. Throw away any part not used after 10 days.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.

All products:

  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.

General drug facts

  • If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
  • Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else’s drugs.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. Check with your pharmacist. If you have any questions about this drug, please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer

This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. You must talk with the healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine.

Last Reviewed Date



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Differences, similarities, and which is better for you

Drug overview & main differences | Conditions treated | Efficacy | Insurance coverage and cost comparison | Side effects | Drug interactions | Warnings | FAQ

Cefdinir (Omnicef) and amoxicillin (Amoxil) are two antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections. Both drugs are part of a group of antibiotics called beta-lactams. They can treat a range of different infections such as respiratory tract infections, ear infections, and skin infections.

Like most beta-lactam antibiotics, cefdinir and amoxicillin work by inhibiting a bacteria’s ability to maintain its cell wall. By attacking this process, these antibiotics are able to break down the bacteria’s primary defense and means of reproduction.

Although they work in similar ways, cefdinir and amoxicillin are part of different subclasses of beta-lactam antibiotics. They also vary in how they’re used and which bacteria they’re most effective against.

What are the main differences between cefdinir and amoxicillin?


Cefdinir is an antibiotic that is further classified as a cephalosporin. More specifically, it is a third-generation cephalosporin that covers different strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Compared to earlier cephalosporin antibiotics (e.g., cephalexin, cefuroxime, and cefaclor), cefdinir has broader coverage for gram-negative bacteria.

Cefdinir (What is Cefdinir?) can treat infections such as community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media (AOM), bronchitis, and pharyngitis. It is available as an oral capsule and liquid suspension that can be administered once or twice daily depending on the dosage.

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Amoxicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic that has a structure closely related to that of penicillin; however, unlike penicillin, amoxicillin covers more bacterial strains. Amoxicillin is often combined with clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, which makes it a stronger antibiotic against certain bacteria.

Amoxicillin (What is Amoxicillin?) can treat H. pylori infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and gonorrhea among other infections. It is available as an oral capsule, tablet, chewable tablet, and liquid oral suspension. Amoxicillin is typically taken two or three times per day depending on the dosage and infection being treated.

Main differences between cefdinir and amoxicillin
Drug class Antibiotic
Brand/generic status Only available as a generic drug (brand name discontinued) Brand and generic versions available
What is the brand name? Omnicef Moxatag, Amoxil
What form(s) does the drug come in? Oral capsule
Oral powder for suspension
Oral capsule
Oral powder for suspension
Oral tablet
Chewable tablet
What is the standard dosage? 300 mg every 12 hours or 600 mg once daily

Dosing depends on the infection being treated

500 mg every 12 hours or 250 mg every 8 hours

Dosing depends on the infection being treated

How long is the typical treatment? 5–10 days

Duration depends on the infection being treated

7–10 days

Duration depends on the infection being treated

Who typically uses the medication? Adults, children, and infants 6 months and older Adults, children, and infants 3 months and older

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Conditions treated by cefdinir and amoxicillin

Cefdinir is FDA-approved to treat acute otitis media, or middle ear infection, as well as skin and soft tissue infections. Cefdinir is also approved to treat upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Upper respiratory tract infections include sinusitis, pharyngitis, and tonsillitis. Lower respiratory tract infections include community-acquired pneumonia, which cefdinir can treat in adults and children 13 years of age and older.

Amoxicillin is approved to treat ear, nose, and throat infections like sinusitis, pharyngitis, and tonsillitis. Amoxicillin is also approved to treat lower respiratory tract infections such as community-acquired pneumonia caused by streptococcus pneumonia. Unlike cefdinir, amoxicillin is also commonly used to treat gonorrhea and H. pylori infections.

Acute otitis media Yes Yes
Chronic bronchitis Yes Yes
Sinusitis Yes Yes
Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis Yes Yes
Community-acquired pneumonia Yes Yes
Skin and soft tissue infections Yes Yes
Gonorrhea No Yes
H. Pylori infection No Yes

Is cefdinir or amoxicillin more effective?

Cefdinir is effective against infections caused by gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only), and Streptococcus pyogenes. Cefdinir is also effective against gram-negative bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

Amoxicillin is effective against infections caused by gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. Amoxicillin is also active against gram-negative bacteria including Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Clinical Trials

There are not many strong studies that have been performed to show a direct comparison of cefdinir and amoxicillin. However, some multicenter clinical trials in the United States and Europe have shown that cefdinir and amoxicillin/clavulanate are similar in effectiveness. When treating bacterial sinusitis, cefdinir was just as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanate after 10 days of treatment.

In another study, the tolerability of cefdinir and amoxicillin/clavulanate liquid suspensions were compared in pediatric patients. In a sample of 715 young children four to eight years old, 85% of them rated the taste of cefdinir as good or really good compared to 63% of them who rated amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefprozil, and azithromycin the same.

The effectiveness of these antibiotics will depend on which bacteria is causing the infection. Talk to your doctor or healthcare provider about which antibiotic will work best for you. Because of growing antibiotic resistance, it’s important that an antibiotic is only used after determining the susceptible bacteria causing the infection.

Coverage and cost comparison of cefdinir vs. amoxicillin

As generic antibiotics, cefdinir and amoxicillin are widely available. Almost all Medicare Part D and insurance plans will cover cefdinir and amoxicillin. The typical retail cost of generic cefdinir more than $100. With a SingleCare coupon, this cost can be reduced to less than $25 for a 10-day supply of 300 mg capsules.

Amoxicillin is available in generic and brand-name versions. The average cost of generic amoxicillin capsules is around $24. Using a SingleCare discount card can lower the price to around $5 for a 10-day supply of 500 mg capsules.

Typically covered by insurance? Yes Yes
Typically covered by Medicare? Yes Yes
Standard dosage 300 mg tablets (quantity of 20) 500 mg tablets (quantity of 20)
Typical Medicare copay $0–$49 $0–$10
SingleCare cost $24-$63 $5+

Common side effects of cefdinir vs.


The most common side effects associated with cefdinir and amoxicillin are diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

Amoxicillin is more likely to cause headache when taken with clarithromycin and lansoprazole for H. pylori infections. Amoxicillin may also have a higher incidence of rash after taking it.

More serious side effects of cefdinir and amoxicillin include allergic or hypersensitivity reactions. If you experience adverse events like trouble breathing or severe rash, seek medical attention immediately.

Side effect Applicable? Frequency Applicable? Frequency
Diarrhea Yes 15% Yes >1%
Nausea Yes 3% Yes >1%
Vomiting Yes 0.7% Yes >1%
Headache Yes 2% Yes 6%
Rash Yes 0.9% Yes >1%

This may not be a complete list. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for possible side effects.
Source: DailyMed (Cefdinir), DailyMed (amoxicillin)

Drug interactions of cefdinir vs. amoxicillin

Cefdinir interacts with antacids as well as iron supplements. Antacids and iron supplements can lower the absorption of cefdinir and decrease its effectiveness. Cefdinir should be taken at least two hours before or after administering these other medications.

Both cefdinir and amoxicillin can interact with anti-gout medications like probenecid and allopurinol. Anti-gout agents can increase the blood levels of cefdinir and amoxicillin, which can lead to increased side effects.

Cefdinir and amoxicillin have been known to cause prolonged prohrombin time in those who are also taking warfarin. This drug interaction can cause an increased risk of bleeding.

Antibiotics have been known to decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Alternate birth control methods may be needed to reduce the risk of pregnancy.

Aluminum hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide
Antacids Yes No
Ferrous sulfate
Ferrous gluconate
Ferrous fumarate
Iron supplements Yes No
Antigout Yes Yes
Warfarin Anticoagulant Yes Yes
Ethinyl estradiol
Oral contraceptives Yes Yes

This may not be a complete list of all possible drug interactions. Consult a doctor with all the medications you may be taking.

Warnings of cefdinir and amoxicillin

Cefdinir and amoxicillin should be avoided if you have a penicillin allergy. Because these drugs are chemically similar to penicillin, they may cause a severe allergic reaction if you have an established penicillin allergy.

Diarrhea is one of the most common side effects of antibiotics like cefdinir and amoxicillin. These antibiotics can also increase the risk of a more severe type of diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. If you have a medical history of C. diff infections, the use of these antibiotics may need to be monitored or discontinued.

These antibiotics should only be prescribed for infections caused by bacteria. They are not effective against viral infections such as COVID-19. Cefdinir and amoxicillin are most effective when they are targeting susceptible bacteria. If they are used inappropriately, the bacteria can gain antibiotic resistance and cause a more severe infection.

Frequently asked questions about cefdinir vs. amoxicillin

What is cefdinir?

Cefdinir is a third-generation cephalosporin that is used to treat bacterial infections like acute otitis media and pharyngitis. It is also FDA-approved to treat certain skin infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Cefdinir is also known by its brand name Omnicef.

What is amoxicillin?

Amoxicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic that is used to treat various bacterial infections of the ear, nose, and throat. It can also treat lower respiratory tract infections, H. pylori infections, and gonorrhea. Amoxicillin is often combined with clavulanate, or clavulanic acid, under the brand name Augmentin.

Are cefdinir and amoxicillin the same?

Cefdinir and amoxicillin are not the same. Although they are both part of an umbrella group of antibiotics called beta-lactams, they have different nuances in how they’re used and dosed.

Is cefdinir or amoxicillin better?

The more effective antibiotic is the one that works best against the bacterial strain causing the infection. For example, amoxicillin is better for H. pylori infections. However, some people may prefer cefdinir in a once-daily option for other infections.

Can I use cefdinir or amoxicillin while pregnant?

There have been no adequate clinical studies to show that cefdinir or amoxicillin are safe while pregnant. They are both deemed Pregnancy Category B drugs, which indicates a low risk for birth defects. Still, they should only be used if necessary. Consult a healthcare provider for medical advice on the best option during pregnancy.

Can I use cefdinir or amoxicillin with alcohol?

Alcohol does not directly interact with cefdinir or amoxicillin. However, it is not generally recommended to drink alcohol with antibiotics. Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol can increase the risk of adverse side effects like nausea and vomiting. Alcohol can also weaken the immune system and make it harder for the body to fight infections.

Cefdinir oral suspension

What is this medicine?

CEFDINIR (SEF di ner) is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It is used to treat certain kinds of bacterial infections. It will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

How should I use this medicine?

Take this medicine by mouth. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Shake well before using. Use a specially marked spoon or dropper to measure each dose. Ask your pharmacist if you do not have one. Household spoons are not accurate. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. Take all of your medicine as directed even if you think you are better. Do not skip doses or stop your medicine early.

Avoid taking antacids or iron-containing vitamins within 2 hours of taking this medicine.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed. This medicine has been used in children as young as 1 month old.

What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine?

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

  • allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue

  • bloody or watery diarrhea

  • breathing problems

  • fever

  • redness, blistering, peeling or loosening of the skin, including inside the mouth

  • seizures

  • trouble passing urine or change in the amount of urine

  • unusual bleeding or bruising

  • unusually weak or tired

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

What may interact with this medicine?

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only that dose. Do not take double or extra doses.

Where should I keep my medicine?

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after 10 days.

