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A guide to oral gonorrhea: how it’s caused, symptoms, and more – Blog
Medically reviewed by Rosanna Sutherby, PharmD on February 3, 2020. Written by Laura Kleist. To give you technically accurate, evidence-based information, content published on the Everlywell blog is reviewed by credentialed professionals with expertise in medical and bioscience fields.
In this quick overview, we’ll highlight some key points to know about oral gonorrhea—so keep reading to learn what it is, symptoms it can cause, health risks it’s linked to, and more.
Oral gonorrhea: what it is
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium. In the United States, approximately 820,000 new gonorrhea cases are reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) each year.
Oral gonorrhea (also known as pharyngeal gonorrhea) is when the infection affects the tissues of the throat—instead of the genitals or rectum, for example.
Oral gonorrhea is most commonly transmitted through oral sex. Either giving oral sex to a person with infected genitals or receiving oral sex from a person with an infected oral cavity may transmit the bacteria (recent research has also suggested the possibility that kissing can transmit oral gonorrhea from one partner to another). Significantly, transmission can occur even if no symptoms are present in the person who first had the infection.
Oral gonorrhea symptoms
In most cases, oral gonorrhea produces no noticeable symptoms. Among people who do experience symptoms, however, the most prevalent sign is a persistent sore throat. Other possible symptoms include:
- Swollen, burning, or painful glands in your throat
- Difficulty swallowing
- Flu-like symptoms
- Visible irritation, redness, or lesions in the back of the throat
If you believe you’re suffering from symptoms of oral gonorrhea, talk with your healthcare provider so they can offer guidance on the next steps to take.
Disseminated gonorrhea: a health risk associated with untreated oral gonorrhea
If it isn’t treated promptly, oral gonorrhea may eventually spread to the bloodstream, where it can then infect other parts of the body. When gonorrhea spreads in this way, it’s referred to as a disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) or disseminated gonorrhea. Skin sores, rashes, joint pain, joint swelling, fever, chills, and generally feeling unwell are among the common symptoms of this type of infection.
But disseminated gonorrhea does more than just trigger symptoms: left unchecked, it can cause serious harm to some of the body’s key systems. Gonococcal arthritis may develop, for instance—involving severe inflammation of one or more joints in the body—if gonorrhea bacteria infect that joint(s).
Gonococcal endocarditis is another possible (though quite rare) complication of disseminated gonorrhea. This condition develops when gonorrhea infects the endocardium, an important part of the heart. The infection can lead to significant damage to other parts of the heart, as well, like heart valves. Tachycardia and—more severely—heart failure may develop due to this damage.
Fortunately, disseminated gonorrhea isn’t all that common: studies suggest that it occurs in just 0.5% to 3% of gonorrhea cases. But due to its severe nature, immediate medical treatment is recommended if someone does have disseminated gonorrhea.
Though oral gonorrhea affects the mouth and throat in someone who has it, the infection can spread to other areas of a partner’s body (like their genitals) through sexual contact. If that happens, one’s partner may be at risk of several health conditions, such as the following.
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease is a painful condition characterized by inflammation of the organs of the female reproductive system. In most cases, PID stems from an active infection of the female reproductive organs. Lower abdominal pain, pelvic pain, heavy vaginal discharge, foul-smelling discharge, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pain during intercourse, and difficult or painful urination are common symptoms of the condition.
Female and male infertility
Urogenital gonorrhea infections can cause infertility in both women and men. In women, the infection can spread to the uterus and fallopian tubes, where it often causes pelvic inflammatory disease. Because PID is strongly associated with fallopian tube scarring, the condition can greatly increase your risk of infertility, as well as complications during pregnancy..
In men, the infection can cause inflammation of the epididymis (the tube that connects the testicles to the sperm duct). If left untreated, epididymal inflammation affects the sperm’s ability to mature, which can lead to infertility.
Seeking medical treatment for oral gonorrhea
If you believe you may have contracted oral gonorrhea, early detection of a potential infection is key to keeping your health safe. Your healthcare provider may recommend an oral gonorrhea test, which involves a quick swab of your mouth or throat. They may also suggest testing for gonorrhea in other sites of the body—like the genitals and rectum. Additionally, because gonorrhea and chlamydia often infect someone at the same time, your healthcare provider may recommend a chlamydia test.
In most cases, antibiotics—often taken orally—can effectively treat a gonorrhea infection.
You can conveniently test for urogenital gonorrhea and chlamydia (the most common kind of infection they cause) with the Everlywell at-home Chlamydia & Gonorrhea Test. Note that this test cannot detect oral gonorrhea.
Preventing oral gonorrhea
There are a few steps you can take that may help reduce the risk of getting or transmitting oral gonorrhea, including:
- Practice safe oral sex by consistently using condoms or dental dams
- Regularly test for STDs, and encourage your partner to do the same (the at-home STD Test for men and women makes routine testing easy)
Common questions about oral gonorrhea
What does oral gonorrhea look like?
Though visible symptoms are uncommon, when gonorrhea infects the throat, it can produce symptoms that bear a striking resemblance to those of strep throat. If you notice unusual redness, white spotting, or pale-colored discharge in your throat, this may be an indication of oral gonorrhea—and it’s a good idea to see your healthcare provider for an evaluation.
Can you get gonorrhea from oral sex?
Yes, you can contract gonorrhea through oral sex. Transmission of the bacteria can occur either by giving oral sex to a partner with infected genitals or receiving oral sex from someone with an oral infection.
1. Gonococcal Infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. URL. Accessed February 3, 2020.
2. Chow EP, Fairley CK. The role of saliva in gonorrhoea and chlamydia transmission to extragenital sites among men who have sex with men: new insights into transmission. J Int AIDS Soc. 2019;22 Suppl 6(Suppl Suppl 6):e25354. doi:10.1002/jia2.25354
3. de Campos FP, Kawabata VS, Bittencourt MS, Lovisolo SM, Felipe-Silva A, de Lemos AP. Gonococcal endocarditis: an ever-present threat. Autops Case Rep. 2016;6(2):19-25. doi:10.4322/acr.2016.037Title.
4. Health Alert Template for Disseminated Gonococcal Infection (DGI). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. URL. Accessed February 3, 2020.
5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Mayo Clinic. URL. Accessed February 3, 2020.
6. Gonorrhea. Mayo Clinic. URL. Accessed February 3, 2020.
7. Gonorrhea – diagnosis & treatment. Mayo Clinic. URL. Accessed February 3, 2020.
Gonorrhea in Throat, Mouth, or Eyes
Gonorrhea in Throat, Mouth, or Eyes
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that affects both women and men.
It is a bacterial infection caused by neisseria gonorrhoeae that is transmitted by having oral, anal, or vaginal sex with a person who already has gonorrhea.
What is gonorrhea?
The infection is spread through semen and vaginal fluids, and it infects the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, urethra, or anus. It can also infect the eyes, mouth, and throat, sometimes called oral gonorrhea.
Read more below to learn about symptoms and treatment of gonorrhea in throat, mouth, or eyes.
Symptoms of Gonorrhea in Throat, Mouth, or Eyes
Oral and eye gonorrhea symptoms include:
- Painful, burning or swollen glands in throat – This is a very common sign of a gonorrhea infection from oral sex.
- Sore throat or difficulty swallowing – Sometimes oral gonorrhea is accompanied by flu-like symptoms, such as a sore throat.
