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What can cause excessive discharge: The request could not be satisfied


Vaginal discharge Causes – Mayo Clinic

Most causes of abnormal vaginal discharge — such as yeast infection, bacterial vaginosis or menopause symptoms — are relatively harmless, but they can be uncomfortable.

Abnormal vaginal discharge can also be a symptom of certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Since these can spread to involve the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes, and can be passed on to sexual partners, detection and treatment of STIs is important.

Rarely, a brownish or blood-tinged vaginal discharge could be a sign of cervical cancer.

Possible causes of abnormal vaginal discharge include:

Causes related to infection or inflammation

  1. Bacterial vaginosis
  2. Cervicitis
  3. Chlamydia trachomatis
  4. Gonorrhea
  5. Forgotten (retained) tampon
  6. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  7. Trichomoniasis
  8. Vaginitis
  9. Yeast infection (vaginal)

Other causes

  1. Certain hygiene practices, such as douching or using scented sprays or soaps
  2. Cervical cancer
  3. Pregnancy
  4. Vaginal atrophy (genitourinary syndrome of menopause)
  5. Vaginal cancer
  6. Vaginal fistula

Only rarely is vaginal discharge a sign of cancer.

Causes shown here are commonly associated with this symptom. Work with your doctor or other health care professional for an accurate diagnosis.

  • Definition
  • When to see a doctor

June 22, 2021

Show references

  1. Sobel JD. Approach to women with symptoms of vaginitis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Feb. 7, 2019.
  2. Frequently asked questions. Women’s health FAQ190. Vulvovaginal health. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Vulvovaginal-Health. Accessed Feb. 7, 2019.
  3. Lentz GM, et al. Infections of the lower and upper genital tracts. In: Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 18, 2016.
  4. Rakel RE, et al., eds. Gynecology. In: Textbook of Family Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 18, 2016.
  5. Ross J, et al. Pelvic inflammatory disease: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Feb. 7, 2019.
  6. Frumovitz M. Invasive cervical cancer: Epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Feb. 7, 2019.
  7. Vaginal cancer treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/types/vaginal/patient/vaginal-treatment-pdq. Accessed Feb. 7, 2019.
  8. Toglia MR. Rectovaginal and anovaginal fistulas. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 7, 2019.
  9. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer. American Cancer Society. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cervical-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/signs-symptoms.html. Accessed Feb. 7, 2019.
  10. Wilkinson JM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 25, 2016.


Vaginal Discharge 101: What Every Woman Should Know

As women, we all know that vaginal discharge is a fact of life, and we may not even think twice about it. But what is discharge, actually, and how can you tell what is normal, or what may be an indication of a problem? In this article we’ll explain the role of vaginal discharge in keeping your body healthy, and we’ll discuss ways to recognize discharge that could signal that it’s time to call the doctor.

What is Vaginal Discharge?

Vaginal discharge comes from glands inside your vagina and cervix. These glands produce small amounts of fluid also known as vaginal secretions. The fluid flows out of the vagina each day, cleansing old cells that have lined the vagina. This is a completely natural process—it’s your body’s way of keeping your vagina healthy and clean.

Discharge varies from woman to woman. Some women have discharge every day, while others experience it less frequently. Normal vaginal discharge is usually clear or milky and may have a subtle scent that is not unpleasant or foul smelling. It’s also important to know that vaginal discharge changes over the course of a woman’s menstrual cycle. These changes in color and thickness are associated with ovulation and are natural. But outside of normal changes associated with your cycle, other changes may not be normal. Your discharge may indicate an imbalance of healthy bacteria in your vagina, which can be a sign that all is not well. So how can you tell when vaginal discharge may be signaling a problem?

Recognizing Normal and Abnormal Discharge

Changes that may signal a problem include an increase in the amount of discharge, and a change in the color, smell or texture of the discharge. You may also experience other symptoms with a change in discharge, such as  irritation, itchiness or burning in or around your vagina. The combination of these factors can help reveal what may be going on in your body. Let’s take a look at the types of discharge, what it might signal, other related symptoms, and what you can do:

Type of Discharge

It Could Be…

Other Symptoms

What You Can Do

Milky or white with no odor

Normal discharge


Nothing! All is well

Thick, white, and may resemble cottage cheese

Vaginal yeast infection

Vaginal itching, burning, soreness, or pain. Some women experience pain when urinating or having sex along with and redness, swelling or rash around the vulva

Talk to your healthcare professional*, or take the Vaginal Health Test, then reach for Monistat®–it comes in three doses to meet your treatment needs

White, yellow or grey

Bacterial vaginosis

Fishy odor, itching and swelling

Not normal—talk to your healthcare professional

Yellow or green, thick or chunky


Foul odor

Not normal—talk to your healthcare professional

Brown or bloody

Irregular menstruation or a sign of something more serious

Pelvic pain or vaginal bleeding

Talk to your healthcare professional

Cloudy, yellow


Pelvic pain

Talk to your healthcare professional

*Always see your healthcare professional if this is your first yeast infection.

Excessive Discharge | How You Can Deal With It Yourself

Even among the closest of friends, the phrase ‘excessive discharge’ doesn’t exactly come up in conversation too often. For many of us, it’s simply TMI.

But discharge, generally, is something all women experience on a daily basis – and in not insignificant quantities, either. Fun fact: the average female produces around one teaspoon every day.

Why? In short, it’s because discharge maintains peace and equilibrium inside your vagina by getting rid of dead skin cells, keeping you hydrated (down there) and, being slightly acidic, preventing infections such as thrush. Which, yes, is pretty clever.

In short, healthy vaginal discharge is crucial to your health. And, given that you are likely to experience abnormal vaginal discharge at some point in your life, it’s time that you got acquainted with precisely how much discharge is typical at certain times in your menstrual cycle, the key signs that something is amiss and when it’s time to seek help from your GP.

What should healthy vaginal discharge look like?

You’ve heard it before and, chances are, you’ll hear it again; when it comes to knowing what’s normal or what counts as excessive discharge, there’s one defining factor: you.

Some women may need to use a panty liner; some may need more than one per day. As with how much weight you can bench press, what might be standard for your mate, won’t necessarily be the same for you.

So, getting to know what ‘normal’ looks like, for you, is the key to understanding when something’s up and when it’s all good. Generally, the guide below will tell you how much you might expect, as you go through your cycle.

How your discharge will change throughout your 28 day cycle

Days one to five

It’s that time of the month so don’t expect much; chances are there’ll be very little discharge at all.

Days six to eight

The end of your period is in sight. It’s likely you’ll have a couple of days with no discharge so don’t be alarmed if you experience symptoms of vaginal dryness.

As oestrogen levels drop – and your egg follicle grows – you’ll start to lube up again.

According to Mrs Pradnya Pisal, consultant gynaecologist at London Gynaecology, your discharge will appear white, thick and sticky – acting like a blockade against sperm. ‘It’s trickier to get pregnant when your discharge is thick,’ says Pisal. ‘Because your sperm can’t travel through it to reach the uterus.’

But that doesn’t mean you can fly free – STIs can be spread at any point in your cycle so play is safe, regardless.

Days nine to 12

As you approach ovulation, your body’s oestrogen levels begin to rise, bringing with it a change to the consistency of your discharge.

‘The hormone oestrogen is responsible for the thinning of discharge,’ says Pisal. ‘Because of this, you’ll likely notice it more during the mid-stage of your cycle, simply because it comes away from the body more easily.

Trying to conceive? Days nine to 12 of your cycle are the time to forgo a 6am workout and spend the extra hour under the sheets.

Sperm can stay viable inside the body for around three days so get jiggy with it ahead of ovulation and you’ll increase your chances of there being a swimmer in the right place to catch your trophy egg when it’s released. As if you need an excuse to sex things up.

Days 13 to 14

Discharge looking like egg whites – clear, stretchy and wet? Then, ding ding ding, you’re ovulating and looking at what experts like to call ‘fertile mucus’.

‘It’s impossible to get pregnant without this clear stretchy secretion,’ says Helen Knox, sexual health nurse and author of Sexplained.

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‘Sperm wiggle their way in to it after ejaculation. It gives them an access route to travel through the cervix into the body of the uterus and off on their journey up to the fallopian tubes, in their hunt for an egg to fertilise.

Don’t want to conceive? Now’s the time to definitely take precautions. Definitely.

Days 15 to 28

Finally, as progesterone levels rise, your discharge will gradually become white, thick and sperm-unfriendly again. ‘From day 21, progesterone levels will be at their highest and discharge at its thickest,’ Pisal says.

If fertilisation hasn’t occurred, the whole cycle will begin again but, if sperm and egg have paired up, this thick mucus will remain. The magic has already happened, after all.

But healthy vaginal discharge isn’t just about what it looks like, says Katie O’Sullivan, clinical lead at the sexual health charity Family Planning Association.

‘Healthy vaginal discharge shouldn’t smell unpleasant and shouldn’t produce any soreness or itching around the vulva (external female genitals),’ she says. But if it does?

What causes abnormal vaginal discharge?

A lot of factors can cause abnormal vaginal discharge, from underwear that fits too tightly to certain washing powders. Here are some common causes and why they arise.

Bacterial vaginosis

The cause:

Expected to find thrush as the top cause of vaginal discomfort? Well sorry to burst your bubble. ‘One in three women will get bacterial vaginosis (BV) at some time in their lives,’ says O’Sullivan of the condition that is twice as common as thrush.

It’s also the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge. Knox explains why: ‘Essentially BV is caused by an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria in the vagina.’