What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • bleeding problems

  • kidney disease

  • stomach or intestine problems (especially colitis)

  • an unusual or allergic reaction to cefdinir, other cephalosporin antibiotics, penicillin, penicillamine, other foods, dyes or preservatives

  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant

  • breast-feeding

What should I watch for while using this medicine?

Tell your doctor or health care professional if your symptoms do not get better in a few days.

If you are diabetic you may get a false-positive result for sugar in your urine. Check with your doctor or health care professional before you change your diet or the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Cefdinir capsules

What is this medicine?

CEFDINIR (SEF di ner) is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It is used to treat certain kinds of bacterial infections. It will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

This medicine may be used for other purposes; ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.


What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?

They need to know if you have any of these conditions:

  • bleeding problems
  • kidney disease
  • stomach or intestine problems (especially colitis)
  • an unusual or allergic reaction to cefdinir, other cephalosporin antibiotics, penicillin, penicillamine, other foods, dyes or preservatives
  • pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • breast-feeding

How should I use this medicine?

Take this medicine by mouth. Swallow it with a drink of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. You can take it with or without food. If it upsets your stomach it may help to take it with food. Take your doses at regular intervals. Do not take it more often than directed. Finish all the medicine you are prescribed even if you think your infection is better.

Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed.

Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once.

NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only that dose. Do not take double or extra doses.

What may interact with this medicine?

  • antacids that contain aluminum or magnesium
  • iron supplements
  • other antibiotics
  • probenecid

This list may not describe all possible interactions. Give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use. Also tell them if you smoke, drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs. Some items may interact with your medicine.

What should I watch for while using this medicine?

Tell your doctor or health care provider if your symptoms do not get better in a few days.

This medicine may cause serious skin reactions. They can happen weeks to months after starting the medicine. Contact your health care provider right away if you notice fevers or flu-like symptoms with a rash. The rash may be red or purple and then turn into blisters or peeling of the skin. Or, you might notice a red rash with swelling of the face, lips or lymph nodes in your neck or under your arms.

If you are diabetic you may get a false-positive result for sugar in your urine. Check with your doctor or health care provider before you change your diet or the dose of your diabetes medicine.

What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine?

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

  • allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
  • bloody or watery diarrhea
  • breathing problems
  • fever
  • redness, blistering, peeling or loosening of the skin, including inside the mouth
  • seizures
  • trouble passing urine or change in the amount of urine
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • unusually weak or tired

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • constipation
  • diarrhea
  • dizziness
  • dry mouth
  • headache
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea, vomiting
  • stomach pain
  • stool discoloration
  • tiredness
  • vaginal discharge, itching, or odor in women

This list may not describe all possible side effects. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Where should I keep my medicine?

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F). Throw the medicine away after the expiration date.

NOTE: This sheet is a summary. It may not cover all possible information. If you have questions about this medicine, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or health care provider.

Cefdinir Side Effects, Adverse Reactions | Healthgrades

clinical trials – cefdinir for oral suspension (pediatric patients)

In clinical trials, 2289 pediatric patients (1783 U.S. and 506 non-U.S.) were treated with the recommended dose of cefdinir suspension (14 mg/kg/day). Most adverse events were mild and self-limiting. No deaths or permanent disabilities were attributed to cefdinir. Forty of 2289 (2%) patients discontinued medication due to adverse events considered by the investigators to be possibly, probably, or definitely associated with cefdinir therapy. Discontinuations were primarily for gastrointestinal disturbances, usually diarrhea. Five of 2289 (0.2%) patients were discontinued due to rash thought related to cefdinir administration.

In the U.S., the following adverse events were thought by investigators to be possibly, probably, or definitely related to cefdinir suspension in multiple-dose clinical trials (N=1783 cefdinir-treated patients):

Incidence ≥1% Diarrhea 8%
Rash 3%
Vomiting 1%
Incidence <1% but >0.1% Cutaneous moniliasis 0.9%
Abdominal pain 0.8%
Leukopenia 0.3%
Vaginal moniliasis 0.3% of girls
Vaginitis 0.3% of girls
Abnormal stools 0.2%
Dyspepsia 0. 2%
Hyperkinesia 0.2%
Increased AST 0.2%
Maculopapular rash 0.2%
Nausea 0.2%

NOTE: In both cefdinir- and control-treated patients, rates of diarrhea and rash were higher in the youngest pediatric patients. The incidence of diarrhea in cefdinir-treated patients ≤2 years of age was 17% (95/557) compared with 4% (51/1226) in those >2 years old. The incidence of rash (primarily diaper rash in the younger patients) was 8% (43/557) in patients ≤2 years of age compared with 1% (8/1226) in those >2 years old.

Ear, Nose and Throat

An otolaryngologist (pronounced “oto-lar-en-gäl-e-jest”), or ear, nose and throat (ENT) doctor, specializes in the medical and surgical care of the ears, nose and throat, and conditions affecting the head and neck.

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Primary Care

Family medicine specialists and internists specialize in providing comprehensive prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for a wide range of diseases and conditions, including infections, minor injuries, and acute and chronic diseases.

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The following laboratory value changes of possible clinical significance, irrespective of relationship to therapy with cefdinir, were seen during clinical trials conducted in the U. S.:

Incidence ≥1% ↑Lymphocytes, ↓Lymphocytes 2%, 0.8%
↑Alkaline phosphatase 1%
↓ Bicarbonate 1%
↑Eosinophils 1%
↑Lactate dehydrogenase 1%
↑Platelets 1%
↑ Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), ↓PMNs 1%, 1%
↑Urine protein 1%
Incidence <1% but >0.1% ↑Phosphorus, ↓Phosphorus 0.9%, 0.4%
↑Urine pH 0.8%
↓White blood cells, ↑White blood cells 0.7%, 0.3%
↓Calcium 0.5%
↓ Hemoglobin 0.5%
↑Urine leukocytes 0.5%
↑Monocytes 0. 4%
↑AST 0.3%
↑Potassium 0.3%
↑Urine specific gravity, ↓Urine specific gravity 0.3%, 0.1%
↓Hematocrit 0.2%

The following adverse experiences and altered laboratory tests, regardless of their relationship to cefdinir, have been reported during extensive postmarketing experience, beginning with approval in Japan in 1991: shock, anaphylaxis with rare cases of fatality, facial and laryngeal edema, feeling of suffocation, serum sickness-like reactions, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, acute  hepatitis, cholestasis, fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, jaundice, increased amylase, acute enterocolitis, bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, melena, pseudomembranous colitis, pancytopenia, granulocytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic anemia, acute respiratory failure, asthmatic attack, drug-induced  pneumonia, eosinophilic pneumonia, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, fever, acute renal failure, nephropathy, bleeding tendency, coagulation disorder, disseminated intravascular coagulation, upper GI bleed, peptic ulcer, ileus, loss of consciousness, allergic vasculitis, possible cefdinir-diclofenac interaction, cardiac failure, chest pain, myocardial infarction, hypertension, involuntary movements, and rhabdomyolysis.

cephalosporin class adverse events

The following adverse events and altered laboratory tests have been reported for cephalosporin-class antibiotics in general:

Allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, hepatic dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhage, false-positive test for urinary glucose, neutropenia, pancytopenia, and agranulocytosis. Pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may begin during or after antibiotic treatment (see WARNINGS ).

Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and OVERDOSAGE ). If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.

Side Effects Of Cefdinir For Uti

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This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.

Trade names: Canada

Omnicef ​​

What is this drug used for?

  • It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections.

What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?

  • If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances. Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.

Combination of this drug with certain medications and medical conditions may be adverse.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the medicines you take (both prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems.You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical conditions and in combination with other drugs you are already taking. Do not start or stop taking any drug or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.

What do I need to know or do while taking this drug?

  • Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug.These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
  • Do not use for longer than the prescribed time. A secondary infection is possible.
  • If you have high blood sugar (diabetes) and are performing urine glucose tests, consult your doctor about which tests are best to use.
  • If you have high blood sugar (diabetes), consult your doctor. Some of these preparations contain sugar.
  • This drug may interfere with some laboratory tests.Tell all healthcare providers and laboratory staff that you are taking this drug.
  • Stool may turn reddish when this drug is taken with a product that contains iron. This is normal.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding. The benefits and risks for you and your child will need to be discussed.

What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?

WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can have serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your healthcare professional or get medical attention right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Difficulty urinating or change in the amount of urine excreted.
  • Dark urine or yellowed skin or eyes.
  • Convulsions.
  • Fever, chills, sore throat; the appearance of bruising and bleeding for unexplained reasons; a pronounced feeling of tiredness or weakness.
  • Diarrhea is common with antibiotics. In rare cases, severe diarrhea caused by the bacteria Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) [CDAD]. This sometimes leads to gut problems that end in death. CDAD can occur during or several months after taking antibiotics. If you have pain, abdominal cramps, or very loose, watery or bloody stools, see your doctor right away. Check with your doctor before treating diarrhea.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

Any medicine can have side effects.However, many people have little or no side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if these or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

This list of possible side effects is not exhaustive. If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor. Talk to your doctor about side effects.

You can report side effects to the National Health Office.

You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

What is the best way to take this drug?

Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Read all the information provided to you. Follow all instructions strictly.

All forms of issue:

  • Continue taking this drug as directed by your doctor or other healthcare professional, even if you feel well.
  • Take with or without food. Take with food if the medicine causes nausea.
  • Do not take antacids containing aluminum or magnesium within 2 hours of taking this drug.
  • Do not take iron supplements within 2 hours before and 2 hours after taking this drug.

Liquid (suspension):

  • Shake well before use.
  • Care should be taken to measure the doses of the liquid preparation.Use the dispenser that comes with the medicine. If a dispenser is not included in the package, ask your pharmacist for a dosing product for this drug.
  • You can give this drug with iron formula.

What should I do if a dose of a drug is missed?

  • Take the missed dose as soon as you can.
  • If it’s time to take your next dose, do not take the missed dose and then return to your normal dose schedule.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or an additional dose.

How do I store and / or discard this drug?


  • Store at room temperature in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.

Liquid (suspension):

  • Store liquid (suspension) at room temperature. Throw away any unused portions after 10 days.
  • Store in a dry place.Do not store in the bathroom.

All forms of issue:

  • Store all medicines in a safe place. Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Dispose of unused or expired drugs. Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, please consult your pharmacist.Your area may have drug recycling programs.

General information on medicinal products

  • If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
  • You should not give your medicine to anyone and take other people’s medicines.
  • Some medicines may have different patient information sheets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • Some medicines may have different patient information sheets. Check with your pharmacist. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • If you think an overdose has occurred, call a Poison Control Center immediately or seek medical attention. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.

Use of information by the consumer and limitation of liability

This information should not be used to make decisions about taking this or any other drug. Only the attending physician has the necessary knowledge and experience to make decisions about which drugs are appropriate for a particular patient. This information does not guarantee that the drug is safe, effective, or approved for the treatment of any disease or specific patient.Here are only brief general information about this drug. It does NOT contain all available information on the possible use of the drug with instructions for use, warnings, precautions, information about interactions, side effects and risks that may be associated with this drug. This information should not be construed as a treatment guide and does not replace information provided to you by your healthcare professional. Check with your doctor for complete information on the possible risks and benefits of taking this drug.


© UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and / or licensors, 2021. All rights reserved.

Rinicef ​​300mg / Rinicef ​​300mg

Trade name: Rinicef

International Non-Proprietary Name: Cefdinir

Release form: 300 mg capsules.

Description: hard gelatin capsules, black opaque cap and gray opaque base.


1 capsule contains:

active substance : cefdinir – 300.00 mg;

Pharmacotherapeutic group

Antibacterial agents for systemic use. Third generation cephalosporins. ATX code: J01DD15

Pharmacological properties.


The active substance cefdinir is a semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic of a wide spectrum of action of the III generation for oral administration.Like other antibiotics of the cephalosporin group, cefdinir has a bactericidal effect against susceptible microorganisms by inhibiting the synthesis of peptidoglycan from the bacterial cell wall by disrupting the final stage of transamination necessary for the formation of crosslinks. Cefdinir is resistant to many, but not all, beta-lactamases produced by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Due to this, many microorganisms resistant to penicillins and some cephalosporins are sensitive to cefdinir.The spectrum of action of cefdinir includes:

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms

Staphylococcus aureus (including strains producing beta-lactamase)

Staphylococcus pneumoniae
(only strains sensitive to penicillin)

Staphylococcus pyogenes

Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms

Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase producing strains)

Haemophilus parainfluenzae
(including strains producing beta-lactamases)

Moraxella catarrhalis (including beta-lactamase producing strains)

The following data were obtained in vitro , but their clinical significance is unknown.

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefdinir in vitro
is 1 μg / ml or less in relation to (≥ 90%) strains of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and efficacy of cefdinir in the treatment of infections caused by the following microorganisms has not been demonstrated in clinical studies.

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Streptococcus agalactiae

Streptococcus of the viridans group

Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms

Citrobacter diversus

Escherichia coli

Klebsiela pneumoniae

Proteus mirabilis

Cefdinir is inactive against strains of Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Enterococcus and methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci.

Method of application and dosage

Recommended dosages and duration of treatment for infections in adults and adolescents are described in the table below. The total daily dose for all infections is 600 mg. Dosing the drug once a day for 10 days is as effective as twice a day. Dosing once a day has not been studied for the treatment of pneumonia and skin infections, so in these cases Rinicef ​​should be taken twice a day.The capsules can be taken with or without food.

For the treatment of children (6 months – 12 years old), cefdinir is used in the form of a suspension.

Adults and adolescents (ages 13 and over)

Type of infection



Community-acquired pneumonia

300 mg every 12 hours

10 days

Type of infection



Exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

300 mg every 12 hours or

600 mg every 24 hours

from 5 to 10 days

10 days

Acute sinusitis

300 mg every 12 hours or

600 mg every 24 hours

10 days

10 days

Pharyngitis / tonsillitis

300 mg every 12 hours or

600 mg every 24 hours

from 5 to 10 days

10 days

Uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections

300 mg every 12 hours

10 days

Elderly patients: no change in dosing regimen is required unless significant renal impairment is observed (CC <30 ml / min).If the CC is <30 ml / min, the drug should be taken at a dose of 300 mg once a day.

Patients with renal insufficiency

For patients with CC <30 ml / min, cefdinir should be administered at a dose of 300 mg once a day.

Patients on hemodialysis

Hemodialysis promotes the elimination of cefdinir from the body. For patients on continuous hemodialysis, the recommended starting dose is 300 mg or 7 mg / kg every other day.At the end of each hemodialysis session, 300 mg (or 7 mg / kg) of cefdinir is prescribed. Subsequent doses (300 mg or 7 mg / kg) are then given every other day.

If you missed the next dose of the medicine, you should take it as soon as you remember. If this intake of the missed dose falls on the time of taking the next dose, you should skip taking the missed dose and follow the previous dosing regimen, do not double the dose.

Side effects

Cefdinir is well tolerated, the identified adverse reactions were mild in nature and resolved spontaneously after discontinuation.Most of the withdrawals were associated with gastrointestinal disorders, mainly with diarrhea or nausea. In rare cases, drug withdrawal was caused by the development of a rash while taking cefdinir.

Adverse reactions are classified according to the frequency of occurrence: very often (≥ 1/10), often (from ≥ 1/100 to <1/10), infrequently (from ≥ 1/1000 to <1/100), rarely (≥1 / 10,000, <1/1000), very rare (<1/10,000), and the frequency is unknown (the frequency cannot be established from the available data).

Very common: diarrhea, rash, nausea.

Often: skin candidiasis, abdominal pain, leukopenia, candidal vaginitis, vaginitis, stool changes, dyspepsia, hyperkinesis, macolopapular rash, nausea, increased AST.

Adverse reactions characteristic of cephalosporins

Allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, liver dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhagic disorders, false positive urinary glucose test, neutropenia, pancytopenia and agranulocytosis.Pseudomembranous colitis can develop both during and after the end of the antibiotic administration.

The use of some cephalosporins was accompanied by the development of seizures, especially in patients with impaired renal function, who did not have a recalculation of the dose. If convulsions develop during therapy, the antibiotic should be discontinued. If clinically necessary, anticonvulsant therapy may be prescribed.

According to the results of post-registration experience of use, the following adverse reactions were identified: shock, anaphylaxis (in rare cases with a fatal outcome), edema of the subglottic space and face, suffocation, serum-like syndrome, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosa, acute hepatitis, cholestatic syndrome, fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, jaundice, increased amylase content, acute enterocolitis, hemorrhagic diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, melena, pseudomembranous colitis, thromtopenia, leukopatulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia hemolytic anemia, acute respiratory failure, asthma attack, drug pneumonia, eosinophilic pneumonia, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, fever, acute renal failure, nephropathy, bleeding tendency, bleeding disorder, generalized thrombohemorrhagic syndrome, bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract, peptic ulcer, intestinal obstruction, loss of consciousness, allergic vasculitis, possible interaction of cefdinir-diclofenac, heart failure, chest pain, myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, involuntary movements, hypertension

In the event of the listed adverse reactions, as well as a reaction not indicated in the instructions for use, you should consult a doctor.


Rinicef ​​is contraindicated in patients with a history of allergy to the cephalosporin class of antibiotics and hypersensitivity to excipients in the drug.


There are no data on overdose of cefdinir in humans.

In studies of acute toxicity in rodents, a single oral administration of cefdinir at a dose of 5600 mg / kg did not lead to the development of adverse reactions. The following signs and symptoms of overdose have been observed with other beta-lactam antibiotics: nausea, vomiting, stomach discomfort, diarrhea, and convulsions.

In hemodialysis, cefdinir is removed from the body, which can be useful in severe toxic reactions caused by overdose, especially if the patient’s kidney function is impaired.


Before starting Rinicef ​​therapy, it is necessary to exclude a history of hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins or other drugs.

In case of suspicion or confirmation of the development of Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea, the prescribed antibiotic therapy should be canceled if it does not work on Clostridium difficile . Based on the clinical condition, the patient may be shown fluid replacement, administration of electrolyte and amino acid solutions, antibiotic therapy Clostridium difficile , surgical intervention.

Rinicef, like other broad-spectrum antimicrobials (antibiotics), should be used with caution in patients with a history of colitis.

In patients with short-term or persistent renal failure (CC <30 ml / min), the daily dose of Rinicef ​​should be reduced, since the appointment at the recommended doses can lead to a significant increase in plasma concentrations and the half-life of cefdinir.

Prescribing cephalosporins can sometimes lead to a positive Coombs test.

Use during pregnancy and lactation.

Pregnancy and childbirth

Experimental studies of reproduction have shown the absence of any teratogenic effect.

There are no data on the results of using cefdinir in pregnant women. Cefdinir can be prescribed during pregnancy only if there is a justified clinical need.

There are no data on the effect of cefdinir administration on childbirth.


When cefdinir is prescribed at a dose of 600 mg, it is not detected in breast milk in nursing mothers. Cefdinir is prescribed during lactation only after a careful assessment of the benefit / risk ratio for mother and child.

Influence on the ability to drive vehicles and work with mechanisms.

Rinicef ​​does not affect the ability to drive vehicles and operate machinery.

Interaction with other medicinal products

The simultaneous appointment of cefdinir and antacid leads to a decrease in the rate (C max ) and the degree (AUC) of absorption of cefdinir by approximately 40%. If you need to take antacids during the course of treatment with Rinicef, you should take Rinicef ​​at least 2 hours before or two hours after taking the antacid.

As with other beta-lactam antibiotics, probenicid interferes with the renal excretion of cefdinir when administered simultaneously, which leads to an approximately two-fold increase in AUC, an increase in the maximum plasma concentration of cefdinir by 54% and a lengthening of the half-life t 1/2 by 50 %.

The simultaneous administration of cefdinir with iron-containing drugs containing 60 mg of elemental iron (in the form of FeSO 4 ), or vitamin drugs containing 10 mg of iron, reduces the absorption of cefdinir by 80% and 31%, respectively. If the patient requires iron medications during therapy with cefdinir, Rinicef ​​should be taken at least 2 hours before or after taking iron medications.

There have been reports of cases of reddish stools in patients taking cefdinir. In many cases, these patients were consuming iron-fortified foods at the same time. The reddish color may be associated with the formation in the gastrointestinal tract of a non-absorbable complex of cefdinir or its decomposition products and iron.

With cefdinir, false positive urinary ketone results may occur if nitroprusside is used, but not nitroferricyanide.There may also be false positive results when determining glucose in urine using Benedict’s solution or Fehling’s reagent (glucosuria is recommended to be determined only by the enzymatic method). The use of cephalosporins can sometimes lead to a positive Coombs test.

Storage conditions and shelf life

At a temperature not higher than 25 ° C.

Keep out of the reach of children!

Shelf life is 3 years.Do not use after the expiration date printed on the package.

Vacation conditions

Prescribed by a doctor.


10 capsules in a blister strip made of PVC film and flexible packaging based on aluminum foil.

1 or 2 blister packs together with a leaflet are placed in a cardboard box.

Manufacturer Information

Foreign production and trade unitary enterprise “Reb-Pharma”, 223216, Republic of Belarus, Minsk region, Cherven district, g. Smilovichi, st. Sadovaya, 1, tel./fax: (+375) 17 240 26 35, e-mail: [email protected], http://www.rebpharma.by.

Is it safe to combine cefdinir and alcohol?

Cefdinir is an antibiotic used to treat certain types of bacterial infections.It is classified as a cephalosporin antibiotic that is effective against a wide variety of bacteria, which it kills by destroying their cell walls. Like many medicines, certain interactions can occur when cefdinir and alcohol are mixed. These interactions are usually not life threatening, but they can be uncomfortable and possibly dangerous, so this combination should not be considered safe.

This antibiotic can cause a variety of side effects, many of which can be exacerbated by alcohol.Some people may feel drowsy or dizzy after taking this medication, and the combination of cefdinir and alcohol, which is also a depressant, usually enhances this effect. Patients combining the two should be especially careful in situations requiring concentration or acute motor skills.