- Conjunctivitis – This is a term for itchy, red eyes due to an infection, which can also be accompanied by pus or sensitivity to light.
Gonorrhea often doesn’t cause any symptoms. Even with no symptoms, it is still possible to transmit the disease and damage the reproductive system.
How long does it take for gonorrhea to show in throat?
Gonorrhea can appear within one or two weeks after having sex with a partner with gonorrhea.
Can mouthwash kill gonorrhea?
Mouthwash may help reduce the risk of contracting gonorrhea in the mouth and throat. In a small study men who rinsed using mouthwash were found 80% less likely to contract the disease.
That said, mouthwash is not considered an effective cure for gonorrhea and medication should be prescribed by a doctor.
Read: Get Gonorrhea Treatment Online
Can you get gonorrhea from oral sex?
Yes, engaging in oral sex by either giving oral sex to someone with infected genitals or receiving oral sex by someone with an infected throat or mouth can result in a gonorrhea infection.
While the infection comes from semen and vaginal fluids, it can infect the eyes, mouth, and throat in addition to the genitals, urethra, and anus.
Will I pass on gonorrhea to my baby if I am pregnant?
Women who are pregnant can pass gonorrhea onto their baby during birth. This can result in the baby having joint, eye, or blood infections.
For gonorrhea transmitted during childbirth, it is most common for the baby to have an eye infection also called gonococcal conjunctivitis.
Certain traits may increase your likelihood of contracting gonorrhea:
- Engaging with multiple sexual partners in one year – The more partners you engage with, the more likely you will be exposed to an infected person and contract an STD.
- Having unprotected sex – Condoms can reduce the likelihood of you contracting an STD; however, condoms are never 100% effective. If you are concerned you may have an STD, you should get tested regardless of whether you used a condom in your last sexual encounter.
- Younger than 24 – Individuals younger than 24 tend to practice unprotected sex more often than other age groups and are less likely to be tested.
- Previous diagnosis of a STD – Having already contracted an STD increases your body’s susceptibility to contracting another STD. Contracting gonorrhea can increase your body’s susceptibility to contracting HIV/AIDS.
Is Throat Gonorrhea curable?
Yes throat gonorrhea is curable by taking the appropriate medication as directed; however, repeat infections are common.
You and your sexual partner(s) should always be tested after three months of completing treatment, especially if you are unsure whether your partner(s) received treatment.
How is throat gonorrhea treated?
Since gonorrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, gonorrhea treatment is a regimen of oral antibiotics regardless of which area in the body is infected.
The infection should clear after one to two weeks, if you take the treatment properly.
Common antibiotics prescribed for gonorrhea treatment are:
If you have any of the symptoms described or have recently had unprotected sex with a partner of unknown STD status, you should get tested.
In general, if you are sexually active and have any unusual discharge, burning sensations, or pain while having sex, you may have a STD and should get tested.
If you are a woman, you should contact a doctor immediately if you have any of the following symptoms as they can be a sign of a serious complication from gonorrhea called pelvic inflammatory disease:
- Fainting or signs of shock
- Serious lower abdominal pain
- Temperature that is higher than 101°F
You can make an online appointment with a PlushCare doctor to receive an official diagnosis and treatment plan, including necessary prescription antibiotics.
Book an appointment, here.
Read more of our Gonorrhea Series:
What Is Gonorrhea & How Do You Get It?
What is Gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is a common bacterial infection that’s easily cured with antibiotic medicine. It’s sexually transmitted, and most people with gonorrhea don’t have symptoms.
One of the most common STDs
Gonorrhea is a very common sexually transmitted infection, especially for teens and people in their 20s. Gonorrhea is sometimes called “the clap” or “the drip.”
Gonorrhea is spread through vaginal, anal, and oral sex. The infection is carried in semen (cum), pre-cum, and vaginal fluids. Gonorrhea can infect your penis, vagina, cervix, anus, urethra, throat, and eyes (but that’s rare). Most people with gonorrhea don’t have any symptoms and feel totally fine, so they might not even know they’re infected.
Gonorrhea is usually easily cured with antibiotics. But if you don’t treat gonorrhea early enough, it can lead to more serious health problems in the future. That’s why STD testing is so important — the sooner you know you have gonorrhea, the faster you can get rid of it.
You can help prevent gonorrhea by using condoms every time you have sex.
How do you get gonorrhea?
People usually get gonorrhea from having unprotected sex with someone who has the infection. Gonorrhea is spread when semen (cum), pre-cum, and vaginal fluids get on or inside your genitals, anus, or mouth. Gonorrhea can be passed even if the penis doesn’t go all the way in the vagina or anus.
The main ways people get gonorrhea are from having vaginal sex, anal sex, or oral sex. You can also get gonorrhea by touching your eye if you have infected fluids on your hand. Gonorrhea can also be spread to a baby during birth if the mother has it.
Gonorrhea isn’t spread through casual contact, so you CAN’T get it from sharing food or drinks, kissing, hugging, holding hands, coughing, sneezing, or sitting on toilet seats.
Many people with gonorrhea don’t have any symptoms, but they can still spread the infection to others. So using condoms and/or dental dams every time you have sex is the best way to help prevent gonorrhea — even if you and your partner seem totally healthy.
More questions from patients:
Is there a such thing as oral gonorrhea or gonorrhea of the throat?
Yes, there’s such a thing as oral gonorrhea. You can get gonorrhea by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has it. However, oral gonorrhea is less common than genital gonorrhea.
If you get oral gonorrhea, you might have an itchy or sore throat that doesn’t go away. You may also notice that you have trouble swallowing. But most people with gonorrhea don’t have any symptoms — that’s why it’s so important to regularly get tested for STDs if you have vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
If you do notice any symptoms, if your partner has been diagnosed with gonorrhea or another STD, or if your partner has symptoms, check in with your doctor or nurse or your local Planned Parenthood health center right away.
What’s the difference between oral gonorrhea and strep throat?
Oral gonorrhea and strep throat are very different infections.
Oral gonorrhea is a bacterial STD spread by having oral sex, and strep throat is a bacterial infection spread through things like coughing and sneezing.
Gonorrhea infections in the throat don’t usually cause symptoms. If symptoms do show up, you might have an itchy or sore throat that doesn’t go away and trouble swallowing.
Symptoms of strep throat can be very painful, causing a sore throat, pain when swallowing, fever, red and swollen tonsils, and swollen lymph nodes in the front of your neck.
While both are treated with antibiotics, they aren’t the same kind. Only your doctor or nurse can give you a prescription after determining what’s causing your sore throat.
You can protect yourself and others from oral gonorrhea by getting tested regularly and using condoms or dental dams during oral sex. You can protect yourself and others from strep throat by washing your hands regularly, covering your mouth when you cough or sneeze, and staying home when you’re sick, except to get medical care.
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Gonorrhoea – Symptoms – NHS
Symptoms of gonorrhoea usually develop within about 2 weeks of being infected, although they sometimes do not appear until many months later.
About 1 in 10 infected men and 5 in 10 infected women will not experience any obvious symptoms, which means the condition can go untreated for some time.
