What causes enlarged lymph nodes in the neck: Lymphatic system – Mayo Clinic
Painful Lymph Nodes Along Neck
Noninfectious causes of neck pain along the lymph nodes can occur similarly as above, acutely or chronically and bilaterally or unilaterally.
- Acute: Acute noninfectious causes of lymphadenopathy or lymphadenitis are inflammatory conditions that are not associated withinfection. In children, illnesses such as Kawasaki disease is a type of vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels) that occurs in childhood. A characteristic manifestation of this condition is lymphadenopathy.
- Chronic: Many noninfectious chronic causes of neck pain along the lymph nodes are associated with cancerous processes. For example, cancers of the lymphatic system, called lymphomas, can occur in many different types. Lymphomas often occur in the lymph nodes of the neck and can grow very rapidly, causing massive swelling, and are associated with symptoms of fatigue, night sweats, and unintentional weight loss.
This list does not constitute medical advice and may not accurately represent what you have.
Acute thyroiditis is a rare inflammation of the thyroid gland caused by an infection, radiation, medication, or trauma.
Rarity: Ultra rare
Top Symptoms: sore throat, fever, being severely ill, hoarse voice, pain in the front of the neck
Symptoms that always occur with acute thyroiditis: pain in the front of the neck
Urgency: Hospital emergency room
Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck
Enlarged lymph nodes occur when the node becomes larger as it fills with inflammatory cells. This often is a result of an infection but can occur without a known cause.
Top Symptoms: neck bump, movable neck lump
Symptoms that always occur with enlarged lymph nodes in the neck: neck bump
Symptoms that never occur with enlarged lymph nodes in the neck: unintentional weight loss, fever, hard neck lump
Urgency: Phone call or in-person visit
Fibromyalgia is a set of chronic symptoms that include ongoing fatigue, diffuse tenderness to touch, musculoskeletal pain, and usually some degree of depression.
The cause is not known. When fibromyalgia appears, it is usually after a stressful physical or emotional event such as an automobile accident or a divorce. It may include a genetic component where the person experiences normal sensation as pain.
Almost 90% of fibromyalgia sufferers are women. Anyone with rheumatic disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, may be more prone to fibromyalgia.
Poor sleep is often a symptom, along with foggy thinking, headaches, painful menstrual periods, and increased sensitivity to heat, cold, bright lights, and loud noises.
There is no standard test for fibromyalgia. The diagnosis is usually made when the above symptoms go on for three months or more with no apparent cause.
Fibromyalgia does not go away on its own but does not get worse, either.
Top Symptoms: fatigue, arthralgias or myalgias, anxiety, depressed mood, headache
Symptoms that always occur with fibromyalgia: arthralgias or myalgias
Urgency: Primary care doctor
Myofascial pain syndrome
Myofascial pain syndrome is also called chronic myofascial pain (CMP. ) Pressure on certain points of the muscles causes referred pain, meaning the pain is felt elsewhere in the body.
The cause is believed to be muscle injury through overuse, either from sports or from a job requiring repetitive motion. Tension, stress, and poor posture can also cause habitual tightening of the muscles, a form of overuse.
This overuse causes scar tissue, or adhesions, to form in the muscles. These points are known as trigger points, since they trigger pain at any stimulus.
Symptoms include deep, aching muscular pain that does not go away with rest or massage, but may actually worsen. There is often difficulty sleeping due to pain.
Myofascial pain syndrome should be seen by a medical provider, since it can develop into a similar but more severe condition called fibromyalgia.
Diagnosis is made through physical examination and applying mild pressure to locate the trigger points.
Treatment involves physical therapy, pain medications, and trigger point injections. In some cases, acupuncture and antidepressants are helpful.
Top Symptoms: dizziness, spontaneous shoulder pain, pain in the back of the neck, tender muscle knot, general numbness
Symptoms that always occur with myofascial pain syndrome: tender muscle knot
Urgency: Primary care doctor
Retropharyngeal abscess (adult)
Retropharyngeal abscess is a collection of pus in the tissues in the back of the throat. It is a potentially life-threatening medical condition.
Rarity: Ultra rare
Top Symptoms: sore throat, loss of appetite, fever, shortness of breath, being severely ill
Urgency: Hospital emergency room
Lymph node inflammation behind the ear
There are lymph nodes behind the ear. Lymph nodes are where your immune cells live, and when they become enlarged, it could be from a nearby infection, immune response, or even backlog of blood.
Top Symptoms: pain behind the ear, swelling behind the ears
Symptoms that always occur with lymph node inflammation behind the ear: swelling behind the ears
Urgency: Primary care doctor
Lump on Neck, Groin or Armpit: Causes & Treatment
A lump in the groin, neck or armpit is an ingrowth usually is a sign swollen lymph nodes, that tend to occur due to some infection or inflammation of the region in which it arises. It usually manifests itself through one or more lumps under the skin of the neck, head or groin, which may or may not be painful, and usually last between 3 and 30 days.