Gastrointestinal (GI) effects such as nausea, vomiting and stomach upset may occur in some patients taking this drug. Similar side effects can be caused by sensitivity to cephalosporin antibiotics.The cells in the tissue of the gastrointestinal tract multiply and divide rapidly, like bacteria, and the action of this drug can affect them to some extent. Alcohol can irritate the gastrointestinal tract and cause the release of stomach acid, causing similar gastrointestinal effects. Thus, mixing cefdinir and alcohol results in an enlargement of the gastrointestinal tract caused by this medication.

In rare cases of serious side effects from cefdinir, alcohol usually aggravates symptoms.These side effects include difficulty urinating, fever, abdominal pain, and allergic reactions. Health care providers should be advised of these symptoms, even if alcohol has not been consumed, as they may indicate a serious medical condition.

Certain cephalosporin antibiotics affect the metabolism or breakdown of alcohol in the liver. This process can lead to extremely unpleasant nausea, redness and vomiting. This medication is usually not one of the cephalosporin antibiotics that causes this reaction, but there is a small chance it will occur in some people if cefdinir and alcohol are combined.

Antibiotics sometimes fail to fulfill their role in the fight against bacteria and in the presence of alcohol. Drinking alcohol can cause changes in the metabolism of antibiotics, making them less effective. For this drug to completely get rid of the bacterial infection, the combination of cefdinir and alcohol should be avoided. There is a small chance that bacteria will become resistant to this drug if its effectiveness is reduced by alcohol, making infections longer than usual or causing additional harmful effects.


Antibiotic for the treatment of teeth and gums

Antibiotics for inflammation of the gums and roots of teeth

Contents of the article

Inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, be it inflammation of the roots of teeth, gums or mucous tissues, are most often treated with antiseptic drugs. Strengthened oral hygiene also helps to cope with some diseases.

Taking antibiotics is relevant already with more serious forms of the disease or after a complex and large-scale surgical intervention.


Briefly about gum inflammation and toothache

Infectious diseases can affect not only gingival tissue, but also bone tissue. When the problem becomes more serious, the patient is prescribed antibiotic medications. This helps suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria, their spread through the mouth and complications.

Causes of gum inflammation and toothache

The most common reasons for gum inflammation and pain radiating in the tooth enamel include the following factors:

  • Low immunity, poor health.
  • General chronic diseases.
  • Unbalanced nutrition.
  • Alcohol abuse and smoking.
  • Circulatory problems.
  • Difficulty in teething.
  • Congenital malocclusion.
  • Deficiency of nutrients and vitamins.
  • Calcium deficiency.
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Environmental issues.
  • Constant stress.
  • Being depressed.

Inflammation of the gums – cause for concern

You can understand that the inflammatory process has begun by the following symptoms:

  • Pain in the gums or on the mucous tissues of the oral cavity.
  • Sensitivity to hot, cold and sweet.
  • Plaque deposits.
  • Wounds and ulcers.
  • Bad breath.
  • Swelling.
  • Feeling of heat in the mouth or high body temperature.
  • Physical weakness.

When are antibiotics prescribed?

With gingivitis , the inflammatory process affects only the gum tissue, without disturbing the connection of the gum with the teeth.Antibiotics are given only when other treatments have failed. Most often this is a problem of people with weak immunity – children and pregnant women.

In periodontitis , inflammation disrupts the periodontal connection. Only antibiotics can suppress this pathological process.

Periodontitis. Photo.

With periodontitis , the disease affects the bundle-like ligaments of the connective fibers, which are responsible for fixing the tooth in the socket. Antibiotics are used when absolutely necessary when antiseptics are powerless.

Periostitis sometimes appears as a result of the onset of periodontitis. This is an inflammatory disease of the periosteum, which is eliminated by antibiotics.

Antibiotics are used only when antiseptic and bactericidal preparations have not had the desired effect.

When are antibiotics used?

  • If the patient’s condition has worsened due to lack of treatment.
  • The inflammatory process develops so quickly that conventional treatment is simply powerless.
  • The disease must be eliminated as soon as possible.
  • Purulent bleeding ulcers formed in the mouth.

What antibiotics are used in dentistry for toothache and inflammation

With inflammation
  • Lincomycin is most often prescribed against tooth root inflammation, flux, periodontitis, pulpitis and periostitis. It is also widely used after dental implantation, in the event that tissue inflammation has developed. The substance accumulates in the bone tissue, thereby preventing the spread of pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity.It has 3 forms of release – capsules, solution and ointment. In the case of severe periodontitis, antibiotics are injected into the muscle.
  • Clindamycin is a broad antibiotic drug. available as capsules and injections. The duration of the course is most often 10 days, 2 tablets or 2 injections per day.
  • Tsiprolet is a drug from the group of fluoroquinolones, available in the form of tablets with a dosage of 500 mg. Has a wide spectrum of action, eliminates periostitis, periodontitis, abscesses and other problems of suppuration.While taking the drug, it is not recommended to use dairy products and bioactive supplements with a high content of magnesium, calcium and iron .


For the treatment of flux
  • Ampiox – combines two antibiotics at once – oxacillin and ampicillin. It has a complex effect, killing pathogenic microorganisms. Eliminates flux and periostitis in a short time.
  • Lincomycin is an antibiotic agent belonging to the group of lincosamides.Available in capsule, solution and injection form. It is used to treat ulcerative gingivitis, abscesses, fistulas, as well as inflammatory processes that destroy the bone tissue of the jaw. And it is also used in the postoperative period.

    The drug has a negative effect on the digestive system and can cause intestinal dysbiosis.

  • Tsifran – infects even bacteria resistant to tetracycline compounds. Not recommended for adolescents.
After tooth extraction
  • Amoxicillin is quite often used for the treatment of diseases of the dental spectrum.Safe for children and pregnant women if the antibiotic is taken under the supervision of a doctor. Relieves inflammation and prevents secondary infection.
  • Azithromycin – has a complex formula of active ingredient in the form of azithromycin hydrate. The most popular form of release is 250 ml gelatin powder capsules. The capsule dissolves in the intestine for effective absorption of the antibiotic. 2 capsules are taken per day.
  • Ibuklin – relieves pain due to the action of prostaglandins on the nerve endings in contact with the foci of inflammation.Reduces puffiness, relieves fever. Absorption occurs immediately after the substance enters the stomach, as a result of which the effect is felt already after two hours.


In the treatment of dental infections
  • Amoxiclav – has antibacterial activity, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Available in pill form.
  • Tsifran – has a bactericidal effect, inhibits the synthesis of bacterial DNA. It is widely used in inflammatory diseases of the gums and oral cavity.
  • Tsiprolet – well destroys both multiplying microorganisms and bacteria in the resting phase.
After Dental Implant Installation

Doctors disagree about taking antibiotics after dental implant placement. Most often, postoperative therapy is limited to taking antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs. In particular, in cases where the operation took place without complications.

According to medical research, infectious complications rarely accompany the installation of dental implants.

However, antibiotics are necessarily prescribed in the case when the operation was very long and was difficult, for example, when removing an impacted wisdom tooth, bone augmentation, flap surgery on the gums, etc.


In this case, antibiotics are prescribed drugs of the penicillin group. The duration of the course of treatment varies, depending on the specific situation, from 5 to 8 days. If the implantation was long and difficult, and the tissues heal very poorly, then the course can be extended up to 14 days.

Penicillin and its analogs are most often used:

  • Amoxiclav – contains clavulanic acid and amoxicillin. It is a fairly effective remedy and is slightly higher than amoxicillin.
  • Amoxicillin – is used much more often in dental practice, due to its non-toxicity and low cost. Virtually no side effects or they are mild.

Nowadays, cephalosporin preparations are increasingly used for the prevention of purulent infections.These are antibiotic agents of a wide spectrum of action, differing from analogues in that they exhibit high activity against penicillin-resistant bacteria and mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections.

The main requirements for antibiotic drugs used for prophylactic purposes in the postoperative period are as follows:

  • A wide spectrum of action of the drug.
  • High efficiency.
  • Rapid elimination of harmful bacteria.
  • A small list of contraindications.
  • Good tolerance by the body.

The daily rate and length of the antibiotic course should be determined by the attending physician, starting from the patient’s body weight and the specific situation. The most common contraindications for antibiotic use are pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as kidney disease.

General rules for taking antibiotics

To take antibiotics do not harm the body, you must adhere to the following rules:

  1. Observe the dosage prescribed by the doctor – do not shorten or prolong the course of treatment.
  2. Take the tablets at the same time every day.
  3. Follow directions – take medication before or after meals, depending on guidance.
  4. Drink the medicine only with clean water, not drinks.
  5. Submit the bacterial culture. Thanks to this research, you can choose the most suitable medicine.
  6. Do not drink antibiotics without a doctor’s prescription.
  7. Restore the intestines after taking antibiotics – fermented milk products and such drugs as Linex and Hilak Forte are suitable for this purpose.
  8. Enrich your diet with healthy foods, raw fruits and vegetables, and cut down on fatty and fried foods. This is necessary in order to strengthen the body after taking antibiotics.


Antibiotic drugs can speed up the healing process and provide significant benefits even at home, but only with proper admission and medical supervision. Do not self-medicate and wait until the disease reaches the stage where only antibiotic drugs or surgery can help – consult a doctor at the first sign of an illness!

Antibiotics and Gum Disease

Antimicrobial treatment is a non-surgical treatment for periodontal disease commonly used to combat gum disease by inhibiting bacterial growth and / or killing harmful bacteria.Antiseptics that stop the growth of bacterial plaque are usually used as a preventive measure to reduce the risk of periodontal disease or treat gingivitis in the early stages. Antibiotics that kill bacteria are prescribed by dentists to treat dental abscesses and periodontitis, the most severe form of gum disease.

Gum disease is caused by bacteria in plaque. The toxins produced by the bacteria initially cause gum disease and, if left untreated, the periodontal tissue infection leads to the loss of bone and connective tissue that holds the teeth in place, and finally to the loss of teeth.The goal of antimicrobial treatment is to reduce the number of bacteria in the mouth that cause periodontal disease.

Antiseptics, which are mainly used to prevent mild gingivitis, have a bacteriostatic effect. They inhibit the metabolism of bacterial cells, suppressing or slowing down the growth of dental plaque. Antibiotics are bactericidal; they work by killing bacteria. Antibiotic therapy is used to treat advanced periodontitis.

However, antimicrobial therapy alone is not sufficient to remove plaque or treat gum disease.The preventive effect of antiseptics is effective only in combination with daily oral hygiene. Antibiotics cannot provide treatment for periodontal disease if they are not used in conjunction with calculus removal and root planing. and / or surgical treatment of gum disease. They are also indicated for acute types of periodontal disease, such as aggressive juvenile periodontitis and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG).

Dentists prescribe or use different types of antibiotic therapy depending on the type and stage of gum disease.Antimicrobials can be applied topically to a specific area of ​​the mouth, taken orally as a tablet or liquid, or taken in the form of a toothpaste or mouthwash.

The type of antibiotic treatment that is best for each case depends on the types of bacteria in the patient’s mouth, so sometimes the dentist may take a sample from the infected area and send it to the laboratory to determine the exact type of harmful bacteria and prescribe the most effective antibiotic for periodontal treatment.

Various forms of antimicrobial drugs include:

Antibacterial toothpaste

Most modern toothpastes, especially for gum disease, contain one or more antibacterial ingredients such as triclosan or peroxide. Only low concentrations of antimicrobial agents are permitted in toothpastes. Their role is to minimize the growth of bacteria for a few hours before the next brushing of your teeth.