Symptoms in women
In women, symptoms of gonorrhoea can include:
- an unusual vaginal discharge, which may be thin or watery and green or yellow in colour
- pain or a burning sensation when passing urine
- pain or tenderness in the lower abdominal area – this is less common
- bleeding between periods, heavier periods and bleeding after sex – this is less common
Symptoms in men
In men, symptoms of gonorrhoea can include:
- an unusual discharge from the tip of the penis, which may be white, yellow or green
- pain or a burning sensation when urinating
- inflammation (swelling) of the foreskin
- pain or tenderness in the testicles – this is rare
Infection in the rectum, throat or eyes
Both men and women can develop an infection in the rectum, throat or eyes by having unprotected anal or oral sex.
If infected semen or vaginal fluid comes into contact with the eyes, you can also develop conjunctivitis.
Infection in the rectum can cause discomfort, pain or discharge. Infection in the eyes can cause irritation, pain, swelling and discharge, and infection in the throat usually causes no symptoms.
Getting medical advice
It’s important to be tested for gonorrhoea if you think there’s a chance you’re infected, even if you have no obvious symptoms or the symptoms have gone away on their own.
If gonorrhoea is left undiagnosed and untreated, you can continue to spread the infection and there’s a risk of potentially serious complications, including infertility.
Read more about:
Gonorrhoea in babies
Gonorrhoea can be passed from a mother to her baby during childbirth.
Newborn babies normally show symptoms in their eyes during the first 2 weeks. The eyes become red and swollen, and have a thick, pus-like discharge.
Gonorrhoea can be treated with antibiotics when you’re pregnant or when you’re breastfeeding. The antibiotics won’t harm your baby.
Page last reviewed: 29 June 2018
Next review due: 29 June 2021
Gonorrhea Gonococcal Infection (clap, drip)
Last Reviewed: November 2006
What is gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is an infection that is spread through sexual contact with another person. The gonorrhea germs are found in the mucous areas of the body (the vagina, penis, throat and rectum).
Who gets gonorrhea?
Any sexually active person can be infected with gonorrhea. Most often, gonorrhea is found in younger people (ages 15-30) who have multiple sex partners. Gonorrhea is reported more frequently from urban areas than from rural areas.
How is gonorrhea spread?
Gonorrhea is spread through sexual contact. This includes penis to vagina, penis to mouth, penis to rectum and mouth to vagina contact. Gonorrhea can also be spread from mother to child during birth.
What are the symptoms of gonorrhea?
Men infected with gonorrhea will have burning while urinating and a yellowish white discharge from the penis. Those few women with symptoms will have a discharge from the vagina and possibly some burning while urinating. Infections in the throat and rectum cause few symptoms.
How soon do symptoms appear?
In males, symptoms usually appear two to seven days after infection but it can take as long as 30 days for symptoms to begin. Often, there are no symptoms for people infected with gonorrhea; 10 to 15 percent of men and about 80 percent of women may have no symptoms. People with no symptoms are at risk for developing complications to gonorrhea. These people also spread this infection unknowingly.
When and for how long is a person able to spread gonorrhea?
From the time a person is infected with gonorrhea, he or she can spread the disease. A person can continue to spread the infection until properly treated.
Does past infection with gonorrhea make a person immune?
Past infection does not make a person immune to gonorrhea. Previous infections with gonorrhea may allow complications to occur more rapidly.
What is the treatment for gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is treated with cephalosporin or quinalone type of antibiotics. All strains of gonorrhea are curable but some strains are becoming more and more resistant to many standard medications.
What happens if gonorrhea goes untreated??
If a person is not treated for gonorrhea, there is a good chance complications will occur. Women frequently suffer from pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a painful condition that occurs when the infection spreads throughout the reproductive organs. PID can lead to sterilization in females. Men may suffer from swelling of the testicles and penis. Both sexes may suffer from arthritis, skin problems and other organ infections caused by the spread of gonorrhea within the body.
What can be done to prevent the spread of gonorrhea?
Sexual relations should be approached responsibly.
- Limit the number of your sex partners.
- Use a male or female condom.
- If you think you are infected, avoid any sexual contact and visit a local sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, hospital or your doctor.
- Notify all sexual contacts immediately so that they can be examined and treated by a health care provider.
Gonorrhea | STD | University of Colorado OB-GYN
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a bacterium. Gonorrhea grows in warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract, including the uterus, cervix, urethra and fallopian tubes. It can also grow in the anus, mouth, eyes and throat.
Gonorrhea is very common: More than 700,000 Americans get new gonorrhea infections each year, with the highest rates found among sexually active teenagers, young adults, and African Americans.
Gonorrhea is transmitted person to person through sexual contact (vaginal, anal or oral sex) with someone who has the disease. It is also transmitted through bodily fluids, so gonorrhea can spread from an untreated mother to her baby during childbirth.
Those who have had the disease and have been treated for it can become infected again through sexual contact with a person infected with gonorrhea.
Symptoms of gonorrhea
Gonorrhea can affect the anus, eyes, mouth, genitals, or throat, and symptoms are varied, depending on which part of the body is infected.
For men, common symptoms include burning pain during urination and a white, green or yellow discharge from the penis that occurs one to 14 days after infection. Some men with gonorrhea may get swollen, painful testicles; other men have no symptoms at all.
The majority of women with gonorrhea have no symptoms; others have mild symptoms that mimic a bladder or vaginal infection. Some women may have a painful or burning sensation during urination, vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods.
Females with gonorrhea have an increased risk of developing serious complications from the infection, even if no symptoms are present.
Symptoms of a rectal infection may include anal itching, discharge, pain, bleeding, or painful bowel movements. Sometimes rectal infections cause no symptoms.
Gonorrhea infections in the throat often have no symptoms, but may include a sore throat.
Diagnosis of gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is often diagnosed through a urine test. Occasionally, a swab may be used to collect a sample from a woman’s cervix or a man’s urethra. If a person has had oral and/or anal sex, swab samples may be collected from the throat and/or rectum.
Gonorrhea can be cured with antibiotics for all partners. It is important to finish all prescribed medications. If symptoms persist, a follow-up meeting with the doctor will be necessary. Drug-resistant strains of gonorrhea are becoming more common.
Individuals with gonorrhea should refrain from having sex until all medications have been taken and symptoms go away.
Other gonorrhea risks & concerns
If left untreated, gonorrhea can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, and impact a woman’s ability to have children.
Untreated gonorrhea can increase a person’s risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. If it is not treated, Gonorrhea can also spread to the joints and cause arthritis.
Pregnant women who have gonorrhea may pass the infection on to the baby as the infant passes through the birth canal, which can lead to serious health problems for the baby. Pregnant women who think they might have gonorrhea should consult their doctor as soon as possible.
If diagnosed with gonorrhea, a person should notify all of their recent sexual partners, so they can receive treatment as well. This will reduce the risk that the sexual partner(s) will develop serious complications from the disease.
Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis | ACOG
Antibiotic: A drug that treats certain types of infections.
Anus: The opening of the digestive tract through which bowel movements leave the body.
Cervix: The lower, narrow end of the uterus at the top of the vagina.
Chancre: A sore caused by syphilis that is found at the place of infection.
Chlamydia: A sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria. This infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility.
Complications: Diseases or conditions that happen as a result of another disease or condition. An example is pneumonia that occurs as a result of the flu. A complication also can occur as a result of a condition, such as pregnancy. An example of a pregnancy complication is preterm labor.