This happens because the lymph nodes are small structures that are part of the immune system and act as filters for substances or microorganisms, helping to fight infections because they attack and destroy the germs that are transported by lymphatic fluid.
The presence of a lump in the groin, neck or armpit is also called adenopathy lymphadenopathy, which most often represents a mild and transient inflammation. When the lump persists more than 1 month, grows more than 2 cm or there are several scattered around the body they may be caused by more serious diseases such as cancer or autoimmune diseases. Learn more about swollen lymph nodes in other body parts.
1. Skin inflammation
Any type of inflammation can cause this lump because the nodes work as a filter against possible threats to the body. It is common for swollen lymph nodes to appear due to irritations on the skin by the use of chemicals such as deodorant, or by a small wound that occurs after hair removal, folliculitis, by ingrown hair or cuts that occur on a daily basis, in various parts of the body.
Inflammations that occur in the airways or oral region, such as allergic rhinitis, pharyngitis, gingivitis or a tooth inflammation, for example, are also important causes of enlarged lymph nodes.
Any type of infection causes an ingrowth, and some of the most common are colds, flu, otitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis or any type of virus such as Zika or dengue, for example, that cause swollen lymph nodes in the neck, nape, jaw or behind the ear.
Other types of infection such as pneumonia and bronchitis can also cause swollen armpit lymph nodes, and infections in the abdominal region such as gastroenteritis, genital HPV, syphilis, candidiasis, or vaginosis, and leg or foot injuries can cause swollen groin lymph nodes.
3. Autoimmune diseases
The diseases that interfere with the immune system can cause swelling of the lymph nodes. Some examples are lupus, arthritis, vasculitis and inflammatory bowel disease.
Cancer is a rare cause of swollen lymph nodes, which can appear anywhere in the body and have a more hardened appearance, that do not disappear after 1 or 2 months and do not stop growing. Any type of cancer can cause swollen lymph nodes, but some are prone to the development of this swelling they are lymphoma, breast cancer and lung cancer, for example.
When to go to the doctor
The lump in the groin, neck or armpit becomes a concern, indicating more serious diseases, such as cancer, lymphoma or tuberculous lymph nodes, for example when:
- It is located in the arms or around the clavicle;
- It is spread throughout various parts of the body;
- It measures more than 2,5 cm;
- It is hard and does not move;
- It doesn’t improve after 1 month;
- It is accompanied by a fever that does not improve in 1 week, night sweats, weight loss or malaise.
In this situation, it is necessary to seek a general practitioner, so that blood tests are done to evaluate possible infections or inflammation in the body. When doubt persists, biopsy of the lymph node may be requested, which will show if it has benign or malignant features.
How to treat swollen lymph nodes
To treat swollen lymph nodes, it is recommended you rest and keep yourself hydrated, as well as identifying and eliminating what is causing it, since it’s not necessary to take any specific type of medication to treat it. When the infection or inflammation is cured, the swollen lymph node will disappear, since it is just the body’s response against a foreign aggressive agent.
Painkillers or anti-inflammatory drugs can relieve pain or sensitivity in the area. A good home remedy is to drink eucalyptus tea and use clay compresses as they help to decrease swelling and strengthen the body’s defenses.
Swollen glands | healthdirect
Glands become swollen for different reasons. If you have swollen glands because of a virus, they usually get better without treatment. If you’re not sure why you have swollen glands, if they are painful or getting bigger, or if you are feeling unwell, it’s a good idea to see your doctor.
What are swollen glands?
Glands are lymph nodes. They are part of the lymphatic system, which fights infection. Lymph nodes filter impurities from the lymph, which is a type of body fluid.
Glands in many different parts of the body can become swollen, but you’re more likely to feel them in your neck, in your armpits or in your groin.
What causes swollen glands?
There are many different causes of swollen glands. Most of them are not serious.
Having swollen glands usually means your immune system is fighting an infection in the swollen area. For example, if you have a sore throat from a virus, you may get swollen neck glands. An infection on your leg can cause swollen glands in the groin.
Causes of swollen glands include:
Out of 100 people with swollen glands, only one, if any, is likely to have cancer. In young people cancer is even less likely.
Swollen glands diagnosis
If you see your doctor about your swollen glands, he or she will ask you questions about your symptoms, and examine you.
If you have a simple infection, you may not need any medical tests.
In some situations, your doctor might order blood tests or a scan. If the results suggest cancer, you may need to have a biopsy of the gland.
Swollen glands treatment
Swollen glands caused by a virus don’t need treatment. The glands eventually shrink. This can take a few weeks or longer.
If you have a bacterial infection, your doctor might give you antibiotics.
If your swollen gland is due to cancer, your doctor can refer you to the appropriate specialist for treatment.
Lymph Nodes – Kids Plus Pediatrics
It comes out of nowhere. Usually it’s during bath time. That’s when you notice “the lump.”
Often it’s around the neck. Sometimes it may be under the arms or near the groin area. He doesn’t seem bothered by it. In fact, he doesn’t seem to even know it’s there. You wonder if it’s always been there, or if it’s something new.
