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Symptoms of pregnancy: What happens first

Symptoms of pregnancy: What happens first

Do you know the early symptoms of pregnancy? From nausea to fatigue, know what to expect.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Could you be pregnant? The proof is in the pregnancy test. But even before you miss a period, you might suspect — or hope — that you’re pregnant. Know the first signs of pregnancy and why they occur.

Classic pregnancy signs and symptoms

The most common early signs and symptoms of pregnancy might include:

  • Missed period. If you’re in your childbearing years and a week or more has passed without the start of an expected menstrual cycle, you might be pregnant. However, this symptom can be misleading if you have an irregular menstrual cycle.
  • Tender, swollen breasts. Early in pregnancy hormonal changes might make your breasts sensitive and sore. The discomfort will likely decrease after a few weeks as your body adjusts to hormonal changes.
  • Nausea with or without vomiting. Morning sickness, which can strike at any time of the day or night, often begins one month after you become pregnant. However, some women feel nausea earlier and some never experience it. While the cause of nausea during pregnancy isn’t clear, pregnancy hormones likely play a role.
  • Increased urination. You might find yourself urinating more often than usual. The amount of blood in your body increases during pregnancy, causing your kidneys to process extra fluid that ends up in your bladder.
  • Fatigue. Fatigue also ranks high among early symptoms of pregnancy. During early pregnancy, levels of the hormone progesterone soar — which might make you feel sleepy.

Other pregnancy signs and symptoms

Other less obvious signs and symptoms of pregnancy that you might experience during the first trimester include:

  • Moodiness. The flood of hormones in your body in early pregnancy can make you unusually emotional and weepy. Mood swings also are common.
  • Bloating. Hormonal changes during early pregnancy can cause you to feel bloated, similar to how you might feel at the start of a menstrual period.
  • Light spotting. Sometimes a small amount of light spotting is one of the first signs of pregnancy. Known as implantation bleeding, it happens when the fertilized egg attaches to the lining of the uterus — about 10 to 14 days after conception. Implantation bleeding occurs around the time of a menstrual period. However, not all women have it.
  • Cramping. Some women experience mild uterine cramping early in pregnancy.
  • Constipation. Hormonal changes cause your digestive system to slow down, which can lead to constipation.
  • Food aversions. When you’re pregnant, you might become more sensitive to certain odors and your sense of taste might change. Like most other symptoms of pregnancy, these food preferences can be chalked up to hormonal changes.
  • Nasal congestion. Increasing hormone levels and blood production can cause the mucous membranes in your nose to swell, dry out and bleed easily. This might cause you to have a stuffy or runny nose.

Are you really pregnant?

Unfortunately, many of these signs and symptoms aren’t unique to pregnancy. Some can indicate that you’re getting sick or that your period is about to start. Likewise, you can be pregnant without experiencing many of these symptoms.

Still, if you miss a period and notice some of the above signs or symptoms, take a home pregnancy test or see your health care provider. If your home pregnancy test is positive, make an appointment with your health care provider. The sooner your pregnancy is confirmed, the sooner you can begin prenatal care.

May 11, 2019

Show references

  1. Bastian LA, et al. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of early pregnancy. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed May 19, 2016.
  2. Lockwood CJ, et al. Initial prenatal assessment and first-trimester prenatal care. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed May 19, 2016.
  3. Norwitz ER, et al. Overview of the etiology and evaluation of vaginal bleeding in pregnant women. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed May 19, 2016.
  4. Moore KL, et al. References and suggested reading. In: Before We Are Born: Essentials of Embryology and Birth Defects. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013.
  5. Frequently asked questions. Pregnancy FAQ126. Morning sickness: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Morning-Sickness-Nausea-and-Vomiting-of-Pregnancy. Accessed May 19, 2016.
  6. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Months 1 and 2. In: Your Pregnancy and Childbirth Month to Month. 6th ed. Washington, D.C.: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2015.

See more In-depth


Pregnancy Week By Week | First Month Symptoms and Signs

What happens in the first month of pregnancy?

Pregnancy is divided into 3 trimesters. Each trimester is a little longer than 13 weeks. The first month marks the beginning of the first trimester.

What’s gestational age?

Pregnancy timing is measured using “gestational age.” Gestational age starts on the first day of your last menstrual period (LMP).

Gestational age can be confusing. Most people think of pregnancy as lasting 9 months. And it’s true that you’re pregnant for about 9 months. But because pregnancy is measured from the first day of your last menstrual period — about 3-4 weeks before you’re actually pregnant — a full-term pregnancy usually totals about 40 weeks from LMP — roughly 10 months.

Many people don’t remember exactly when they started their last menstrual period — that’s OK. The surest way to find out gestational age early in pregnancy is with an ultrasound.

What happens during week 1 – 2?

These are the first 2 weeks of your menstrual cycle. You have your period. About 2 weeks later, the egg that’s most mature is released from your ovary — this is called ovulation. Ovulation may happen earlier or later, depending on the length of your menstrual cycle. The average menstrual cycle is 28 days.

After it’s released, your egg travels down your fallopian tube toward your uterus. If the egg meets up with a sperm, they combine. This is called fertilization. Fertilization is most likely to occur when you have unprotected vaginal sex during the 6 days leading up to — and including the day of — ovulation.

What happens during week 3 – 4?

The fertilized egg moves down your fallopian tube and divides into more and more cells. It reaches your uterus about 3–4 days after fertilization. The dividing cells then form a ball that floats around in the uterus for about 2–3 days.

Pregnancy begins when the ball of cells attaches to the lining of your uterus. This is called implantation. It usually starts about 6 days after fertilization and takes about 3–4 days to be complete.

Pregnancy doesn’t always happen, even if an egg is fertilized by a sperm. Up to half of all fertilized eggs pass out of your body when you get your period, before implantation is complete.

What are the signs of pregnancy?

For a lot of people, the first sign of pregnancy is a missed period. Most pregnancy tests will be positive by the time you’ve missed your period. Other early pregnancy symptoms include feeling tired, feeling bloated, peeing more than usual, mood swings, nausea, and tender or swollen breasts. Not everyone has all of these symptoms, but it’s common to have at least 1 of them.

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Early Signs and Symptoms of Pregnancy | UNM Health Blog

By Brenna McGuire, MD
| July 15, 2021

If you think you might be pregnant, be aware of these early signs of pregnancy and know when to make a prenatal care appointment.

Are you wondering whether you are pregnant? Missing your period is often the first clue that a woman might be pregnant.

However, there are many other early symptoms that might signal you to take an at-home pregnancy test. Some of these include:

The sooner you find out about a pregnancy, the better. If you have early pregnancy symptoms and you get a positive home pregnancy test, call UNM Health at 505-272-2245 to schedule an appointment.

At the hospital, we’ll give you an advanced pregnancy test and an ultrasound exam—the only way to know for sure if you are pregnant. If you are, we will help you with options, including setting up prenatal care—health care during pregnancy.

Let’s discuss common early pregnancy symptoms and what to do if you have them.

1. Missed or Light Period

“I’m late.” Many women are familiar with that phrase. A missed period is one of the first early signs of pregnancy. However, many women have irregular periods, which means being late is not always a reliable sign.

For women with consistent cycles, missing a period is a good way to know when it is time to take a home pregnancy test.

One way to determine if you are having regular periods is to start tracking your cycles on a phone app or calendar. The first day of your period is the first day you begin to have vaginal bleeding or spotting.

At your prenatal care visit, your provider will ask you about your “last menstrual period” or the first day of your last cycle. It is helpful to keep track of your cycles in order to determine an accurate due date.

What to do: Buy an over-the-counter pregnancy test. There are different types of tests available: line, digital, and strip. Choose based on your preference and check the package date to make sure it is not expired.

Home pregnancy tests detect the hormone hCG in your urine. Results are most accurate if you wait until the week after your missed period. Read all directions on the box before you take your test. Try to take your test first thing in the morning, when your urine is most concentrated. If your test is positive, call 505-272-2245 to schedule an appointment.

2. Tender Breasts

There are many reasons your breasts could be tender—too much caffeine or alcohol, a hard workout, normal period-related swelling. Many women also have sore breasts in early pregnancy. Sometimes, the breasts will look or feel heavier. This change is because progesterone and estrogen levels rise very early in a pregnancy. Increased hormones commonly make the nipples extra sensitive and the skin around them look darker.

What to do: If this symptom comes out of the blue and lasts for more than a few days, you may want to take a home pregnancy test—especially if you also have any of the other symptoms in this list. If you are having pain in your breasts, you can use a heating pad or ice packs as needed to help with the pain. It is safe to take Tylenol as well for pain control but avoid taking ibuprofen or other NSAIDs.

3. Morning Sickness

If you are sitting at home or work and suddenly feel nauseous, it could be the stomach flu or food poisoning. However, if you can’t track that queasy feeling back to a meal or illness, morning sickness might be the culprit. 

“Morning” sickness is very common in pregnancy, and it does not happen only in the morning. Unfortunately, waves of nausea can strike suddenly in the morning, afternoon, or evening. 

