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What causes lymph nodes under arm to swell: Swollen lymph nodes – Symptoms and causes

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Swollen Lymph Nodes (Lymphadenopathy)

Overview

Swollen lymph nodes can occur in your armpits as well as in your neck and groin.

What are swollen lymph nodes?

When you’re not feeling so great, like you’re coming down with something, you may notice some swelling on the sides of your neck. Those lumps probably feel soft and tender to the touch — and may even hurt a little.

Swollen lymph nodes (or what doctors call lymphadenopathy) are common and are actually a good thing. The swelling in these pea- or bean-sized lymph nodes are one of your body’s natural reactions to illness or infection. That tells doctors that your body’s healthy and robust immune system is working to clear away infection and/or invading viruses or bacteria.

Many people call them swollen glands ― even though they’re really not glands, but part of your lymphatic system. One of your body’s lesser known systems, it’s in charge of balancing your fluid levels.

Your swollen glands act like filters that help your body get rid of germs, cells or other foreign matter that passes through your lymph fluid (a clear or slightly yellowish fluid made up of white blood cells, proteins and fats).

And when you think of swollen glands, you most likely think of swelling in your neck. But the lymph nodes in your groin, under your chin and your armpits can swell too. You can even move them slightly with your fingers.

You also have lymph nodes throughout your body that you can’t feel. There’s a network of about 600 of them (the exact count actually varies by person) in your:

  • Jaw.
  • Chest.
  • Arms.
  • Abdomen.
  • Legs.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes swollen lymph nodes?

The most common cause of lymph node swelling in your neck is an upper respiratory infection, which can take 10 to 14 days to resolve completely. As soon as you start feeling better, the swelling should go down as well, though it may take a few weeks longer to go away completely.

Other bacteria and viruses that may cause your lymph nodes to become swollen include:

Your lymph nodes get larger when more blood cells come to fight off an invading infection. They all essentially pile in, causing pressure and swelling.

Often, the lymph nodes that swell will be close to the infection’s site. (That means a person with strep throat might develop swollen lymph nodes in their neck.)

Diagnosis and Tests

How are swollen lymph nodes diagnosed?

Swollen lymph nodes aren’t a disease, they’re a symptom. Usually, diagnosing them means pinpointing what’s causing the swelling.

Besides a regular physical exam and medical history, your doctor will evaluate your swollen lymph nodes for:

  • Size.
  • Pain or tenderness when touched.
  • Consistency (hard or rubbery).
  • Matting (whether they feel joined or move together).
  • Location (specific diseases can be tied to where the swollen lymph nodes are in your body).

Your doctor will make sure your swollen lymph nodes aren’t caused by any of your medications. Some drugs, like the anti-seizure medication phenytoin (Dilantin®) can cause swollen lymph nodes.

Doctors only worry about swollen lymph nodes when they enlarge for no apparent reason. So if you have a large, swollen area but you’re not feeling sick and you didn’t recently have a cold, flu, upper respiratory infection or skin infection, you’ll need further tests, like blood work, imaging scans or a biopsy.

In rare situations, swollen lymph nodes can even point to cancer ― specifically, lymphoma (cancer of the lymphatic system). Other less common causes of swollen lymph nodes include injury, AIDS and cancer that’s spread from the lymph nodes to another part of your body.

Management and Treatment

How are swollen lymph nodes treated?

If swollen lymph nodes are only found in one area of your body it’s called localized swollen lymph nodes. And most of the time, you have a virus ― so there’s no treatment truly needed and it will just run its course. The nodes will gradually shrink back to their normal size.

For some infections (like pink eye or tinea), your doctor may prescribe an antiviral or antibiotic to clear it up.

When swollen lymph nodes are found in two or more areas (generalized swollen lymph nodes), it usually points to a more serious systemic (meaning it’s all over your body) disease. These are wide-ranging and include:

These conditions will require more aggressive treatments over a longer period of time. Your swollen lymph nodes may not return to their normal size until after your treatment has ended.

How to ease pain from swollen lymph nodes

You may feel a bit sore and tender. Try using a warm compress (like a microwavable rice sock or similar heating pad) and over-the-counter pain medications like ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®) and acetaminophen (Tylenol®). These treatments won’t shrink the nodes, but they’ll help ease your pain temporarily until your body fights off the infection or illness successfully.

Are swollen lymph nodes contagious?

No, swollen lymph nodes themselves aren’t contagious. You can’t just catch them. But if they were caused by a contagious virus (like cold and flu), you can spread those to your family and others around you.

Prevention

Can you prevent swollen lymph nodes?

You wouldn’t want to prevent swollen lymph nodes. They’re a sign that your body is fighting an infection or illness. If you hate the discomfort of having swollen lymph nodes, your best bet is to take extra steps to keep from catching common viruses through:

  • Proper handwashing.
  • Avoiding touching your eyes and nose.
  • Staying away from those who are sick.
  • Disinfecting surfaces in your home or workspace.
  • Getting enough sleep, eating healthy and exercising.

Outlook / Prognosis

When should I worry about swollen lymph nodes?

Most swollen lymph nodes aren’t a cause for concern and will go away as your infection clears up.

See your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms that might indicate that something more serious is going on:

  • Lymph nodes that are 1+ inch in diameter.
  • Nodes that are very painful, hard, fixed to the skin or growing rapidly.
  • Nodes that are draining pus or other substances.
  • Symptoms like weight loss, night sweats, long-lasting fever, fatigue, difficulty breathing.
  • Swollen nodes close to your collarbone or lower part of your neck (this often points to cancer).
  • Red or inflamed skin over your swollen lymph nodes.

Are swollen lymph nodes ever fatal?

No, swollen lymph nodes aren’t fatal. Alone, they’re simply a sign that your immune system is fighting an infection or illness. However, in rare cases, swollen lymph nodes can point to serious conditions, such as cancer of the lymphatic system (lymphoma), which could potentially be fatal.

Swollen Lymph Nodes (Lymphadenopathy)

Overview

Swollen lymph nodes can occur in your armpits as well as in your neck and groin.

What are swollen lymph nodes?