Triggered by? Sex, IUDs and the use of perfumed products where they shouldn’t be.

The discharge:

If you’re experiencing this cause of abnormal vaginal discharge, you’ll know about it.

The discharge has an unmistakable giveaway: ‘In addition to there being more of it, and it being watery with a white or grey colour, it will develop a strong, fishy smell, especially after sex,’ says O’Sullivan.

The cure:

Use an an over-the-counter lactic acid gel to help rebalance its healthy bacterial conditions. Knox recommends Balance Activ for restoring normal pH and vaginal flora.

Canesten Canestest Thrush & BV Screening Test




The cause:

Next up, it’s the yeasty infection that many women in their 20s and 30s know well.

Caused, unsurprisingly, by an overgrowth of yeast in the vagina it is more likely to occur if you’re feeling run down, have poorly controlled diabetes, try to have sex when you’re not properly aroused or are on antibiotics.

The discharge:

‘With thrush, vaginal discharge will usually be white, thicker than normal and a little lumpy – like cottage cheese,’ says Knox. But the biggest giveaway? ‘It’ll itch.’ It may also cause you pain when you pee or during sex.

Canesten Thrush Combi Pessary & External Cream, Clotrimazole, Complete Thrush Treatment

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The cure:

Treat thrush with an over-the-counter anti-fungal remedy such as those by Canesten, which come as a pessary, cream or tablet.


The cause:

Like hay fever sufferer knows, allergies bring out the worst in you: watery eyes, runny nose and itches. And your vagina is no exception.

Switch to a new on-offer brand of shower gel, washing powder or tampon and you may find you get more than you bargained for with your body secreting more mucus to combat an allergy.

Oh hi, excessive discharge.

The discharge:

There’ll be more of it for starters, with itching down below common too.

The cure:

Stop using the new product, if you think this could be the cause, and consult your GP for further advice if the problem persists.

Lost condom or tampon

The cause:

Like excessive discharge, experts will all admit that this problem happens more frequently than anyone dare admit. #awkward

The discharge:

Left untreated, your discharge could end up pretty foul-smelling. Why? You have an overgrowth of bacteria in a confined space to thank for that one.

And, if you simply grin and bear it, you could find yourself entering toxic shock syndrome zone. Which you do not want.

The cure:

Get your lost property out. Try squatting with one foot propped up so you can get proper groping access – with clean fingers, obvs. No joy? Lie on your back. Still nothing? You need help.

Your GP should be able to uncork things with the aid of a speculum – and make sure no nasty remnants have been left behind.

Sexually transmitted infections

The cause:

With numbers of many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on the rise, getting to know which ones can cause abnormal vaginal discharge is pretty important. Especially as, if left untreated, they can lead to serious medical conditions and infertility.

The two key STIs to watch out for, when it comes to their impact on healthy vaginal discharge, are trichomoniasis, which is caused by a parasite; and gonorrhoea, which is a bacterial infection.

The discharge:

Expect a frothy, watery, greyish discharge from trichomoniasis; and with gonorrhoea, something watery and yellow or green.

The cure:

Both can be treated with a course of antibiotics. O’Sullivan recommends checking out the FPA’s website to find your nearest sexual health or GUM clinic, where an expert will be able to test for the STI with a urine or swab test.

Certain cancers

The cause:

According to the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, certain changes in discharge could be a sign of cervical or endometrial cancer, especially if paired with other symptoms such as constant fatigue, belly bloat and pain in the pelvis area.

The discharge:

If you notice blood in your discharge, or that it’s turned from a healthy clear and odourless mucus to something dark and smelly, best get yourself checked out.

The cure:

Treatment will depend on where in the cervix the cancer is and its size, says Cancer Research UK. A specialist will advise you on the best cause of treatment for your case, which could include surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

Not sure what your discharge is trying to tell you? ‘Use the symptom checker at balanceactiv.com to identify what may be causing any abnormal vaginal discharge,’ Knox suggests. Vaginal health at your fingertips. Happy days.

Mooncup Size A



An oldie but a goodie, the Mooncup just works — though the more ‘sight of blood-averse’ among us may prefer one that’s not clear.

Fair Squared Period Cup Pink

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Squishy and made of pinkish Fair Trade natural latex, this cup is a favourite with the period cup aficionados.

Saalt Soft Menstrual Cup



A good option if you want to move away from the ‘periods = girls = pink’ way of thinking.


Gotta love Wales-based brand TOTM, with their charitable mission, sustainable ethos and bright cups.

OrganiCup The Menstrual Cup Mini



Good, tried and tested, no-fuss cup.

The DivaCup



One of the earlier launches, garnering a clan of Diva Cup disciples.

BeYou Menstrual Cup

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Newly launched, this BEYOU cup comes in pretty colours and is a bit cheaper than its rival brands. It also has measurements on the side, if you like that kind of thing.

Intimina Lily Cup Compact



Thought to be a good beginner’s menstrual cup, Intima’s offering is also COLLAPSIBLE.

Hey Girls Menstrual Cup

A real bargain, and you’re helping UK period poverty as Hey Girls donates one for every one bought.

&Sisters nudie Period Cup



Known for its game-changing ‘Pebble’ pull, & Sisters’ cup has been created by women for women with tried and tested comfort in mind.

Ziggy Cup



This guy has a flat-fit design, so you can wear it during sex. 

Lunette Reusable Menstrual Cup



Made of super soft silicone, this one is very comfy to insert. 

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Vaginal Discharge – American Family Physician

Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit familydoctor.org, the AAFP patient education website.

Patient Information Collection

Information from Your Family Doctor


Am Fam Physician. 2004 May 1;69(9):2191-2192.

Is vaginal discharge normal?

Yes. The glands inside your vagina and cervix make small amounts of fluid. This fluid flows out of the vagina each day, carrying out old cells. This is your body’s way of keeping your vagina healthy and clean. The discharge is usually clear or milky and does not smell bad.

The color and thickness of the discharge change with your menstrual cycle. There is more discharge when you ovulate or breastfeed, or when you are sexually excited.

How do I know if I have a problem?

Changes that may signal a problem include an increase in the amount of discharge, a change in the color or smell of the discharge, and irritation, itchiness, or burning in or around your vagina. This is called vaginitis. Discharge that is stained with blood when you are not having your period also can be a sign of a problem. Talk to your doctor if you have any of these symptoms.

What causes these changes?

Changes in vaginal discharge can occur if the normal balance of healthy bacteria in your vagina is upset. Many things can cause this imbalance, including douching, feminine hygiene sprays, certain soaps or bubble baths, antibiotics, diabetes, pregnancy, or infections.

How can douching be harmful?

The chemicals in vaginal douches may irritate your vagina and change the normal balance of good bacteria. Douching also can spread an infection from your vagina or cervix up into the uterus, increasing your risk of getting pelvic inflammatory disease (also called PID). PID is a painful infection of the fallopian tubes that can cause you to be unable to get pregnant.

Douching is not necessary to keep your body clean. Odors usually come from outside the vagina. Keeping this area clean with gentle soap and water can prevent odors.

What is a yeast infection?

Small amounts of yeast are often found in a healthy vagina. But if too much yeast grows, it can cause an infection. Symptoms of yeast infection include the following:

  • A thick white discharge that looks like cottage cheese

  • Swelling and pain around the vulva (the skin around the vagina)

  • Intense itching

  • Painful sexual intercourse

Yeast infections usually are not caught from a sex partner. You may be more likely to get a yeast infection if you are using antibiotics or steroids, are pregnant, or have diabetes. Some women get frequent yeast infections for no obvious reason.

How are yeast infections treated?

Yeast infections usually are treated with a cream or gel that you put into your vagina. Yeast infections also can be treated with medicine that you take by mouth.

If you have yeast infections often, your doctor might tell you to use a medicine you can buy without a prescription. But if you have any questions about what is causing your vaginitis, or if you are pregnant, you should call your doctor. Many other things besides a yeast infection can cause vaginitis.

What is bacterial vaginosis?

Bacterial vaginosis usually is caused by an overgrowth of a certain kind of bacteria. No one knows why some women get this infection. Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis include the following:

  • White, gray, or yellowish vaginal discharge

  • A fishy odor that is strongest after sex or after washing with soap

  • Itching or burning

  • Slight redness and swelling of the vagina or vulva

Bacterial vaginosis usually is treated with antibiotic pills or creams.

What is trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis (say: trik-oh-mown-eye-a-sis) is an infection caused by a parasite. It is usually caught by having sex without a condom with a person who is infected with Trichomona. Some people who are infected may not have any symptoms for a long time. Symptoms include the following:

  • A watery, yellowish or greenish, bubbly discharge

  • A bad smell

  • Pain and itching when urinating

Trichomoniasis usually is treated with antibiotic pills.

What about other infections?

Two sexually transmitted diseases, chlamydia and gonorrhea, also can cause vaginal discharge. These are infections of the cervix that are caused by bacteria. Sometimes the only symptom of these infections is an increased vaginal discharge. Both of these infections can be treated with antibiotic shots or pills.

Should my sex partner be treated?

If you have trichomoniasis, chlamydia, or gonorrhea, your sex partner also must be treated. If you have a yeast infection, your sex partner may not need to be treated. Talk with your doctor to find out. You and your partner should avoid sex until after you have been treated.

Tips on preventing vaginitis
  • Do not douche.

  • Avoid using feminine hygiene sprays, colored or perfumed toilet paper, sanitary pads or tampons that contain a deodorant, and bubble bath.

  • After using the toilet, always wipe from front to back. Doing this may help keep bacteria from your rectal area from getting into your vagina.