Disseminated Gonococcal Infection: An infection that may result from untreated infection with gonorrhea and can be life-threatening. Symptoms include fever, chills, skin sores, and pain in the wrists, fingers, knees, or toes.
Genitals: The sexual or reproductive organs.
Gonorrhea: A sexually transmitted infection that can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and arthritis.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system. If left untreated, HIV can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Meningitis: Inflammation of the covering of the brain or spinal cord.
Neurological: Related to the nervous system.
Obstetrician–Gynecologist (Ob-Gyn): A doctor with special training and education in women’s health.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): An infection of the upper female genital tract.
Penis: The male sex organ.
Rectum: The last part of the digestive tract.
Screening Test: Test that looks for possible signs of disease in people who do not have signs or symptoms.
Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI): An infection that is spread by sexual contact. Infections include chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]).
Syphilis: A sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is caused by an organism called Treponema pallidum. This infection may cause major health problems or death in its later stages.
Urethra: A tube-like structure. Urine flows through this tube when it leaves the body.
Uterus: A muscular organ in the female pelvis. During pregnancy, this organ holds and nourishes the fetus. Also called the womb.
Vagina: A tube-like structure surrounded by muscles. The vagina leads from the uterus to the outside of the body.
Vulva: The external female genital area.
Gonorrhea – KVD No. 2
What is gonorrhea?
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). The disease is caused by a bacterium – gonococcus (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), which affects the female reproductive system, including the cervix, uterus, appendages and urinary tract in women and men. The infection can affect the mouth, throat, eyes, and rectum.
Ways of infection with gonorrhea
Gonorrhea can be contracted at:
- Vaginal or anal contact with an infected partner
- less often with oral sex;
- using sex toys with an infected partner;
- infection of a newborn during childbirth from a sick mother.
Absolutely all sexually active people can get gonorrhea. The greater the number of sexual partners, the greater the risk of infection. Unfortunately, after successful treatment, re-infection with gonorrhea is possible, since persistent immunity to this microorganism does not develop. You can not get gonorrhea through shared dishes, towels.
Manifestations of gonorrhea
Some of those infected may not have manifestations of the disease. In the rest, signs of gonorrhea appear 2 to 5 days to 2 to 3 weeks after infection, usually earlier in men than in women.In more than half of women, the disease is asymptomatic.
Manifestations in women:
- unusual purulent vaginal discharge, usually yellow-green;
- pain, burning, or discomfort when urinating;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- with inflammation of the cervix – bleeding between periods.
Symptoms in men (no manifestations in less than 10% of men):
- White or yellow-green purulent discharge from the penis;
- pain or discomfort when urinating;
- there may be a burning sensation in the area of the outlet of the urethra;
- Sometimes pain and / or swelling of the testicles.
Men or women who have anal contact with an infected partner can infect the rectum, resulting in anal itching, pain and rectal discharge.
Gonorrhea can cause sore throat (pharyngitis) in men and women who have oral contact with an infected partner, but this is rare.
Complications of infection
Serious complications can develop if the disease is left untreated.
In women with untreated gonorrhea, the infection can penetrate from the urethra through the uterine cavity, fallopian tubes (tubes carrying an egg from the ovaries to the uterus, appendages) to the abdominal cavity – this causes the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).In women, sIDOMT may not have manifestations of the complication. If there are manifestations, then it is, as a rule, pain in the lower abdomen and fever. PID leads to internal abscesses (cavities with purulent contents that are difficult to treat), permanent damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and surrounding tissues. Chronic pelvic pain, infertility and ectopic pregnancy are the result of PID. An ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes.
In men, infection sometimes spreads to the epididymis and causes epididymitis, which is pain in the epididymis and groin. This complication can lead to male infertility if left untreated. Gonococcus can enter the bloodstream and cause joint damage (gonococcal arthritis) of the heart, brain, skin. These life-threatening complications are rare.
People with gonorrhea are more at risk of contracting HIV infection. People with HIV who have gonorrheal infection are more likely to infect their sex partners with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
Effect of the disease on a pregnant woman and her child
Infection of newborns occurs during childbirth through an infected birth canal. This can cause infection of the eyes (conjunctivitis), joints, or life-threatening blood poisoning of the newborn. Treating a pregnant woman dramatically reduces the risk of these complications.
Diagnosis of gonorrhea
Diagnostics includes observation of clinical manifestations in a patient, examination for gonorrhea of smears from the cervix, scraping from the urinary tract and rectum, the first morning portion of urine.Swabs and scrapings may cause minor discomfort. Detection of gonococci is possible with the usual examination of a smear or scraping under a microscope. Persons with gonorrhea must be tested for other STIs.
Treatment of gonorrhea
Diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhea, like other STIs, should be carried out in a specialized clinic – KVD, which has all the necessary tools for quick and accurate diagnosis. Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics. Recently, the resistance of the gonococcus to various antibacterial drugs has been increasingly found.Considering that chlamydia and other STIs are found in almost half of patients with gonorrhea, two antibiotics may be prescribed simultaneously. Treatment of gonorrhea does not lead to the restoration of the damage caused (adhesions in the fallopian tubes, etc.). All sexual partners must be found, examined and treated to prevent re-infection. Patients with gonorrhea should refrain from unprotected sex during treatment, otherwise re-infection of the sexual partner is possible. Unfortunately, after successful treatment, re-infection with gonorrhea is possible, since persistent immunity to this microorganism does not develop.Re-examination is carried out 7 to 10 days after the end of treatment.
Prevention of gonorrhea
The best way to prevent sexually transmitted infections is long-term sex with one healthy sexual partner. Male latex condoms, when used correctly, dramatically reduce the risk of transmission.
Any manifestations such as pain or discomfort when urinating, an unusual rash, discharge are a signal for the termination of sexual intercourse and immediate examination in a specialized clinic – KVD.If a patient is diagnosed with gonorrhea (or any other STIs), he must inform his sexual partners about this, so that they also undergo a full examination and appropriate treatment. This will reduce the risk of serious complications and prevent the possibility of re-infection.
Patients with gonorrhea should refrain from unprotected sex during treatment, otherwise re-infection of the sexual partner is possible.
90,000 causes, signs, diagnosis, symptoms.Hematoma treatment
Table of Contents
Gonorrhea is most commonly transmitted sexually from an infected partner. The disease is accompanied by secretions and pain in the organs of the genitourinary system, and can also affect the rectum, nasopharynx, eyes, joints. Pathology is more often diagnosed in men.
Pathogen and routes of infection
The causative agent of gonorrhea is the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or gonococcus. This microorganism grows well and multiplies on the mucous membranes of the body, especially in the genitourinary system – the uterus and its neck, fallopian tubes, urethra.
How gonorrhea is transmitted:
- during sexual contact with an infected partner;
- during pregnancy or childbirth from mother to newborn;
- in rare cases – by contact when using common personal hygiene items, towels, clothes.
Gonococci can survive outside the human body only for a short time – up to several hours. Therefore, the main route of infection is sexual.
Symptoms and diagnosis of gonorrhea
The diagnosis of gonorrhea can be difficult, since the disease may be asymptomatic.The incubation period lasts 2 to 30 days after infection.
The main symptoms of gonorrhea in men:
- White, yellow or greenish discharge from the urethra;
- pain in the scrotum;
- burning when urinating;
- sore throat;
These signs of gonorrhea appear 5 to 7 days after infection.