Although you know it’s a bad idea, you decide to Google it — don’t worry, everyone does it — and panic sets in as you read headlines about leukemia and mycobacterium. You curse the very existence of Google, then call our after hours service to find out what in the world you’re dealing with.
The good news is that what you’ve found is most likely an enlarged lymph node. Lymph nodes are essentially filters throughout the body that help to fight infections and remove harmful substances from the body. They contain cells from your immune system (these are the guys that fight infections). They can become enlarged or inflamed with illness or injury.
It’s also true that lymph nodes can become enlarged in certain types of cancers (though in pediatrics, this is the least common cause). They may be tender and change in size over time. You may also notice a change in skin color over the swollen area; it may be come red or hard when you touch it. Lymph nodes are most often noticed around the neck and ears, under the arms, and near the groin.
This example shows various lymph nodes of the head and neck. Note that some are deep below the surface of the skin and can’t be felt.
So We’ve Established it’s an Enlarged Lymph Node. What’s the Cause?
1. Most likely the enlarged lymph node is the result of a current or recent infection. Often your child will have a history of a recent fever, cold symptoms, ear pain, sore throat, stomach virus, etc. The area may be tender for a time and get bigger in size. As your child’s symptoms improve, the area is no longer painful and returns to normal size. You may still notice it’s there (most likely it’s always been there, you just never noticed it until it became enlarged). It can take up to 2 weeks for enlarged lymph nodes to return to normal — often after other symptoms have long resolved.
2. Sometimes these lymph nodes can become infected with bacteria. When this happens, the lymph node typically continues to increase in size (sometimes very large and visibly noticeable). The area may be warm or hard to touch, and the skin may start to turn red. The area is usually significantly tender. Your child may have fever and no other symptoms. This typically requires antibiotics to treat. Sometimes there can be a collection of infected fluid (abscess) that requires drainage and IV antibiotics in the hospital.
3. Google technically didn’t lie to you. It just assumed the worst case scenario. It’s true that enlarged lymph nodes can sometimes be a sign of cancer in pediatrics. However, this is the LEAST likely cause of enlarged lymph nodes in children. A warning sign for cancer is often a persistently enlarged lymph node (or nodes), in association with other concerning symptoms (weight loss, unexplained fevers, night sweats, enlarged liver/spleen, etc).
So I’ve Found a Lump. What Now?
We recommend an office visit for any unexplained “lumps” or areas concerning enlarged lymph nodes. Following a complete history and physical examination, we can most often reassure families of it’s harmless nature, and instruct parents to monitor for any changes in size or other symptoms (pain, skin change, etc).
In the case of a suspected bacteria infection, we may recommend oral antibiotics or possibly ER evaluation for imaging to determine if there is fluid that needs to be drained, or if we feel IV antibiotics are necessary. If there is concern for a more serious cause, we would order further testing.
Hopefully this gives you a little more understanding about towhat may cause a child’s lump and how we approach the visit. As always, if you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to ask. That’s why we’re here!
Dr. Chris Deskins is a former Kids Plus provider.
Swollen Lymph Nodes | Children’s Hospital Colorado
- Increased size of one or more lymph nodes. Most are in the neck.
- Also, includes swollen lymph nodes in the armpit or groin
- It’s larger than the same node on the other side of the body
- Normal nodes are usually less than ½ inch (12 mm) across. This is the size of a pea or baked bean.
Causes of Swollen Lymph Nodes
- Neck Nodes. The cervical (neck) nodes are most commonly involved. This is because of the many respiratory infections that occur during childhood.
- Viral Throat Infection. This is the most common cause of swollen nodes in the neck. The swollen nodes are usually ½ to 1 inch (12 -25 mm) across. They are the same on each side.
- Bacterial Throat Infection. A swollen node with a bacterial throat infection is usually just on one side. It can be quite large; over 1 inch (25 mm) across. This is about the size of a quarter. Most often, it’s the node that drains the tonsil.
- Tooth Decay or Abscess. This causes a swollen, tender node under the jawbone. Only one node is involved. The lower face may also be swollen on that side.
- Armpit Swollen Nodes. Causes include skin infections (such as impetigo). A rash (such as poison ivy) can do the same.
- Groin Swollen Nodes. Causes include skin infections (such as athlete’s foot). A retained foreign object (such as a sliver) can be the cause.
- Shaving. Teen girls can cause low-grade infections when shaving the legs.
- Widespread Swollen Nodes. Swollen nodes everywhere suggest an infection spread in the blood. An example is infectious mono. Widespread rashes such as eczema can also cause all the nodes to enlarge.
- Normal Nodes. Lymph nodes can always be felt in the neck and groin. They are about the size of a bean. They never go away.
Lymph Nodes: What They Drain
- The lymph nodes are filled with white blood cells. They filter the lymph fluid coming from certain parts of the body. They fight infections.