  • Wear cotton underpants during the day. Cotton allows your genital area to “breathe.” Do not wear underpants at night.

  • Avoid wearing tight pants, pantyhose, swimming suits, biking shorts, or leotards for long periods.

  • Change your laundry detergent or fabric softener if you think it may be irritating your genital area.

  • The latex in condoms and diaphragms and the sperm-killing gels that are used for birth control can be irritating to some women. If you think one of these things is a problem for you, talk to your doctor about other types of birth control.

  • Avoid using hot tubs.

  • Bathe or shower daily and gently pat your genital area dry with a clean towel.

Vaginal Discharge – Clinical Methods


Vaginal discharge may be a subjective complaint or an objective finding. Patients may complain of excessive secretions, abnormally colored or textured secretions, or malodorous secretions. In the absence of a complaint, the examiner may note abnormal secretions (asymptomatic to the patient). The term vaginal discharge is often used by patients to refer to any genital discomfort. The complaint must be verified by physical and laboratory examination to differentiate abnormal from physiologic discharge and to determine diagnosis and treatment.


Eliciting the cause of a vaginal discharge requires a good gynecologic history with particular attention to the following details.

The woman’s age, last menstrual period, regularity, and timing of cycles should be obtained. Her hormone status (pre- or postmenopausal) must be known. Ask if a birth control method is necessary, and if so, what is used. Yeast infections often occur just before menses, trichomonas just after. Gonorrhea ascends to the upper tract postmenses. Postmenopausal women are less likely to have yeast and more likely to have noninfectious causes. Pregnancy and birth control pills predispose to yeast infections.

Ask if the discharge is acute, chronic, or frequently recurrent. Discharges that patients claim “never go away” are likely to be bacterial vaginosis, if pathologic, or simply physiologic discharges.

Ask specifically about pruritus, internal dysuria (felt inside the body), external dysuria (felt on the labia), dyspareunia, irritation, and offensive odor. Internal dysuria suggests urinary infection, gonorrhea, or chlamydia. External dysuria suggests vulvovaginal irritation with secondary burn from urine. Candida is intensely pruritic, trichomonas less so, and bacterial vaginosis rarely. Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis can both cause dysuria, usually external. Bacterial vaginosis has a fishy odor; trichomonas, a foul one. The intense inflammatory reaction of yeast or trichomonas can cause dyspareunia. Herpes can cause intense external dysuria and pruritus.

Attempt to characterize the discharge by color and consistency. Color may be white, gray, yellow, or brown (if mixed with blood). Consistency may be mucoid (thin), thick, frothy, or cheesy. Yeast is often like cottage cheese. Bacterial vaginosis is often grayish white and nonhomogeneous. Color and consistency alone cannot make a diagnosis, however.

The presence of fever or abdominal pain must be sought. If present, think of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and upper genital tract infection, or of urinary tract infection. Primary herpes can also cause fever and malaise. Vaginitis should not have systemic symptoms.

As with all sexually transmitted diseases, it is important to know the sex of the patient’s sexual partner(s), the number of partners, any recent change in partners, and whether the partner(s) have symptoms. Vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and herpes can all be transmitted between lesbian partners; gonorrhea, very rarely. The prevalence of various sexually transmitted diseases varies depending on the population studied (emergency room, office-based practice, sexually transmitted disease clinic).

Elicit a history of douching, home remedies, over-the-counter remedies, or leftover treatments from past infections. Hygiene practices, such as frequent douching with commercial douches or scrubbing the genitals, can cause irritant dermatitis that may be the primary or secondary cause of the presenting problem. Recent medication use may alter the physical and laboratory examination.

Many patients believe all vaginitis to be “yeast” infections and use the term generically. Despite adequate treatment, bacterial vaginosis and yeast are often recurrent in some women, who will eloquently tell you, “This is exactly what I had before.”

A good history of underlying medical conditions, particularly those that predispose to candidiasis, is important. Recent antibiotic usage for other conditions (such as penicillin prescribed by a dentist) should be sought.

A comprehensive pelvic examination is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of vaginal discharge (see Chapter 177). Particular attention should be directed to looking for herpetic vesicles and contact dermatitis on the external genitalia. The vaginal walls should be checked for erythema and coating with discharge. Look for mucopus in the endocervix by cleaning the ectocervix with a swab, inserting a small sterile swab in the endocervix, and noting the presence of yellow pus on the swab. A bimanual examination should be done. Appropriate laboratory specimens should be obtained (see Chapter 179).

In the diagnosis and treatment of vaginal discharge, the history correlates poorly with objective clinical findings. Effective diagnosis must include physical examination and office laboratory procedures.

Basic Science

The clinician must determine if the woman has a physiologic discharge, a vulvovaginal infection, cervicitis, or upper genital tract infection.

Normal genital secretions are a mixture of transudate through mucous membranes, secretions from glandular structures, and desquamated vaginal epithelial cells. Both the amount and consistency of cervical secretions and the desquamation of epithelial cells are hormone dependent and may increase during ovulation, premenstrually, with pregnancy, or with the use of oral contraceptives. Normal discharge is asymptomatic except for occasional complaints of excessive secretions. A physiologic discharge is usually clear to white, nonadherent to the vaginal wall, and pooled in the posterior fornix. It can appear nonhomogenous with clumps of desquamated epithelial cells. It has a pH of less than 4.5, no offensive odor, and an abundance of epithelial cells on saline microscopy. (Women with copious amounts of desquamated cells who are otherwise asymptomatic are often those who present frequently with “recurrent vaginal discharge.”)

The major causes of abnormal vaginal discharge are either vaginal or cervical infections. Causes of vaginal infections are Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida albicans. Primary cervical infections causing vaginal discharge are Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Herpes simplex. In the prepubertal girl, N. gonorrhoeae causes a vaginal rather than cervical infection.

Noninfectious causes of vaginal discharge include atrophic vaginitis, foreign body, malignancy, contact dermatitis, or other mechanical or chemical irritation. An intrauterine contraceptive device can sometimes cause vaginal discharge related to chronic irritant cervicitis or endometritis.

Bacterial vaginosis will be the diagnosis in 40 to 50% of women presenting to office practices with vaginitis. It was formerly called haemophilus vaginitis and is often called by its unfortunate misnomer, nonspecific vaginitis. Most recently it has been called Gardnerella, after its associated organism.

Gardnerella is a short, gram-negative to variable bacillus that may be a colonizer in the vagina. It is controversial whether Gardnerella itself produces the signs and symptoms of the disease or whether its symbiotic relationship with vaginal anaerobes is necessary to produce the characteristic gray, homogeneous, malodorous discharge. The disease is limited to sexually active women, but clear evidence for sexual transmission is lacking, and the need for treatment of partners is unclear. Diagnosis is made by laboratory methods. (See Chapter 179 for criteria.)

Candida vaginitis, or “yeast,” occurs less frequently than patients or physicians believe. In one group of self-referred women who offered to be part of a study on chronic recurrent yeast infections, only 50% were found to have Candida vaginitis. When it occurs, the offending pathogen is usually Candida albicans. Again, it is controversial whether this is a normal colonizer of the vagina. Its pathogenicity is not related to its concentration in the vagina; small amounts can cause excruciating symptoms. Normal bacterial colonization has been thought to be important in the defense against Candida infection; for example, some lactobacilli inhibit the growth of Candida. However, women with Candida still have predominant lactobacilli on gram stain of vaginal fluid. This belief in the efficacy of lactobacilli has led to the home remedy of yogurt containing lactobacillus, used intravaginally with an applicator or as a douche, for treatment of vaginitis. Sexual transmission has not been proven to be important in most cases, although treating male partners may help in recalcitrant cases. Host factors (e.g., recent antibiotic treatment, pregnancy, oral contraceptives) all predispose to yeast infection. It is not known why pregnancy and use of oral contraceptive pills predispose to yeast infection. Diabetes mellitus out of control facilitates yeast growth in the vagina, but most women with recurrent yeast do not have diabetes. Women with diabetes are at risk for all forms of sexually transmitted diseases and must be examined and treated appropriately. Some women seem to be particularly predisposed to recurrent candida vaginitis without apparent reason, causing them considerable morbidity and expense. Whether this is due to gastrointestinal tract colonization, deep vaginal wall penetration of the Candida, or other factors is not known and leaves a frustrating problem for patient and clinician.

Candida vaginitis has the most characteristic history of the vaginitides, with pruritus being the most prominent symptom, often with sparse or no discharge. The discharge, when present, may resemble cottage cheese. Erythema and swelling of the vulva and vaginal walls are marked. Diagnosis is suggested by history and confirmed by physical examination and potassium hydroxide preparation or culture.

Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan that grows well at a pH of 6. Its role as a sexually transmitted organism has been well established. However, it is a common organism often found asymptomatically in sexually inactive postmenopausal women. It can be associated with other sexually transmitted diseases, especially gonorrhea. Trichomonas infects squamous, but not columnar, epithelium. The urethra and Skene’s glands are often involved, explaining the need for systemic rather than local therapy. The ectocervix may be involved, with punctate hemorrhages producing the typical strawberry cervix, but this is seen only 2 to 5% of the time. Discharge may be gray or greenish yellow and is not usually frothy, but is usually excessive. Trichomonas induces a polymorphonuclear leukocyte response easily seen in wet-mount preparations. Diagnosis is made by wet mount.

Occasionally wet-mount examination of vaginal discharge yields only white blood cells with no evidence of trichomonas or of mucopus from the cervix. These women are usually at low risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Cervical ectopy with inflammation, rather than infection, may be the cause. The cause of this condition is not known, but all usual sources of vaginitis should be looked for. Because of misuse of the term nonspecific vaginitis, it is probably best to call this simply “inflammatory vaginitis.”