Antibacterial Mouthwash

Many OTC mouth rinses for daily use contain similar antibacterial agents, such as toothpastes.Both are prescribed by dentists to help patients prevent periodontal disease.

Antibiotic rinse

Some mouth rinses contain stronger antibiotics, such as chlorhexidine. These mouthwashes are prescribed for a short period of time to control bacterial populations in cases of aggressive periodontitis and to prevent infections after calculus removal and root planing. or / and after surgical treatment of periodontal disease.

Antibiotic tablets or capsules

Antibiotics are usually prescribed to treat dental abscesses. They can also be prescribed for 7 to 10 days to treat moderate to severe periodontitis.

Topical antibiotic therapy

In this form of antimicrobial treatment for periodontal disease, the dentist injects an antibiotic directly into the affected tissues of the mouth. The material slowly dissolves, releasing a controlled dose of the antibiotic over several days.

There are several types of topical antibiotic therapies, including:

  • Gel , an antibiotic gel, is inserted into the periodontal pockets under the gums and covered with a periodontal tampon, which is removed after 7-10 days along with any remaining gel.
    • Atridox is a gel containing doxycycline.
    • Elyzol is a gingival gel that consists of metronidazole.
  • Powder – The dentist places an antibiotic in powder form under the gums. The powder dissolves in about three weeks.
  • Chip – Chips containing antibiotics are placed under the gums and in periodontal pockets. The chip dissolves within 7-10 days.
    • Periochip is a small piece of gelatin filled with chlorhexidine.
    • Actisite is a dental floss-like filamentous fiber that contains tetracycline hydrochloride.
    • Arestin contains tiny round particles with the antibiotic minocycline.
Periostat (doxycycline)

The periostat is another type of systemic drug containing doxycycline that is used in the treatment of gum disease. Doxycycline in low doses suppresses the immune system’s overproduction of collagenase, an enzyme that destroys the jawbone and connective tissues that form the periodontal ligaments that hold teeth in place.

Periostat is taken twice a day for a period of up to 12 months. Although doxycycline is an antibiotic, its concentration in the periostat is very low, which reduces the risk of bacterial resistance. The periostat can only reduce the destructive effects of periodontal disease. Other treatments are needed to eliminate plaque and gum infections.

Antibiotic therapy can help treat periodontal disease, but cannot replace daily oral hygiene.Brushing your teeth at least twice a day and flossing are still essential for successful treatment.

  • Antibiotic tablets – Always take your medicine as directed by your dentist. Do not change the recommended dosage or lengthen the duration of treatment.
  • Local antibiotic therapy – Some discomfort is expected in the area where the antibiotic is injected. You should avoid brushing and flossing your teeth near this area to avoid removing the periodontal tampon or removing the antibiotic.A dental examination is usually scheduled after 7-10 days and the periodontal swab and antibiotic residues are removed.

An allergic reaction to antibiotic treatment is the most important side effect of periodontal antimicrobial treatment. Patients may experience rash, itching, facial swelling and, in severe cases, shortness of breath, upset stomach, dizziness, and drowsiness.

But the main risk, as with any antibiotic treatment, is the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.It is important that patients strictly follow the dentist’s instructions regarding the dosage and duration of treatment. The patient should take the antibiotic long enough to kill the harmful bacteria, but not longer, because it can destroy the natural bacterial flora of the mouth and promote the growth of other types of harmful microorganisms. In both cases, there is a risk of developing antibiotic resistance in bacteria. If more and more bacteria become resistant to antibiotics, bacterial infections will become more difficult to treat in the future.

Most forms of gingivitis and periodontitis can be treated without antibiotics, so dentists only prescribe antibiotics when absolutely necessary. Topical antibiotics do not affect the entire body like oral antibiotics and are preferred when possible in the treatment of periodontal disease.


Taking antibiotics for wisdom teeth infections – what you need to know

Wisdom teeth erupt from the gums between the ages of 17 and 25.For some people, appears only many years after this . This is the reason for the unique name of the teeth, since they appear much later, when a person may already reach adulthood.

However, recent studies have shown that there is no room for wisdom teeth in the human jaw. With smaller jaws, most people only have room for 28 teeth, so there isn’t enough room for wisdom teeth to erupt.

Unfortunately, despite their general insignificance and smaller jaw seen in modern populations, wisdom teeth still exist in most people.However, due to the crowding that occurs in small jaws, these sets of wisdom teeth either erupt only partially or remain completely hidden in the gums.

A wisdom tooth that does not erupt properly can be very painful. When they put pressure on the second molars, they can also push the teeth towards the center, which causes alignment and esthetics problems.

Ineffectively erupted wisdom teeth also cause infection , which can cause even more pain.Doctors called this particular condition pericoronitis, an infection of the soft tissues around the teeth that occurs when wisdom teeth try to erupt but end up damaging the gums around them instead.

How do dentists diagnose pericoronitis? What do you think about it? And is there a way to prevent this? Find out here.

What happens with pericoronitis?

Pericoronitis is an inflammation of the soft tissue surrounding ineffective wisdom teeth.This condition occurs when teeth try to break through the gum , exposing follicular sac from which the tooth originates.

As the tooth continues to push through the gums, the pouch remains open, leaving room for bacteria to grow and accumulate . Once bacteria enter the entire space around the tooth, they spread to adjacent tissues, causing localized infection around the area of ​​the developing tooth.

Normal bacterial flora inside the oral cavity.These small colonies are often suppressed by our immune systems, so they are effectively controlled during periods of good health. However, due to soft tissue damage, they find a potential space to spread, and thus a full-blown infection begins.

Area becomes a breeding ground for bacterial infection as colonies in our mouths swarm into the affected area. Once the infection has spread, a person can experience many different symptoms that occur at the site of the tooth.

This includes:

  • Painful swollen gums around the growing wisdom tooth.
  • Bad breath from the mouth.
  • Bad taste in the mouth.
  • Accumulation and discharge of pus around the affected area.
  • Swollen lymph nodes.
  • Facial edema
  • Inability to eat and / or speak correctly.

Transient pericoronitis versus persistent

There are certain factors that can affect the prognosis of pericoronitis.While most cases resolve permanently after the first onset of infection, there are other people who may have a relapse of pericoronitis.

When a tooth erupts and breaks through the gum, people can develop temporary pericoronitis . In these cases, the infection persists only when the wisdom passes through the gum line . Once a tooth has erupted completely, it will be much easier to clean, which eliminates the possibility of future infection.

However, if the wisdom tooth does not erupt properly and no longer progresses to full eruption, as it usually does, a person may develop persistent pericoronitis . This is because the gums are constantly under pressure from the tooth. Incomplete eruption of also makes it easier for debris and bacteria to accumulate around the tooth, as the gum flaps create space for such accumulation.

In most cases, wisdom teeth that do not erupt completely are also difficult to clean.Due to the numerous gaps and gaps between the tooth and the gums, as well as along the gums themselves, this area of ​​the oral cavity becomes especially vulnerable from a hygiene point of view.

Secondary complications of pericoronitis

Can pericoronitis get worse and become life-threatening? This is theoretically possible. Any infection that occurs inside the mouth is 90,750 more difficult to cure because the mouth is a breeding ground for bacteria , which also makes oral wounds take much longer to heal.

When pericoronitis is not properly treated or when a person does not respond to antibiotic treatment, the infection can spread to other parts of the body. Since there are quite a few blood vessels in the oral cavity, it is possible that is transmitted into the bloodstream .

Infected blood circulating in your system is called sepsis, a life-threatening condition. When infectious material enters various organs in your system, your body can surrender and undergo septic shock.

Proper treatment of the initial infection should help prevent these complications. It is also important to monitor the infection closely to determine if it is responding well to treatment. Otherwise, you need to urgently seek the advice of a healthcare professional to formulate a solution that will work for you.

Treatment methods


Gum Infection: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

Almost every part of your body is susceptible to infection, including your mouth.And if you have an infection, it’s important to get treatment as soon as possible. In the case of the mouth, infected gums can not only be very painful, but can also be a sign of a more serious condition such as advanced periodontal disease, also known as periodontitis.

Periodontitis affects the area of ​​the mouth just below the gum line, in the V-shaped gap between the tooth and the gum, known as the sulcus, affecting the attachment of your tooth and causing damage to nearby tissues. When tissue is damaged, the sulcus becomes a pocket where bacteria can accumulate and lead to gum infections.Since the gums are the fundamental support for our teeth, it is very important to keep them and the gum line in good condition.

Although serious gum infections are not very common, they can lead to serious problems if not treated promptly. While most of us want to keep our teeth and gums healthy, your gums can be prone to gum infections if not properly cared for. Identifying warning signs that can lead to gum infections is an important way to prevent further gum disease and all of its associated diseases. side effects.

Signs of gum infection include:

  • Gums swollen, painful, or bleeding
  • Gum drooping
  • Pus coming out of the gums
  • Chronic bad breath
  • Loose teeth
  • A noticeable change in how your teeth connect when you bite.

If you suffer from any of the symptoms listed above, it is important to visit and consult a dentist to determine the severity of the infection and the correct course of action to combat the problem.

As soon as you notice a gum infection, you should see your dentist. Once a gum infection is diagnosed, you will have a variety of treatment options, depending on the severity of the gum infection. Here are some common treatments for gum infections:

  • Antibiotics: As you would expect from any type of infection, antibiotics are often used to treat gum infections. Your dentist may decide to use an antibiotic pill or injection directly at the site of your gum infection.
  • Root planing and flaking: This advanced treatment for gum infections deeply cleanses between the gums and teeth, right down to the roots.
  • Gingivectomy: Gingivectomy is a form of treatment for gum infection that involves removing gum tissue.
  • Flap Surgery: If you have severe gum disease, flap surgery using bone or tissue grafts may be required.

Keeping your gums healthy and preventing infections can be easy if you make oral hygiene a priority every day.By brushing and flossing your teeth every day, you can significantly reduce your risk of gum disease and infected gums, as well as tooth decay and other oral health problems. Start a vigorous daily routine and stick to it, and these healthy habits will benefit you.

  • Cleaning twice a day. Brush with a fluoride toothpaste, such as any Crest Gum Detoxify toothpaste, twice a day. These anti-gingivitis toothpastes gently neutralize bacteria that have accumulated around the gum line, resulting in clinically proven healthier gums.
  • Floss your teeth daily. Be sure to stand between each tooth to remove food particles that cause plaque and tartar formation and may ultimately lead to gum infection.
  • Use a mouthwash for gingivitis You can also use a mouthwash that kills bacteria that cause plaque. There are many remedies available, and some have several benefits (such as enamel hardening, caries prevention, or whitening) for a healthier mouth throughout.
  • Visit your dentist at least twice a year for professional cleaning. This will help get rid of tartar that you cannot get rid of at home. Tartar build-up can lead to more plaque build-up on and around tartar in difficult-to-clean areas, which can be detrimental to the gums.

Since prevention is the best way to avoid gum infections, it is important to prioritize the care of your teeth and gums.Following these important guidelines will help keep your teeth and gums healthy and prevent gum infections.