What to do: Simple things you can do at home might help curb that yucky feeling:

  • Eat a peppermint.
  • Snack on crackers.
  • Chew mint gum.
  • Drink cold water.
  • Try ginger tea or ginger chews
  • Sit down and take deep breaths.

Most patients stop having morning sickness by the second trimester (12-14 weeks of pregnancy), and most patients don’t need medical care for it.

If you are vomiting several times a day, call a doctor or midwife. Approximately 3% of patients will get hyperemesis gravidarum—a rare but very bad form of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy

Expecting Unexpectedly?

You have options.

4. Heightened Sense of Smell

Imagine you open a jar of peanut butter to spread on your morning toast. Suddenly, the smell bombards you. Strong reactions to smells that didn’t previously affect you can be an early sign of pregnancy.

There is not an exact medical reason why, but many women report a heightened sense of smell when pregnant. Sometimes, smells can trigger morning sickness.

What to do: Try sipping some ginger ale or snacking on a few saltines. These tricks can settle your stomach when you can’t avoid a strong odor.  

5. Dizziness and Headaches

During pregnancy, changes in hormone levels and blood circulation can cause mild dizziness and minor headaches. These changes can cause dehydration.

What to do: Drink plenty of water to ease dizziness and headaches. Aim for eight cups of water a day. It is also safe for most patients to take acetaminophen (Tylenol) during pregnancy. Talk with your doctor or midwife about safe options for you.

If you have severe headaches or dizzy spells that don’t go away, call your doctor or midwife right away. These can be signs of a medical emergency like very high blood pressure (preeclampsia).

6. Feeling Very Tired

This common early pregnancy symptom is due to hormones and other rapid changes in your body. Some patients describe it as feeling exhausted, like they are wading through a heavy fog. If you can’t pinpoint a reason for feeling extra tired—like working too much, having trouble sleeping or feeling ill—you might be pregnant.

What to do: If you find out you are pregnant, try to take as many naps as you can. Eat a healthy diet consisting of plenty of protein, which can help ease morning sickness and give you energy.

Think You Might be Pregnant?

Every woman is different, and you may not have any of the symptoms on this list. That doesn’t mean there is something wrong with the pregnancy—you’re just lucky! Having these common early pregnancy symptoms does not necessarily mean you are pregnant. The only way to know for sure is to visit your doctor or midwife.

Whether a pregnancy is planned or unplanned, waiting to find out can be stressful. When you are ready to find out, you can get a free pregnancy test on a walk-in basis at the UNM Center for Family Planning and Reproductive Health.

If you are not pregnant, we can help you get access to birth control if you want it. If you are pregnant, we will discuss your options with you. We will not judge you—our top priority is helping you make the best health decision for you and your family.

To find out whether you or a loved one might benefit from Ob/Gyn care

Women’s Health

Am I Pregnant? | Missed Period?

If you’re feeling tired and irritable or having some cramping and you are late for your period, you might be asking yourself this question. Only a pregnancy test can tell you for sure if you are pregnant or not, but keep reading to find out more about the potential signs you may be pregnant plus learn more about the chances that you might be pregnant.

On this page you will find information about:

  • The most common pregnancy symptom
  • Early pregnancy symptoms
  • Pregnancy testing
  • Unexpected pregnancy

The most common pregnancy symptom: A missed period

The number one sign of pregnancy is a missed period. Missing your period shows that your hormones may have been realigned by pregnancy. This is because when fertilization occurs, it triggers a relay of hormones that cause you to miss your period in order to maintain a  pregnancy. Here is how is it happens:

When a sperm penetrates the egg, the cells surrounding the resulting early embryo release human chorionic gonadotrophin, or HCG, “the pregnancy hormone” (this is what a pregnancy test detects). HCG then signals the corpus luteum in the ovaries to continue to release progesterone. Progesterone in turn maintains the uterine lining so that the embryo can implant in the uterus and the pregnancy can continue. Without the presence of the embryo releasing HCG, the corpus luteum (a cluster of cells produced in the ovaries during ovulation) would disintegrate and cause your progesterone level to plummet. With hormone levels so low, the uterine lining then sheds giving you your period. This is why a missed period is the surest sign of early pregnancy. Other symptoms do not usually set in until about six weeks into pregnancy, which can be about two weeks after a missed period.

Pregnancy, though, is not the only cause of changes in a woman’s cycle. Other factors can also cause a missed period such as stress, travel, and changes in weigh or diet. But if you are sexually active and want to know if it could be pregnancy that caused you to miss your period, taking a pregnancy test is the fastest and surest way to know. You can get confidential, judgement-free pregnancy testing at no cost to you at Abria.

Early Pregnancy Symptoms

Besides a missed period, pregnancy can cause many other symptoms. Below is a list of additional pregnancy symptoms.

Implantation bleeding: Somewhere between 6 and 12 days after conception, the fertilized egg attaches to the wall of the uterus. When this happens, some women get light bleeding, though, according to a survey by the American Pregnancy Society, only 3 percent of women actually experience this symptom. Because it can occur very close to the time of a normal period, it’s easy to mistake it for the start of your period.

Cramping: As the uterus stretches to accommodate the embryo some women experience cramping in the lower abdomen and pelvis.

Cramping can also occur later in pregnancy as the uterus stretches and expands.

Nausea: “Morning sickness” or nausea is one of the most common symptoms of pregnancy. The hormonal changes that occur in a woman’s body at the beginning of pregnancy cause some women to feel nauseated in the morning or at the smell of certain foods. This symptom normally doesn’t occur until 6 to 8 weeks into the pregnancy and ends for most women at about 12 weeks into the pregnancy.

Breast changes: The hormonal changes of pregnancy can also cause a woman’s breasts to swell, feel full, or become tender to the touch. The area around the nipple, which is called the areola, may also get darker.

Increased vaginal discharge: Pregnancy also causes the lining of the vagina to thicken, increasing vaginal discharge. It’s normal to have milky white or clear vaginal secretions both during ovulation and pregnancy, but discharge that smells bad or is associated with burning sensation, can be a sign of infection.

Fatigue: Progesterone is a relaxing hormone level and it rises rapidly during early pregnancy. These higher level of progesterone can cause women to feel extra tired.

Mood Swings: The swing in hormones induced by pregnancy can be reflected in a woman’s mood. If you find yourself annoyed for no reason or especially irritable, pregnancy could be the culprit.

Headaches: Some women get headaches early in pregnancy due to swift hormonal changes in her body. If the headaches are severe or become migraines, this could be a sign of that something besides pregnancy is going on.

Lower Backaches: Many women also report lower backaches during pregnancy.

The symptoms of early pregnancy can vary from woman to woman. A survey by the American Pregnancy Association reported a variety of first symtoms among women:

  • 29% of women surveyed reported a missed period as their first pregnancy symptom
  • 25% indicated that nausea was the first sign of pregnancy
  • 17% reported that a change in their breasts was the initial symptom of pregnancy

If you think you might be pregnant, your first step is to take a lab quality pregnancy test and speak with a medical professional. Click here to schedule.

Was the timing, right? Understanding Symptoms

Except for a missed period, pregnancy and pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms can be remarkably similar, but there are two ways to figure out which circumstance might be causing your symptoms. First, typical pregnancy symptoms such as morning sickness, fatigue and mood swings do not set in until after a missed period, often not until at least 6 weeks into the pregnancy. The second way to judge the chances that your symptoms are related to pregnancy is by checking when in your cycle you had sex. While being sexually active means pregnancy is a possibility, there are really only about 6 days a month that a woman can get pregnant, depending upon a woman’s cycle.

In order for a woman to get pregnant, two things need to happen. First, she needs to ovulate and, second, a sperm needs to reach and penetrate the egg before it dies. Ovulation normally takes place one time during a cycle and normally only one egg is released. Once an egg has been released from the ovaries (ovulation), it only lives 12 to 4 hours. That doesn’t give the sperm much time to fertilize the egg, but sperm can normally live in the woman’s reproductive track for up to 5 days. This means that a woman’s fertile window is ordinarily 6 days a month—the day of ovulation and the five days leading up to it. If you had sex outside of this window, the chances of getting pregnant are very low.

Now you might be wondering when you ovulate. Ovulation usually occurs 14 days before the start of a woman’s period. For a woman with a 28-day cycle (28 days from the start of one period to the start of the next), this means that ovulation would occur on day 14. For a woman with a 35-day cycle, this would mean she likely ovulated on day 21. Basically, the fertile time of your cycle is the middle part, although this “middle” is closer to the beginning for women with shorter cycles and closer to the end for women with longer cycles. If you had sex outside your approximate fertile time, your chances of being pregnant are low. If you had sex within your fertile time, your chances of being pregnant are higher.

It is very important to note that this simple numeric formula doesn’t work for every woman. Most women don’t have perfectly consistent cycles and some may have health issues or hormonal imbalances that cause their cycles not to follow regular patterns of ovulation and menstruation. Nevertheless, it is still possible to know approximately when you are ovulating by watching for the symptoms.  By learning the signs of fertility and charting them, every woman can know when she is more likely and less likely to get pregnant.

If you had intercourse within your fertile time, or don’t know whether you did or not, taking a pregnancy test is the easiest and fastest way to determine if your symptoms are from pregnancy.