The most common symptoms of gonorrhea in women:
- White, yellow, or purulent vaginal discharge;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- burning when urinating;
- signs of conjunctivitis;
- sore throat;
- intermenstrual spotting;
- vulvar edema;
Signs of gonorrhea in women may be practically absent, in which case the infected become a source of infection for sexual partners.
How gonorrhea manifests itself: in addition to inflammation of the genitourinary system, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, it can cause damage to the skin and joints. In rare cases, the disease affects the heart valves or meninges. In addition, gonorrhea is associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer.
To diagnose the disease, smear microscopy with a special dye (according to Gram) and cell culture isolation were previously used.The modern analysis for gonorrhea is polymerase chain reaction.
If the initial treatment is ineffective, the doctor makes a smear for gonorrhea from the surface of the cervix in women or from the lumen of the urethra in men, and determines the sensitivity of the bacteria to antibiotics.
If a disease is detected, it is necessary to conduct research to identify other infections – HIV, syphilis, chlamydia.
Complications of gonorrhea
A disease that is not treated in time becomes chronic and causes damage to various organs. Potential consequences of gonorrhea:
- pelvic inflammatory disease in women;
- epididymo-orchitis in men;
- ectopic pregnancy;
- stricture (narrowing) of the urethra;
- increased risk of genital diseases and HIV infection;
- infection of the fetus during pregnancy, which can cause intrauterine sepsis or blindness.
Gonococcal infection can enter the bloodstream, causing gonococcemia.This complication occurs in about 2% of patients. The clinical manifestations of this process develop in two phases. First, damage to the tendons, skin, joint pain develops, and then septic arthritis develops.
Potentially life-threatening complications include osteomyelitis, meningitis, endocarditis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and septic shock. Also, gonorrhea can be one of the causes of polymyositis (diffuse muscle disease).
Treatment of gonorrhea
Treatment of gonorrhea in men and women can be difficult due to the development of gonococcus resistance to many types of antibiotics. The causative agent tends to change, mutate and adapt to drugs, so the answer to the question of how to treat gonorrhea remains relevant in modern venereology.
Modern antibiotics for gonorrhea include cephalosporins and macrolides, they are prescribed in combination with each other.
Treatment of gonorrhea in women should be combined with therapy with a sexual partner.
Injections or pills for gonorrhea must be taken in full, even if the symptoms disappear, since otherwise the disease can turn into a chronic latent form.
Traditional medicine cannot offer an effective cure for gonorrhea that can destroy the pathogen in the body. To reduce the severity of the symptoms of the disease, apply:
- decoction of crushed burdock roots for oral administration;
- infusion of juniper berries, dandelion roots, birch leaves, bearberry for oral administration;
- sitz baths with a decoction of seeds and dill herb.
Prevention of gonorrhea
To avoid the disease, the following prevention rules must be followed:
- Using condoms during intercourse with a partner whose health is not completely certain;
- seeking help from a venereologist when symptoms of the disease appear.
90,011 sex with a single partner;
When confirming the diagnosis, it is recommended to inform your sexual partners about it so that they can be examined and treated in time.
Advantages of the clinic “Mom, Dad, Me”
The network of clinics “Mom, Dad, I” is located in Moscow and other cities. If symptoms of gonorrhea appear, we suggest contacting our specialists:
- for diagnostics, modern laboratory equipment is used, which eliminates errors or long waiting for the result;
- there is a possibility of anonymous treatment;
- both sexual partners can go to the clinic at once;
- , if necessary, a consultation with a urologist, gynecologist, ophthalmologist, rheumatologist or other specialized specialist is appointed, which can be obtained at the same clinic;
- offers affordable prices for diagnostic and treatment services.
At the first symptoms of gonorrhea, make an appointment with our specialist by phone or on the website.
The doctor examined my husband carefully, prescribed an ECG and made a preliminary diagnosis. She gave recommendations on our situation and ordered an additional examination. There are no comments yet. Financial agreements have been complied with.
Roach Efim Borisovich
I am just delighted with the doctor and the clinic.I haven’t had any pleasure in clinics for a long time. Everything went perfectly in terms of logistics, strictly in time. I also enjoyed aesthetic pleasure both as a patient and as a person. I could communicate and this communication gave me great pleasure. Lowest bow to the ultrasound doctor.
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I liked Dr. Vlasova very much. Nice and nice woman, good specialist. I received an answer to all my questions, the doctor gave me a lot of good advice.I was more than satisfied with the visit.
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I liked the clinic very much. Courteous staff. Was at the reception of the gynecologist Mikhailova E.A. I was satisfied, there are more such doctors. Thanks!!!
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Today I was served in the clinic, I was satisfied with the staff, as well as with the gynecologist. Everyone treats patients with respect and attention. Thank them very much and further prosperity.
The Mama Papa Ya clinic in Lyubertsy is very good. The team is friendly and helpful. I recommend this clinic to all my friends. Thanks to all doctors and administrators. I wish the clinic prosperity and many adequate clients.
Today I removed a mole on the face at the dermatologist Kodareva I.A. The doctor is very neat! Correct! Thank you very much! Administrator Borshchevskaya Julia is benevolent, clearly fulfills her duties.
I would like to express my gratitude to the clinic workers Mom, Dad, me. The clinic has a very friendly atmosphere, a very friendly and cheerful team and highly qualified specialists.Thank you very much! I wish your clinic prosperity.
I liked the first visit. They examined me carefully, prescribed additional examinations, and gave me good recommendations. I will continue the treatment further, I liked the conditions at the clinic.
Good clinic, good doctor! Raisa Vasilievna can clearly and easily explain what the essence of the problem is. If something is wrong, she speaks about everything directly, not covertly, as other doctors sometimes do. I do not regret that I got to her.
90,000 Multidrug-resistant gonorrhea
- There were 87 million new cases of gonorrhea in 2016.
- Most affected people are 15–49 years old.
- Antimicrobial resistance of gonorrhea has grown rapidly in recent years and treatment options are dwindling.
- The WHO African Region is responsible for a disproportionate share of the global burden of gonorrhea.
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that remains a major public health problem. WHO estimates 87 million new adolescent cases worldwide in 2016
and adults aged 15-49, with a global rate of 20 cases per 1000 women and 26 cases per 1000 men.In 2012, there were about 27 million reported cases of gonorrhea, or gonorrhea was
identified in approximately 0. 9% of women and 0.7% of men aged 15 to 49 years. Most of the cases occurred in the WHO African Region.
Resistance Neisseria gonorrhoeae ( N . gonorrhoeae ) Antimicrobial drug use (AMR) was introduced shortly after antimicrobial use (AMR) was introduced.During
Over the past 80 years, this resistance has continued to expand to include drugs such as tetracyclines, macrolides (including azithromycin), sulfonamide combinations with trimethoprim, and more recently quinolones. Some
Countries report increasing resistance to drugs currently recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea, such as cefixime, ceftriaxone and azithromycin.
The first report of the ineffectiveness of cefixime treatment came from Japan.Over the past decade, confirmed cases of ineffectiveness of treatment of gonorrhea with ceftriaxone or ceftriaxone alone in combination with azithromycin or doxycycline have been reported
Australia, Slovenia, France, Sweden, Japan, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Global ineffectiveness of dual therapy treatment for pharyngeal gonorrhea was first confirmed in the UK in 2016
(ceftriaxone 500 mg plus azithromycin 1 g). An internationally distributed strain of gonococcus resistant to ceftriaxone has been reported in Denmark, the United Kingdom, France and Japan.In 2018 in the United Kingdom
the first global gonococcal strains with ceftriaxone resistance and high azithromycin resistance, causing pharyngeal gonorrhea, were registered.