1.https: //www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080

2.https: //www.nidcr.nih.gov/health-info/gum- disease / more details


Antibiotics for UTIs: What Are My Options?

Medical Review by Leigh Ann Anderson, PharmD. Last Updated: June 4, 2019

What is IMP | What antibiotic to use | Common Side Effects | Antibiotic Resistance | New antibiotics | OTC Antibiotics | Recurrent UTIs | Antibiotic-Free Treatment | Cranberry Juice | Additional Resources

What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?

If you have ever had a frequent urge to urinate with painful and burning urination, you probably have a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTIs are one of the most common types of infections, accounting for more than 10 million visits to healthcare providers each year. services.Approximately 40% of women will have a UTI at some time, and this is the most common infection in women. Healthcare costs associated with UTIs exceed $ 1.6 billion annually.

A urinary tract infection (UTI) can occur anywhere in the urinary tract, including the kidneys (the organ that filters blood to form urine), the ureters (the tubes that carry urine from each kidney to the bladder), and the bladder. (stores urine) or the urethra (the tube that drains urine from the bladder to the outside).Most UTIs occur in the bladder and urethra. Common symptoms include frequent urge to urinate, burning sensation when urinating, and pain in the lower abdomen.

There are different types of UTIs depending on where the bacteria go. A lower urinary tract infection occurs when bacteria enter the urethra and enter the bladder – this is called cystitis. Infections that travel through the bladder to the kidneys are called pyelonephritis.

Symptoms of a urinary tract infection may include:

  • Pain or burning sensation when urinating
  • Frequent or urgent urge to urinate
  • Excretion of small amounts of urine
  • Blood in urine or urine with pink spots
  • Turbid urine strong odor

  • Pain, cramping in the pelvis or pubic bone, especially in women

Upper UTIs involving the kidneys (pyelonephritis) may also present with symptoms of fever, chills, back or side (side) pain, nausea, or vomiting.

Elderly patients may have an atypical presentation that includes changes in mental status, lethargy, and weakness.

An infection of the tube that carries urine out of the bladder to the outside is called urethritis or inflammation of the urethra. Symptoms of urethritis may include burning when urinating and discharge. Urethritis is often caused by a sexually transmitted infection and may require a different antibiotic than those used to treat UTIs.


Most UTIs in women (approximately 85%) are caused by a bacteria known as Escherichia coli (E.coli). Other types of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus , may be infrequently present.

Symptoms of UTI are similar in women and men. However, urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. This is because the urethra in women (the tube that carries urine out of the bladder) is shorter and closer to the anus than in men, making it easier for bacteria such as E. coli to enter the urethra.

Menopause, low estrogen levels, and high vaginal pH also increase the risk of UTIs.Women are also more likely to become infected after intercourse or when using a diaphragm and spermicide for birth control.

Other risk factors for UTI include catheter use, structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, diabetes, and a suppressed immune system.

Which antibiotic should be used to treat UTI?

There are several types of antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs). Different regions of the country may recommend different treatments depending on regional patterns of antibiotic resistance.

Most patients with uncomplicated UTI begin treatment without any specific diagnostic tests, although a urinalysis can be done by taking a urine sample. A urine test identifies the chemical components of the urine, and the doctor can check the color, clarity of the urine and view the sample under a microscope. A urine culture may also be ordered, but it is not always necessary to start treatment. A urine culture can identify the specific bacteria that cause UTIs in more severe cases or when treatment fails.

Symptoms such as burning and tingling when urinating usually resolve within one day after starting treatment. Be sure to complete the entire course of medication. If symptoms persist after 2-3 days, see your doctor.

If you still have frequent UTIs, you may need more extensive diagnostic or imaging procedures, such as x-rays.

What oral antibiotics are used to treat uncomplicated UTIs in women?

The following oral antibiotics are commonly used to treat most uncomplicated UTIs (acute cystitis):

Your doctor will choose an antibiotic for you based on your history, type of UTI, local resistance characteristics, and cost considerations.First-line options are usually chosen from nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Amoxicillin / clavulanate (Augmentin) and certain cephalosporins such as cefpodoxime, cefdinir, or cefaclor may be suitable options when first-line options cannot be used.

The duration of treatment for cystitis can vary from a single dose to a course of treatment lasting from 5 to 7 days. Kidney infections may require injection treatment, hospitalization, and a longer course of antibiotic treatment, depending on the severity of the infection.

Sometimes a woman’s UTI can clear up on its own, which means the body can fight the infection without antibiotics; however, most uncomplicated UTIs can be quickly treated with a short course of oral antibiotics. Never use antibiotics prescribed to someone else.

In men with symptoms that do not indicate a concomitant UTI, treatment may be the same as in women. Men with complicated UTIs and / or symptoms of prostatitis do not have; men can be treated for 7 days with a fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin).Individual therapy after receiving urine cultures.

Are quinolones safe?

Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro) and levofloxacin (Levaquin) have also been commonly used to treat 90,750 simple UTIs ; however, FDA safety guidelines strongly recommend that this class be reserved for more serious infections and only used if other suitable antibiotics are not suitable.

  • An FDA safety review has shown that both oral and injectable fluoroquinolones (also called “quinolones”) are associated with serious and potentially disabling side effects affecting tendons, muscles, joints, nerves, and the central nervous system.
  • These side effects can occur shortly after administration or several weeks after exposure and can potentially be permanent.
  • Patients should discuss the use of fluoroquinolones and their side effects with their healthcare professional.

However, some oral fluoroquinolones may be suitable for more complex UTIs, including pyelonephritis and complicated UTIs in men with prostatic involvement. For the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated pyelonephritis , the following quinolones may be suitable.Depending on the nature of the resistance (> 10%), an initial dose of a long-acting parenteral antimicrobial such as ceftriaxone or a 24-hour dose of an aminoglycoside may be required.

Patients should be informed of the most recent FDA warnings regarding the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

Will I need an intravenous (IV) antibiotic for a UTI?

If you are pregnant, have a high fever, or cannot drink or drink, your doctor may refer you to the hospital so that you can receive intravenous (intravenous) antibiotics for complicated UTIs.You can return home and continue your oral antibiotic treatment when your infection begins to improve.

In areas with fluoroquinolone resistance greater than 10%, in patients with more severe pyelonephritis, in patients with complicated UTIs who are allergic to fluoroquinolones or who cannot tolerate a drug of the class, intravenous therapy with agents such as ceftriaxone or aminoglycosides, for example, gentamicin or tobramycin. Your current treatment should be based on laboratory sensitivity data.

Common side effects with antibiotics

Each antibiotic has a unique list of side effects, and the list is usually extensive. Be sure to discuss the individual side effects of antibiotics with your doctor. However, there are side effects that are common to most antibiotics, regardless of class or drug:

  • Vaginal yeast infections or thrush (Candida species): Antibiotics can also alter the normal balance of flora in the vagina and lead to overgrowth of fungi. Candida albicans is a common fungus usually present in small amounts in the vagina and usually does not cause disease or symptoms. However, vaginal candidiasis can occur when competition from bacteria due to antibiotic treatment is limited.
  • Upset stomach (stomach): Taking antibiotics often causes stomach upset such as nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite (anorexia), stomach pain or heartburn (dyspepsia).Taking an antibiotic with a snack or meal can help relieve stomach upset if you don’t need to take it on an empty stomach. If the medication makes you vomit, see your doctor right away for an alternative.
  • Antibiotic-associated diarrhea: Antibiotics can usually cause uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea or loose stools that resolve when antibiotics are stopped. Broad-spectrum antibiotics can also kill normal gut flora (“good bacteria”) and lead to overgrowth of infectious bacteria such as Clostridium difficile (C.difficile) If diarrhea is severe, bloody, or accompanied by stomach cramps or vomiting, see a doctor to rule out C. difficile. The most common antibiotics that cause antibiotic-associated diarrhea are amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, azithromycin, and clarithromycin.
  • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN): Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are rare but serious allergic drug reactions.Skin reactions such as rashes, peeling of the skin and ulcers on the mucous membranes can occur, which can be life-threatening. Antibiotics such as sulfonamides, penicillins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones can lead to SJS and TEN.

Related : Common Antibiotic Side Effects, Allergies & Reactions

What about antibiotic resistance?

Antibiotic resistance rates always vary based on local community conditions and specific risk factors for patients, such as recent antibiotic use, hospital stays, or travel.If you have taken antibiotics in the past 3 months or have traveled abroad, be sure to tell your doctor.

High rates of antibiotic resistance are seen with both ampicillin and amoxicillin for cystitis (E. coli), although amoxicillin / clavulanate (augmentin) may still be an option. Other oral drugs with increased resistance include sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (Bactrim DS, Septra DS) and fluoroquinolones.Resistance rates to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin / clavulanate are usually still below 10 percent.

Always stop a full course of antibiotics unless your doctor tells you to stop. Keep taking the antibiotic even if you feel better and think you no longer need the antibiotic.

If you stop treatment early, your infection may return quickly and you may develop resistance to the antibiotic you previously used.Your antibiotic may stop working the next time you use it.

Latest antibiotics for UTI

Latest FDA approvals for antibiotics for UTI include:


  • Vabomer (meropenem and vaborbactam) is a combination of carbapenem antibiotic and beta-lactamase inhibitor in August 2017. of the year.
  • Vabomer is used to treat adult patients with complicated urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis) caused by sensitive Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae .
  • Vabomere is given as an intravenous infusion every 8 hours. In patients with varying degrees of kidney damage, dosage adjustment is required.


  • Zemdri (plasomycin) is an aminoglycoside antibacterial drug for the treatment of 90,750 complicated urinary tract infections , including pyelonephritis. Zemdri was first approved in February 2015.
  • Zemdri is used against certain Enterobacteriaceae in patients with limited or no alternative treatment options.Zemdri is an intravenous infusion given once a day.


  • Avycaz (ceftazidime and avibactam) is a combination of antibiotic inhibitors of cephalosporin and beta-lactamases used to treat 90,750 complicated UTI , including pyelonephritis, in adults and children aged 3 months and older with no alternative treatment options. Abuse was first approved in February 2015.
  • Avycaz is used for the treatment of complicated UTIs caused by the following susceptible Gram-negative organisms: Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Enterobacter cloacae , Citrobacter freundiicomplex , Proteinus mi.
  • Avycaz is given as an intravenous infusion every 8 hours. In patients with varying degrees of kidney damage, dosage adjustment is required.


  • Zerbaxa (ceftolosan and tazobactam) is a combination of cephalosporin and beta-lactamase inhibitors for the treatment of 90,750 complicated urinary tract infections , including pyelonephritis. Zerbaksa was first approved in December 2014.
  • Zerbaksa is administered intravenously every 8 hours.In patients with varying degrees of kidney damage, dosage adjustment is required.

See Also : Treatment Options for UTIs

Are there over-the-counter antibiotics for UTIs?

Over-the-counter (OTC) antibiotics for UTIs are not available. You should see your doctor to assess your symptoms.

Your healthcare provider may recommend an over-the-counter product called uristate (phenazopyridine) to numb your bladder and urethra to relieve burning pain while urinating.You can buy uristat over the counter without a prescription. A similar phenazopyridine product called Pyridium is also available.