When you’re not feeling so great, like you’re coming down with something, you may notice some swelling on the sides of your neck. Those lumps probably feel soft and tender to the touch — and may even hurt a little.

Swollen lymph nodes (or what doctors call lymphadenopathy) are common and are actually a good thing. The swelling in these pea- or bean-sized lymph nodes are one of your body’s natural reactions to illness or infection. That tells doctors that your body’s healthy and robust immune system is working to clear away infection and/or invading viruses or bacteria.

Many people call them swollen glands ― even though they’re really not glands, but part of your lymphatic system. One of your body’s lesser known systems, it’s in charge of balancing your fluid levels.

Your swollen glands act like filters that help your body get rid of germs, cells or other foreign matter that passes through your lymph fluid (a clear or slightly yellowish fluid made up of white blood cells, proteins and fats).

And when you think of swollen glands, you most likely think of swelling in your neck. But the lymph nodes in your groin, under your chin and your armpits can swell too. You can even move them slightly with your fingers.

You also have lymph nodes throughout your body that you can’t feel. There’s a network of about 600 of them (the exact count actually varies by person) in your:

  • Jaw.
  • Chest.
  • Arms.
  • Abdomen.
  • Legs.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes swollen lymph nodes?

The most common cause of lymph node swelling in your neck is an upper respiratory infection, which can take 10 to 14 days to resolve completely. As soon as you start feeling better, the swelling should go down as well, though it may take a few weeks longer to go away completely.

Other bacteria and viruses that may cause your lymph nodes to become swollen include:

Your lymph nodes get larger when more blood cells come to fight off an invading infection. They all essentially pile in, causing pressure and swelling.

Often, the lymph nodes that swell will be close to the infection’s site. (That means a person with strep throat might develop swollen lymph nodes in their neck.)

Diagnosis and Tests

How are swollen lymph nodes diagnosed?

Swollen lymph nodes aren’t a disease, they’re a symptom. Usually, diagnosing them means pinpointing what’s causing the swelling.

Besides a regular physical exam and medical history, your doctor will evaluate your swollen lymph nodes for:

  • Size.
  • Pain or tenderness when touched.
  • Consistency (hard or rubbery).
  • Matting (whether they feel joined or move together).
  • Location (specific diseases can be tied to where the swollen lymph nodes are in your body).

Your doctor will make sure your swollen lymph nodes aren’t caused by any of your medications. Some drugs, like the anti-seizure medication phenytoin (Dilantin®) can cause swollen lymph nodes.

Doctors only worry about swollen lymph nodes when they enlarge for no apparent reason. So if you have a large, swollen area but you’re not feeling sick and you didn’t recently have a cold, flu, upper respiratory infection or skin infection, you’ll need further tests, like blood work, imaging scans or a biopsy.

In rare situations, swollen lymph nodes can even point to cancer ― specifically, lymphoma (cancer of the lymphatic system). Other less common causes of swollen lymph nodes include injury, AIDS and cancer that’s spread from the lymph nodes to another part of your body.

Management and Treatment

How are swollen lymph nodes treated?

If swollen lymph nodes are only found in one area of your body it’s called localized swollen lymph nodes. And most of the time, you have a virus ― so there’s no treatment truly needed and it will just run its course. The nodes will gradually shrink back to their normal size.

For some infections (like pink eye or tinea), your doctor may prescribe an antiviral or antibiotic to clear it up.

When swollen lymph nodes are found in two or more areas (generalized swollen lymph nodes), it usually points to a more serious systemic (meaning it’s all over your body) disease. These are wide-ranging and include:

These conditions will require more aggressive treatments over a longer period of time. Your swollen lymph nodes may not return to their normal size until after your treatment has ended.

How to ease pain from swollen lymph nodes

You may feel a bit sore and tender. Try using a warm compress (like a microwavable rice sock or similar heating pad) and over-the-counter pain medications like ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®) and acetaminophen (Tylenol®). These treatments won’t shrink the nodes, but they’ll help ease your pain temporarily until your body fights off the infection or illness successfully.

Are swollen lymph nodes contagious?

No, swollen lymph nodes themselves aren’t contagious. You can’t just catch them. But if they were caused by a contagious virus (like cold and flu), you can spread those to your family and others around you.

Prevention

Can you prevent swollen lymph nodes?

You wouldn’t want to prevent swollen lymph nodes. They’re a sign that your body is fighting an infection or illness. If you hate the discomfort of having swollen lymph nodes, your best bet is to take extra steps to keep from catching common viruses through:

  • Proper handwashing.
  • Avoiding touching your eyes and nose.
  • Staying away from those who are sick.
  • Disinfecting surfaces in your home or workspace.
  • Getting enough sleep, eating healthy and exercising.

Outlook / Prognosis

When should I worry about swollen lymph nodes?

Most swollen lymph nodes aren’t a cause for concern and will go away as your infection clears up.

See your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms that might indicate that something more serious is going on:

  • Lymph nodes that are 1+ inch in diameter.
  • Nodes that are very painful, hard, fixed to the skin or growing rapidly.
  • Nodes that are draining pus or other substances.
  • Symptoms like weight loss, night sweats, long-lasting fever, fatigue, difficulty breathing.
  • Swollen nodes close to your collarbone or lower part of your neck (this often points to cancer).
  • Red or inflamed skin over your swollen lymph nodes.

Are swollen lymph nodes ever fatal?

No, swollen lymph nodes aren’t fatal. Alone, they’re simply a sign that your immune system is fighting an infection or illness. However, in rare cases, swollen lymph nodes can point to serious conditions, such as cancer of the lymphatic system (lymphoma), which could potentially be fatal.

Axillary Lymphadenopathy: Overview and more

Axillary lymphadenopathy, also known as adenopathy, describes changes in the size and consistency of lymph nodes in the armpit (axillary lymph nodes).It is not a disease itself but rather a symptom associated with a range of diseases and conditions, from mild infections to breast cancer.

Axillary lymphadenopathy can be worrisome, especially if you’re not certain what is causing it. To help you decide when to see your doctor, this article will discuss possible causes and symptoms to look out for. Find out more about the different tests your doctor may order to make a diagnosis below.