All confirmed treatment failures, with the exception of one recent case in the United Kingdom, have been associated with pharyngeal infections affecting the throat. Most pharyngeal infections are asymptomatic. Antimicrobial drugs
poorly penetrate tissues in this area, and the pharynx is also home to related bacteria of the species Neisseria of natural origin, which can increase drug resistance.Most of the data on this issue comes from countries with
high income; however, most cases of gonorrhea occur in resource-poor countries and areas. This suggests that cases of treatment failure and drug resistance reported in more than
wealthy areas are just the tip of the global health burden. Surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance and treatment failure in poorer countries are extremely scarce.High indicators of resistance to
penicillins, tetracyclines and quinolones have been known for a long time, and at present these drugs are not recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea in most countries of the world.
Given resistance to many treatment options including penicillins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones and macrolides (including azithromycin), as well as so-called last-line treatment options such as cephalosporins, N . gonorrhoeae is a multidrug-resistant microorganism.
This resistance is caused by a number of factors, including unrestricted access to antimicrobial drugs, inappropriate choice and overuse of antibiotics, and poor quality of antibiotics. In addition, genetic mutations within the body have contributed to
increasing drug resistance N . gonorrhoeae . Infections outside the genitals, namely the throat and rectum, mainly affect key populations, such as men who have sex with men.It can also play an important role in the development of resistant strains, as N. gonorrhoeae interacts and exchanges genetic material with other microorganisms present in these parts of the body.
Gonococcal infections have serious consequences for reproductive and maternal and newborn health, including
- fivefold increase in HIV transmission;
- sterility with its cultural and social consequences;
- inflammation leading to acute and chronic lower abdominal pain in women;
- Ectopic pregnancy and maternal mortality;
- First trimester termination of pregnancy; and
- severe neonatal eye infections that can lead to blindness.
The financial costs of these complications are very high for both individuals and health systems. Antimicrobial resistance adds to this burden, prolonging infection in more people and increasing the number of people with long-term
complications of gonococcal infections.
The emergence of different forms of resistance in N . gonorrhoea is often accompanied by the rapid spread of the disease. This problem affects not only the poor, and recently cases of ineffectiveness of treatment have been observed
also in higher income countries.Due to the difficulties in obtaining complete information from resource-limited areas for surveillance, rates of prevalence of antimicrobial resistance are expected to be significant.
exceed currently recorded levels.
To combat N . Multidrug-resistant Gonorrhoeae , two approaches are needed, such as large-scale drug resistance control and gonorrhea control. Both approaches should be applied in more
the wider context of global control of antimicrobial resistance.
WHO is implementing the Global Action Plan to Combat the Spread and Consequences of Antimicrobial Resistance Neisseria gonorrhoeae
N . Multi-drug resistant Gonorrhoeae .This plan is part of a broader STI surveillance plan to facilitate the early detection of emerging resistant strains in combination
with the adoption of public health measures to prevent and treat gonococcal infections and to reduce the sexual and reproductive health effects of gonorrhea.
WHO’s main activities include:
- Effective prevention and control of gonococcal infections through prevention messages and interventions and appropriate treatment regimens;
- Introduction of effective drug regulatory provisions;
- Strengthening antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems, especially in countries with a high gonococcal burden;
- Establish regional networks of laboratories capable of cultivating gonococci with effective quality control mechanisms;
- Monitoring treatment failure cases based on the development of a standard set of monitoring protocols;
- Research support for affordable tests to identify N . gonorrhoeae and the development of methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance; and
- studies on alternative treatments for gonococcal infections.
WHO will continue to work with Member States and partners to understand and reduce levels of antimicrobial resistance by strengthening antibiotic control and taking action to prevent
spread of gonorrhea.
drugs for the treatment of acute and chronic forms – Dobrobut clinic
Symptoms of gonorrhea in women and men
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection.The causative agent of gonorrhea is the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The disease spreads through sexual contact with an infected person. Gonorrhea can be contracted through vaginal, oral, and anal sex. It is also passed from mother to child during childbirth. A person does not have innate or acquired immunity to gonococcal infection, therefore, repeated infections are possible.
About 0.8% of women and 0.6% of men suffer from gonorrhea. According to statistics, from 33 to 106 million new cases of the disease are registered annually.Gonorrhea is the second most common sexually transmitted infection.
How does gonorrhea manifest
The incubation period is 2 to 14 days. Usually, the first signs of gonorrhea appear 2-6 days after infection. 50% of infected women do not have any manifestations of the disease. They may not know they have contracted gonorrhea and therefore may not seek medical attention. This increases both the risk of complications and the likelihood of the infection spreading.
Symptoms of gonorrhea in women:
- burning and pain when urinating;
- vaginal discharge;
- painful intercourse;
- high fever and pain in the lower abdomen (when the infection spreads).
Symptoms of gonorrhea in men:
- painful and frequent urination;
- discharge from the urethra;
- redness and swelling of the external opening of the urethra.
The disease can cause skin lesions, arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis. Gonorrhea can also be contracted through oral sex with an infected partner. How is oral gonorrhea infection manifested? This infection causes no symptoms in 90% of people. The rest of the patients experience a sore throat (gonococcal pharyngitis).
Analysis for genital gonorrhea
The diagnosis of “gonorrhea” is made on the basis of the results of analyzes and the clinical picture of the disease. It is recommended to conduct annual testing of women and men who frequently change sexual partners.Laboratory tests for gonococcal infection:
- swab for gonorrhea;
- sowing of vaginal discharge, cervical canal, rectum, urethra;
Chronic gonorrhea is diagnosed with pyrogenal provocation. Patients must be warned about the reaction to the administration of the drug: fever, muscle pain, weakness.
Analysis of genital gonorrhea by microscopic examination of discharge with Gram stain does not give an accurate result in the diagnosis of pathology in women. The sensitivity of the method is about 30-50%. Therefore, for laboratory diagnosis of gonorrhea in women, PCR and culture are more often used.
How to treat gonorrhea
Antibacterial drugs are used to treat gonococcal infection. The regimen is prescribed by the doctor. This can be either a single loading dose of an oral antibiotic or a standard dosage over seven days. The drugs of choice are ceftriaxone (injection) and azithromycin (capsules, tablets). Treatment of gonorrhea in men and women is carried out according to the same scheme.
After a course of antibiotic therapy, it is necessary to take another test for gonococcus. Retesting is recommended three months after treatment.
How to treat gonorrhea depends on the form of the disease. A course of antibiotics is usually sufficient to treat acute gonorrhea. If the infectious process has spread or the disease has become chronic, long-term treatment is required. In addition to antibiotics, immunomodulators, hepatoprotectors, and vitamins are prescribed.
Gonorrhea is called “hussar rhinitis”.But the disease is not so harmless and in the absence or improper treatment is fraught with serious complications. Possible complications of gonorrhea in women:
- cervical erosion;
- joint damage;
- obstruction of the fallopian tubes;
- Chronic pelvic pain;
- irregular menstrual cycle;
- ectopic pregnancy;
- miscarriage, premature birth;
- infection of a child during childbirth.