Take phenazopyridine only for 48 hours and be aware that this can cause urine to become brown, orange or red, which can stain tissues or contact lenses It may be best not to wear contact lenses during phenazopyridine treatment …

Phenazopyridine is not an antibiotic and does not cure UTIs.

See.See also: urinary anti-infective drug ratings

What if I have frequent recurring UTIs?

Within a year after contracting a UTI, about a quarter to half of women will develop another UTI. For these women, the doctor may recommend antibiotic prophylaxis (medicines that help prevent UTIs). If UTIs recur, urine culture or imaging tests may be required for further analysis.

Several antibiotic options are available to prevent recurrent UTIs:

  • Shorter course (3 days) of antibiotics at the first sign of UTI; You may be given a prescription for storage at home.
  • Longer course of antibiotic therapy in low doses.
  • Take a single dose of antibiotic after intercourse.

Antibiotic selection is based on previous UTIs, efficacy, and individual patient factors such as allergy and cost. Antibiotics commonly used for recurrent UTIs may include sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin, cefaclor, or cephalexin.

In postmenopausal women with vaginal dryness, which can lead to recurrent UTIs, vaginal estrogen may be an effective treatment.Your doctor may recommend the following treatment options: Estring (vaginal ring), Vagifem (vaginal pill), or estrogen vaginal creams (examples: Premarin, Vagifem, Yuvafem).

Can I treat UTIs without antibiotics?

Treatment of UTIs without antibiotics is generally NOT recommended. Early UTIs, such as a bladder infection (cystitis), may worsen over time, leading to a more severe kidney infection (pyelonephritis). However, a little research has shown that early mild UTIs can go away on their own.It is always best to consult your doctor if you have symptoms of a UTI.

Pregnant women should always see a doctor as soon as possible if they suspect they may have a UTI, as this may put them at greater risk of having a low birth weight or prematurity.

Does cranberry juice prevent UTIs?

Some patients may want to use cranberry or cranberry juice as a home remedy for UTIs. Cranberry juice has not cured a chronic bacterial infection of the bladder or kidney.

Cranberry has been studied as a preventive measure against UTIs. Research on whether cranberries actually prevent UTIs is mixed. Cranberries can work by preventing bacteria from sticking to the inside of the bladder; however, a large amount of cranberry juice is required to prevent bacterial adhesion. More recent research suggests that cranberries cannot prevent urinary tract infection


  • According to one expert, the active ingredient in cranberries – type A proanthocyanidins (PACs) – are effective against bacteria that cause UTIs, but only in highly concentrated cranberry capsules, not in cranberry juice.
  • However, cranberry has not been shown to prevent UTI recurrence in several well-controlled studies, as seen in a meta-analysis of 24 2012 studies published by the Cochrane Group.
  • Although research is inconclusive, cranberry juice is not harmful.However, if you develop symptoms, see your doctor. Some people believe that large amounts of cranberry juice cause stomach upset.

Many herbal or home remedies may not have been scientifically tested to the same extent as prescription drugs – or at all. Herbal products and over-the-counter supplements are not regulated by the FDA. Side effects and drug interactions can occur with alternative treatments.Always check with your healthcare professional before taking an over-the-counter, herbal, or dietary supplement for any medical condition. In most cases, antibiotics are the best treatment for UTIs.

Increasing fluid intake such as water, avoiding spermicide use, and urinating after intercourse may be helpful in preventing UTIs, although data are limited.

Additional Resources

Symptom Checker



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  7. Acute complicated urinary tract infection (including pyelonephritis) in adults. April 1, 2019Accessed 3 June 2019 at https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-complicated-urinary-tract-infection-including-pyelonephritis-in-adults
  8. .

  9. FDA Drug Safety Statement: FDA recommends limiting the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics for certain uncomplicated infections; warns of disabling side effects that may occur together. May 12, 2016 As of June 4, 2019 http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm500143.htm

Additional Information

Always consult your healthcare professional for the information displayed on this page that matches your personal circumstances.

Medical Disclaimer

. 90,000 Expectorants for pneumonia in adults

Expectorants for pneumonia in adults and cough suppressants: strong drugs, syrups, mucolytics that will help if sputum does not go away

Cough is a protective reaction of the body aimed at removing sputum from the respiratory tract. Thanks to coughing, pathogenic microorganisms are eliminated, therefore, expectorants are used to enhance and accelerate the cough reflex, improve the properties of mucus.

Antitussives are necessary for unproductive cough in order to suppress it in the absence of mucus in the respiratory tract, as well as for painful cough.

The selection of drugs for expectorant or antitussive action in pneumonia is carried out on an individual basis, depending on the type of pneumonia, concomitant pathology, the severity of the disease, the age of the patient.

If sputum does not pass

Expectorants are drugs aimed at the earliest possible discharge of sputum from the respiratory tract.

Bronchial mucus is an essential component of healthy airways. Due to the adequate work of the cilia of the bronchial epithelium, the respiratory tract with the help of the produced mucus is independently cleared of foreign particles. But with pneumonia and bronchitis, which are accompanied by an inflammatory process, the movement of the cilia of the ciliated epithelium slows down, as a result of which sputum cannot leave the bronchi, irritates the receptors, and a cough appears. It also becomes viscous.

In some cases of pneumonia, cough may be absent due to localization of sputum in small bronchi and bronchioles, devoid of cough receptors. This condition is life-threatening, quickly leading to an increase in the inflammatory response and sepsis.

Timely recognized pneumonia makes it possible to prescribe expectorants in a timely manner, improve sputum discharge, make it more fluid, as a result of which pathological mucus reaches the receptors and triggers an adequate cough reflex.

More about a symptom such as a cough & gt, & gt,

Classification of expectorants:

  1. Medicines aimed at enhancing the production of mucus by the bronchial glands.
    • reflex expectorants acting on gastric receptors,
    • Expectorants of a direct direction of action directly on the glands of the bronchi (resorptive).
  2. Mucolytic preparations.
Reflex preparations

Medicines of this group are taken orally in order to reach the active substance of the stomach glands.Mechanism of action:

  • changes in the bronchi of a reflex nature, which leads to an increase in mucus production,
  • a decrease in the degree of sputum viscosity,
  • an increase in the movement of cilia of the bronchial epithelium,
  • stimulation of the contractile activity of the smooth muscles of the bronchial tree.

Attention! The main indication for taking drugs from this group for pneumonia is viscous sputum, which is difficult to cough up.

The basis of reflex expectorants is herbal, namely herbal alkaloids and saponins.

Preparations of this group are used in most cases in the form of tinctures, syrups, lozenges, drops. It is necessary to take medications often: every 2-4 hours, since the dosage of the active ingredients in a single dose is small. Therefore, in unconscious patients with severe pneumonia, such expectorants cannot be used.

Expectorant reflex actions are most relevant for mild bronchopneumonia, which developed as a result of obstructive bronchitis or its acute form.The action of these drugs is mild, does not cause a significant increase in sputum volume, which does not lead to obstruction.

Reflexive expectorants

Active ingredient Trade names
Anise Ammonia anise drops, Dr. Theiss anise drops.

Combined herbal remedies: Bronhosan, Cough syrup.

Thermopsis Thermopsol, Cough tablets.
Altey Altey Syrup, Terra Plant Altey, Mukaltin.
Licorice Combined herbal remedies: Dr. Mom, Iberogast, Linkas, Amtersol

Means stimulate receptors in the stomach, in cases of overdose, the vomiting center of the medulla oblongata is overexcited, which may result in vomiting.

This group of funds implies an increase in the volume of fluid taken, as well as the absence of diuretics in prescriptions, therefore, in severe forms of pneumonia, when prevention of pulmonary edema is required, reflex expectorants are not prescribed.

Herbal remedies, especially based on thermopsis, are prescribed with caution to children!

Having a direct effect on the bronchi

This group of drugs is also intended for oral administration. These include potassium and sodium iodide. These funds, after being absorbed from the stomach, penetrate the bronchial glands, leading to an increase in the production of mucus and its liquefaction.

When pneumonia is used to treat mild forms, most often bronchogenic. It is forbidden to use for pathology of the thyroid gland.


These are agents that destroy the main components of sputum – glycopeptides and mucopolysaccharides, thinning it, leading to an increase in volume. They also stimulate the excretion of mucus and the synthesis of surfactant, which is especially important in the treatment of pneumonia. Used by inhalation and oral administration (dispersible tablets, powder, tablets, syrups).

Aroxol Aroxol 35 Flavamed, Haliksol

Mucolytic expectorants

Active ingredient Trade names
Carbocisteine ​​ Libexin 906 mucocetylitecisteine ​​ Libexin 906 Mucocetofort3506 Filyud36

Fluimucil, Rinofluimucil, Acestin, ACC, ACC Long
Bromhexin Bronchostop, Solvin

Combined funds: Bronchosan, Joset, Cofasma

The agents increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the lung tissues, which provides more effective treatment of various types of pneumonia.Since the effect of drugs is strong enough, which is expressed in an increase in the volume of sputum, they are not used in unconscious patients, bedridden patients. Drugs from this group are successfully used in children. A large amount of fluid is required. The funds are used 2-3 times a day, it is advisable not to drink them at night.

In rare cases, inhalation of proteolytic enzymes is performed when there are significant foci of purulent inflammation, necrotic tissues in severe pneumonia.This group includes Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, Ribonuclease. The funds destroy peptide bonds in the molecules of mucus and pus, leading to the excretion of sputum. The drugs can cause allergies and bronchospasm, so they are used with great care.

Help. While taking an expectorant drug from the group of mucolytics, sputum not only liquefies, but also increases in volume.

Cough suppressants for adults

Medicines are differentiated based on the site of action on the nervous system: central and peripheral .These drugs are used to eliminate dry cough in paracancrotic pneumonia, pleurisy. An agonizing cough that leads to sleep disturbance, appetite, vomiting, exhaustion of the patient is also a reason for suppressing the cough reflex.

Contraindications consider pulmonary hemorrhage, profuse sputum production, abscess breakthrough, bronchial obstruction in pneumonia.

Central action

This type of agent inhibits the formation of cough reflexes in the center of their formation in the medulla oblongata.This group includes two types of drugs: narcotic and non-narcotic .

A group of drugs is prescribed by specialists in rare cases with pneumonia. The most commonly used codeine and its preparations (Sedal-M, Codterpin, Codelac, Kaffetin). Dextromethorphan (Glycodin, Terasil) is also used. Taking such medications without consulting a doctor is strongly discouraged. In children, it can only be used from 6 years old.

Attention! The disadvantages include addiction, decreased intestinal motility, depression of the respiratory center.

Non-narcotic drugs include:

  • Butamirate (Omnitus, Panatus, Sinekod, Stoptussin),
  • Oxeladin (Paxeladin, Tusuprex),
  • Glaucin (Glauvent, Bronchitusen, Bronholitin).

Medicines are produced in syrup, tablets. They are able to suppress the cough reflex, while not affecting the respiratory center and not affecting intestinal motility.

Peripheral action

The group of peripheral agents is most often used to relieve cough in pneumonia.These drugs do not have a significant effect on the brain, but reduce the perception of signals by receptors. Libexin syrup and tablets are used in both children and adults 2-3 times a day and, depending on the symptoms, can only be used at night.