- Neck Nodes in Front. These drain the nose, throat and lower face.
- Neck Nodes in Back. These drain the scalp.
- Armpit Nodes. These drain the arms and upper chest wall.
- Groin Nodes. These drain the legs and lower stomach wall.
Common Objects Used to Guess the Size
- Pea or pencil eraser: ¼ inch or 6 mm
- Dime: ¾ inch or 1.8 cm
- Quarter: 1 inch or 2.5 cm
- Golf ball: 1 ½ inches or 3.8 cm
- Tennis Ball: 2 ½ inches or 6.4 cm
Inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes | Reasons for development
Inflammation of the submandibular lymph nodes can occur for various reasons and at different ages. Correct and timely treatment will help to avoid the development of complications.
What is this pathology
Lymphadenitis – inflammation of the lymph nodes. Most often, it is the submandibular lymph nodes that become inflamed. This is due to the reaction of the immune system to the penetration of infection into the human body.
Specialists distinguish three stages in the development of pathology:
- purulent stage.
Important to know! The presence of pus in the lymph nodes requires immediate surgery.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck is an alarming symptom that suggests that some pathological process is developing in the body.
Symptoms of lymphadenitis on the neck are identical to the inflammatory process of the salivary glands, phlegmon or abscess. That is why, if any signs of pathology are found, you must immediately consult a doctor.
Reasons for the development of pathology in adults
- Infection. Inflammation of the lymph nodes occurs when the infection enters the organs near the neck. When ingested, the pathogenic microflora changes the structure of human cells. The enlargement of the nodes on the neck is precisely the protective reaction of the body.
- Immune pathologies. HIV infections, AIDS, leukemia in the initial stages of development are manifested by enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.
- Dental diseases.Flux, abscess, alveolitis and other purulent inflammation of the oral cavity are characterized by an increase in lymph nodes in the neck.
- Toxoplasmosis. An infectious disease caused by toxoplasma that affects the lymphatic system.
In children, the development of pathology can be caused by:
- scratches from animals;
- infections of the respiratory system, ENT organs, throat, eyes;
- dental diseases.
Treatment is based on etiology. Therapy is prescribed only after a thorough diagnosis.
- Carrying out timely treatment of infectious diseases of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract.
- Regular oral hygiene.
- Visit your dentist every six months.
- Strengthening general immunity.
- Proper nutrition.
Surgical treatment of lymph nodes – World of Health
The lymphatic system is a huge network of the cardiovascular system.It actively participates in the metabolism in the body: metabolic products, foreign particles, dead and tumor cells are excreted from organs and tissues with lymph. Its initial link is the lymphatic capillaries (roots of the lymphatic system). The next link is valves and vessels. Lymphatic vessels form plexuses in and around organs, along the blood vessels and in the subcutaneous tissue. The lymph flows through the vessels to the corresponding lymph nodes.
Lymph nodes (lymph nodes) perform a barrier-filtration and immune function.There are many lymph nodes throughout the body, they have their own names for their location:
- parotid lymph nodes;
- submandibular lymph nodes;
- cervical lymph nodes;
- axillary lymph nodes;
- iliac lymph nodes;
- inguinal lymph nodes;
- , etc.
In a normal state, the lymph nodes are painless, not enlarged and not detectable on palpation.
Enlarged, inflamed lymph nodes
Lymph nodes in normal and inflamed conditions An enlarged lymph node is often associated with an infection in a specific area of the body or decreased immunity. Inflammation of the lymph node is associated with purulent processes. The inflamed lymph node is enlarged and very painful to the touch, it can also turn red and even fester. Against the background of inflammation, the temperature may rise, headache, weakness, sweating appear.With suppuration, purulent lymphadenitis develops.
Any enlargement of the lymph node indicates the presence of an infection in the body that must be identified and cured. The infection can be of a different nature: from a sore throat or a cold, to lymphoma or early stage cancer.
Inflamed lymph nodes in the groin and armpits cause particular discomfort.
Usually 1-2 nodes increase simultaneously and in one area, less often in different areas. If the inflammation of the node is not purulent, then it is not recommended to disturb the lymph node itself, over time (when you recover) it will decrease by itself, stop hurting and return its working capacity to its normal course.
Lymph nodes in children
In some children, normal lymph nodes may be enlarged (in the neck and at the base of the skull). If there are no symptoms and signs of infectious diseases, then enlarged nodes are considered normal for this period, in an older age they will decrease and will not stand out. But do not forget that a significant increase indicates a serious illness.
In children with tuberculosis, inflammation of the lymph nodes is common.Also, an increase in nodes is observed with ARVI, angina.
It is strongly recommended to monitor the lymph nodes of children if there is a cat around him that can scratch him. A scratch from a cat’s claw can penetrate the Bartonella microbe, which in turn is the causative agent of infection, which leads to enlargement of the lymph nodes. Purely domestic cats are also carriers.
Who should I contact?
If you have pain in the lymph nodes, then you need to consult an infectious disease specialist, surgeon or oncologist.You can make an appointment with the appropriate specialist by contact phone numbers or by using the appointment form.