More information about fetal development can be found on the Minnesota Department of Health website.

Take a Pregnancy Test

Pregnancy testing measures the level of the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in your body. This hormone is always present in the female body but rises during pregnancy as it is being released by the cells containing the embryo. Although how fast HCG gets released varies form woman to woman, it always rises dramatically even within days of conception, making it an easy way to detect pregnancy. This hormone is detectable in both the blood and the urine. A urine test is the most common form of pregnancy testing.

While taking a pregnancy test is easy, waiting for the results can be very stressful, especially if you fear an unexpected pregnancy. At Abria we understand and are here to walk with you during this stressful time. Our pregnancy testing can accurately detect pregnancy as soon as 7 to 9 days after conception, which is usually even before a missed period. Abria’s pregnancy testing is also confidential and offered at no cost to you. If you have a pregnancy testing appointment, we also offer the opportunity to discuss your sexual health concerns and all of your pregnancy options with a registered nurse.

If you are pregnant

If you test positive, you can receive a follow-up ultrasound. While a pregnancy test can tell you if you are pregnant, only an ultrasound can tell you if the pregnancy is in the uterus, if it is likely to continue and how far along it is. If you are considering abortion this is important information. Approximately one in four pregnancies end naturally in miscarriage, so if you do not want to continue the pregnancy an abortion may not be necessary. Also, knowing exactly how far along you are will let you know what your options and approximate cost would be to terminate the pregnancy. You also want to make sure the pregnancy is in the uterus because an ectopic pregnancy (when the pregnancy occurs outside the uterus) is a life-threatening condition that requires medical care. At your appointment, you can also talk to a nurse about all of your pregnancy options.

Finding out about the viability and stage of your pregnancy is your best first step before making any decision about your pregnancy. To schedule an appointment at Abria, click HERE.

Unexpected pregnancy

No matter where you’re at in life—married with children, single, a student, or just starting a new relationship or carrier—suddenly finding out you’re pregnant can be shocking. As with any life-changing news, the best thing to do is to take some time to process it before making any final decisions.

First of all, know that you are not alone and that you do have options. Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unexpected pregnancies, so if you are experiencing an unexpected pregnancy, you are not alone.

Next, seeking medical care and advice is also recommended. To know what all your options are, you will want to know exactly how far along you are, if the pregnancy is viable, if it is in the uterus, and if you have an STI. This will give you a good picture of your situation, your health, your body, and your options. Understanding your situation well and looking at all your options with a clear, calm mind will help you move forward with confidence.

At Abria we offer the services to equip to make a confident decision and give you the space you need to make your decision. Make an appointment for pregnancy testing and an ultrasound today.

No Cost You

We are a non-profit clinic. All of our services are at no cost to you. We know that facing an unexpected pregnancy is difficult, so our priority is making sure that women have access to the care and support they need.

Completely Confidential

Your appointment is completely confidential. Because we offer our services at no cost to you, we do not bill to insurance companies, making your appointment completely confidential. Minnesota law also allows minors (under age 18) to receive our services without parental consent or notification. While we encourage teens to be open with their parents, all appointments are completely confidential.

Why Abria

We are here for you. If you are facing an unexpected pregnancy, we are your best first step for getting the services and information you need before making any decision about your pregnancy. To schedule an appointment for pregnancy testing or to talk with someone at Abria, click HERE.

Menstrual Period – Missed or Late

Is this your child’s symptom?

  • Late or missed menstrual period
  • Late period: 5 or more days late compared to normal menstrual cycle
  • Missed period: no menstrual flow for more than 6 weeks
  • Teen not using any birth control that stops periods. These products include birth control shots, implants, and IUDs with hormones.
If NOT, try one of these:

Normal Cause of a Missed Period during the First Year

  • Skipping periods is common during the first 1 to 2 years after they start. This is due to not releasing an egg each month.
  • This is most likely the cause if less than 2 years since the first period
  • Has missed periods in the past or has had only 1 or 2 periods
  • Otherwise healthy
  • No signs of pregnancy such as breast tenderness, breast swelling or nausea

Common Cause of a Missed Period after the First Year

  • Pregnancy is the most common cause

Other Causes

  • Stress
  • Dieting, extreme exercise and weight loss
  • Polycystic ovarian disease
  • Endocrine disorders
  • Birth control products like birth control shots, implants, and some IUDs

Home Urine Pregnancy Tests

  • Home urine pregnancy tests do not cost very much. They are easy to use. Most drugstores sell these tests. No prescription is needed.
  • Urine pregnancy tests are very accurate. They can turn positive as early as the first week after a missed period.
  • It is best to do the pregnancy test first thing in the morning. Reason: hormone levels are higher in the morning urine.
  • Sometimes, a home test is negative even if you think you might be pregnant. In this case, repeat the test. Do the repeat test in 3-5 days. You can also go to a doctor’s office for testing.
  • A pregnancy testing fact sheet can be found at www.womenshealth.gov. Search “pregnancy tests.”

When to Call for Menstrual Period – Missed or Late

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Your teen looks or acts very sick
  • You think your teen needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • Home pregnancy test is positive
  • You want a pregnancy test done in the office
  • Sexual intercourse (had sex) within the last 3 months
  • Recent breast swelling, weight gain or nausea
  • Teen acts sick
  • Has missed 2 or more periods and prior periods were regular
  • Recent weight loss
  • Excessive exercise suspected as cause of no periods
  • First period started less than 1 year ago and has missed 4 or more periods
  • Age 15 or older and periods have not started
  • Cause is unknown (not recent onset of menstrual periods or recent stress)
  • You think your teen needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent
  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Pregnancy suspected or possible
  • First period started less than 1 year ago and has missed 3 periods or less
  • Recent stress (such as starting at a new school, break-up) causing late period

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Your teen looks or acts very sick
  • You think your teen needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • Home pregnancy test is positive
  • You want a pregnancy test done in the office
  • Sexual intercourse (had sex) within the last 3 months
  • Recent breast swelling, weight gain or nausea
  • Teen acts sick
  • Has missed 2 or more periods and prior periods were regular
  • Recent weight loss
  • Excessive exercise suspected as cause of no periods
  • First period started less than 1 year ago and has missed 4 or more periods
  • Age 15 or older and periods have not started
  • Cause is unknown (not recent onset of menstrual periods or recent stress)
  • You think your teen needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent
  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Pregnancy suspected or possible
  • First period started less than 1 year ago and has missed 3 periods or less
  • Recent stress (such as starting at a new school, break-up) causing late period

Care Advice

Pregnancy Suspected or Possible

  1. What You Should Know About Late Periods if Having Sex:
    • Menstrual periods stop when a woman becomes pregnant.
    • A woman with a missed or late period should think about pregnancy.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. Pregnancy Test, When in Doubt:
    • If there is a chance that you might be pregnant, use a urine pregnancy test.
    • You can buy a pregnancy test at any drugstore.
    • It works best first thing in the morning.
    • Follow all package instructions.
  3. Call Your Doctor If:
    • You have trouble with the home pregnancy test
    • Pregnancy test is positive
    • Misses 2 periods and pregnancy test is negative
    • Your teen develops any serious symptoms

First Period Started Less than 1 Year Ago

  1. What You Should Know About First Periods in Young Teens:
    • Skipping periods is common during the first 1 or 2 years after they start.
    • It doesn’t mean anything serious or cause any harm.
    • A girl can normally go up to 6 months between the first and second periods.
    • Also, a girl can go up to 4 months between the second and third periods.
    • Normal irregular periods can go on for 2 years.
  2. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Misses 4 periods
    • New symptoms suggest pregnancy (such as morning sickness)
    • You have other questions

Recent Stress Causing Late Period

  1. What You Should Know about Stress and Late Menstrual Periods:
    • Stress can disrupt normal menstrual cycles.
    • Try to help your daughter deal with the stress by talking about it.
    • Also, try to avoid or decrease stressors.
    • If this does not help, seek help from a counselor.
  2. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Misses 2 periods
    • Your daughter needs help coping with stress
    • New symptoms suggest pregnancy (such as morning sickness)
    • You have other questions

And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Copyright 2000-2021. Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.

Pregnancy Symptoms and Early Signs of Pregnancy

Pregnancy symptoms

If you start to feel some of the early pregnancy symptoms below (not all women get them) and you’re wondering why you haven’t gotten your period, you may very well be pregnant.

Missed period

If you’re usually pretty regular and now have missed your period, you may decide to do a pregnancy test before you notice any other symptoms. But if you’re not regular or you’re not keeping track of your cycle, nausea and breast tenderness and extra trips to the bathroom may signal pregnancy before you realize you didn’t get your period.


If you’re newly pregnant, constipation may be the first symptom you notice.  It’s caused by an increase in the hormone progesterone, which relaxes smooth muscles throughout the body, including the digestive tract. This means that food passes through the intestines more slowly.

Mood swings

It’s common to have mood swings during pregnancy, partly because of hormonal changes that affect neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain). Everyone responds differently to these changes. Some moms-to-be experience heightened emotions, both good and bad, while others feel more depressed or anxious.