Over-the-counter douches, scented toilet paper, and contraceptive products are some of the more common etiologies for local irritation and contact dermatitis. Forgotten diaphragms and tampons must be looked for with malodorous discharges. Postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginal mucosa may develop a watery, irritating, sometimes malodorous discharge secondary to local irritation, especially from intercourse. This may be mixed with blood, and can be mistaken for postmenopausal bleeding.

Cervicitis has been a poorly defined term used to refer to a variety of conditions including a pathologic diagnosis, cervical ectopy, and true cervical infection. It is to be hoped that the expanded interest in sexually transmitted diseases will lead to more precise criteria for its use. At present, the most important infectious cervical pathogens that can produce vaginal discharge include N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and herpes simplex. Objective criteria have been developed for the diagnosis of mucopurulent cervicitis (see Chapter 179). Most women with mucopurulent cervicitis will have gonorrhea, chlamydia, or both. Both are pathogens of the cervix and upper female genital tract as well as the urethra, and require systemic treatment.

Clinical Significance

While vaginal discharge is occasionally the presenting symptom of a serious systemic illness such as diabetes mellitus or endometrial cancer, its major significance lies in the discomfort and suffering of the women who have it. Vaginal discharge is one of the twenty-five most common reasons for visits to primary care offices, and represents an even greater proportion of visits to gynecologic offices and sexually transmitted disease clinics. It has a morbidity that includes pain, time lost from work, sexual unhappiness, family disruption, sexual transmission of disease, systemic illness, and infertility.

Vaginal discharge is the common symptom of a variety of diseases each of which has a distinct treatment. Incorrect diagnosis has medical and social consequences. If not correctly identified, normal women with physiologic discharge may present frequently for treatment of their “vaginitis.” Sexually transmitted infections will recur if partners are not treated appropriately and patients are not counseled appropriately. Upper genital tract spread can occur with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, leading to systemic illness, hospitalization, and chronic disease. Iatrogenic vulvovaginal candidiasis, seen especially in young women who have had antibiotics prescribed for other reasons, is a common problem that can be avoided with appropriate forethought and prescription. Unrecognized herpes simplex, vulvovaginal candidiasis, or gonococcal infection at the time of delivery can cause illness in the neonate. Repeated doctor visits, and increased health care costs, result from incorrect diagnoses treated by telephone or without laboratory examinations.

The incidence of sexually transmitted disease is on the increase. One hopes that new physician interest and research in the problem of vaginitis will lead to better diagnosis and treatment.


  1. Brunham RC, Paavonen J, Stevens CE. et al. Mucopurulent cervicitis—the ignored counterpart in women of urethritis in men. N Engl J Med. 1984;311:1–6. [PubMed: 6427611]
  2. Eschenbach DA. Vulvovaginal discharge. In: Peckham BM, Shario SS, eds. Signs and symptoms in gynecology. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1983;254–61.

  3. Fleury FJ. Adult vaginitis. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1981;24:407–38. [PubMed: 7307366]
  4. *Holmes KK. Lower genital tract infections in women: cystitis/urethritis, vulvovaginitis, and cervicitis. In: Holmes KK, Mardh PA, Sparling PF, et al., eds. Sexually transmitted diseases. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984;557–89.

  5. Sobel JD. Bacterial vaginosis—an ecologic mystery. Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:551–52. [PubMed: 2672930]
  6. Spence MR, Hollander DH, Smith J. et al. The clinical and laboratory diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Sex Transm Dis. 1980;7:168–71. [PubMed: 7006116]

Signs of Infection, Treatment and Prevention

Normal vaginal discharge:

  • Is thin, clear, white or slightly yellow in color
  • Often increases 2 weeks before menstruation
  • May change or increase with some birth control methods
  • Has no bad odor
  • Does not cause itchiness or irritation

Normal vaginal discharge is made up of a liquid (mucus) and bacteria. The mucus helps to clean the vagina. There is both good and bad bacteria in the mucus. The good bacteria keep everything in balance. Small amounts of yeast may also be present. Bacteria help yeast from growing out of control, too. When one kind of bacteria grows too much, you may have an infection.

After intercourse you may notice a musky odor. If the odor lasts more than a day, it may mean that you have an infection.

Signs of Infection

A vaginal discharge alone does not mean there is an infection. If you have any of these other signs or you have unprotected sex (sex without a condom), you should see your health care provider.

  • Vaginal itching, burning or irritation
  • Thick, white vaginal discharge
  • A change in what the discharge usually looks like
  • Bad odor that lasts more than a day
  • Painful intercourse
  • Painful urination
  • Pain or tenderness in your lower abdomen (tummy)
  • Blisters, bumps or sores in your genital area


Each infection has its own treatment. Most vaginal infections are not serious and can be cured with prescription medicine. If not treated, your symptoms may get worse or put you at risk for future problems.

Sexually transmitted infections (STDs) can be more difficult to treat and are easily spread to others. That is why it is important to see your health care provider to know what to do (Picture 1).

All women who are sexually active need to see their health care provider at least once a year.

How to Prevent Vaginal Infections

Even if you are careful, vaginal infections can occur. You can reduce your chance of infection by doing the following:

Cleanliness and Hygiene

  • Take a shower or bath regularly using a plain, mild soap or just water. Do not use bubble bath.
  • Avoid using vaginal sprays and scented products.
  • Use plain white toilet tissue.
  • After using the bathroom, always wipe from front to back.
  • Wash and dry your hands before touching the vaginal area.
  • After intercourse, try to urinate to help prevent a urinary tract infection.

Tampons, Sanitary Pads and Liners

  • Use unscented tampons, sanitary pads and liners.
  • Change often, at least every 2 to 3 hours.
  • Remove the tampon before going to bed and wear a pad instead.


Do not douche unless your health care provider tells you to. These products do not prevent or treat infections. Instead, they can kill the good bacteria, change the balance of organisms in your vagina, irritate the skin or cause vaginal infections.


  • Wear cotton or cotton-lined underpants. Cotton absorbs moisture. It keeps you cooler and drier. Synthetics can trap moisture and cause irritation.
  • Avoid tight-fitting leggings, tights and pants. They do not let air move.
  • Avoid sitting around in damp or sweaty clothing.


A healthy lifestyle helps you fight infections.

  • Eat healthy, exercise regularly and get enough sleep.
  • If your health care provider thinks your weight may be causing infections, they will tell you what to do.
  • Limit the number of sexual partners. Use condoms during intercourse to help prevent sexually transmitted infections.

If You Have a Vaginal Infection

  • Take all the medicine as prescribed. If you stop taking the medicine before the infection is completely cured, the infection may return.
  • If the doctor prescribes a vaginal cream, do not use tampons while you are using the cream. The tampons will absorb the cream.
  • Do not have intercourse until your treatment is finished and you have no more signs of infection.
  • If your doctor says the infection can be spread through intercourse, tell your partner. This is very important because your partner may also need treatment.

When to Call Your Health Care Provider

Call your health care provider (phone) at _______________________ or Adolescent Health at (614) 722-2450 if any of the following occurs:

  • You have finished your medicine and you still have symptoms of vaginal infection.
  • You have a fever.
  • You have any pain.

Vaginal Discharge (PDF)

Vaginal Discharge (PDF) – Spanish

Vaginal Discharge (PDF) – Somali

HH-I-119 ©1998, Revised 2020, Nationwide Children’s Hospital

Vaginal Discharge: What’s Normal, What’s Not (for Teens)

What Is Vaginal Discharge?

Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from the vagina. You might see this on the toilet paper when you wipe, or in your underwear.

Normal vaginal discharge has several purposes: cleaning and moistening the vagina, and helping to prevent and fight infections. It’s normal for the color, texture, and amount of vaginal discharge to change at different times of the month during a girl’s menstrual cycle. But some changes in discharge may mean there is a problem.

What Is Normal Vaginal Discharge?

Normal vaginal discharge can be:

  • somewhat thin, sticky, and elastic
  • thick and gooey

For some girls, it’s normal to have a lot of vaginal discharge. They may even need to wear a pantiliner to keep their underwear dry. Other girls may not have much vaginal discharge at all.

Vaginal fluids should be clear, white, or off-white in color.

What Are the Signs of a Problem with Vaginal Discharge?

These signs can mean there’s a problem with a girl’s discharge:

  • a change in odor, especially an unpleasant odor
  • a change in color, especially greenish, grayish, or anything looking like pus
  • a change in texture, such as foamy or looking like cottage cheese
  • vaginal itching, burning, swelling, or redness
  • vaginal bleeding or spotting that is not a menstrual period

What Can Cause Changes in Vaginal Discharge?

Infections are the most common cause of unusual vaginal discharge. These infections include:

What Should I Do If I Notice a Change in My Vaginal Discharge?

If you think your vaginal discharge has changed, make an appointment with your doctor right away. This is especially important if you’ve had sex because it could be a sign of an STD. Most causes of vaginal discharge can be treated.

90,000 Vaginal prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF2a) to induce labor at term

Induction of labor is offered to pregnant women when it is expected that the birth outcome will be better for the mother and / or baby than with continued pregnancy. The most common causes include prolonged pregnancy, ruptured membranes, and concerns about maternal health such as preeclampsia or the baby such as intrauterine growth retardation. Prostaglandins – hormones produced throughout the body (body) can be used to induce labor.They are applied topically to the vagina in the form of tablets, gels, suppositories, and pessaries to reduce side effects. Dose, number of injections and time between doses vary considerably. Sustained-release pessaries reduce the need for repeated doses and the number of repeated vaginal examinations.