Lymphadenopathy caused by infection or other inflammatory processes is called lymphadenitis. To prevent the spread of lymphadenopathy to other lymph nodes in your body, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics, antiviral, or anti-fungal medication.

Symptoms

Axillary lymphadenopathy is characterized by swelling and inflammation of one or more of the 20 to 40 axillary lymph nodes in each armpit. The swelling may involve one armpit, which is known as unilateral, or both armpits, known as bilateral.

Unilateral swelling is often (but not always) a symptom of an infection or disease on that side of the body. Bilateral swelling tends to point to systemic illness—that is, an illness affecting the entire body.

Swollen axillary lymph nodes can range in size from a small pea to a large grape. They can feel spongy or hard like a marble. They may also be accompanied by additional symptoms, including:

  • Warmth of the lymph nodes and surrounding skin
  • Redness of the lymph nodes and surrounding skin
  • Lymph nodes that are painful or tender
  • Lymphedema (swelling of the affected arm)
  • Fever and chills
  • Fatigue
  • Malaise
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • Night sweats
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Splenomegaly (swollen spleen)

Causes

Lymph nodes are part of the lymphatic system, which plays a central role in immune function, fluid balance, and absorption of fats and fat-soluble nutrients. Other parts of the lymphatic system include lymph fluid, lymph vessels, the spleen, tonsils, and the thymus gland.

Lymphadenopathy is a sign that the lymphatic system has triggered an immune response to defend against an invader—specifically, an infection or illness. The immune response works like this:

  1. First, the invader enters the lymph vessels and lymph fluid.
  2. Lymph fluid flows to the lymph nodes for inspection by the immune system.
  3. Once the invader is detected, inflammatory proteins (cytokines) and defensive white blood cells (lymphocytes) are released. Their job is to isolate and neutralize the invader within the lymph node.
  4. As a result, inflammation and fluid build-up in the lymph node leads to swelling. We recognize this swelling as lymphadenopathy.

Axillary lymphadenopathy may occur by itself or at the same time as lymphadenopathy of the neck or chest. Generalized lymphadenopathy describes the occurrence of lymphadenopathy throughout the body due to systemic illness.

There are many possible causes of axillary lymphadenopathy, including:

  • Local infection: such as streptococcal and staphylococcal skin infections, or other infections that are localized to the arm, hand, chest, or shoulder
  • Short-term inflammation: for example, after receiving a shoulder or arm tattoo
  • Vaccinations: measles, smallpox, tuberculosis, and anthrax vaccines are linked to unilateral lymphadenopathy on the same side as the injected arm
  • Strep throat: which can affect the axillary lymph nodes as well as the cervical lymph nodes
  • Cat-scratch fever: resulting from a cat scratch on an arm or hand
  • Sporotrichosis: a rare, localized fungal infection that results in swelling of the nearby lymph nodes
  • Hidradenitis suppurativa: a painful skin condition of uncertain cause that affects sweat glands
  • Tularemia: a rare infectious disease that typically attacks the skin, eyes, lymph nodes, and lungs
  • HIV: axillary and cervical lymph nodes are often affected during the early stages of the infection
  • Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: a syndrome characterized by swollen lymph nodes in the armpit, neck, or groin
  • Lymphoma: cancer of the lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue that causes swollen lymph nodes, usually in the armpit, neck, or groin
  • Regional cutaneous tuberculosis: a form of tuberculosis characterized by scaly and crusting skin lesions
  • Breast cancer: axillary lymphadenopathy typically occurs with locally advanced breast cancer or inflammatory breast cancer

Lung, thyroid, stomach, colorectal, pancreatic, ovarian, kidney, and skin cancer can also sometimes metastasize (spread) to the armpit area.

Diagnosis

Axillary lymphadenopathy can usually be identified with a physical exam. Your doctor may discover them during a routine checkup even if you have no symptoms. To determine the cause, they will consider several factors, including:

  • Size of the lymph nodes
  • Number of swollen lymph nodes
  • Pain or tenderness
  • Location (unilateral vs. bilateral)
  • Consistency (whether the nodes are hard or spongy)
  • Matting (whether the nodes are conjoined or individual)
  • Mobility (whether the nodes are movable or immovable)

Together, these clues may point to certain diagnoses and help exclude others.

Diagnostic Clues in Lymphadenopathy Evaluation
Symptoms Suspected Cause(s)
Acute joint pain and stiffness, muscle weakness, rash Autoimmune
Fever, chills, fatigue, malaise Infection
Enlarged spleen, unexplained weight loss of more than 10% Lymphoma, metastatic cancer
Multiple small nodes that feel like “buckshot” Viral infection
A hard, painless or firm, rubbery mass that is fixed Cancer
Swollen lymph nodes appearing days or week after sexual activity HIV

Doctors tend to worry about lymph nodes if they develop for no apparent reason. In such cases, additional tests may be ordered to help narrow down the causes.

Lab Tests and Procedures

In addition to a physical exam, your doctor will review your medical history and symptoms—such as recent vaccinations, unexplained weight loss, recent sexual exposures, or abnormal skin lesions. This information will help them determine which tests to include in the workup, such as:

  • C-reactive protein levels: high levels in the blood indicate generalized inflammation
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): a blood test that reveals inflammation in the body
  • White blood cell count: an elevated lymphocyte count in the blood may suggest infection
  • Infection-specific tests: possibly for HIV, tuberculosis, or streptococcus
  • Immunologic blood tests: to help detect autoimmune disease
  • Skin biopsy: a procedure that may be done if skin lesions are present
  • Diagnostic mammogram or breast ultrasound: to detect breast cancer
  • Imaging studies: such as X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Lymph node biopsy: to determine if an infection, autoimmune disorder, or cancer is involved

Differential Diagnoses

Lumps and masses in the armpit don’t always indicate lymphadenopathy. Some may be benign or malignant growths not related to the lymphatic system, such as:

  • Lipomas: benign tumors composed of mature fat cells
  • Epidermal inclusion cysts: benign cysts usually found on the skin
  • Fibroadenomas: benign, painless breast lumps that can extend to the armpit
  • Schwannomas: benign tumors of nerve sheaths
  • Malignant neuroendocrine tumors: a cancer involving cells of the nervous and endocrine systems that occasionally affects the armpit

These conditions usually can be differentiated with imaging studies and other procedures, such as fine-needle aspiration.