Note: If you’ve been feeling sad or hopeless or unable to cope with your daily responsibilities, or you’re having thoughts of harming yourself, call your healthcare provider or a mental health professional right away.

Abdominal bloating

Hormonal changes in early pregnancy may leave you feeling bloated, similar to the feeling some women have just before their period. That’s why your clothes may feel more snug than usual at the waistline, even early on when your uterus is still quite small.

Frequent urination

Shortly after you become pregnant, hormonal changes prompt a chain of events that raise the rate of blood flow through your kidneys. This causes your bladder to fill more quickly, so you need to pee more often.

Frequent urination will continue – or intensify – as your pregnancy progresses. Your blood volume rises dramatically during pregnancy, which leads to extra fluid being processed and ending up in your bladder. The problem is compounded as your growing baby exerts more pressure on your bladder.


Feeling tired all of a sudden? No, make that exhausted. No one knows for sure what causes early pregnancy fatigue, but it’s possible that rapidly increasing levels of the hormone progesterone are contributing to your sleepiness. Of course, morning sickness and having to urinate frequently during the night can add to your sluggishness, too.

You should start to feel more energetic once you hit your second trimester, although fatigue usually returns late in pregnancy when you’re carrying a lot more weight and some of the common discomforts of pregnancy make it more difficult to get a good night’s sleep.

Sore breasts

One common pregnancy symptom is sensitive, swollen breasts caused by rising levels of hormones. The soreness and swelling may feel like an exaggerated version of how your breasts feel before your period. Your discomfort should diminish significantly after the first trimester, as your body adjusts to the hormonal changes.

Implantation bleeding or spotting

It seems counterintuitive: If you’re trying to get pregnant, the last thing you want to see is any spotting or vaginal bleeding. But if you notice just light spotting around the time your period is due, it could be implantation bleeding. No one knows for sure why it happens, but it might be caused by the fertilized egg settling into the lining of your uterus.

Note: About 1 in 4 women experience spotting or light bleeding during the first trimester. It’s often nothing, but sometimes it’s a sign of miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy. If your bleeding is severe or accompanied by pain or lightheadedness, or if you’re at all concerned, call your doctor or midwife.


For some women, morning sickness doesn’t hit until about a month or two after conception, though for others it may start as early as two weeks. And not just in the morning, either: Pregnancy-related nausea (with or without vomiting) can be a problem morning, noon, or night.

Most pregnant women with nausea feel complete relief by the beginning of the second trimester. For most others it takes another month or so for the queasiness to ease up. A lucky few escape it altogether.

High basal body temperature

If you’ve been charting your basal body temperature and you see that your temperature has stayed elevated for more than two weeks, you’re probably pregnant.

Positive pregnancy test

In spite of what you might read on the box, many home pregnancy tests are not sensitive enough to reliably detect pregnancy until about a week after a missed period. So if you decide to take a test earlier than that and get a negative result, try again in a few days. Remember that a baby starts to develop before you can tell you’re pregnant, so take care of your health while you’re waiting to find out, and watch for more early pregnancy symptoms.

When do pregnancy symptoms start?

It’s impossible to predict when pregnancy symptoms will start, because it’s different for every person (and even every pregnancy!) Some women feel the first twinges of pregnancy a week or two after conceiving, while others don’t feel any different for a few months.

In the best study on this question to date, 136 women who were trying to get pregnant kept daily records of their symptoms from the time they stopped using birth control until they were 8 weeks pregnant. (That’s counting eight weeks from the first day of their last menstrual period.) The results:

  • 50 percent had some symptoms of pregnancy by the time they were 5 weeks pregnant.
  • 70 percent had symptoms by 6 weeks.
  • 90 percent had symptoms by 8 weeks.

The first sign of pregnancy is usually a missed period. The most common symptoms to follow are nausea, vomiting, fatigue, frequent urination, and breast tenderness and swelling. These symptoms can be mild or severe.

Early signs of pregnancy

Though early signs of pregnancy are hard to generalize, many expecting moms have a similar progression of pregnancy symptoms as the weeks go by. Here’s what’s likely to happen in the early weeks of pregnancy:

What you’re feeling at 2 weeks

Your last period started about two weeks ago. Based on the way doctors and midwives count the weeks of pregnancy, at the so-called 2-week mark you’re actually just ovulating and possibly about to conceive. What you experience now is likely related to your usual menstrual cycle.

Pregnancy symptoms at 3 weeks

If your egg was successfully fertilized, this week it undergoes a process called cell division as it makes its way through the fallopian tube down to the uterus. There, the fertilized egg implants in the lining of your uterus.

Most women don’t feel very different at 3 weeks, but some may notice a tiny bit of “implantation spotting” or feel early pregnancy symptoms such as fatigue, tender breasts, nausea, a heightened sense of smell, food aversions, and more frequent urination.

Pregnancy symptoms at 4 weeks

Normally you get your period about 4 weeks from the start of your last period, but if you’re pregnant, the clearest sign at this point is a missed period. Many women still feel fine at 4 weeks, but others may notice sore breasts, fatigue, frequent urination, and nausea. About one-third of women experience nausea at 4 weeks of pregnancy.

Pregnancy symptoms at 5 weeks

While your baby grows at a dizzying pace in your uterus, you may be growing more aware of pregnancy-related discomforts, including fatigue, achy or swollen breasts, nausea, and more frequent trips to the bathroom.

Pregnancy symptoms at 6 weeks

For most women, morning sickness begins between 6 and 8 weeks. You may also be exhausted and experiencing mood swings, which could be due to hormonal changes as well as the stress of wondering what lies ahead in your pregnancy.

About 25 percent of women have spotting in early pregnancy. This is usually nothing to worry about, but if you notice spotting or bleeding, call your provider to make sure everything is okay.

Pregnancy symptoms at 7 weeks

Morning sickness may be well under way at this point, and you also might notice your pants feel a bit tighter. Your uterus is now twice the size it was five weeks ago.

You probably need to visit the bathroom frequently, thanks to increased pressure on your bladder from your growing uterus and more blood being filtered through your kidneys.

Pregnancy symptoms at 8 weeks

Hormone changes continue to make you feel sluggish and tired, while nausea and vomiting also may be draining your energy. Your bra might start to feel a little snug as rising hormone levels prepare your breasts for lactation. You may also have trouble sleeping if you’re getting up to pee several times a night or if tender breasts prevent you from sleeping on your stomach.

Other signs of pregnancy that women reported by 8 weeks include:

Experts speculate that these symptoms, unpleasant as they are, may serve an important purpose if they protect women from ingesting something that could harm the embryo during the crucial early stages of development. They may also alert some women to their pregnant state, prompting them to make lifestyle changes and seek prenatal care.

However, because the earliest symptoms don’t begin until after the embryo is formed, assume you could be pregnant and take good care of yourself, even before you have symptoms or get a positive pregnancy test.

Once you’ve gotten a positive result, make an appointment with your practitioner. You can also head over to our pregnancy area and check out amazing pictures of how your baby develops during your pregnancy week by week. Also, don’t forget to update your profile and sign up for our My Baby This Week newsletter. Congratulations!

Missed or Irregular Periods | CS Mott Children’s Hospital

Have you missed any periods, or have your periods been irregular?

Irregular means different than what is normal for you (more or less often, longer or shorter, heavier or lighter).


Missed or irregular periods


Missed or irregular periods

How old are you?

Less than 15 years

Less than 15 years

15 to 25 years

15 to 25 years

26 to 55 years

26 to 55 years

56 years or older

56 years or older

Are you male or female?

Why do we ask this question?

  • If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as “male” and once as “female”). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.

Are you pregnant?

Yes, you know that you’re pregnant.


No, you’re not pregnant, or you’re not sure if you’re pregnant.


Do you feel lightheaded or dizzy, like you are going to faint?

It’s normal for some people to feel a little lightheaded when they first stand up. But anything more than that may be serious.

Do you have new pain in your lower belly, pelvis, or genital area that is different than your usual menstrual cramps?


Lower abdominal, pelvic, or genital pain


Lower abdominal, pelvic, or genital pain

How bad is the pain on a scale of 0 to 10, if 0 is no pain and 10 is the worst pain you can imagine?

8 to 10: Severe pain

Severe pain

5 to 7: Moderate pain

Moderate pain

1 to 4: Mild pain

Mild pain

Have you started having periods?


Has started menstrual periods


Has started menstrual periods

Do you think that a medicine could be affecting your periods?

Think about whether the problems started when you began taking a new medicine or a higher dose of a medicine.


Medicine may be causing symptoms


Medicine may be causing symptoms

Is there any chance that you could be pregnant?


Possibility of pregnancy


Possibility of pregnancy

Has a home pregnancy test shown that you are pregnant?

This means the result is positive.


Positive home pregnancy test


Positive home pregnancy test

Have you been planning to get pregnant?


Preparing for pregnancy


Preparing for pregnancy

Do you use a form of birth control that contains hormones?

This could be birth control pills, implants, vaginal rings, skin patches, injections, or an IUD that contains hormones.


Hormonal birth control method


Hormonal birth control method

Have your periods been different than what your doctor told you to expect with your birth control?