The purpose of the review was to determine the efficacy and safety of vaginal prostaglandins in the third trimester for cervical maturation and induction of labor (the cervix softens, shortens and opens, the uterus begins to contract regularly).Eight different comparisons were made, different vaginal prostaglandins were compared with either placebo, no treatment, or other vaginal prostaglandins (PGE2, PGF2a, excluding misoprostol), different drugs and dosages were compared. We identified 70 studies involving a total of 11,487 women. Vaginal prostaglandins increase the likelihood of a vaginal birth within 24 hours, but they can also stimulate the uterus to contract excessively, which can slow the infant’s heart rate.However, prostaglandins did not increase the frequency of Caesarean section and may even decrease it. Overall, these trials show no effect (improvement or worsening) on ​​many important outcomes. Prostaglandin E2 tablets, gel, or pessaries, including sustained-release forms, appear to be equally good, or the differences between them are small and have not yet been found in clinical trials. The low dose regimens as defined in the review appeared to be as effective as the high dose regimens (eight studies, 1615 women).

Very limited data were available in the included studies on time to labor and patient satisfaction. Several studies have looked at the safety of using vaginal prostaglandins to induce labor in an outpatient setting.

The secret and clear meaning of human sweat

  • Jason G. Goldman
  • BBC Future

Photo author, Getty

We all know that people sweat when they are hot or when they experiencing excitement or embarrassment.Less well known is the fact that sweat actually carries certain emotional messages. The signals transmitted by the evaporation were picked up by the correspondent

BBC Future .

In 1934, a respected British physiologist and physician named McSweeney, speaking to his colleagues at a meeting of the Royal Society of Medicine, complained that many pundits neglected the study of the chemical composition of human sweat. Instead, their focus is solely on the mechanism by which sweat evaporates from the surface of the body, allowing it to cool.

But McSweeney knew that the meaning of perspiration is much deeper and is not limited to just cooling the body through evaporation. Under certain conditions, “the loss of blood plasma components due to prolonged sweating can be quite significant.”

In other words, along with sweat, some other substances are excreted from the human body. But what are these substances and to what effect – positive or negative – does their loss lead?

Periodic Table and Beyond

Our sweat contains certain substances that we would not want to lose at all.Take, for example, chlorine compounds, i.e. chlorides.

These components – chlorine atoms, which often combine with sodium atoms to produce (table) salt – are important for maintaining acid-base balance, regulating the movement of fluids in cells and intercellular space, and for transmitting impulses along nerve fibers.

When some of these compounds leave the body along with sweat, this is normal, but in some cases, the body can lose too much chloride.

For example, imagine that you work for several hours in the heat. Most of us know that we need to drink water in order to maintain the required level of fluid in the body. But if you sweat too much and drink too much water, you will develop symptoms of water poisoning.

Photo author, Getty

Photo caption,

Human sweat contains ammonia, proteins, sugars, potassium and bicarbonate salt (soda), as well as many trace metals

In such conditions, the body is simply not able to quickly enough to restore the amount of chlorides that leaves the body with sweat.

Sweat also contains urea, the substance that gives urine its name. According to at least one estimate, 0.24 to 1.12 milligrams of this substance is dissolved in every cubic centimeter of sweat.

It may seem that this is not so much, but considering that from 600 to 700 cubic centimeters of sweat is excreted from the human body every day, it turns out that together with it, up to 7% of the urea it needs is excreted from the body daily.

Human sweat also contains ammonia, proteins, sugars, potassium and bicarbonate (soda).Not to mention the trace metals such as zinc, copper, iron, nickel, cadmium, lead and even a little manganese.

For many of these metals, perspiration is an important mechanism for removing them from the body.

Valves for perspiration

Sweat leaves the human body through two types of glands. The apocrine glands are found in the armpits, nostrils, nipples, ears, and parts of the genitals.

However, there are many more eccrine sweat glands in the body, millions of which are located practically on the entire surface of the human body – everywhere except the lips and genitals.

Photo author, Getty

Photo caption,

How a person sweating smells sends a specific signal to others

When the body and skin get too hot, heat receptors send a message to the brain that determines the degree of heating. In the brain, the hypothalamus – a small collection of cells that controls hunger, thirst, sleep, and body temperature – sends a message back to the apocrine and eccrine glands, signaling them to begin pumping sweat.

There is also a third type of sweat gland that was discovered in 1987.They are found in the same locations as the apocrine sweat glands, but since researchers were unable to classify them as apocrine or eccrine, they are called apoecrine sweat glands.

Some scientists believe that these are eccrine glands that undergo changes during puberty.

Means of communication

Not all substances that leave our body with sweat are chemical in nature.

Each of us at one time or another began to sweat due to the fact that we ate something spicy; and most people are familiar with sweating emotionally, feeling fear, embarrassment, anxiety, or pain.

It is not surprising that sweating caused by emotions is often associated with parts of the body such as palms, foreheads, and feet. In these places, eccrine glands are located with a much higher density, up to 700 pieces per square centimeter, while, for example, on the back there are only 64 of them per square centimeter.

Emotional sweating turns out to be an important communication tool. In fact, the tinge of sweat we smell in such a situation can tell us a lot about what other people are experiencing.


In one experiment, conducted by five psychologists from the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands, scientists collected sweat samples from 10 men while they watched a video designed to induce feelings of fear (excerpts from the movie “The Shining”) or disgust (excerpts from the TV series “Freaks”, on MTV).

Photo author, iStock

Photo caption,

The sweat of skydivers smells special for the first time

engaging in excessive physical activity two days before their sweat samples are taken.

The researchers then asked 36 women to determine what kind of emotions the men felt when they had sweat samples taken.

Scientists have found that the faces of women who sniffed sweat samples taken while the man was afraid expressed the same feeling.

When women were asked to sniff samples taken from disgusted men, their faces mirrored the same emotions.

(Sweat pads, which were left unused, were used as control samples to check the results of the experiment; they did not cause any predictable expressions on the faces of the participants in the experiment).

Thus, the results of the experiment give reason to believe that sweat, apparently, is an effective means of transferring the emotional state of one person to another.

It is important that the expressions on the faces of women when they sniffed samples were completely independent of their individual perceptions of how unpleasant or intense the odor was. Therefore, they could express feelings of disgust even if they had previously said that a particular sweat sample smells good.

Similar examples could be seen in other experiments. In 2006, psychologists from Rice University in Houston, Texas,

made an interesting discovery.

They found that women who sniffed sweat samples from a frightened person (this time from both men and women) performed better on the word association task than those who sniffed sweat samples from people who watched videos with neutral content.

The same thing happened with people who sniffed pads that did not contain sweat.The signals sent by the frightened people sweat sharpened their perception of their surroundings.

Smell older than speech

In 2012, psychologists and psychiatrists at New York State University took sweat samples from T-shirts of 64 donors. Half of the donors wearing these T-shirts were parachuting from an airplane for the first time, and the other half were doing intense physical exercise with increased stress.

People who sniffed samples of parachutists’ sweat became nervous at the sight of angry faces, as well as those with vague and neutral expressions.

Psychologists attribute this to heightened vigilance: the sweat taken from the parachute jumpers prompted participants to pay attention to any possible hidden social signals that otherwise might have gone unnoticed.

Photo author, Getty

Photo caption,

Even the sight of sweaty skin can evoke quite certain emotions

Those who smelled the sweat of tired people doing physical exercises tensed only at the sight of angry faces, which one would expect under any conditions.


another experiment by German psychologists and neurologists showed that the sweat of anxious men (who participated in tightrope walking courses) caused women to make risky decisions after spending more time contemplating their choices in a computer game designed to assess risky behavior.

None of these studies have ever determined whether the participants are aware that the smell of sweat from other people changes their own behavior and decisions.But the results obtained suggest that, at least in some cases, sweat can convey important information about a person’s inner state of mind to others.

They also talk about how we use the information contained in the sweat of other people in order to better understand our environment.

Perhaps this is not surprising. Our biological species seems to have adapted to verbal and linguistic types of communication, but language is a relatively new tool in our social toolbox.

Therefore, it seems reasonable to imagine that our ancestors took full advantage of the data they received through their sense of smell. And they passed these skills on to us.

In fact, humans are clearly better at recognizing the emotions of virtual humans on a computer monitor when cartoon characters are sweating.

Not only that, but the increased sweat production seems to allow us to better perceive the depth of the depicted emotions. In other words, sweat sends not only an olfactory signal, but a visual signal as well.

Ultimately, sweat is more than just a ventilation and air conditioning system for the body. He can turn out to be a kind of weather vane, an instrument that transmits the hidden feelings of a person to his friends and family.


Almost every woman has encountered this unpleasant disease at least once in her life. In general, cystitis can be safely called a female disease, because men practically do not get sick with it.

This is due to the peculiarities of female physiology and anatomy: firstly, a woman has a short, up to 5 cm, urethra (which means that it is easier for bacteria to get into the bladder), and secondly, the anus, vagina and urethra are located very close to each other to a friend, which facilitates easy “movement” of infections.

Cystitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder. The disease can be acute (the process develops rapidly, has a pronounced clinical picture, but responds well to therapy) and chronic (recurrent infection, which is not too pronounced during exacerbations, but treatment is associated with certain difficulties).