Treatment

Lymphadenopathy is not a disease but rather a symptom of a disease, infection, or abnormal immune response. As such, there is no specific treatment for axillary lymphadenopathy itself. Instead, it is resolved by treating the underlying condition.

Symptoms of lymphadenopathy can respond to certain home or over-the-counter (OTC) remedies. A cold compress may relieve inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Aleve (naproxen) and Advil (ibuprofen) can relieve pain and inflammation as well. If an infection is involved, rest is vital.

In cases of advanced breast cancer, the axillary lymph nodes are removed as part of a radical or modified mastectomy.

Summary

When your body detects a foreign invader—be it an illness, an infection, or even a vaccine—your lymphatic system will trigger an immune response to fend off the perceived threat. As lymphocytes and cytokines attack the invader, your lymph nodes will swell, resulting in lymphadenopathy.

Sometimes, axillary lymphadenopathy can be a sign of a serious illness, such as HIV, lymphoma, or breast cancer. You should make an appointment with your doctor if you are concerned, or:

  • Your lymph nodes are swollen for no apparent reason
  • The swelling does not resolve within two to four weeks
  • The swelling continues to worsen
  • Your lymph nodes feel hard, irregular in shape, or fixed in place
  • You have a fever, night sweats, or unexplained weight loss

A Word From Verywell

A swollen lymph node is not an uncommon condition. But it should never be ignored if it is persistent, severe, or unexplained. When seeing a doctor, provide as much information as possible about what you had been doing or experiencing before the lymphadenopathy started. The more your doctor knows, the sooner a diagnosis can be made.

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Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Gaddey HL, Riegel AM. Unexplained lymphadenopathy: Evaluation and differential diagnosis. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Dec;94(11):896-903.

  2. Net JM, Mirpuri TM, Plaza MJ, et al. Resident and fellow education feature: US evaluation of axillary lymph nodes. Radiographics. 2014 Nov;34(7):1817-1818. doi:10.1148/rg.347140081

  3. Mohseni S, Shojaiefard A, Khorgami Z, Alinejad S, Ghorbani A, Ghafouri A. Peripheral lymphadenopathy: approach and diagnostic tools. Iran J Med Sci. 2014 Mar;39(2):158-70.

  4. Mantis J, Ali Y, Junejo SZ. Cat-scratch disease in an AIDS patient presenting with generalized lymphadenopathy: An unusual presentation with delayed diagnosis. Am J Case Rep. 2018 Aug;19:906–911. doi:10.12659/AJCR.909325

  5. Park JE, Sohn YM, Kim EK. Sonographic findings of axillary masses: What can be imaged in this space?. J Ultrasound Med. 2013 Jul;32(7):1261-70. doi:10.7863/ultra.32.7.1261

  6. Plesca M, Bordea C, El Houcheimi B, Ichim E, Blidaru A. Evolution of radical mastectomy for breast cancer. J Med Life. 2016 Jun;9(2):183-6.

  7. Mount Sinai. Swollen lymph nodes.

Verywell Health is part of the Dotdash publishing family.

Enlarged Axillary Lymph Nodes – Breastlink

Enlarged axillary lymph nodes can be a symptom of a serious medical condition, including breast cancer. If you, or a loved one, notice swelling and/or feel a solid mass in the armpit area please contact a medical professional.

The Lymphatic System

The human circulatory system includes the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems, two networks that play complementary roles. As you may recall from a high school biology class, the cardiovascular system consists of arteries and veins. Arteries transfer blood, enriched with oxygen and fuel, to cells. Veins return blood, carrying carbon dioxide, back to the lungs.

The lymphatic system is a nearly parallel structure and plays a critical role in the body’s immune system. The lymphatic system moves lymph between tissue and the bloodstream via lymph ducts, lymph nodes, lymph vessels and organs. It also includes adenoids, the spleen, the thymus and tonsils.

  • Lymph: a clear-to-white fluid made up of white blood cells that attack bacteria found in the bloodstream. Lymph can also be found in the intestines (chyle), where they hold proteins and fats.
  • Lymph Nodes (Lymph Glands): are found throughout the human body (behind breast tissue, arm tissue, leg tissue, etc.) and are linked together through lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes screen and/or remove foreign substances (for example, substances secreted from bacteria, called antigens).

If the lymph nodes detect an unrecognizable substance they will create an antibody, which flows in blood circulation to target and destroy the foreign material in cells throughout the body.

Swollen lymph nodes are a sign they are making infection-fighting white blood cells to combat a recognized threat to the body. The threat can range from something relatively trivial, such as a cold or throat infection, to something far more serious, such as cancer. Understanding the health of the lymphatic system can play a crucial role in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer tumors.

Enlarged Axillary Lymph Nodes

The axillary (arm pit) lymph nodes filter and/or trap lymph from the arm, chest wall and breast. It is often difficult to feel normal axillary lymph nodes. Not all enlarged axillary lymph nodes feel the same. It is also important to mention that enlarged axillary lymph nodes are not necessarily a sign of cancer. However, we strongly advise you to consult with a medical provider if you are concerned about enlarged axillary lymph nodes.

Enlarged axillary lymph nodes may stem from a range of causes. If a patient does not have cancer, some of the local, non-cancerous causes of enlarged axillary lymph nodes include:

  • An injury to the armpit, arm or hand (almost always non-cancerous).
  • Localized infection or hydradenitits.
  • Brucellois (also known as Undulant fever, Malta fever and/or Mediterranean fever): a bacteria disease picked up from contact with dogs, cows, goats, pigs or other mammals. Brucellois can be contracted consuming unpasteurized dairy products.
  • Cat Scratch Disease: cats infected with bartonellahenselae can transfer the bacteria to humans by piercing their skin (bite or scratch). The illness may result in fatigue, a fever, headache(s) and a loss of appetite. Most of the time the body can expunge the infection without medical treatment.
  • Silicone breast implants: a reaction by the lymphatic system to the placement of a foreign substance (including the small possibility of a silicone leak).