See prices for the service
Tumors of the head and neck | GBUZ Oncological dispensary No. 4
Tumors of the head and neck – oncological diseases of the oral cavity, nose, larynx, pharynx, salivary glands and paranasal sinuses of connective tissue, epithelial and neurogenic origin. They are characterized by high aggressiveness, active growth, multiple metastases and complex treatment.
Diagnostics and treatment of head and neck tumors requires close interaction of an oncologist with narrowly specialized specialists: otolaryngologists, dermatologists, dentists.
This group does not include tumors of the endocrine, lymphatic, central nervous system and ophthalmic diseases.
According to the degree of maturity, highly differentiated tumor cells and immature cells are isolated, which are difficult to treat and worsen the overall prognosis.
Causes of head and neck tumors
Risk factors for head and neck tumors:
– smoking and consumption of chewing and snuff
– alcohol abuse
– Epstein-Barr virus, HPV
– long-term exposure to chemicals: wood and textile dust, formaldehyde, paint, metal
– radioactive radiation
– regular consumption of hot food
– high fat diet
– leukoplakia and erythroplakia – precancerous conditions of the oral cavity
Types of head and neck tumors
By the prevalence of 50% of malignant tumors of the oral cavity are tongue cancer.
Cancer of the floor of the mouth accounts for 20% of cases. By its external manifestation, the tumor of the oral cavity looks like an ulcer or induration, and can protrude above the surface of the mucous membrane. Oral cancer develops very quickly, invisibly grows into healthy tissues and metastases to regional lymph nodes.
First signs and symptoms of oral cancer
At the initial stage, patients have strange sensations in the mouth, small formations, colorless spots, ulcers and indurations on the mucous membrane appear.It is often impossible to determine independently that these are the first signs of malignant tumors of the oral cavity. Therefore, it is worth regularly visiting your dentist and therapist in order to identify the first symptoms of the disease in time.
You should contact your dentist immediately if you have any of the following signs of oral cancer:
– non-healing bleeding ulcers on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, gums or lip
– growths, nodules and lumps on the inner side of the cheek, felt by the tongue
– numbness of part of the oral cavity, loss of sensitivity
– chronic causeless pain in the oral cavity, radiating to the ear or temple
– increased salivation
Difficulty chewing and swallowing food
– jaw edema
– enlargement of lymph nodes in the neck
– voice change
– weight loss
Forms of oncological diseases of the oral cavity:
– ulcerative form occurs most often. It is characterized by the appearance of small ulcers in the oral cavity, which do not heal for a long time and tend to grow
– the knotty form is characterized by the formation of seals in the cavity with a clear shape and a whitish color. The neoplasm is growing very quickly
– papillary cancer is a mucosal outgrowth hanging down into the oral cavity. The outgrowths have a dense structure, the color does not differ from the integument of the mucous membrane. It is well served by treatment, since neoplasms do not spread to the surrounding tissues
Malignant tumors of the tongue occupy only 2% of the total number of patients with cancer.
Men are more susceptible to this disease than women.
Among the risk factors contributing to the appearance of tongue cancer are:
– smoking, chewing tobacco and nicotine gum
– alcohol abuse
– chemical and thermal damage to the oral mucosa
– human papillomavirus
– leukoplakia or prolonged mechanical damage to the oral mucosa
– gum inflammation
The most common cancer of the body of the tongue, in which the tumor affects the lateral surfaces and its middle part – such localization occurs in 70% of cases.
Cancer of the root of the tongue occupies 20%. Localization of malignant tumors in the posterior half of the oral cavity is designated as nasopharyngeal cancer and has a more aggressive course.
Cancer in the lower part of the tongue is diagnosed in 10% of cases.
The symptoms of tongue cancer are varied, but the most common symptoms are:
– spots of red or white color
– sore throat when eating
– speech disorders
– enlargement of cervical lymph nodes
– bad breath
– ear pain
It is possible to diagnose cancer of the tongue after a visual examination and the results of cytological and histological analyzes.
Cancer of the salivary glands
Cancer of the salivary glands is rare, its share in the structure of head and neck tumors does not exceed 7%.
Histological classification distinguishes the following types of cancer:
– squamous cell carcinoma, consisting of epithelial cells
-cylinder-cell, with passages and lumens, where papillary outgrowths are formed
– monomorphic, with regular glandular structures
– mucoepidermoid, whose cells form a structure with cavities filled with mucus
– adenocarcinoma, glandular and papillary cells without signs of other types of cancer
– adenolymphoma, tumor with clearly defined boundaries and elastic consistency
– undifferentiated cancer with a heterogeneous structure.
Among the causes presumably causing cancer of the salivary glands are:
– long-term smoking
– ionizing radiation
– harmful production – heavy metals, cement dust, etc.