Factors predisposing to the onset of cystitis can be conditionally divided into two groups: biological and behavioral.

biological include: congenital anomalies of the genitourinary tract, frequent urinary infections in childhood, somatic diseases (diabetes mellitus), urinary incontinence, genital prolapse. Among behavioral ones, are distinguished: excessive sexual activity, unprotected sex (i.e. not using condoms and spermicides), which leads to the development of genital infections, neglect of personal hygiene rules, self-medication and uncontrolled intake of antibiotics (this contributes to the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics , which seriously complicates treatment).

In most cases, cystitis is caused by bacterial flora , in particular, the notorious Escherichia coli, which lives in the lower part of the human intestine. Due to the presence of “flagella”, the bacterium moves quite easily and is attached to the mucous membranes. In addition, streptococci and staphylococci and other bacterial flora can cause cystitis. A separate item is to highlight sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, Trichomonas, etc.), which primarily affect the genitals, but from the vagina can enter the urethra and provoke inflammation of the bladder.

Also, cystitis can be caused by exposure to radiation therapy in the course of treatment of oncological pathology.

Symptoms of cystitis are also characteristic of another disease – leukoplakia of the bladder (modification of the mucous membrane of the bladder neck). There are areas that do not protect the walls of the bladder from the active influence of urine components, which causes chronic inflammation.

It is important here to identify and differentiate leukoplakia, since in this case a different treatment is needed.

Hypothermia , which many women consider the main cause of cystitis, cannot in itself cause illness. However, this is a general stressful situation for the body, which causes a decrease in immunity and, as a result, the multiplication of bacteria occurs much faster and easier, which leads to an inflammatory process.

It has its own characteristics postpartum cystitis .During childbirth, when the fetus passes through the birth canal, the blood supply and innervation of the pelvic organs, including the bladder, are disrupted, which can also contribute to the development of infection. In addition, after childbirth, the hormonal background changes in the body (other hormones begin to “work”), respectively, there is a restructuring of the immune system, the body’s defenses are weakened, and against this background inflammation and cystitis can occur.


Symptoms of acute and chronic cystitis are similar, only in the first case they will be more pronounced.It is:

– increased body temperature;

– pain in the lower abdomen;

– increased urge to urinate;

– “false” urge and urination in small portions;

– pain, cramps, discomfort during urination;

– burning sensation in the external genital area.

In the absence of treatment or delayed treatment, the infection can “rise” higher, causing symptoms of ascending pyelonephritis (an inflammatory process in the kidneys), which often requires serious treatment in a hospital setting.


Diagnosis of acute cystitis in case of timely referral to a specialist is not difficult. A urologist, simply by listening to a woman’s complaints and looking at her urine test, can easily diagnose and prescribe treatment.

With chronic cystitis, the situation is more complicated, since the course of the disease can be different, and the clinic is often blurred and implicit. In this case, additional examinations are required: urine culture for microflora with determination of sensitivity to antibiotics and cystoscopy (examination of the mucous membrane of the bladder with special optical instruments).Such an examination allows you to assess the state of the mucous membrane, the severity of the inflammatory process, to identify the presence of other diseases of the bladder (for example, leukoplakia).


Treatment of cystitis involves an integrated approach. Antibiotics, antispasmodic and analgesic drugs, herbal diuretics are mandatory. The patient is advised to drink plenty of fluids, observe sexual rest and a strict diet, and carefully monitor the hygiene of the genitals.Adequate treatment relieves a woman of the manifestations of cystitis within the first three days.

Women should understand that the symptoms of cystitis require a visit to a doctor, self-medication is unacceptable here, as this can lead to chronicity of the process and worsens the course of the disease. Only a specialist can prescribe the correct treatment.

If unpleasant symptoms occur, a woman can contact not only a urologist, but also a gynecologist, they also have experience in the treatment of cystitis.If the situation is difficult, then the gynecologist will refer the patient to a urologist.

Most often, cystitis is treated on an outpatient basis, only in difficult cases (for example, hemorrhagic cystitis – excretion of blood in the urine) sometimes hospitalization is required to clarify the diagnosis and treatment.


If a woman is susceptible to chronic cystitis, she should pay special attention to preventive measures that will help avoid relapse. First of all, you need:

– avoid hypothermia;

– do not tolerate the urge to urinate;

– completely empty the bladder;

– observe the rules of personal hygiene;

– do not wear synthetic and tight underwear;

– follow a diet (avoid eating spicy, smoked and salty foods, strong coffee and alcohol).A diet is necessary, since any spicy food and alcohol are a kind of food provocation that can exacerbate the inflammatory process in the body.

Cystitis and pregnancy

In expectant mothers, cystitis can be more severe because the enlarged uterus compresses the ureters and bladder, which can sometimes lead to urinary stagnation, incomplete emptying of the bladder and exacerbate the infection. The difficulties of treatment are due to the fact that most antibiotics are contraindicated during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, therefore, treatment without antibiotics is prescribed to begin with, and if it does not bring an effect, antibacterial drugs allowed during pregnancy are prescribed in strict dosages.In the postpartum period, drugs that are compatible with lactation are used for treatment.

Urologist (head of the day care department)

Belchikov Yu. V.

90,000 vaginal inflammation: causes, complaints, diagnosis and treatment methods on the website of the clinic “Alfa-Health Center”

Inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, accompanied by profuse leucorrhoea with an unpleasant odor, itching and burning in the external genital area, pain in the lower abdomen.

Colpitis (vaginitis) is an inflammatory disease, one of the most common reasons for women to visit a gynecologist. Pathology can occur at any age and significantly reduce the patient’s quality of life. Colpitis develops on the vaginal mucosa, but as the inflammatory process spreads, it can affect the vulva, uterus, appendages, and lead to irreversible changes in the tissues.

At an early stage, colpitis responds well to treatment.Women are advised not to delay visiting a doctor and make an appointment with a gynecologist at the Alfa Health Center in Moscow when the first symptoms appear.

Etiology of colpitis

The normal microflora of the vagina includes dozens of types of microorganisms that can live and multiply in this environment without causing disease. This is a flexible biocenosis that can quickly adapt to changes and suppress the excessive development of opportunistic microbes – such processes are called colonization resistance.

Under the influence of various external and internal factors, the balance of the vaginal microflora can be disrupted. The number of lactobacilli decreases, which, in turn, leads to a change in the acidity of the environment and creates favorable conditions for the development of pathogens. Inflammation occurs.

The main infectious agent may be staphylococcus, E.coli, streptococcus, fusobacteria, non-spore-forming anaerobes, peptostreptococci, or other bacteria. But in recent years, vaginitis has been characterized by a mixed etiology, when inflammation is caused by the activity of several types of microbes.This significantly complicates treatment, increases the risk of recurrence of the disease, promotes the transition of acute colpitis into chronic.

Provoking factors

Even the presence of pathogens in the vagina does not necessarily lead to colpitis. For the infection to cause inflammation, provoking factors must be present that suppress the activity of lactobacilli and reduce the local immunity of the female body.

The most common causes of colpitis are:

  • violation of the rules of intimate hygiene: too frequent or insufficient washing, the use of inappropriate products;
  • sluggish sexually transmitted infections;
  • early sexual debut and promiscuity;
  • mechanical trauma to the vaginal mucosa, for example, when using intimate toys, after an abortion, surgery;
  • wearing tight synthetic underwear;
  • endocrine diseases: diabetes, obesity, thyroid dysfunction;
  • hormonal imbalance during puberty, pregnancy, menopause;
  • allergic reactions;
  • chronic stress, depression;
  • lack of vitamins, malnutrition;
  • radiation and chemotherapy for cancer;
  • immunodeficiency;
  • self-administration of hormonal drugs, antibiotics and a number of other drugs;
  • congenital pathologies of the structure of the internal genital organs;
  • installation of an intrauterine device, etc.d.

In clinical practice, cases have been described when women complained of colpitis symptoms after returning from an exotic country. The reason is a change in diet. The woman actively tries local cuisine, and the microflora reacts by shifting the balance. In such cases, colpitis is often accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis.

In postmenopausal women, atrophic forms of vaginitis are found. The cause of inflammation is the natural thinning of the vaginal mucosa.Dryness in the intimate area contributes to the imbalance of microflora.

The doctor tries to establish as accurately as possible the cause of vaginitis in each case. The tactics of treatment depend on this.

Expert opinion

The diagnosis of colpitis “gets younger” every year. The reason is not only in the early onset of sexual activity among girls, but also in the modern fashion for underwear. The patient comes to the doctor with typical complaints, and we immediately pay attention to her clothes.Beautiful, lacy synthetic underwear, fashionable thongs are breathable and cause local temperature rise. It is an ideal breeding ground for bacteria. If the constant wearing of such underwear is accompanied by insufficient intimate hygiene, the girl is almost guaranteed to get bacterial colpitis. Thongs and laces can be worn, but only for a short time and on special occasions. The rest of the time, you should take care of your health and choose cotton underwear that will not rub the crotch and will not cause overheating.

Colpitis symptoms

In the early stages of the development of inflammation, the clinical picture may be blurred. Women notice signs of colpitis when the process has already reached the vulva and vulvovaginitis is formed with more pronounced symptoms:

  • The character of leucorrhoea changes . Discharge with colpitis darkens, smells unpleasant. The appearance of purulent, bloody impurities and clots is possible. The discharge becomes foamy, cheesy, watery in nature, which is significantly different from the usual consistency;
  • Itching and burning in the perineum appears .When the inflammation spreads to the vulva and external genitals, swelling, redness occurs. Itching and burning are one of the characteristic signs of colpitis, which do not subside even at night and do not lend themselves to drug relief;
  • There are recurrent pains in the lower abdomen . Women experience similar sensations before menstruation. With colpitis, the pain intensifies during intercourse, defecation;
  • There are problems with urination .Inflammation in the genitals contributes to the development of an ascending urinary tract infection. Frequent urination, urinary incontinence, pain when trying to empty the bladder are added to the clinical symptoms of colpitis. The body temperature rises.