This could mean that they are lighter or heavier or that you have missed periods when you weren’t expecting to.


Periods are different than expected with birth control


Periods are different than expected with birth control

Have you missed two periods for no clear reason, such as pregnancy?

If a recent home pregnancy test has said that you are not pregnant, then there is no clear reason for your missed periods.


Two missed periods without obvious cause


Two missed periods without obvious cause

Have your problems lasted more than 2 cycles?


Problems have lasted more than 2 cycles


Problems have lasted more than 2 cycles

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

Pain in adults and older children

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that you can’t stand it for more than a few hours, can’t sleep, and can’t do anything else except focus on the pain.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt your normal activities and your sleep, but you can tolerate it for hours or days. Moderate can also mean pain that comes and goes even if it’s severe when it’s there.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): You notice the pain, but it is not bad enough to disrupt your sleep or activities.

Shock is a life-threatening condition that may quickly occur after a sudden illness or injury.

Adults and older children often have several symptoms of shock. These include:

  • Passing out (losing consciousness).
  • Feeling very dizzy or lightheaded, like you may pass out.
  • Feeling very weak or having trouble standing.
  • Not feeling alert or able to think clearly. You may be confused, restless, fearful, or unable to respond to questions.

Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can affect the menstrual cycle. A few examples are:

  • Aspirin and other medicines (called blood thinners) that prevent blood clots.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (for example, Advil or Motrin) and naproxen (for example, Aleve).
  • Hormonal forms of birth control, such as birth control pills, Depo-Provera injections, Implanon or Nexplanon implants, and the levonorgestrel IUD (Mirena).
  • Hormone therapy.
  • Medicines used to treat cancer (chemotherapy).
  • Thyroid medicines.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Pregnancy-Related Problems

90,000 Menstrual irregularities – causes and treatment of menstruation failure

Delayed menstruation is one of the most common reasons for girls and women to visit a gynecologist. For many, this visit ends with the news of pregnancy. However, menstrual irregularities can also indicate serious health problems for women.

In a healthy woman, the cycle lasts from 21 to 35 days, while a delay in menstruation is not a cause for concern if it is no more than 7 days.Each girl is characterized by individual characteristics: duration, abundance of menstruation, etc. If you notice that menstruation has become irregular, their duration and nature have changed, this is a reason to contact a gynecologist.

Reasons for delayed menstruation

The most common causes of cycle failure can be divided into three groups:

  • physiological – associated with climate change, chronic stress, adherence to various strict diets;
  • pathological – these include various inflammatory and infectious diseases of the genital organs, hormonal problems, other diseases that negatively affect the functioning of the reproductive system;
  • medications – associated with the intake of various drugs, in particular, hormonal drugs, glucocorticosteroids, anticoagulants and others.

Problems with periods are not always associated with illness. So, a violation of the menstrual cycle after 40 years may indicate the onset of menopause. During this period, the frequency of anovulatory cycles increases – those during which ovulation did not occur. It is caused by natural depletion of ovarian follicular reserves. But menstruation problems at this age can also mean serious reproductive health problems. Talk to your doctor to understand why you are experiencing delays or abnormal periods.

A delay in menstruation in a teenager is also a common occurrence. First of all, it should be understood that the first 1-2 years after the onset of menstruation, hormonal changes in the whole body occur, and menstruation does not always occur regularly, or even disappear altogether for several months. In addition, problems with menstruation in some cases are caused by congenital abnormalities. Modern adolescents can also start having sex at a fairly early age. Then an unplanned pregnancy can become the cause of delays.Other reasons leading to the failure of the regular cycle are not excluded. Be sure to take your teenager to a pediatric gynecologist for an accurate diagnosis.

Having established the cause of the problem, the specialist will prescribe a treatment protocol for you. Remember: it is the disease that must be treated that causes the failure of menstruation, because in itself it is only a consequence, and not an independent disease.

Only a specialist can determine exactly what caused the cycle failure. To do this, he will need to conduct not only a visual examination, but also to study the results of additional studies, including analyzes.

Classification and symptoms of menstrual irregularities

Violation of the cycle in women is divided into:

  • dysmenorrhea – when menstruation is accompanied by pulling pains in the lower abdomen, often quite strong;
  • hypermenorrhea – this is the name for abundant menstruation, which are repeated at regular intervals and last for approximately the same number of days;
  • Menorrhagia is prolonged (more than 7 days) and heavy menstruation, which is accompanied by pain;
  • polymenorrhea – the cycle lasts shorter, less than 21 days, menstruation is long;
  • oligomenorrhea – menstruation lasts 1-2 days;
  • opsomenorrhea – rare menstruation, once every few months;
  • hypomenorrhea – scanty periods, a small amount of bloody discharge.

Among the most common symptoms that occur against the background of irregular menstruation:

  • pulling pain in the lower abdomen and / or lower back;
  • Constant irritability and fatigue;
  • weight gain or loss for no apparent reason;
  • severe headaches, up to migraines.

Often women are worried about the delay in menstruation in the spring, which is why many even single them out as a separate category of violations. However, doctors are sure that delays are caused by a combination of factors, including reduced immunity and a lack of vitamins, which is typical for early spring, when there is still not enough fresh vegetables and fruits in the diet.To protect yourself from serious consequences, having discovered a failure of the menstrual cycle in the spring, it is best to undergo a full examination by a gynecologist.

Diagnostics and treatment

If you notice a disrupted menstrual cycle for a long period of time, be sure to sign up for a consultation with a gynecologist. The specialist will conduct a full examination to identify the cause of the failure, which, in addition to the initial examination, may also include:

  • analysis of urogenital smears for flora;
  • blood test for genital infections;
  • biochemical blood test;
  • blood test to determine the level of hormones;
  • colposcopy;
  • hysteroscopy;
  • Ultrasound of the pelvic organs and mammary glands.

You may also need to consult an endocrinologist. Based on the data obtained, the doctor will be able to establish the true cause of the pathology and prescribe competent treatment.

Treatment methods

Diseases that cause disruption of the cycle in women are treated in the following ways:

  1. Medication. They are used to treat sexually transmitted infections, as well as inflammatory foci.
  2. Hormone therapy. It is used to correct hormonal imbalances.
  3. Surgery. The decision to carry out the operation is applied in case of the presence of neoplasms.
  4. Vitamin complexes, physiotherapy exercises, diet correction in case of general weakening of the body.

You can find many tips on the Internet for treating irregular menstruation with folk remedies. Remember, self-medication can have serious consequences. You will not be able to independently establish the cause of the appearance of such a pathology, and, as a result, prescribe the correct treatment for yourself.This can only be done by a gynecologist. In our medical center Daily Medical, patients are received by a pediatric and adult gynecologist with extensive experience Slobodyan Natalya Sergeevna.

Prevention of cycle failure

In order to prevent the development of dangerous gynecological diseases that lead to problems with menstruation, it is important to monitor your health. For prevention, doctors recommend:

  • give up bad habits;
  • to go in for sports without overvoltage;
  • eat healthy and varied foods;
  • avoid stress;
  • to prevent hypothermia;
  • use barrier contraception;
  • avoid casual sexual intercourse;
  • get enough sleep.

Keep a menstrual calendar so you can see any changes. Today, this can be done in a smartphone using special applications, where you can also record the intensity of menstruation by day and note accompanying symptoms.

Do not forget to visit your gynecologist once a year for preventive purposes. Pathologies detected in time can be successfully treated without the risk of complications. In our clinic, you will receive professional advice from an experienced specialist at a convenient time for you.

Be healthy!

signs and reasons why pain appears and what is the rate of delay in menstruation?

Women’s health is a very fragile thing. A modern lifestyle with emotional and physical overload, an insufficiently balanced diet and a polluted urban environment can cause hormonal imbalance in a woman’s body, which results in irregularities in the menstrual cycle. The intake of special vitamin complexes, which we will discuss in this article, helps to maintain health, and therefore reduce the risk of cycle disruptions.

Norm of the menstrual cycle

In a healthy woman, the normal menstrual cycle lasts on average from 21 to 35 days, while its duration is individual. For most, the time intervals between menstruation are the same, but sometimes there is a “floating” cycle, with an increase in the intervals by 1-3 days. Violations are sometimes observed before a woman enters the menopause phase and in young girls whose menstruation has recently begun. Such delays are normal and should not be a cause for alarm.

By about the age of 15, the cycle becomes regular, and menstruation occurs monthly. In the female body, special hormones are responsible for it, the concentration of which changes cyclically. The entire menstrual cycle is therefore clearly divided into two phases.

First phase – follicular . It is usually taken as the beginning of the first day of menstruation. At this time, the hypothalamus – a special part of the brain responsible for the regulation of most human functions – begins to secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).It, in turn, stimulates the production of other gonadotropic hormones – luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Under the influence of FSH, several follicles simultaneously ripen in one of the ovaries, one of them becomes dominant (dominant) and begins to intensively synthesize the most active hormone of the female genital area – estradiol. The follicle growth process takes approximately two weeks. At the end of the growth phase, LH is released. As a result, the development of the follicle is completed and the production of special physiologically active substances – prostaglandins, necessary for ovulation, is stimulated.At the same time, the level of estradiol falls. The wall of the follicle ruptures, releasing an egg, which is captured and guided into the uterus by the fallopian tubes.