– incorrect power supply
-viruses (mutated Epstein-Barr virus)
– hormonal failure
Early stages of cancer of the salivary glands are asymptomatic, the appearance of mass formation of pain does not cause.When growing into adjacent tissues, cancer of the salivary glands causes paresis of the facial nerve, numbness of the tongue, weakness and atrophy of the muscles of the tongue. Cancer of the salivary glands metastases to the lymph nodes, sometimes to the lungs and bones.
Lip cancer is a malignant tumor that forms from the squamous epithelium of the red border of the lip.
The onset of the disease is often preceded by precancerous conditions – chronic fissures, limited hyperkeratosis, etc. The typical site of tumor localization is the lower lip; cancer of the upper lip is much less common.The most common histological form of lip cancer is squamous cell carcinoma.
Factors influencing the occurrence of cancer are:
– smoking and alcohol abuse
– viral infections
– mechanical injuries
– chemical and thermal burns
– abrupt change of ambient temperature
– metabolic disorder
– gastric diseases
– the bad habit of biting lips
– deficiency in the body of vitamins of group B, C, E
In the early stages of the disease, a small formation appears on the lips that looks like a sore or fissure covered with scales.The growth rate of the tumor is insignificant, but the danger of this form of cancer is that metastases can spread to the jaw bone, forming new foci of the disease.
Lip cancer symptoms:
– ulcers and seals, covered with a scab
– exfoliation of the lip border
– profuse salivation
– unpleasant sensations while eating
It is possible to diagnose lip cancer in the early stages due to its external localization. Early detection of a malignant tumor makes it possible to start treatment on time and in 70% of cases a complete cure is possible.
Cancer of the larynx and pharynx
The most common morphological types of laryngeal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
The disease is difficult to diagnose, as the first signs of throat cancer often resemble common colds. The localization of tumors in hard-to-reach places and the absence of clearly pronounced symptoms complicate the diagnosis.Malignant tumors are found at later stages, when the patient has difficulty in nasal breathing, hearing deteriorates, and the voice disappears.
Throat cancer symptoms:
– bleeding, nasal congestion
– tinnitus, hearing loss on the affected side
– cervical lymphadenopathy
– symptoms of cranial nerve damage
– sore throat, radiating to the ear
– swallowing disorder (dysphagia)
– pain during the passage of food through the esophagus (single phagia)
– subfebrile temperature
– exhaustion, weakness.
A biopsy is used to accurately diagnose head and neck tumors. The material is sent for examination to a histological laboratory, and the presence of a tumor is determined based on the results of the study.
Diagnostics of head and neck tumors
Diagnostic methods for oncological diseases of the head and neck are:
– ultrasound examination of the neck and cervical lymph nodes
– endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx
– incisional biopsy
– fine needle puncture biopsy
-KT / MRT
-PET / CT
90,000 4 causes of swollen lymph nodes.When to start worrying? | Healthy life | Health
However, even a small increase can indicate a serious hazard when urgent action is needed.
Lymphadenopathy, activation of lymph nodes – this is a “visiting card” of a variety of diseases. Sometimes a doctor, observing this symptom, cannot explain the cause of the disease without special research.
Swelling of the lymph nodes occurs in rubella, measles, mononucleosis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis.Adenoviral infections can also cause it.
Lymph nodes usually become inflamed near the site of infection. If the throat hurts, then the cervical and submandibular lymph nodes increase, if there was a wound and an abscess on the leg – inguinal, if on the arm – axillary. Why is this happening? The fact is that when infectious agents enter the lymphatic system, the nodes begin to act as a border outpost. They trap the infection by preventing it from spreading. The production of lymphocytes, the body’s protective cells, which accumulate in these areas of the lymphatic system, is enhanced.So, in fact, the enlargement of the lymph nodes indicates that the body’s natural defense process has begun. But at the same time, such an alarm requires a visit to a doctor.
As a rule, overweight, loose people tend to enlargement of lymph nodes. Sometimes the swelling of the nodes goes away without affecting the state of the body. It is necessary to sound the alarm if the increase lasts too long, and the knot is painful and large enough – for example, the size of a walnut. You need to contact a specialist, and they will find out the cause of the infection.
Reasons for alarm
► Reason one. Scratched by a cat. Many have cats in their apartments, and not all of them are “loyal” to their owners. If the pet scratches the hand properly, an infection from the cat’s claws can get into the lymph, and the lymph node begins to respond to it. Develops “cat scratch disease”, or benign lymphoreticulosis.
The cats themselves do not get sick with it, they only carry the infection on their paws. But the damage caused to it can progress and manifest itself in the form of pain (from mild to very sensitive), as well as swelling near the damaged area.For example, if the arm is injured in the elbow area, then the swelling will be under the armpit. A slight temperature may rise – 37-37.5 degrees. If the body cannot cope with the infection, other lymph nodes – the pharynx – are involved, and then sore throat may begin, the liver and spleen also react. If the scratch does not heal for a long time, pus appears, a small seal.