Types of colpitis

According to the intensity of the course, the disease is divided into two types:

  • Acute colpitis . Symptoms are pronounced, appear and increase within 1-3 days. In the acute period, treatment is most effective if you contact an experienced gynecologist;
  • Chronic colpitis .The disease proceeds with erased symptoms. Periods of exacerbation come in waves, the frequency and intensity of manifestations are individual.

By the type of pathogen, there are two types of vaginitis:

  • Specific colpitis . The inflammation is caused by a sexually transmitted infection from a partner. The disease proceeds quite aggressively, with pronounced symptoms, and can occur even with normal vaginal microflora.Specific include chlamydial, Trichomonas vaginitis, inflammation caused by gonococcus, Koch’s bacillus;
  • Nonspecific colpitis . The causative agent is a microorganism that is present in the natural microflora of the vagina: Candida fungi, E. coli, streptococcus, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, etc. The cause of the disease is a shift in the balance and inhibition of lactobacilli. Non-specific includes, for example, fungal (candidal) colpitis, which is usually called thrush.

Diagnostics of colpitis

Gynecological examination

Diagnosis begins with a doctor’s consultation. It is necessary to answer the doctor’s questions as fully and honestly as possible, to tell about the prescription of the first symptoms, their intensity. The doctor will clarify the presence of provoking factors. Then an examination is carried out on a gynecological chair.

It is important for a specialist to obtain information about the condition of the external genital organs, urethra, mucous membrane of the vulva and vagina.Be sure to palpate the uterus and ovaries to determine the prevalence of the process and the presence of concomitant diseases. Inspection is standard, ordinary mirrors are used. Based on the results of the survey and palpation, the doctor will issue a referral for a comprehensive examination to clarify the diagnosis.

Laboratory analyzes

The patient’s blood, urine and vaginal secretions are sent to the study. The doctor takes a smear from the vagina immediately during the examination.

The main indicators required for diagnosis:

  • the presence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis;
  • smear cytology;
  • PCR analysis to identify the pathogen;
  • bacterial culture of secretions to determine sensitivity to antibiotics;
  • general analysis of urine and blood to assess the state of health and identify concomitant diseases.

Colpitis treatment

Therapy is prescribed individually. When drawing up a treatment plan for colpitis, the doctor should take into account the cause of the inflammation, the woman’s age, and the presence of other diseases.

The basis of therapy is taking medications: antiviral, antifungal, antibiotics, etc. Correctly selected drugs help to quickly weaken symptoms, strengthen immunity, and relieve inflammation. The doctor may prescribe tablets, douching solutions, vaginal suppositories, gels, baths.

The effectiveness of the diet in the treatment of colpitis in women has been proven. Alcohol, carbonated drinks, salty and fatty foods, smoked meats are excluded from the diet. You can eat fresh fruits and vegetables, good quality meat and fish dishes.

Often, girls already on the 2-3rd day feel relief and stop taking medications, thinking that they have cured the inflammation. This is a very big mistake. The assigned course cannot be interrupted. When the treatment is not completed, a pharmacoresistant microflora forms in the vagina.Vaginal colpitis recurs, but is no longer amenable to the usual therapy. The doctor has to completely change the therapy regimen in order to cure the patient.

Other features of colpitis treatment:

  • if the inflammation is caused by a sexually transmitted disease, the partner must also undergo therapy;
  • during treatment, complete sexual rest is recommended to restore the mucous membrane;
  • intimate hygiene products, underwear and panty liners must be replaced with safer ones.

Colpitis tests are taken several times during treatment. Based on the results of the smear, the doctor monitors the effectiveness of the prescribed drugs.

Atrophic colpitis in women after 50 years of age is treated only with hormone replacement therapy. It is recommended to use special intimate lubricants to moisturize the vagina.

Colpitis during pregnancy also requires a special approach. The physician should consider the risk of exposure to drugs on the fetus, but cannot allow the development of inflammation, which is a common cause of perinatal death.A pregnant woman needs to carefully monitor her condition and nutrition in order to carry a healthy baby.

In the treatment of colpitis, physiotherapy techniques are actively used. In the acute course of the disease, the doctor prescribes exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields, ultraviolet radiation. To combat chronic inflammation, courses of electrophoresis according to Kellat, ultraphonophoresis, centimeter wave therapy are carried out.

Important: Do not self-medicate.Douching with decoctions of herbs, solutions of medicinal substances, hot compresses and baths without a doctor’s prescription can complicate the course of the disease. Women often come to our clinic with severe burns of the vaginal mucosa and severe allergic edema – this is the result of the use of unverified prescriptions. Colpitis, which could easily be cured in a few days, is complicated by purulent processes, vaginosis, tissue atrophy.

Possible complications of colpitis

In the absence of treatment, the disease progresses rapidly.Among the complications of colpitis is a complex of pathologies of the urinary system: cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis. Inflammation contributes to the formation of erosions on the mucous membrane, causing endometriosis. In childhood, colpitis causes fusion of the labia (synechia), which is eliminated only by surgery. The most dangerous complications are difficulties with conception, miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies, infertility.

Prevention of colpitis

The risk of inflammation cannot be completely eliminated.You can only strengthen your body, increase its resistance to disease and reduce the likelihood of contracting an infection. Take simple precautions:

  • use hypoallergenic intimate hygiene products;
  • do not change sexual partners and use condoms;
  • exclude contact with allergens if you have previously had specific reactions;
  • wear underwear made from breathable natural materials;
  • watch your diet;
  • treat diseases in a timely manner and annually sign up for a preventive examination with a gynecologist.

In the clinic “Alpha-Health Center” you can undergo a comprehensive examination and cure colpitis of any type. We monitor patients of all ages and guarantee an individual approach. Call us to choose a convenient time for a consultation.


1. V. A. Lebedev, V. M. Pashkov – Modern principles of therapy for colpitis. Journal “Difficult patient” No. 8-9, volume 9, 2011

2.G. N. Gomozov, T.S. Volkova, Yu. A. Sorokina, N. Yu. Katkova, MV Kopylova, OV Zanozina – Combined pharmacotherapy of vaginitis during pregnancy. Scientific article, International Research Journal No. 4 (106), Part 2, 2021

90,000 Russian scientists have found a way to protect internal organs from COVID-19

A combination of two drugs, which can now be bought at the pharmacy, can help patients with COVID-19 protect their internal organs from the harmful effects of the virus.This conclusion was made in a scientific article published in the journal European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences.

The pandemic of the COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is gaining momentum in the world again. This disease can be mild and even asymptomatic, but sometimes it leads to serious complications and even death.

Among other atrocities, the new virus damages red blood cells. This impairs the ability of these blood cells to carry oxygen.As a result, tissues suffer from oxygen starvation (hypoxia). During hypoxia, the normal exchange of oxygen is disrupted and its active forms (ROS) are formed, damaging cells.

In addition, when red blood cells are damaged by coronavirus, free iron ions are released into the blood. They also lead to the formation of ROS.

Reactive oxygen species lead to oxidative stress, which is dangerous for cells. It affects primarily the lungs, in which the virus nests. But damage to the lungs leads to problems with the supply of oxygen to the whole body, so that hypoxia, and with it oxidative stress, occurs in a wide variety of organs.

Another problem is the so-called cytokine storm. The release of cytokines is the body’s defense reaction to the invasion of the virus. But in large quantities, these compounds turn from defenders into enemies, causing dangerous systemic inflammation. And one of the mechanisms that cause excessive release of cytokines is the same oxidative stress.

However, according to experts from the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ITEB RAS), there are already drugs on the market that can cope with the oxidative stress caused by SARS-CoV-2, including preventing the development of a cytokine storm.

The drug uridine reduces the rate of accumulation of reactive oxygen species in lung tissues, and the antioxidant Taxifolin Aqua effectively neutralizes ROS.

“The combination of these drugs should prevent the development of a cytokine storm, which is a serious complication in COVID-19. Therefore, their use is promising for the treatment of COVID-19, preventing complications, and also restoring the body after this serious illness,” says the first author of the article, Galina Mironov from ITEB RAS.

Note that the authors did not conduct experiments with humans, animals or cell cultures infected with SARS-CoV-2. They were based on published data in the scientific literature on the ability of the coronavirus to induce oxidative stress and on the potential of these drugs to combat oxidative stress.

For example, biologists refer to a study previously conducted under the leadership of Mironova and published in the prestigious journal Scientific Reports. In this experiment, scientists forced experimental rats to breathe a gas mixture with a reduced oxygen content.Naturally, the rodents developed hypoxia and associated oxidative stress. Uridine significantly improved the condition of lung cells affected by hypoxia.

Of course, it will be possible to talk about the proven effectiveness of these drugs against COVID-19 only after large-scale trials with the participation of volunteers.

By the way, earlier Vesti.Ru talked about a promising drug against coronavirus. We also wrote that drugs for alcoholism and cancer can help in the fight against the pathogen.

How to Fix High CPU Usage Issue – Intel

When launching some games, using a video editing or streaming application, running an anti-virus scan, or opening many browser tabs at the same time, high CPU usage is expected. If you encounter such a high CPU usage situation on a daily basis, you should close any unused background programs and tabs and then return to Task Manager and check if the situation has changed.