According to one of the versions, dysmenorrhea – severe pain in the lower abdomen on the days of menstruation – is caused by a high concentration of prostaglandins, which exacerbate the sensitivity of pain receptors.

The second phase of the cycle – luteal , lasting 13-14 days, occurs after ovulation.At this time, a corpus luteum is formed at the site of a ripe and ruptured follicle. This is a formation responsible for the synthesis of several hormones, but mainly of the male sex hormone – progesterone. Thanks to him, the endometrium is formed – the mucous membrane lining the inside of the uterus, which serves to attach the embryo in case of fertilization. If pregnancy has not occurred, then the production of progesterone falls, and the endometrium is rejected. Menstruation begins.

In both phases, the female body needs folic acid, vitamins C, E, magnesium, zinc, and B vitamins.Studies have shown that the development of some functional menstrual disorders is directly related to vitamin deficiencies in the luteal phase of the cycle. For example, a direct link has been established between a lack of vitamin C and a decrease in the level of estradiol in the body.

Prophylactic intake of vitamins by phases of the cycle is quite capable of having a positive effect on its regularity and reducing the likelihood of serious pathologies, such as amenorrhea – a woman’s absence of menstruation for more than three months.


Amenorrhea, among all other pathologies of the menstrual cycle, occurs in about 11-15% of cases [1].

Why can there be a delay in menstruation?

The menstrual cycle is disturbed for various reasons. If menstruation is absent for about a month, then this may be a variant of the norm for the body, especially if the trigger is not a very healthy lifestyle. The fact is that the female body is very wise: when unfavorable conditions occur, it tries to prevent pregnancy.

  1. According to experts, one of the most important factors in the occurrence of delayed menstruation is a decrease in the quality of life. It can be due to psycho-emotional state : family problems, constant emotional stress and overload at work have a negative impact.
  2. Often, the reason for delayed menstruation lies in unbalanced nutrition . Many women actively follow various diets in order to remove extra pounds, and as a result, an insufficient amount of nutrients and vitamins enters the body.However, being overweight also often causes problems with the regularity of the cycle.
  3. Reinforced physical activity , for example, overly active sports, is another possible cause of a violation of the cycle. It is known that in professional athletes, a delay in menstruation occurs very often. Hard physical labor leads to the same consequences.
  4. Intoxication in hazardous work or permanent residence in an ecologically unfavorable region can also negatively affect the regularity of the cycle.Often, problems with the cycle occur in those who abuse tobacco and alcohol.
  5. Taking certain drugs . First of all, a delay in menstruation can be caused by taking oral contraceptives, especially low-dose ones. Also, the cycle is influenced by prolonged-acting gestagens used to treat endometriosis, prednisolone and other glucocorticoids, and chemotherapeutic agents.
  6. Hereditary predisposition .
  7. Puberty . As already mentioned, during this period, the girl’s reproductive system is not yet fully formed, therefore, irregularities in the menstrual cycle are not a pathology. To treat cycle problems in girls under 18, doctors try to avoid hormone therapy, and rely on cyclic vitamin therapy, which is safe and effective for a young body.
  8. Climacteric disorders are also considered normal.In women, during the onset of menopause, the intervals between periods increase, the cycle becomes irregular.

In all these cases, it can be very effective to take vitamins and minerals in phases of the cycle, helping to restore and maintain the balance of hormones to normalize the cycle.

However, a delay in menstruation may indicate serious pathologies in the female body. In this case, it is possible to eliminate the violation of the cycle only by treating the underlying disease, and this must be done under the supervision of a doctor.

Signs and diagnosis of amenorrhea

If a woman who has had her monthly period regularly has a prolonged menstrual irregularity, then a possible cause of this may be secondary amenorrhea . In the event that the menstrual cycle has not formed in a girl under 16 years old, primary amenorrhea is diagnosed .

Amenorrhea is not an independent disease, most often it occurs under the influence of certain causes or pathological disorders in the body.The development of secondary amenorrhea can be associated with a variety of factors: anatomical, genetic, neuropsychic, hormonal and biological. Taking into account the level of damage to the body and the etiology of the disease, experts distinguish amenorrhea of ​​the adrenal, psychogenic, hypothalamic, hypothalamic-pituitary, uterine and ovarian genesis.


There is false amenorrhea, in which, against the background of a regular menstrual cycle and hormonal changes, there is a lack of blood discharge from the genitals.The reason for this may be congenital malformations of the uterus or the impossibility of menstrual bleeding due to the anatomical features of the body, which can only be corrected by surgical methods.

Regardless of the cause that caused secondary amenorrhea , all of its types are united by a common symptom – the cessation of menstruation and the onset of infertility. Other symptoms are directly related to the form of amenorrhea. For example, with psychogenic amenorrhea , depressive or hypochondriacal syndromes, increased anxiety, sleep disturbances, dry skin, decreased libido and even constipation are observed.

Amenorrhea against the background of weight loss is always accompanied by a lack of weight, while hypoplasia of the genitals and mammary glands is diagnosed on a medical examination. Other symptoms include hypotension, hypoglycemia, bradycardia. The woman’s appetite is reduced, and a persistent aversion to food develops.

Amenorrhea in hypothalamic syndrome is accompanied by obesity, hirsutism, vegetative vascular dystonia, and acne.

Only a doctor can diagnose secondary amenorrhea.This is done on the basis of history and clinical presentation. The main task for a specialist is to determine the form of amenorrhea and the reasons that caused it. At the reception, the doctor finds out the time of the onset of menstruation, their nature in the past, past illnesses, injuries and operations, obstetric history, nutrition, the presence of stress and increased physical exertion.

An examination on a gynecological chair is mandatory, colposcopy, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, colpocytology, measurement of basal body temperature are prescribed.To identify intrauterine pathology, hysteroscopy and hysterosalpingography are performed. In addition, pharmacological tests are performed: with progesterone, estrogens and gestagens, gonadotropins. To identify hormonal disorders, laboratory tests are carried out for progesterone, estrogens and gestagens, gonadotropins, insulin, TSH and other hormones. Often, the examination plan includes CT or MRI of the pituitary gland and an ophthalmologist’s consultation with an examination of the fundus.

How to set up a cycle?

Treatment for menstrual disorders depends on the type of disorder.When is a non-permanent violation of the cycle, caused by exposure to unfavorable factors on the body, with the elimination of these reasons, as a rule, the cycle is restored. Often, menstrual function can be normalized without the use of drugs, but strictly observing some requirements. In this case, the following are important:

  • good nutrition;
  • rational weight loss;
  • prevention of the development of stressful situations;
  • treatment of existing diseases;
  • quitting alcohol and smoking and removing toxic compounds from the body.

As for secondary amenorrhea , then its treatment must necessarily be comprehensive and include the detection and elimination of the causes that caused the cycle disorder. Treatment tactics are determined by the type of amenorrhea, its severity, age and general health of the patient. Hormone therapy is often used, but it should be borne in mind that in some cases there are restrictions on the intake of hormones.

Therefore, the first stage of treatment can be cyclic vitamin therapy – taking vitamins in accordance with the body’s needs in different phases of the cycle.The traditional regimen includes the intake of folic acid, vitamins of group B and vitamins C, E. effect on menstrual function.

Due to the variety of causes of menstrual problems, a diagnosis requires a thorough diagnosis and a comprehensive approach to solving the problem.Even if it seems to you that there is no reason for concern and “everything will pass by itself,” it is better to consult a specialist. Only a doctor can choose the correct treatment tactics after a comprehensive examination and an accurate diagnosis. Self-medication is also unacceptable, since unskilled intervention can cause serious complications – up to infertility .

how to understand if a miracle is near

Pregnancy: first symptoms

The very first signs of pregnancy are associated with changes in hormonal levels and often perform a protective function.

Delayed menstruation and breast tenderness

Despite the fact that a pregnancy test can give an accurate answer, a delay or absence of menstruation is the very first and sure sign of pregnancy. When do the first signs of pregnancy appear? Some symptoms appear immediately after fertilization of the egg due to hormonal changes in the woman’s body. So, after implantation of the embryo, the mammary glands begin to increase in size, preparing for the upcoming lactation, as a result of which there is sometimes a painful sensation of tension in the breast.In addition, the blood flow to the mammary glands increases, they harden, the nipples enlarge, the areoles darken.

Hypersensitivity to odors – a reason to think about

After conception, many women experience increased sensitivity to odors. This symptom (it is called hyperosmia of pregnant women) is associated with an increase in the concentration of estrogen in the body and serves as a protective mechanism for the mother and child. An unpleasant smell can alert you to an unfavorable environment, unhealthy food, or hazardous practices that could harm your baby.The increased sensitivity to odors is often accompanied by a bitterness and metallic taste in the mouth, which also has a protective function due to the increased production of estrogen and progesterone.

Nausea and fatigue are two early signs of pregnancy

Toxicosis and nausea in the morning are two characteristic signs of pregnancy that are caused by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced by the embryo from the beginning of the second week of development. Some women are more sensitive to this hormone than others, so not everyone experiences the classic pregnancy symptoms.In the first weeks, a woman may also feel tired and dizzy due to low blood pressure.