Another “cat” infection – toxoplasmosis – enters the body through the digestive tract. At the same time, the lymph nodes increase, the temperature is low, weakness, sometimes the eyes swell, watery.This infection is especially dangerous for pregnant women. If someone from the family is affected by this infection, the expectant mother needs to exclude any contact with the sick and with an infected animal. This infection can adversely affect the condition of the child.
• Play carefully with cats to avoid contamination.
• If scratched, be sure to treat the wound with iodine, watch until it heals.
• When the infection does start to spread, the lymph nodes are swollen, you need to see a specialist who will definitely help, the disease is curable.
► Reason two. Rubbed my leg. A commonplace and very common cause of an enlarged lymph node is a scuff on the leg from tight shoes that have not been properly treated with antiseptic agents. It so happens that the wound has already healed, and everyone managed to forget that it was – most people do not pay attention to what does not hurt, does not bother.
But sometimes the infection still gets into the lymph and imperceptibly “takes a fancy” to some nearby lymph node.In such cases, the body sometimes copes on its own, and the swelling goes away after a while. However, it happens that the enlargement of the lymph node is accompanied by a purulent process, and then the help of a surgeon is required. The inflamed lymph node must be opened and cleaned, otherwise it can lead to infection.
• Wear your footwear, never go on a long trip in new shoes – prefer worn and comfortable ones.
• If a wound has formed on the leg, treat it with a bactericidal ointment and only then cover it with a plaster.
• If the leg does not heal for a long time, other discomfort has been added, consult a doctor.
► Reason three. Boils. Most often they signal hormonal surges. With increased sweating, they can also appear in the armpits. Sometimes it looks like dense swellings, over which the skin turns red, sometimes it even hurts to raise your hand. This is hydradenitis. Treating it yourself, tying aloe leaves or bandages with medicinal ointments, does not make sense.It is best to visit a surgeon.
• The skin in the place where boils often appear should be wiped with salicylic alcohol or special lotions. In no case should you touch or pierce them! It is better to entrust the treatment to a dermatologist: he will prescribe ointments and rubbing that will reduce these unpleasant phenomena.
• If you have excessive sweating, you need to carefully monitor your body cleanliness: wash yourself twice a day in a shower with soap or gel to cleanse the body of sweat and skin secretions. Every day you need to change your linen, and it is desirable that it be cotton.
Related article: Lumps under the arm, causes and treatment →
► Reason four. Lump in the chest area. Occasionally, an enlarged lymph node in the armpit can be combined with lumps in the breast tissue. This is a sign of a very dangerous disease that requires an immediate visit to an oncologist. Many of our compatriots live by the principle “until the thunder breaks out …”.But we must not forget that a breast tumor is such a disease that if it breaks out, it will not joke.
To ensure prevention, you need to accustom yourself after 35 years to regular self-examination of the mammary glands, like brushing your teeth. It is also important to visit a gynecologist at least twice a year. Women with a high risk of the disease – hereditary or associated with lifestyle – are also recommended a special oncological examination: mammography, ultrasound, analysis for tumor markers.
• Twice a month, you should carefully feel each breast, lying and standing. If even a small seal is found, consult a doctor immediately.
• Monitoring of the breast and axillary lymph nodes should be intensified if accidentally there is a bruise or other trauma to this area.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck: causes, diagnosis, treatment
The lymph nodes are a part of the lymphatic system that performs a filtering role.Needed in order to prevent the spread of infection throughout the body. They are located in groups in such a way as to become an obstacle to the spread of 90,075 microbes through the lymphatic vessels.
Lymph nodes in the neck and head in clinical practice are considered as one general group. This is due to the fact that they are all closely connected by lymphatic vessels and collect lymph from neighboring areas.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck and head occurs when there is an infectious focus in these areas. Various microorganisms entering the lymph node cause inflammation. This process is lymphadenitis. Depending on the nature of the pathogen, lymphadenitis is specific (syphilis, tuberculosis, brucellosis, etc.), nonspecific, acute and chronic.
Inflammation is manifested by pain and swollen lymph nodes. But the causes of swollen lymph nodes in the neck are not limited to inflammation. Sarcoidosis, tumors of the lymphatic system, metastatic lesions, a general decrease in immunity, trauma to the nodes themselves can also lead to an increase in their size.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes is a very common pathology in adults and children, so every person needs to know what to do, who to contact and how to treat the lymph nodes in the neck.
Classification of the lymph nodes of the neck and head
Lymph nodes on the neck and head are divided into the following groups, depending on their location: chin lymph nodes.
Zones of lymph outflow
The occipital and behind the ear lymph nodes filter the lymph obtained from the occipital, parietal regions and the auricle.Lymph flows to the parotid lymph nodes from the forehead, temples, external auditory canal, eardrum, and also from the eyelid area. The submandibular and chin receive lymph from the bone structures of the face, teeth, oropharynx, soft tissues of the face, chin and upper lip. Lingual nodes collect lymph from the tongue, which then flows into the submandibular. These are all the lymph nodes of the head, from which the lymph moves to the lymph nodes of the neck.