It is important to remember that high CPU utilization while multitasking at the same time can be normal. Modern processors support multitasking by dividing processes between several of their cores that run concurrently with different sets of instructions. Intel® Hyper-Threading Technology (Intel® HT) goes a step further by creating multiple “threads” of execution for each core, each of which handles a different process. make efficient use of the available processor cores.

Intel® Turbo Boost Technology can also help cope with heavy workloads by dynamically increasing the processor frequency. The Intel® Core ™ X-series processor family has another tool to help you avoid slowdowns. This is Intel® Turbo Boost Max Technology 3.0, which automatically assigns the hardest tasks to the fastest processor cores. The frequency of these cores also increases.

These processor technologies can significantly improve the speed of multitasking and resource-intensive programs, but situations with excessive CPU usage can still occur.If you are experiencing 100% CPU usage and there is a background process named Runtime Broker, Windows Session Manager, or Cortana at the top of the CPU column, then there is a problem.

These Windows processes should use very little processing power or memory under normal circumstances. Often you will see in the Task Manager that they are using 0% or 1%. When the computer is idle, all of these processes together typically use less than 10% of the processor’s resources.However, strange or atypical behavior – for example, one Windows process trying to perform a search that was blocked elsewhere, can sometimes cause the process to consume almost all system resources.

After you open Task Manager and find a process that is using a significant portion of the CPU, search the Internet to identify it. You shouldn’t stop processes like explorer.exe (which controls many graphical elements such as the desktop and the Start menu) or winlogon without a good reason.exe (startup tasks and screen CTRL + ALT + DEL).

If you have identified a process as non-critical (double-check that you have saved your work), click on the process to select it, then click End Process in the lower-right corner of the Task Manager. Termination of the process will terminate the program without saving.

90,000 Too Much Milk? Reduction of lactation

At times you may feel like you are making too much milk, especially during the first weeks of breastfeeding.After reading our article, you will find out if you really have too much milk, and what you can do to reduce it.

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Breast milk is very healthy, so it’s good to have a lot of it, isn’t it? However, this is not always the case. Sometimes babies have a hard time coping with the rapid milk flow that usually accompanies excess lactation. And mothers who have too much milk often experience discomfort due to constant milk leakage and often suffer from mastitis.

Fortunately, there are a number of ways that you can help in this situation. But before using them, answer two important questions:

Do I really have too much milk?

Some of the symptoms of overlactation (listed below) can occur for completely different reasons. You should not try to reduce your breast milk production unless you are sure that excess milk is the main problem. Otherwise, this can lead to the fact that milk will be produced less than your baby needs, especially in the critical first month, when production is just being established.

Is oversupply a problem for me or my baby?

If you are sure that you have an excess of milk, but this does not cause problems for you and your baby, you do not need to do anything. In most cases, everything will return to normal within the first few months. As the baby grows, he will learn to better cope with the rapid flow of milk and will eat more happily.

Leakage is not always a sign of excess milk

During the first four to six weeks of your baby’s birth, levels of prolactin, the hormone responsible for milk production, will rise each time your breast is emptied.During these first weeks, the breast learns to produce milk in the amount that the baby needs, depending on the time of day. Therefore, excessive leakage, rapid breast filling, and even splashing milk during hot flush are the norm. 1

At the same time, your little one is learning to suckle and swallow milk, so it shouldn’t surprise you if he suddenly coughs or chokes when he breastfeeds.

After about four to six weeks, the spikes in prolactin levels will gradually subside, and milk production will become more balanced, adjusting to the baby’s needs on the basis of supply and demand. 2 However, given the many hormonal changes occurring in the body of a young mother, such a restructuring may take some time. In some mothers, milk production sets in quickly, while in others it takes a little longer.

Behavior of a child that may indicate an excess of milk

Milk is usually excreted very quickly when overproduced, especially during the first flush. As a result, the baby may cough or choke at the start of a feed, push back or hold the breast loosely in the mouth.The baby may pull away from the chest, frightened by the rapid tide, and then cry because he has not eaten. He can swallow milk in large volumes and with a lot of air, and then he will regurgitate a lot. Try to be as careful as possible when helping him to burp up – jerky movements combined with a full belly can make your baby vomit and scare him even more.

At the beginning of a feed, milk is relatively low in fat and consists mainly of lactose (sugar) and proteins.As the breast is fed and emptied, the fat content increases steadily. In case of excess milk production, your baby may be full faster than emptying completely. This means that he will receive a lot of lactose-rich milk, but not enough fat-rich milk that comes at the end of the feed. Excess lactose instead of a balanced diet can hinder digestion and cause harsh, frothy, and greenish stools.

Oddly enough, in such a situation, the baby may constantly want to eat and behave restlessly between feedings.Despite the high calorie content, the low fat content of milk prevents it from being fully satiated. It is the fat in food that makes us feel full. What happens if you eat a few dozen rice crackers or a slice of cheese and cookies instead? Cheese will fill you up faster as it is richer in fat.

However, all of these symptoms can be caused by completely different problems, such as reflux, allergies, or even, conversely, insufficient milk production.Too much breast milk can actually cause these symptoms, but only if they are accompanied by excessive weight gain. Babies usually gain about 900 grams per month, but in the case of an excess of milk, they can gain much more, often almost twice as much. 1 If you think you have too much milk but your baby is gaining weight normally, talk to a breastfeeding consultant or health care provider.

Symptoms that may indicate an excess of milk in mothers

Moms with too much breastmilk often experience swelling and tightness in their breasts, which constantly seem full. 3 As already noted, leaking breast milk in the first six weeks does not indicate an excess of it. However, if this continues with every feed and beyond that period, then oversupply may be the problem.

The baby is not always able to empty an overcrowded breast, therefore, with an excess of breast milk, blockage of the milk ducts or periodic attacks of mastitis often occur. However, these problems can also be caused by other reasons.

How to reduce milk production

If you find that you have too much breast milk and you are worried about it, here are some simple ways that can help.For some mums, they are enough.

  • Try to feed in a relaxed position. Feeding reclining or lying down will give the baby better control over the process. In this position, the baby sets the feeding rhythm on his own and can always raise his head to take a break if milk is released too quickly. Be sure to use a towel to absorb any spilled milk.
  • Relieve pressure. If overcrowded breasts are uncomfortable for you, try expressing some milk by hand or with a breast pump, but try to express as little milk as possible.Each time your breast is emptied, you send a signal to it to produce more milk. Therefore, expressing provides short-term relief, but with prolonged use it can only make the situation worse. If you need to express and store milk to feed your baby when you are not around, it is best to deal with excess milk production first.
  • Try using bra pads. If you have milk leaks, put pads or milk collection pads * in your bra to keep your laundry dry.If your milk leak is moderate and already decreasing, or your breasts are slightly leaking during pregnancy, the ultra-thin disposable pads will help you feel confident in any situation in life.
  • Avoid taking teas and nutritional supplements to increase lactation. If you have been drinking teas, eating special cookies, or taking supplements to improve breast milk production, you need to stop now to fix the problem.

“Breast watch” to reduce milk production

If all of the above methods do not work, you can try a technique called “breast watch”, which allows you to better control milk production.However, check with a breastfeeding consultant or supervising doctor before trying this method.

In Breast Watch, you breastfeed your baby on demand, but only with one breast for four hours. During this time, the second breast fills up a lot. Because breast milk contains a so-called feedback-type lactation inhibitor, the body sends a signal to the breast to slow down milk production due to the over-fullness. This is a natural way to protect your breasts from infinite filling.

This technique must be applied within 24 hours, changing breasts every four hours. If milk does not decrease, try increasing the “watch” duration to six hours.

Technique of complete emptying and “breast watch”

If a day later, still a lot of milk will be produced,
you can try another version of this technique, which is recommended in cases of extreme overabundance. This is called “complete emptying and breast duty.” 3

This method requires both breasts to be completely emptied in the morning using an electric breast pump and immediately begin feeding the baby. The milk flow will be weaker and will allow the baby to eat more peacefully. In addition, he will get more fat-rich milk, which comes at the end of the feed, which means he will feel more full.

After that, you can continue the “chest watch” for four hours, as described above. If that doesn’t help, the next day, try increasing the gap to six, eight, or twelve hours, depending on the magnitude of the problem.Before using this technique, be sure to consult with your doctor.

You may no longer need to empty your breasts completely after using this technique for the first time, but some mums have to do it again or two. Improvement usually occurs within the first two days or a little later, but in no case should the “breast watch” be used for more than five days.



1 Morbacher N.Breastfeeding answers made simple. Amarillo TX , USA : Hale Publishing ; 2010. – N. Morbacher, “Simple Answers to Questions about Breastfeeding.” Amarillo, TX, USA: Publishing Hale Publishing “2010.

2 Cox DB et al . Blood and milk prolactin and the rate of milk synthesis in women. Exp Physiol. 1996; 81 (6): 1007-1020. – Cox D.B. et al, Effect of Blood and Milk Prolactin on Milk Production in Women. Exp Physiol. 1996; 81 (6): 1007-1020.

3 van Veldhuizen-Staas CG. Overabundant milk supply: an alternative way to intervene by full drainage and block feeding. Int Breastfeed J .2007; 2 (1): 11. – van Welhusen-Staas S.J., Milk oversupply: an alternative countermeasure by completely draining and blocking feeds. Int Brestfeed J (International Journal of Breastfeeding). 2007; 2 (1): 11.

Read the instructions before use. Consult a specialist for possible contraindications.

* RU No. FSZ 2010/07352 dated 19.07.2010