Systematic, non-cancerous causes of enlarged axillary lymph nodes include:

  • Viral infections: mononucleosis, chicken pox, measles, HIV/AIDS and others.
  • Bacterial: tuberculosis, etc.
  • Fungal.
  • Temporary side effects from a vaccination.

Enlarged axillary lymph nodes can be a symptom of the following local or metastasized (systematic) cancer maladies:

  • A tumor in or near the axillary lymph node.
  • Leukemia.
  • Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.
  • Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.
  • Melanoma.

Enlarged Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

Approximately 75 percent of lymph found in the breasts drain into the axillary lymph nodes. As such, the detection of enlarged axillary lymph nodes, especially nodes that are hard to the touch, can play an important factor in the diagnosis, and staging, of breast cancer.

Not all cases of breast cancer result in enlarged axillary lymph nodes. However, the observation of enlarged axillary lymph nodes is a strong signal that breast cancer may be at a more advanced stage. The detection of cancer in the lymph nodes is one of three central determinants breast cancer doctors consider to evaluate the stage of a breast cancer tumor(s). The other two are the size of breast cancer tumor and whether it has spread to other areas of the body.

There are five options to categorize the influence of breast cancer in the axillary lymph nodes:

  • NX: lymph nodes cannot be clinically evaluated.
  • N0: no identifiable cancer in the axillary lymph nodes.
  • N1: cancer is present in the axillary lymph nodes. However, it is not attached to the chest wall or between different axillary lymph nodes.
  • N2: cancer is identified in the axillary lymph nodes. The cancer has linked between different axillary lymph nodes and/or the chest wall.
  • N3: in addition to N2, cancer has spread above and below the collarbone.

To clarify the axillary lymph node status a sentinel node biopsy may be performed. This is a surgical technique that injects a radioactive blue dye into the site of the breast cancer tumor. The dye helps surgeons identify the closest lymph nodes to the breast cancer site.

  • The axillary lymph nodes nearest to the breast cancer site are removed and biopsied for cancer.
  • If cancer is not detected the remaining axillary lymph nodes are not removed.
  • If cancer is detected additional axillary lymph nodes are removed and biopsied.

A Consultation for Enlarged Axillary Lymph Nodes

If you or a loved one is concerned about enlarged axillary lymph nodes, please contact one of our centers for a consultation. Whether you need us now or later, we are always here for you.

Swollen Lymph Nodes: Should You Be Worried?: Health One Family Medicine: Family Medicine

Swollen lymph nodes, more commonly referred to as swollen glands, is a condition where your lymph nodes become enlarged due to infection. Lymph nodes are soft nodules of tissue that are located throughout your body. They are a part of the body’s immune system and help fight infection.

Lymph nodes are responsible for collecting waste materials and harmful bacteria and viruses present in the lymph fluid. They also contain white blood cells. The most common lymph nodes that you will feel are located under the jaw, under the armpits, on both sides of your neck, and on either side of the groin. Let’s take a look at the causes of swollen lymph nodes and whether you need to visit a physician.

There are several causes of swollen lymph nodes. For the most part, your lymph nodes tend to swell as a standard response to infection. They may also swell due to stress. Some of the most common illnesses associated with swollen lymph nodes include colds, ear infections, the flu, tonsillitis, skin infections, or glandular fever. In some cases, however, the underlying cause of swollen lymph nodes may be much more serious. They may be caused by some types of cancer (lymphoma), rheumatoid arthritis, HIV, measles, Hodgkin’s disease, tuberculosis, lupus, syphilis, etc.

Some anti-seizure and anti-malarial drugs may also be responsible.

Swollen lymph nodes are usually detected through physical examination. They feel like soft, circular bumps. You can gently press areas like the side of your neck to see if there is swelling. Some people experience tenderness in their lymph nodes and may experience pain when they are chewing food or when they turn their neck in a certain direction. Swollen lymph nodes in the groin area may cause pain when you walk or bend.

You should consider visiting a physician if the swelling has not reduced after a few weeks or has increased, if the lymph nodes feel hard when you press them, if you have difficulty swallowing or breathing, and if you have a sore throat. Swollen lymph nodes accompanied by weight loss (if you are not dieting), and a persistent fever is also a source of concern.

If you experience the symptoms described above, then you can visit a physician for a preliminary exam. Besides conducting a physical examination, they will ask you about your symptoms and your medical history to diagnose the cause of the swelling. They can also order a routine blood test or an imaging test (ultrasound, an MRI scan, and a CT scan) as part of the diagnosis.

A doctor will usually prescribe antibiotics or antiviral medication if the lymph nodes are swollen due to infection. You may also need to take ibuprofen and aspirin to help with the pain and inflammation. In most cases, swollen lymph nodes are not due to cancer. However, you can get a diagnosis done just to be safe.

If you’re seeking further advice on the causes of swollen lymph nodes, we suggest you make an appointment with a physician at Health One Family Medicine, visit https://www.healthonemedicine.com/or call (469)262-5762.

Author

Health One Family Medicine

Cancer That Spreads To Lymph Nodes | Signs, Treatments

The body’s lymphatic system helps fight disease and infection. Lymph nodes, also called lymph glands, are a key part of this network of vessels, tissues and organs. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that produce and store blood cells, filter waste materials and harmful germs from the body’s tissues, and carry immune cells that fight infection.

There are hundreds of lymph nodes scattered in groups throughout the body, with large concentrations of the glands in the neck, armpits, abdomen and groin. The lymph system is part of the body’s immune system, producing white blood cells—B lymphocytes (B cells) or T lymphocytes (T cells)—that fight infection. The lymph system also includes the tonsils, spleen and thymus.

The lymph system is part of the body’s circulatory system. Lymph vessels are similar to the veins in the cardiovascular system. Instead of blood, the lymphatic vessels carry a clear, watery fluid called lymph (pronounced limf). This lymphatic fluid brings oxygen and other nutrients to tissue cells and takes away waste products from the cells. Each lymph node filters the lymphatic fluid draining from the vessels that lead to it.