The main complications of gonorrhea in men are narrowing of the urethra, abscess, prostatitis, infertility. A history of gonorrhea increases the risk of prostate cancer.
Prevention is the best protection against illness
Prevention of gonorrhea is similar to other STDs. Read more about STD prevention on our website https://www.dobrobut.com. Avoiding casual sex is the only surefire way to avoid catching an infection.
Safe sex means taking measures to prevent transmission of infection from one partner to another before and during sexual intercourse.Safe sex practices include screening for STIs of all sexual partners, using condoms, and reducing the number of sexual contacts.
The likelihood of developing gonorrhea increases:
- if you have multiple sexual partners;
- if the regular partner has already been treated for STIs;
- for alcohol or drug abuse;
- Unless a condom is used during sex.
To avoid infection, you should follow the rules of intimate hygiene, regularly get tested for STDs and be examined by a doctor.At the slightest suspicion of infection, and even more so if any deviations from the norm are found, you must immediately contact a medical institution.
Gonorrhea. Full description: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
Gonorrhea – (from the Greek gonos – seed and rhoia – outflow). In the common people – gonorrhea, fracture – an infectious, sexually transmitted disease that causes damage to the organs of the genitourinary system.
The causative agent of gonorrhea is gonococcus (Neisseria gonorrhoeae).
Transmission paths. Gonorrhea is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Although there is also a version of the transmission by contact-household way. Out-of-sex infection is more often observed in young girls who become infected from sick mothers and relatives with chronic gonorrhea through dishes, bed linen, towels, a shared bed, and shared baths.
But the number of cases in this way is about one percent.
There is a risk of infection of the fetus during childbirth from a sick mother.
Gonorrhea is being successfully treated in our clinic. In addition to the fact that you can be sure that the disease will be completely cured with the help of our doctors, we still guarantee complete anonymity. Only you and your doctor will know about your illness.
Symptoms of gonorrhea.
Gonorrhea can pass with both severe symptoms, but also asymptomatic, but less often. In men, almost 20%, and in women, about 50% of patients with gonorrhea are asymptomatic.
Gonococcus is capable of infecting the mucous membranes of not only the genitourinary organs, but also the oral cavity, throat, rectum. Penetrating into the mucous membrane of the genitourinary organs, gonococci multiply rapidly and cause an acute inflammatory process, which is accompanied by abundant saturation of the affected tissues with white blood cells – leukocytes (so-called infiltration) and the appearance of purulent secretions. With a favorable course of the disease, after the disappearance of gonococci, the inflammatory infiltrate in the submucosa is absorbed, and the altered epithelium is restored.
In other cases, the inflammatory infiltrate does not dissolve, but scar formation gradually occurs. As a result of scar formation, narrowing of the urethra may occur, urination disorder appears; in the epididymis of men and the fallopian tubes of a woman, they become impassable for sperm and egg cells, which leads to infertility.
The incubation period of gonococcus is from 1 day to 2-3 weeks.
Gonorrhea in men.
Inflammation in gonorrhea develops gradually.
Initially, there is an itching sensation in the urethra and a small unclear discharge, in which gonococci are found in laboratory research. Then, 3-5 days after the onset of infection, signs of acute inflammation of the urethra (urethritis) appear.
In this case, the edges of the external opening of the urethra become edematous, reddened, pain appears when urinating; profuse purulent discharge appears from the canal, sometimes with an admixture of blood.
With improper treatment, an acute inflammatory process can take a protracted course and turn into a chronic stage.
In the chronic stage, pain is mild or absent, there may be no discharge from the urethra or it is insignificant and is found only in the morning or towards the end of the day in the form of a grayish drop.
Under the influence of sexual arousal, sexual intercourse, alcohol consumption, spicy food, etc.the item periodically exacerbates the chronic inflammatory process with the appearance of profuse purulent discharge.
With these complications, patients are a frequent source of infection for women with whom they have sex.
The most common complication of acute and chronic gonorrhea in men is the transition of the inflammatory process from the front of the urethra to the back. Then there are frequent urges to urinate, pain at the end of the act of urination and purulent urine in both portions.
In diseases of the posterior part of the urethra, the inflammatory process easily passes to the prostate gland, seminal vesicles and epididymis, the excretory ducts of which open into the posterior part of the urethra. If bilateral epididymitis begins, it often leads to infertility.
Gonorrhea in women.
In the course of the inflammatory process, gonorrhea of women is divided into gonorrhea of the lower part of the genitourinary system and gonorrhea of the upper part.
Disease of the urethra (paraurethral ducts, Bartholin’s glands, cervix and rectum) is referred to as gonorrhea of the lower section. The external genital organs, due to the peculiarities of their structure, are not very susceptible to gonococcus.
With ascending gonorrhea, the inflammatory process spreads to the uterus, appendages (fallopian tubes and ovaries) and the pelvic peritoneum. Women have a more severe course of gonorrhea than men.
Ascending gonorrhea begins acutely with an increase in body temperature, pain in the lower abdomen, bleeding. local peritonitis develops in the small pelvis. When the pelvic peritoneum is damaged, adhesions are formed, as a result of which the uterus and appendages lose their mobility and normal position; the resulting congestion in the pelvic organs is accompanied by pain in the sacro-lumbar region and constant discharge from the genitals. Such complications almost always lead to infertility.
Diagnosis of gonorrhea.
- Bacterioscopic smear analysis of secretions;
- bacteriological culture of discharge from the cervix, urethra, vagina, as well as the rectum and pharynx to determine the pathogen and antibiotic sensitivity;
- serological diagnostic method (auxiliary method) – Bordet-Zhangu reactions.It is performed in the case of chronic gonorrhea, when the bacteriological test is negative;
- polymerase chain reaction – PCR diagnostics.
Treatment of gonorrhea.
Determined by the order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, tk. gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease. If it is detected, only a venereologist treats.
The venereologist of the Health Clinic center will select the treatment for 1 appointment!
Specialist advice can be obtained by phone: +7 (495) 961-27-67
90,000 Candidiasis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Candidiasis is an infectious disease affecting the skin, mucous membranes and / or internal organs caused by yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida.The term “candidiasis” implies a pathological process, the basis of which is the overgrowth of Candida, primarily in the gastrointestinal tract and secondarily in other areas (on the mucous membrane of the genitals, bronchi, parenchymal organs).
Candidiasis (thrush) affects not only external but also internal organs. The cause of the disease is yeast-like fungi that inhabit the body of every person.
- Many factors can provoke an intensive reproduction of the fungus. For example, hypothermia, illness, stress, changes in hormonal levels (during pregnancy or taking hormonal drugs).
- When antibiotics are taken, along with pathogenic bacteria, the beneficial microflora of the intestine and vagina, which controls the growth and development of Candida fungi, also perishes. The presence of a chronic disease that reduces the activity of the immune system (HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, infections) very often causes candidiasis.
- Endocrine diseases (diabetes, obesity, thyroid dysfunction) can be accompanied by candidiasis.
- Finally, hot climates or uncomfortable tight or synthetic underwear can be the cause of candidiasis.
The source of infection with candidiasis, as a rule, is the body’s own flora (autoinfection), but infection from the outside can occur. Causing a disease, the fungus does not change its properties – the body changes its properties (local defense decreases). Attaching to the cells of the epithelium, the pathogenic fungus begins to parasitize in them, penetrating deep into the tissues.