Mixed type

Medicines containing several types of components from different groups of expectorants and bronchodilators are relevant for pneumonia. For example, Jocet has been used successfully to facilitate the elimination of mucus and dilatation of the bronchi.The analogues are Kofasma, Kashnol. Also popular are herbal combinations of expectorant and antitussive substances in the preparations Codelac, Glycodin, Tussin plus, Terpinkod.


The choice of expectorant and antitussive agents for pneumonia is 90,750 after specifying its type and the choice of treatment tactics. Persons in serious condition are especially careful about the choice of medicines, since an increase in sputum production against the background of a weakening of the cough reflex can lead to a worsening of the condition.Mild forms of pneumonia are treated in the overwhelming majority with mucolytics. The total duration of admission is about a week.

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List of Expectorants + Uses, Types and Side Effects

Expectorants are ingredients that increase the secretion of the respiratory tract. They do this by increasing the water content of the secretions, which reduces the stickiness and makes it easier to cough up.

What are expectorants used for?

Expectorants are designed to make it easier to cough up mucus, in fact, they do not stop coughing. This is important because a productive cough should not be suppressed as it is the body’s way of removing excess mucus, foreign particles, or microorganisms from the airways.

Expectorants also help relieve chest congestion caused by colds, flu or allergies.

Guafenesin is mainly used to treat chest, wet, productive, or weeping coughs that commonly occur with colds.

Potassium iodide is used to increase the water content of secretions and improve breathing in people with conditions such as asthma, chronic bronchitis or emphysema.

Studies have shown that expectorants are not as effective as mucolytics in treating certain respiratory conditions such as COPD.

Expectorants do not cure infection.

What is the difference between expectorants?

Although both guaifenesin and potassium iodide act by increasing airway secretion, there are differences in their propensity for side effects.

Side effects are more likely with potassium iodide, which is the potassium salt of iodine. Iodine is a trace mineral, which means that the body only needs it in very small amounts, and all trace minerals are toxic if consumed in too high doses for too long.

Sometimes expectorants are called mucolytics and vice versa. Although both lead to less viscous (sticky) mucus, mucolytics work differently than expectorants, in that they break down the bonds within the mucus, thinning it. Medicines with mucolytic effects available in the United States include inhaled acetylcysteine ​​and dornase alfa. Bromhexine is an internationally available mucolytic.

Are expectorants safe?

Guaifenesin is generally well tolerated and no serious side effects have been reported with recommended doses.A dosage higher than the recommended dosage will cause indigestion and vomiting. Guaifenesin should not be given to children under 4 years of age.

Potassium iodide has been linked to thyroid problems, high levels of potassium in the blood and iodide poisoning. People who have neck or throat swelling, chest pain, irregular heartbeat, muscle weakness, tingling in the extremities, severe headache, allergic reaction, or other unusual side effects should seek immediate medical attention.

It is important to note that although expectorants have been used for many years, there have been several studies to prove that they work.

See individual drug monographs for a complete list of serious side effects.

What are the side effects of expectorants?

Guafenesin is generally well tolerated at dosages recommended for use as an expectorant. The most common side effects are nausea and vomiting; constipation, dizziness, headache, and rash have been reported rarely.

Side effects associated with potassium iodide use include:

  • Confusion
  • Excessive salivation
  • Fatigue
  • Gastrointestinal effects (such as acid reflux, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and stomach pain)
  • Irregular

  • palpitations
  • Numbness, tingling, pain or weakness in arms or legs
  • Severe headache
  • Skin ulcers
  • Gum pain
  • Taste disorders (including honey or metal taste in the mouth).

For a complete list of side effects, see the individual drug monographs.

Always check with your doctor to ensure that the information displayed on this page is applicable to your personal circumstances.


Viral pneumonia: symptoms, causes and treatment

Viral pneumonia is pneumonia that develops as a result of a viral infection in the lungs.

Symptoms of viral pneumonia are often similar to those of bacterial pneumonia, but depending on the causative agent of the virus, there may be several additional symptoms.

A wide range of viruses can cause viral pneumonia, including influenza and coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.

Viral pneumonia is often mild, but in rare cases it can be life-threatening.

Read to learn more about the symptoms, causes and treatment of viral pneumonia.

Share on Pinterest Symptoms of viral pneumonia can include fever, tremors, chills, and fatigue.

Symptoms of viral pneumonia can vary in severity and may include the following:

  • fever
  • cough that may be dry at first, but may produce yellow or green mucus
  • shortness of breath
  • tremors
  • chills
  • muscle pain
  • fatigue
  • malaise
  • weakness
  • loss of appetite
  • blue lip tint

Some people with viral pneumonia may also have a sore throat or headache, depending on the underlying cause of the infection.

Viral pneumonia tends to manifest itself differently in each age group.

Young children with viral pneumonia usually have mild symptoms that gradually get worse. A child with viral pneumonia may develop noticeable wheezing, and their skin and lips often turn blue due to lack of oxygen. They can also lose their appetite.

On the other hand, adults over 65 may experience abnormally low body temperature, confusion and dizziness.

A wide range of viruses can cause viral pneumonia, including:

Viruses spread easily when affected people sneeze or cough. A person can also become infected by contact with contaminated surfaces.

Coronaviruses, a large family of viruses that cause respiratory illness, can cause viral pneumonia. These include SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a viral outbreak a pandemic on March 11, 2020.

According to the WHO, the majority of reported cases are relatively mild – 81% of people get sick without causing complications, and 14% will develop serious illness and need oxygen therapy, and 5% need treatment in an intensive care unit.

Severe pneumonia is one of the most common complications of severe COVID-19. It can develop towards the end of the first week of infection.

People with pre-existing medical conditions and the elderly are more likely to develop severe pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2.

The situation is still evolving, therefore these data and figures may change.

For updates on the latest developments regarding the novel coronavirus and COVID-19, click here .

Viral pneumonia can affect anyone, as the viruses that cause it are highly contagious.

However, the following factors may increase the risk of developing viral pneumonia:

  • over 65 or under 2 years old
  • Living in a group environment such as a nursing home, prison, or dorm
  • Working in a hospital or nursing home
  • Smoking tobacco
  • Alcohol or illegal drug abuse
  • Chronic illness such as heart, respiratory or autoimmune disease
  • Immune system disorder, possibly due to cancer or HIV
  • Recovering from a recent viral infection

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs.Doctors classify pneumonia by its cause. Common causes of pneumonia include:

  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • fungal infections

Bacterial and viral pneumonias are more common than pneumonia caused by fungal infections.

Bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae cause bacterial pneumonia. This type of pneumonia is usually more severe than viral pneumonia.

Symptoms of bacterial pneumonia may include:

  • very high fever
  • chills or chills
  • rapid breathing
  • shortness of breath
  • coughing up blood or mucus
  • fatigue or lack of energy

Viral pneumonia can have the same symptoms, but usually less severe.

Bacterial pneumonia requires antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics do not help treat viral pneumonia unless there is a secondary bacterial cause.

The doctor will be able to diagnose viral pneumonia.

They usually start by asking about any symptoms and doing a physical exam. As part of the examination, your doctor will listen to your lungs for abnormal sounds that could indicate pneumonia.

These sounds may include cracking in the lungs or wheezing when breathing.The doctor will also check for increased heart rate and decreased airflow.

If the doctor suspects pneumonia, they will likely order some of the following tests to confirm the diagnosis:

  • Chest X-ray
  • Nasal swab to check for viruses
  • Sputum culture from lungs
  • Blood tests, including complete blood test (CBC) to look for markers of inflammation
  • Arterial blood gas analysis

The tests your doctor decides will depend on the severity of the person’s symptoms and whether they are in one of the high-risk groups.

People with an increased risk of pneumonia should see a doctor immediately or go to the emergency room if they develop flu-like symptoms along with any of the following:

  • chest pain
  • fever
  • confusion in the elderly
  • Difficulty breathing or rapid breathing

Pneumonia can be extremely serious in those at increased risk. These people will need immediate treatment for the best result.

Viral pneumonia usually clears up on its own, so treatment is directed at relieving some of the symptoms. A person with viral pneumonia should get enough rest and maintain water balance by drinking plenty of fluids.

Your doctor may prescribe cough medicine to help relieve your cough. People should only take cough suppressant medications if and when their doctor tells them to, because coughing helps clear the infection from the lungs.For those with thick mucus from the lungs, your doctor may prescribe an expectorant for coughs.

In some cases of viral pneumonia, your doctor may prescribe antiviral drugs to reduce viral activity. This treatment is usually most effective when the virus is in the early stages of infection.

In rare cases, a doctor may hospitalize a person with viral pneumonia. People over 65 years of age or people with chronic diseases are more likely to need inpatient care.Very young people are also at higher risk for severe viral pneumonia.

The viruses that cause viral pneumonia are contagious. During the cold and flu season, a person can take steps to stay healthy. These steps can protect against viral pneumonia and other viral illnesses.

Some methods people can use to try to prevent illness include:

  • Wash hands often with warm water and soap
  • Get the flu shot
  • Avoid touching your nose or mouth
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Exercising regularly
  • eat lots of fresh fruits and vegetables
  • practice distancing, including staying away from people who sneeze and cough

Most people with viral pneumonia recover within a few weeks.However, some people may take several weeks to fully recover, especially those who have weakened immune systems or are over 65.

Although viral pneumonia can be contagious, a person can practice good hygiene and self-care to reduce the risk of infection.


List of medicines / medicines used for pneumonia

List of medicines used to treat a disease called pneumonia. Click on a medicine for more information, including brand name, dose, side effects, side effects, when to take the medicine and price.

General and trade names of medicines for the treatment of pneumonia

Amoxicillin and bromhexine

Amoxicillin and bromhexine contain the antibiotic penicillin and a mucolytic.

Ampicillin and sulbactam

Ampicillin and sulbactam are penicillin antibiotics prescribed for susceptible bacterial infections such as skin, gynecological or abdominal infections, alone or together with other medicines.

Trade names:

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Atovaquone is an antibiotic prescribed for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PP), toxoplasmosis, as well as in the treatment of malaria in combination with proguanil.


Bacampicillin is a penicillin antibiotic prescribed for susceptible infections and uncomplicated gonorrhea.

Trade names:


Balofloxacin is a quinolone antibiotic prescribed for infectious ophthalitis and sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, exacerbations of the disease, community-acquired pneumonia, skin infections.

Trade names:


Cefaclor is a cephalosporin antibiotic prescribed for certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, ear, lung, skin, throat and urinary tract infections.

Trade names:

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Cefotaxime is a cephalosporin antibiotic prescribed for certain types of bacterial infections such as lower respiratory tract infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometritis, skin infections and skin structures and others.

Trade names:

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Ceftriaxone is a cephalosporin antibiotic prescribed for certain bacterial infections such as gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease, middle ear infection, meningitis brain) and infections of the lungs, ears, skin, urinary tract, blood, bones. joints and typhoid fever.

Trade names:

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Cephalexin is a first generation cephalosporin antibiotic prescribed for susceptible infections.

Trade names:

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Cefradine is a first generation cephalosporin antibiotic prescribed for certain types of bacterial infections such as pneumonia, ear, urinary tract and skin infections.