Bloating and distention: belly begins to grow

Due to the increased production of progesterone during pregnancy, a woman may experience constipation and bloating. As the uterus enlarges, pulling pains in the lower abdomen may occur. The expectant mother may also experience pain in the groin caused by the relaxation of the ligaments as a result of hormonal changes.This sign indicates that the woman’s body is beginning to adapt to the growing belly.

90,000 Signs of pregnancy before the delay of menstruation and in the early stages

Signs of pregnancy: Pixabay

Women who really want a baby often feel the onset of conception even before the regular bleeding stops. What symptoms help determine that you are in an interesting position? Do you want to know what are the main signs of pregnancy before the delay? Read the article.

Pregnancy: early signs

How to reliably understand that you are pregnant? There are several main first signs of pregnancy, upon discovering which a woman begins to suspect that something is wrong.

According to the journal WebMD, the first symptoms of pregnancy are very individual: some expectant mothers feel them even before the position is confirmed, while others do not observe them at all until the birth. This is completely normal. However, if you are not sure that any symptom that appears is physiologically related and healthy, do not hesitate to contact a medical institution for professional advice.

Read also

When toxicosis begins after conception

Based on practical experience, I will tell you what signs of pregnancy usually occur at an early stage:

  • Delay of regular bleeding.

The first and most reliable sign of pregnancy is, of course, the absence of menstruation. The fetus attaches to the wall of the uterus and begins to develop, respectively, new eggs are temporarily not produced.

A delay in menstruation does not necessarily indicate pregnancy.In practice, I have come across many reasons that cause the cycle to fail, for example, stress, travel to another country, some illnesses (even a banal flu), and others.

  • Nausea and vomiting.

In many films and books, heroines learn about pregnancy after they start to feel sick. Indeed, many women face early toxicosis, my colleagues at WebMD say. These are unpleasant, but absolutely normal symptoms of pregnancy. Therefore, if you often feel sick in the morning or during the day, asymptomatic vomiting occurs, consider buying a test.

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Fetal movements during pregnancy: when it begins, sensations

  • Frequent urination.

Pregnant women use the toilet much more often than usual. The reason is that the enlarged uterus presses on the bladder, causing frequent urination.

Therefore, the problem can occur even in the early days of pregnancy. However, first of all, make sure that it is not cystitis or other diseases of the genitourinary system.

Waiting for a baby: Pixabay

  • Spotting spotting.

Many women find a scanty bloody discharge in the first weeks after conception and mistake it for menstruation. However, this is not at all menstruation, but a sign of fetal implantation into the wall of the uterus.

Therefore, if you notice this symptom, immediately consult a doctor, as it can signal the onset of miscarriage.

During pregnancy, the kidneys experience additional stress, which is difficult for them to cope with at first. Therefore, water retention occurs, and as a result, swelling.

Read also

Toxicosis during pregnancy: reasons how to alleviate

  • Change in taste preferences.

Have you noticed that the usual food is disgusting? Do you want something unusual? It is possible that conception has occurred and this is the first sign of pregnancy. The blame for all the naughty hormones.

  • Strong reaction to odors.

If you notice that you are annoyed by perfume, your husband’s cologne, the smell of freshly prepared food or coffee, think: are you pregnant? I recommend remembering when your last period was.

All these first signs of pregnancy may indicate not only an interesting situation, but other health problems. Therefore, do not rush to buy things for a newborn until you know everything for sure. Be sure to consult a doctor to undergo diagnostic measures.

First signs of pregnancy before menstruation is delayed

Do you suspect that you are pregnant, although there is still time before menstruation? Is it possible to understand that she is pregnant before the delay? What are the early signs of pregnancy? Listen to your body: most likely, it is already responding to a change in state.The first signs of pregnancy will tell you about it:

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When the first signs of pregnancy appear

  • Pain in the lower abdomen and in the lumbar region.

Before menstruation is delayed, many of my patients report pains very similar to those that occur before menstruation, but they go away, and bleeding does not occur. Sensations are associated with the implantation of the fetus into the wall of the uterus. They are usually short-lived and stop after a few days.

  • Breast sensitivity.

Many girls note that even before the delay in menstruation, they encountered painful sensations in the breasts and nipples. There is also a swelling of the veins and a darkening of the halo.

  • Increase in rectal temperature.

If you have ever used the method of determining ovulation or contraception by measuring the temperature by the rectal method, then you know that at certain periods it increases by several marks.If you notice that the degrees are constantly raised, this may mean that you are in position.

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26 week of pregnancy: fetal development, full description, photo, ultrasound

Signs of pregnancy: Pixabay

  • Bloating and constipation.

Girls who are unaware of their new status often complain of digestive problems out of nowhere. Pregnancy may well be the cause of these symptoms, and the hormone progesterone is the culprit.

Can’t get out of bed in the morning and constantly feel overwhelmed? Immediately after conception, the body begins to work with a vengeance, preparing for bearing a baby, notes WebMD. Hence the feeling of constant fatigue arises. You may also feel cramps in your legs and feet.

  • Increased appetite.

Pregnant women often complain that they are hungry on a regular basis. Since the body is overworked, it requires more food.

Therefore, if you are not nauseous, but constantly pulling something to chew, think about a possible pregnancy.And yes, most often you want junk food, since it is it that quickly saturates and provides the required amount of energy.

Read also

Yellow discharge during pregnancy: reasons, nature, what to do

  • Mood swings.

Have you noticed unreasonable tearfulness, aggressiveness or sudden changes in mood? It is quite possible that “pregnant hormones” are playing pranks. Emotional sensitivity develops very quickly once the hCG hormone comes into play.

  • Headache and runny nose.

Didn’t expect to see these pregnancy symptoms on your list of signs? And they are quite capable of testifying to conception. The reason for such changes is to increase the blood circulation of a pregnant girl, which presses on the vessels. And the hormone estrogen can lead to nasal congestion.

You have learned how to determine pregnancy without tests and ultrasound. Of course, these signs cannot be called one hundred percent indicators of the onset of conception, but it is still worth listening to the sensations.

It is best to immediately consult a doctor in order to avoid unpleasant consequences and find out everything exactly based on the detected signs of pregnancy.

Read also

How many days does pregnancy occur after conception

Attention! The material is for informational purposes only. You should not resort to the treatment described in it without first consulting your doctor.


  1. Carol DerSarkissian.Common Pregnancy Pains and Their Causes // WebMD. – 2019. – 8 July.
  2. Hansa D. Bhargava. Morning Sickness // WebMD. – 2019 .– April 25.
  3. Trina Pagano. Early Pregnancy Symptoms // WebMD. – 2018 .– October 29.

Author: Candidate of Medical Sciences Anna Ivanovna Tikhomirova

Reviewer: Candidate of Medical Sciences, Professor Ivan Georgievich Maksakov

Original article: https: // www.nur.kz/family/beauty/1769243-pervye-priznaki-beremennosti-do-zaderzki-mesacnyh-i-na-rannih-srokah/

How to protect yourself from winter “female” diseases


With the onset of cold weather, the human body is forced to rebuild to new weather conditions: low ambient temperature, high humidity, shorter daylight hours. For most people, especially women, this is a stressful situation, a triggering mechanism leading to an exacerbation of existing chronic diseases and the emergence of new acute diseases.

The female genitourinary system is most vulnerable to the winter cold. Violations of personal hygiene, uncomfortable tight underwear, wearing out of season clothes (even if very fashionable and very beautiful), unhealthy diet and some other unfavorable factors provoke the development of many different diseases.

What kind of dangers await the representatives of the beautiful half of humanity in the cold season? How to protect yourself from these unwanted “surprises” of winter? And, most importantly, how to maintain your women’s health in severe frosts? To do this, you need very little – just follow a few important advice from your doctor.

The most common winter “female” diseases

Inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system

Inflammatory diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems, in particular, cystitis, pyelonephritis, vulvovaginitis, endocervicitis and some others, are probably the most frequent companions of hypothermia. They sometimes occur as a complication of acute respiratory infections. In addition, inflammation can develop in women in the second trimester of pregnancy, when the head of the fetus compresses the pelvic organs, as a result of which their blood supply is disrupted and increases susceptibility to infections.

If you are concerned about frequent painful urge to urinate, “pulling”, “aching” in the lower back or abdomen, if there is a burning sensation, itching or discomfort in the genital area, unusual vaginal discharge and increased body temperature, consult a doctor immediately. It is possible that you have cystitis, vaginitis, or another inflammatory disease of the genitourinary system. To prevent the development of these pathologies, avoid wearing short clothes in winter, in particular, miniskirts, choose long outerwear, do not sit on cold seats, and, in general, try to avoid hypothermia.

Candidiasis (thrush)

Weakening of the defense mechanisms of the immune system, seasonal depression, taking antibiotics, unhealthy diet (abuse of bakery, confectionery, spicy and salty foods, alcoholic beverages, reduced consumption of lactic acid products) lead to the development of intestinal and genital dysbiosis.