Cervical lymph nodes filter lymph from the lymph nodes of the head, from the cavities of the nose, mouth, pharynx, middle ear, larynx, trachea and thyroid gland.
Depending on which lymph node is involved in the process, it is possible to judge where the inflammation is. Swollen lymph nodes in the neck can be a sign of not only infection or cancer in one of these organs, but also problems with the organs of the chest and abdominal cavity (rare).
Causes of enlarged lymph nodes in the neck
- Diseases of the ENT organs, such as:
- Rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal mucosa or runny nose).
- Tonsillitis or tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils of the pharynx and palate).
- Otitis media (inflammation of the outer or middle ear).
- Diseases of the oral cavity also cause inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck:
- Gumboil (periostitis – inflammation of the periosteum due to the penetration of infection from the carious cavity into the gum and bone tissue).
- Glossitis (inflammation of the tongue, can be either an independent disease or a symptom of others).
- Gingivitis (damage to the soft tissues of the gums).
- Noma (rare severe, gangrenous inflammation of facial tissues, leading to their destruction and death of the patient).
- Stomatitis (inflammation of the oral mucosa).
- Diseases of the neck organs:
- Laryngitis, tracheitis, laryngotracheitis.
- Inflammatory and oncological processes in the thyroid gland.
- Focal infections of the scalp and neck: boils, carbuncles, abscesses, suppurating atheromas and hematomas.For example, enlargement of the lymph nodes in the back of the neck indicates most often a focus of infection on the skin of the back of the head and neck.
- If the lymph nodes in the neck are enlarged, then the cause may be systemic infectious diseases:
- Infectious mononucleosis (infection with the Epstein-Barr virus).
- Brucellosis (people who work with large and small cattle and skins of these animals suffer more often).
- Pulmonary tuberculosis.
- HIV infection at the stage of transition to AIDS.
- Systemic noncommunicable diseases:
- Generally decreased immunity.
- Injury and damage to the components themselves.
Symptoms of swollen lymph nodes in the neck are divided into:
- Symptoms of general intoxication – high body temperature, irritability, weakness, fatigue, headache, decreased performance.
- Local inflammation – enlargement of the node, pain when feeling, pain when moving the neck and head, redness of the skin over the node.
- Symptoms specific to each specific disease.
So, for example, ear inflammations and dental infections, in addition to general intoxication symptoms and enlargement of nodes, are manifested by toothache and ear pain, and with angina there is pain when swallowing. As a rule, if the lymph node in the neck is enlarged on one side, then we are talking about a focal infection, and it is located on this side.
If the lymph nodes in the neck hurt, there are symptoms of general intoxication, then you need to go to the hospital. Only a doctor, after a survey and examination, can determine why the lymph nodes are inflamed.
Diagnostics of lymphadenitis
Diagnostic measures begin with a detailed interview of the patient, examination of enlarged nodes, search for possible foci of infection.
It is necessary to examine the scalp, face, neck for boils, carbuncles, infected wounds.The oral cavity and pharynx are examined, palpation of all groups of lymph nodes of the head and neck is necessary. The lymph nodes are always felt simultaneously from both sides, so that a comparison could be made. The entire body is also examined for a rash, which may indicate rubella, chickenpox, or measles.
In addition to interrogation and examination, it is necessary to perform:
- General blood test, with an expanded leukocyte formula. A blood test can reveal an increase in leukocytes during inflammation, the appearance of monocytes in infectious mononucleosis.A decrease in the number of leukocytes below normal, the growth of lymphocytes, the appearance of immature cell forms can be with lymphomas, lymphogranulomatosis, leukemia.
- X-ray of the chest organs is also a mandatory examination item, especially if the nodes are not painful and general intoxication symptoms are observed, as it may be pulmonary tuberculosis or intrathoracic lymph nodes.
- Ultrasound of the lymph nodes is prescribed for suspected sarcoidosis, purulent inflammation.
- Ultrasound of the abdominal organs – for possible metastatic lesions of the cervical nodes and lymphomas.
- CT and MRI of the neck are prescribed for diseases of the thyroid gland, malignant processes of the head and neck, damage to the deep lymph nodes.
- In case of infectious processes in the nasal oral cavity and pharynx, a culture is taken for microflora.
- Puncture of lymph nodes and biopsy in difficult diagnostic cases.
Which doctor should you contact
Treatment of lymph nodes in the neck should only be performed under the supervision of a doctor. It is unacceptable and very dangerous to self-medicate without an accurate diagnosis.If the lymph nodes in the neck are enlarged, the doctor can decide what to do after a detailed diagnosis.
Treatment of inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck is usually dealt with by therapists for infections of the nasopharynx and oropharynx, dentists, for diseases of the oral cavity. Surgeons in the presence of an infection of the skin and subcutaneous fat, purulent inflammation of the lymph nodes.
Treatment of cervical lymphadenitis
How to treat lymphadenitis in the neck depends on the cause of the inflammation and the identified pathogen.