The lymph fluid filtered by the lymph nodes, no matter where they’re located, moves to the chest, where it collects into a large vessel that drains into a blood vessel near the heart. From there, the filtered fluid, along with salts and proteins, moves into the bloodstream. Each group of lymph nodes filters a specific region of the body.


Swollen lymph nodes: What do they mean?

Swollen lymph nodes, or swollen glands, are a symptom of many illnesses—from the common cold to some forms of cancer—and a sign that something is wrong in the body. The swelling or enlargement, called lymphadenopathy, occurs in the lymph nodes when they’re filtering cells affected by a condition, such as an infection, injury or cancer. The most common reason lymph nodes swell is because of an infection, particularly viral infections such as a cold. It’s much rarer for swollen lymph nodes to be a symptom of a more serious condition such as cancer.

The lymph nodes are likely to swell in one specific region depending on the illness. This will usually occur in the neck, armpits or groin. Less common is when lymph nodes swell in several regions at the same time. That condition may be brought on by infections such as strep throat or mononucleosis, a reaction to certain medicines, an immune system disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis, and forms of cancer such as lymphoma and leukemia.

When lymph node swelling persists and is accompanied by other symptoms, such as fever or night sweats, or when there’s no obvious infection, it may be time to seek medical advice or evaluation from a doctor.

When touching an affected area, swollen lymph nodes may feel soft and round, like lumps the size of a pea, peanut or grape. If they’re painful when touched, that may be a sign of inflammation. Since lymph nodes appear in parallel—as, for instance, on both sides of the neck—you can feel lymph glands on both sides to see whether they are a normal size on one side and enlarged on the other, which may be a sign of infection.

In determining a diagnosis, it’s important for doctors to look at other symptoms or factors. Swollen lymph nodes near the ear may indicate an ear infection, for instance. Swollen glands in the neck area near the collarbone, combined with a sore throat and cough, may be a sign of an upper respiratory infection. When multiple regions of lymph nodes are swollen, it may indicate a body-wide disease that needs immediate attention.

Besides reviewing your medical history, doctors may use some of the following methods to diagnose the cause of swollen lymph nodes:

  • Physical examination, feeling with fingers the nodes in the affected area to check their size and whether they feel hard, tender or warm
  • Lab tests, including blood tests to check for suspected underlying conditions
  • Imaging tests, including an X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound test
  • Biopsy to remove sections of lymph tissue or an entire lymph node to examine under a microscope

Cancer in the lymph nodes

In rare cases, lymph node swelling may be related to cancer. Some cancers start in the lymph nodes. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma are types of lymph system cancers, as is acute lymphocytic leukemia.

More often, a cancer may appear in the lymph nodes as a metastasis, spreading from somewhere else in the body. Some cancer cells break off from a tumor and metastasize in another location. Those cancer cells may travel through the bloodstream and reach other organs, or go through the lymph system and reach lymph nodes. However, most of the cancer cells traveling through the bloodstream or lymph system will die or be killed off before they have a chance to metastasize, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS).

When cancer is present in a lymph node, a biopsy helps determine what type of cancer it is when the removed tissue or node is examined under a microscope. The cancer cells will look like the cancer cells of the tumor where they originated, so breast cancer cells in the lymphatic system will still look like breast cancer.


Lymph nodes and staging cancer

Oncologists use cancer staging to determine the extent of cancer in the body. Lymph nodes play an important role in one of the most commonly used staging systems, called TNM. The TNM system is based on the extent of the tumor (T), how much it has spread to nearby lymph nodes (N) and the presence of metastasis (M). Each letter is assigned a numerical value based on clinical observations.

If no cancer is found in the lymph nodes near the cancer, the N is assigned a value of 0. If nearby or distant nodes show cancer, the N is assigned a number that increases based on the number of nodes affected, the size and extent of the cancer, how large the nodes are and where they’re located. The numbers for each initial are added up. The higher the sum, the more advanced the cancer. The lower the TNM score, the easier it may be to treat.


Treatment for cancer in the lymph nodes

Treatment for cancer in the lymph nodes varies depending on the tumor size and location and whether the cancer has metastasized to other areas of the body.

Surgery may be used to treat some forms of metastatic cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes. Other treatment options for cancer in the lymph nodes may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, a stem cell transplant, immunotherapy or targeted therapy.

There’s a higher risk for cancer to come back following surgery when a cancer has spread to lymph nodes. In those cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be recommended after surgery.

Removing lymph nodes during cancer surgery is “highly unlikely” to weaken the patient’s immune system, because it is “large and complex and is located throughout the body,” the ACS says. Lymph node removal may leave the affected part of the body unable to drain off lymph fluid, which may lead to a fluid backup (lymphedema) and may become a continuing problem. The greater the amount of lymph nodes removed, the greater the chance for lymphedema to occur.

Swollen Lymph Nodes Can Be Vaccine Side Effect

As more people are getting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, doctors are noticing an interesting—but not unusual—side effect: swollen lymph nodes, especially under the armpits.

This is your immune system at work, building up its defenses to COVID-19.

“Lymph nodes are primarily where your immune cells reside. They recognize an illness and then activate the immune system,” says Brian Brimmage, MD, an obstetrician who delivers babies at UNC REX Healthcare. “It’s normal after either a vaccination, an illness or infection for the lymph nodes to be enlarged because that’s where the big immune reaction is happening.”

Lymph nodes filter out harmful substances in your body, such as bacteria and viruses. They are located throughout your body, including in the neck, armpits and groin. They are activated—and thus become swollen—when they detect a harmful substance and try to remove it from your body.

The lymph nodes closest to the affected body part are usually the ones that swell. For example, if you have strep throat, the lymph nodes in your neck become swollen. If you get a sexually transmitted disease or vaginal infection, the lymph nodes in your groin might swell. Some people with breast cancer experience swollen lymph nodes in the armpit, which might cause anxiety after vaccination for women who don’t know to expect it.

Why would the vaccines cause swollen lymph nodes?