This is a favorable breeding ground for fungi of the genus Candida – the causative agent of candidiasis. This disease is accompanied by itching, burning and other discomfort in the vagina.Cheesy discharge with a specific odor appears. The occurrence of these symptoms is the reason for an immediate appeal to a gynecologist and the appointment of special antifungal drugs.

Prevention of candidiasis consists in strengthening the immune system, a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals, avoiding harmful foods and alcohol. Proper hygiene of the genitals is very important. It necessarily includes two times washing with baby soap (morning and evening) from top to bottom, i.e.That is, from the perineum to the anus, do not resort to douching unnecessarily, use pads and tampons with caution. For everyday life, it is better to choose comfortable, not tight cotton underwear.

Menstrual irregularities

Often, many women try to relax in tropical countries in winter. However, such a seemingly harmless rest under the rays of the warm sun can greatly harm the female body.A sharp change in climate can negatively affect the reproductive system. In such a situation, the menstrual cycle is often disrupted: often there is both a delay in menstruation and premature menstrual bleeding. In addition, failures occur for even several months.

Lovely women, take care of yourself and consult a doctor in a timely manner. Only a specialist can correctly diagnose this or that disease of the genitourinary system and prescribe adequate treatment.Remember, it is much better to prevent the development of “female” diseases in winter, rather than then painfully and for a long time to treat them.

How long can there be a delay in menstruation

When menstruation is late, any woman asks the question – how many days can a delay in menstruation last? Of course, if the baby was not planned in advance in the family. At the same time, the delay does not always indicate the onset of pregnancy, there are other reasons that can affect the instability of menstruation.

A delay in the menstrual cycle is the absence of cyclic bleeding for more than 35 days. Normally, this happens when pregnancy occurs (this is confirmed by a positive test), during breastfeeding, as well as at a certain age, when the activity of the reproductive system gradually fades away (menopause). All other reasons cannot be considered normal and indicate the presence of any pathology.

What is considered a normal menstrual cycle?

The menstrual cycle is an integral part of a woman’s physiology, or rather her reproductive function.

The following cycle stages are distinguished:

  • Menstruation. During this process, uterine bleeding occurs, which lasts up to 5-6 days. It represents the exit of the surface layer of the epithelium, which occurs in the absence of fertilization of the egg.
  • Follicular phase. It starts at the same time as uterine bleeding and lasts for about 14 days. During this process, a follicle is formed in the ovary, and the maturation of the egg continues.
  • Ovulation. During ovulation, which lasts about three days, a follicle ruptures, from which a mature egg is released. She continues her movement further – into the fallopian tube. This period is most favorable for fertilization.
  • Luteal phase. It is characterized by the appearance of a corpus luteum at the site of a bursting follicle. Active production of progesterone and estrogen begins. This period lasts from 11 to 16 days, and if fertilization has not occurred, then the surface epithelium of the fundus of the uterus is rejected.

In other words, this is a cyclical process, which suggests that everything in a woman’s body functions normally. The luteal phase is again followed by the phase of menstruation with uterine bleeding, i.e. a new cycle begins.

The formation of the menstrual cycle occurs during puberty. The occurrence of delays in this period is considered acceptable. Menstruation appears in girls at the age of 10-15 years, then the formation of the cycle occurs (delays are possible), after which it stabilizes.

The stability of the cycle lasts until about 45-50 years, when a woman begins the climacteric period, i.e. when the reproductive system gradually decreases its activity. At this time, the onset of menstruation does not stop, but longer intervals between cycles occur. In this case, the duration of uterine bleeding decreases.

When is a delay considered acceptable?

The duration of the menstrual cycle is individual for each woman. On average, it lasts 21 to 35 days.A delay is considered normal if it is in the order of 3-5 days. If this lasts more than this period, then this may indicate the presence of any pathology.

The beginning of the next cycle will be the day the woman has a discharge. Moreover, if the duration of the cycle becomes the same as before, then we can assume that it has recovered. If the break is 7 days or more, then this is a reason for contacting a gynecologist.

Non-dangerous causes of delayed menstrual cycle

Lack of menstruation within 5 days of the expected onset of discharge is absolutely normal.Rather, a woman may have certain problems with the body, but they do not relate to the reproductive system.

There are several reasons for short delays:

  • fatigue caused by constant lack of sleep;
  • wrong diet, deficiency of important microelements in the body;
  • mental strain or hard physical labor;
  • weight problems;
  • strict regular weight loss diets;
  • postpartum period – the hormone prolactin is secreted in the woman’s body, which promotes the production of breast milk, while suppressing the activity of the ovaries;
  • change of climate or place of residence, which provoked stress;
  • the presence of chronic diseases;
  • recent infectious diseases;
  • abrupt withdrawal of contraceptives.

The peculiarities of the female body are such that in the event of an unfavorable environment, protective mechanisms are activated to prevent pregnancy. In other words, if a woman experiences constant stress, tension, works a lot, then a slight delay is likely.

In addition, pregnancy cannot be ruled out 100%, because the test performed could be false negative. This is due to the poor quality of the test itself, as well as due to the short pregnancy period (the sensitivity of the test simply does not allow determining pregnancy).

What is the pathological cause?

In most cases, the absence of menstruation for more than 35 days (with a negative pregnancy test) is a consequence of changes in the functional activity of the organs of the reproductive system.

The following pathologies can be the reasons for the absence of menstruation:

  • Oncological diseases of the genital organs.
  • Inflammatory processes in the genitals. Manifested by pain in the lower abdomen and discharge (not like menstrual blood).
  • Cyst of the corpus luteum. Pathology develops against the background of hormonal imbalance.
  • Changes in the functional activity of the thyroid gland. The problem is solved with the help of hormone replacement therapy.
  • Polycystic ovary disease. The reason for the appearance is an increase in testosterone in a woman’s body. Against this background, characteristic symptoms develop: increased irritability, increased body hair growth, weight gain.
  • Endometriosis. This pathology has an immunological origin.Requires a fairly long-term therapy.
  • Curettage of the uterus. In this case, not only hormonal changes occur, but also mechanical injuries that can occur during the procedure.

The condition after an abortion or spontaneous abortion (miscarriage, frozen fetus) also leads to delays.

What surveys are carried out?

If your period is delayed for more than 10 days, then you need to contact your gynecologist.This need is explained by the fact that the reason for this can be anything – from trivial stress to cancer.

In most cases it is assigned:

  • blood test for hormones;
  • histological examination of the mucous layer of the uterus;
  • smear for genitourinary infections;
  • ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs to exclude an ectopic pregnancy.

What to do if there is a delay?

The absence of menstruation for 7 days is a manifestation of the norm, which indicates the absence of gynecological problems.The longest absence of menstruation that does not require a visit to the gynecologist is the period after childbirth, when breastfeeding is carried out, as well as the period of menopause in adulthood.

In other cases, if menstruation is delayed for more than 7-10 days, then this indicates either pregnancy or the presence of some pathology. The first step is to do a home pregnancy test and consult a gynecologist. Only a doctor can determine why your critical days are gone, and what to do about it.

Any advice on how to induce menstruation ahead of time has nothing to do with the medical approach to the problem. Any such manipulation can harm you, so you should not experiment with your health.

90,000 What are the first signs that your period will start soon

While waiting for “these” days, you may feel anxiety or even fear, not fully understanding what to expect and how the very first periods begin. The correct and simple way to get rid of fear and dispel all doubts is to learn about menstruation: to get acquainted with what symptoms of menstruation exist.

More details about the first menstruation – in the article “ All about the first menstruation

When is the first period?

The first menstrual period (menarche) in girls usually occurs at the age of 12-14, but may occur earlier (at the age of 9 to 15 years) – this is normal. Your period always “comes” along with the changes in your appearance associated with growing up. These are signs such as: hair growth on the legs, armpit and pubis, breast growth, and sometimes pimples or acne on the face or back.All the first symptoms of menstruation are associated with a change in the production of special substances – hormones that are released when you grow up.

How do you know if your period is about to start? There are several signs.


Usually, shortly before the onset of the first menstruation, leucorrhoea appears – a light vaginal discharge that you can notice on your underwear. These secretions are normal, their appearance simply means that your body is growing up. 1 Menstruation is likely to begin a year or two after these first signs of menstruation appear.

Premenstrual syndrome

There are several more symptoms of menstruation, indicating that menstruation will occur literally in the coming days. However, they usually do not appear immediately, but after the menstrual cycle is established (about a year after the first menstruation). These are symptoms such as:

  1. aching, pulling pains in the lower back or lower abdomen,
  2. slight enlargement and tenderness in the chest,
  3. mood changes (tearfulness, aggression, or irritability).

These symptoms are commonly referred to as premenstrual syndrome (PMS) 2 . Don’t worry, all these unpleasant signs of your period are pretty easy to deal with. Perhaps our “ Tips for Better Period Wellness ” can help you.

What will help you feel fresh?

To keep you feeling refreshed before your period starts, try panty liners for girls (such as CAREFREE®).They can be used even if you do not know when the first menstruation will come and are afraid that they will come unexpectedly. Also, “dailies” can be used with scanty discharge during menstruation.