In the body’s fight against candidiasis, a dynamic balance often arises when the fungus seeks to penetrate deeper into the tissues, but cannot, and the body tries to reject it and also cannot. In this case, the process can last for years, a shift in balance in one direction or another will lead either to recovery or to an aggravation of the process.
Candidiasis occurs in several forms, depending on some characteristics.
- Carrier. A person is a carrier of the disease.There are no symptoms of candidiasis, there is no need to treat.
- Sharp. Accompanied by itching, rashes, discharge. It is necessary to treat in a comprehensive manner and with high quality. Young children are most often infected.
- Chronic. Characterized by remission and manifestation of symptoms, relapses are possible. It develops if it is incorrect to treat with antibiotics for a long time, use hormonal contraceptives.
This disease has several varieties, since it does not have an exact localization in the body:
- Urogenital candidiasis
- Oral candidiasis
- Thrush of the lips
- Thrush of the tongue
- Stomatitis, as well as oropharyngeal candidiasis – thrush of the oral mucosa, tonsils, gums.
- Skin and nail candidiasis
- On the folds of the skin (armpits, the area between the buttocks, groin folds).
- Candidiasis of open (or smooth) parts of the skin. It is rare.
- Candidiasis on the palms.
- Candidiasis on the nail plates.
- Foot candidiasis.
- Candidiasis of internal organs
- Gastrointestinal tract (stomach, esophagus, intestines, anus).
- Lungs and bronchi.
- The meninges.
- Eye and Ear.
- Neonatal candidiasis (e.g. pseudomembranous)
The disease is widespread. The causative agents of candidiasis are found in the air, soil, vegetables, fruits, and confectionery products.Yeast-like fungi are found as saprophytes on healthy skin and mucous membranes.
The manifestations of candidiasis, and therefore the symptoms and signs, depend on the localization of the focus of the disease.
Candidiasis of the oral mucosa (oral candidiasis, infant thrush) most often occurs in children, as a rule, they become infected from the mother through the birth canal. Symptoms:
- mucous membranes of the cheeks, pharynx, tongue and gums become red,
- puffiness appears,
- then foci of white cheesy plaque appear on the oral mucosa.
With candidiasis of the skin and its appendages, most often the foci are located in large folds:
- under the mammary glands.
The skin in the interdigital folds may be affected, more often in children and adults suffering from severe diseases – on the skin of the palms, feet, smooth skin of the trunk and extremities. The foci in large folds look like small 1-2 mm bubbles, which soon open up with the formation of erosion.Erosions increase in size, merge, forming large areas of damage.
Foci of candidiasis have an irregular shape, dark red color, around the focus – a strip of peeling epidermis. Outside the folds, the lesions look like red spots with peeling in the center, occasionally small bubbles may appear around the lesion.
Vaginal candidiasis (candidiasis, thrush) is an infectious disease of the vaginal mucosa, which often spreads to the neck of the uterus and vulva.Almost every woman has encountered such a disease, and some signs of candidiasis are constantly disturbing. Most common in women of reproductive age, but may occur in girls
Intestinal candidiasis (dysbiosis) often accompanies vaginal candidiasis or develops in isolation. Usually intestinal candidiasis appears after taking antibiotics or previous intestinal infections. Fungi of the genus Candida live in the small intestine. Symptoms characteristic of this type of candidiasis: white cheesy flakes are often found in the stool of a patient suffering from intestinal candidiasis.
Esophageal candidiasis is a disease that is very difficult to define among all those in the field of gastroenterology. The disease is characterized by a discrepancy between the severity of the disease, the level of damage and the condition of the patient himself.
With timely treatment, candidiasis does not cause any particular harm to health. But the symptoms of candidiasis can be unpleasant. Long-term, it can lead to damage to other organs, most often the urethra, bladder and kidneys.In severe cases, progressive disease can affect the reproductive organs, which leads to infertility in both men and women. But the greatest danger of candidiasis is for pregnant women, because the risk of fetal damage is very high.
How the disease is diagnosed
Visual methods for the diagnosis of candidiasis. On examination, inflammation of the skin areas is revealed, limited by the border of the exfoliated, macerated epidermis, a whitish coating on the mucous membranes.
Laboratory diagnostics. Contrary to popular belief, the main method for diagnosing candidiasis is still smear microscopy from the affected areas of the mucosa. PCR (DNA – diagnostics), which has become popular recently, is generally poorly suited for the diagnosis of candidiasis.
Laboratory diagnostics of the disease includes:
- smear microscopy of secretions
- cultural diagnostics (sowing)
- enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Treatment of candidiasis
Treatment of candidiasis is aimed at eliminating factors contributing to the occurrence of candidiasis. In case of skin lesions, local treatment is carried out in an open way using antifungal ointments.
The attending physician for this ailment prescribes systemic and local medications. Local funds are not absorbed into the bloodstream – they act only on the mucous membrane affected by the Candida fungus. They stop the reproduction and growth of fungi, relieve discomfort and restore the affected tissue.
Since candidiasis is a recurrent infectious process that occurs very often, there are some methods of prevention that lead to a decrease in the frequency of recurrence of the disease, and also prevent the primary infection.
Of the generally accepted means of preventing candidiasis, the following should be noted:
- body hardening,
- intake of vitamins and minerals in spring and autumn,
- Regular standard hygiene practices;
- Special attention should be paid to the type of clothing and underwear.Recommended to wear cotton underwear, breathable and loose casual clothing.
With timely treatment, the prognosis is favorable, cure usually occurs within a week. With complicated forms and lesions of internal organs, the treatment of candidiasis is difficult.
90,000 Gonorrhea: Medicines Used In The Treatment
Gonorrhea is a classic sexually transmitted disease, once one of the most common sexually transmitted infections.
Gonorrhea is transmitted mainly sexually, like other sexually transmitted diseases. Gonorrhea can cause inflammatory diseases in men and women, affecting the urethra (urethra), rectum, cervix, pharynx and even the eyes – it all depends on the circumstances of the infection.
Causes of gonorrhea
Infection with gonorrhea is possible with any type of sexual intercourse: vaginal, as well as oral and anal sex.Quite rarely, gonorrhea becomes infected with household contacts, because gonococcus is able to maintain its vital activity outside the body for up to 4 hours.
In men, the asymptomatic course of the disease occurs in about 20%, in women, more than 50%.
The incubation period of gonococcus begins from the moment a person is infected with gonorrheal infection. Duration in men is generally from days to seven, in women – from five to ten.
The first signs of gonorrhea appear immediately after the end of the incubation period.The disease is acute or chronic.
Acute gonorrhea symptoms: discharge of pus, mucus, tickling, burning and pain in the genitals. Very frequent and painful urination.
In men, redness and swelling of the penis is possible. Sometimes the body temperature rises. In women, inflammation of the genital glands with swelling and soreness of the labia is possible.
Lymph nodes are also affected and swollen. The skin becomes inflamed, eczema is formed.
In gonorrhea, the mucous membranes of the genital tract are most often affected, but the mucous membranes of the rectum, conjunctiva (eyes) and oropharynx may be affected.
With gonorrheal stomatitis, there is profuse salivation, sore throat, sores in the mouth. With gonorrheal proctitis, discharge from the rectum and itching in the anus appear.