Because the COVID-19 vaccines are given in your arm, they can activate the lymph nodes in your armpit and cause swelling there.

Here’s why: The aim of the COVID-19 vaccine is to get your immune system to launch a response to what it thinks is the COVID-19 virus. It is training your body to make antibodies to fight the virus.

Then, if you’re exposed to COVID-19, those antibodies are ready to recognize the virus, resulting in either no infection or a less serious infection. Experiencing mild side effects after a vaccination, such as a slight fever, body aches and swollen lymph nodes, is your immune system telling you that it’s doing exactly what you want it to do—respond to the vaccine and produce antibodies. (That said, if you don’t notice side effects, don’t worry. The vaccine is still working in your body.)

“The reason that you are getting swelling in your armpit after the COVID vaccine is because your body is working really hard to mount an immune response so that it can protect you against COVID,” says UNC Health family medicine physician Sarah Ruff, MD.

How do you know if a swollen lymph node might be cancerous?

Breast cancer also can cause a swollen lymph node in the armpit. That’s because when breast cancer spreads outside of the breasts, it often goes to the lymph nodes under the arms.

Both Drs. Ruff and Brimmage say that if you feel swelling in your lymph nodes and recently had a COVID-19 vaccine, wait a week to 10 days to see if the swelling decreases. If it does not, go see your doctor. (And know that conditions other than cancer can cause a persistent swollen lymph node, but you’ll want to see a doctor to know for sure.)

“If it doesn’t seem like it’s getting any smaller over the course of about a week, then I think that is definitely time to come in and get it checked out in the office,” Dr. Brimmage says. “If it seems like it’s going down and going away over the course of the week, which it almost always does, then I don’t think any further kind of follow-up or concern is needed—particularly if it’s in the armpit rather than in the main part of the breast.”

Should you delay your mammogram?

Some women are wondering what to do about mammograms: Will an armpit lump from the vaccine complicate the results?

Probably not, Dr. Brimmage says.

“Even if you feel a lump or a bump there in your armpit, it is unlikely that that’s going to be mistaken for a breast lump or a breast nodule that would then lead to biopsy or further imaging,” Dr. Brimmage says. “Worst case, if they weren’t sure on that mammogram, they would either bring you back for a repeat mammogram in a couple of months or they would do an ultrasound of the area.”

If you have a mammogram scheduled and were recently vaccinated but don’t feel any kind of a lump or bump, do not reschedule your mammogram. And even if you do feel something, you don’t have to put off your annual screening—especially if it would be hard to reschedule.

If you don’t have a screening mammogram scheduled but are due for one, the Society of Breast Imaging recommends scheduling screening exams either before your first dose of a COVID-19 vaccination or four to six weeks after the second dose for those COVID-19 vaccines that require two doses.

“You can wait to schedule your mammogram just to avoid any confusion,” Dr. Ruff says.

As always, if you’re unsure what to do, ask your doctor.

“If you find a swelling anywhere, a lymph node in your neck, in your armpit, anywhere, tell your doctor,” Dr. Ruff says. “Your doctor can help you decide if it’s most likely due to the vaccine or if it’s something that they should see you for, and then you can talk about a plan together.”


If you’re worried about swollen lymph nodes or have questions about the COVID-19 vaccines, talk to your doctor or find one near you.

90,000 Swollen lymph nodes under the armpits, groin and occipital

There are a number of reasons for swollen lymph nodes. The most common is infection. You should see your doctor if you are unsure of the cause or if the swelling does not subside within two weeks.

Types of lymph nodes

Small lymph nodes are located throughout the body. Placed side by side, form groups and chains. The main groups of lymph glands are found in the neck, armpits and groin, as well as in many other places in the body.Lymph nodes are connected by lymph channels. Lymphatic fluid forms between the cells of the body. This watery fluid travels through the channels through the glands and eventually enters the bloodstream. The lymph nodes are the main part of the immune system. They contain old blood cells (lymphocytes) and antibodies that protect the body from infections.

Causes of swollen lymph nodes under the armpits and in other areas

Lymph nodes are usually pea-sized. They can be felt through the skin. They are best felt in the neck area, feeling like lumps under the skin. When swells, the lymph node on the back of the head becomes the most noticeable and very easily palpable. They can increase several times. In some areas, such as the chest or abdomen, lymph nodes cannot be felt.

Main reasons

Infection

During the fight of the immune system against bacteria and viruses, the lymph nodes swell and become soft.They return to their normal size only when the immune system has completely defeated the infection. It can last for about a week. Common infections include the following:

  • Throat, colds and dental infections
  • Skin diseases on the head, including lice, can cause swelling in the occipital region
  • Skin diseases of the hands can lead to inflammation in the armpit
  • Infections in the legs and genitals, usually cause swollen lymph nodes in the groin
  • Viral infections such as influenza, chickenpox, mononucleosis affect the entire body.

Cancer, lymphoma, leukemia

Less common cause. Cancer cells can metastasize to nearby lymph nodes through the lymphatic duct. These cancer cells can live and spread in the lymph glands and cause swelling. Types of cancer that cause inflammation:

  • Breast cancer
  • Throat cancer
  • Lung and stomach cancer
  • Skin cancer
  • Cancer of the lymphatic and circulatory system
  • As a rule, swollen lymph nodes for this reason cause less discomfort and may be painless at an early stage.

Other, less common causes

Rarely, swelling is associated with reactions to certain medications and diseases such as sarcoidosis and some forms of arthritis. The problem can also be caused by Kawasaki disease, HIV and tuberculosis.

Treatment of lymph nodes

Treatment depends on the cause. In cases of infection, the disease itself is usually treated, and the enlarged lymph nodes return to normal on their own within 1 to 2 weeks. If cancer or lymphoma is the cause, serious treatment may be needed.

What to do if the lymph nodes are enlarged

Increases due to infection are common and do not require special attention. For example, with frequent throat ailments, the lymph nodes swell in the neck. It is worth worrying if the nodes have grown for no apparent reason. In this case, you should consult a doctor. A doctor may also need help if the swelling does not go away within two weeks.

See also: Inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck – treatment

We invite you to familiarize yourself with the line of ESMA devices for medicine.

90,000 Why are lymph nodes inflamed? | Health Blog

When the lymph nodes become inflamed (enlarged), this is lymphadenopathy. It causes concern for many. And especially sensitive and impressionable people immediately suspect they have terrible diseases and even cancer.

What is lymph and why is it needed?

Lymph is a liquid that flushes out dead cells of the body, as well as bacteria, toxins and viruses.

There are more than 500 lymph glands or lymph nodes in the body. In the system, they play the role of pumps – they make the lymph move through the lymph flow. And lymphocytes (protective white blood cells) that make up lymph protect the circulatory system and keep bacteria, viruses and cancer cells out.

Where are the lymph nodes located?

Body part Where are they?
Upper limbs – under the armpits,
– on the elbows.
Head – in the area of ​​the ears,
– under the jaw.
Chest – in the trachea and bronchus,
– near the sternum,
– between the ribs.
Neck – in the front of the neck, both on the surface and deep.
Pelvis – in the region of the sacrum,
– in the ilium.
Lower limbs – in the groin, both on the surface and in depth,
– under the knees.
Abdominal cavity – in the liver,
– stomach,
– internal genital organs in women.

Why are the lymph nodes inflamed?

Lymph nodes are concentrated in groups in certain parts of the body. Each group “serves” its part of the body. And although an increase in lymph nodes can speak of various formidable diseases (tuberculosis, HIV, ARVI, venereal and oncological diseases), the main reason always lies in the development of pathology in the zone for which the node works.When there are not enough lymphocytes to fight off harmful agents in the lymph, they actively multiply to eliminate the infection. Because of this, the lymph nodes enlarge and harden, and the skin above them reddens and becomes sensitive.

That is, inflammation of the lymph nodes is not an independent disease, but rather a signal that the body gives when something goes wrong in it.

Depending on which lymph nodes are inflamed, you can fairly accurately determine where the problem is.This is used by doctors to confirm certain diagnoses.

Symptoms

If the lymph node has increased, but the temperature has not risen, there is no pain when pressing, and the general condition has not worsened, then everything is in order – this lymph node is just working more actively than others. It goes away.

Worse if you feel weak with lymphadenopathy, your ears, throat or head hurt, and your temperature rises. See a therapist. If the cause of the inflammation is a cold or flu, he will help cure them or send them to another specialist.For example, to the dentist, if suddenly the problem is caries. Get rid of the source disease and the lymph nodes return to normal.

But there are times when inflamed lymph nodes cause serious discomfort and even pose a danger to life. In this case, you need to sound the alarm and run to the doctor.

Worry When:

  • general weakness and feeling unwell;
  • high temperature;
  • hurts in the mouth, throat, ears and head in general;
  • stuffy nose;
  • have trouble breathing, difficulty swallowing;
  • Two weeks later, the lymph nodes did not return to their normal state.

We sound the alarm when:

  • a purulent process began in the lymph node, due to which the skin above it turned red and became hot;
  • lymph nodes are inflamed in several places at once;
  • the node does not move when pressed;
  • There is hyperhidrosis, persistent fever, weight loss for no reason.

But if the nodes are inflamed, and there are no signs of a cold or infection, this is bad. The problem could be an autoimmune disease or cancer.

How to help yourself before visiting a doctor?

Have you already made an appointment with a doctor, but you want to somehow alleviate your condition right now? Here are some simple tips:

  • Take a pain reliever to bring down the temperature and relieve some pain. Better based on paracetamol. You need to be careful with aspirin and ibuprofen – they should not be given to children and people who have problems with blood clotting without consulting a doctor.
  • Get some rest – this will help you cope with the disease faster.Take sick leave or time off if possible.

And remember – self-medication is always bad. It is better to seek help from a qualified technician.

90,000 How is non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed

  1. Symptoms
  2. Research Methods

Symptoms

Very often, patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma do not have any symptoms. Lymphoma is often detected by examinations associated with other diseases, such as blood tests or chest x-rays of lungs.This is especially true in patients with slowly progressing non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Any symptom that occurs with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can cause other diseases. In other words, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma has no specific symptoms. This is one of the reasons why diagnostic tests are important when making a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Symptoms can be divided into four large groups:

  • Enlargement of one or more lymph nodes
  • General symptoms (symptoms of general ill health)
  • Symptoms associated with enlargement of organs affected by lymphoma
  • Symptoms associated with a decrease in the number of blood cells

The most common symptom at the time of diagnosis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a painless, enlarged lymph node , which is usually more than 1 cm in diameter.Lymph nodes are more commonly seen in the neck, armpits, and groin areas. These lymph nodes usually do not cause pain or other abnormalities, only gradually enlarge. Many patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (sometimes in the case of slowly progressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) have enlarged lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis.

Of course, it must be remembered that in humans, lymph nodes swell very often and the most common reason for this is infection.However, the swollen lymph node caused by the infection is usually short-lived and disappears after the infection has cleared.

Although the most common symptom of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma at the time of diagnosis is an enlarged lymph node, there are other symptoms as well:

  • General symptoms (symptoms of general ill health)
  • Symptoms associated with enlargement of organs affected by lymphoma

General symptoms are nonspecific and indicate that the person is unwell.Common symptoms commonly seen in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma:

  • Recurrent fever of unknown origin (body temperature above 38oC)
  • Night sweats (up to wet nightgown and sheets)
  • Unplanned weight loss (more than 10% of body weight in the last 6 months)
  • Prolonged and severe fatigue and weakness
  • Decreased appetite

The first three symptoms – fever, night sweats and weight loss – are used to classify the stages of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.For a person who has one or more of these symptoms, the letter ‘’ B is added to the lymphoma stage classification. For example, non-Hodgkin’s stage IIB lymphoma indicates that the patient has one or more of these three symptoms, and stage IIA indicates that the patient does not have any of these symptoms. For this reason, these three symptoms are often referred to as ‘B symptoms’.

Other common symptoms that can be seen in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma:

  • Shortness of breath and cough
  • Constant itching of the whole body

Other symptoms can be observed if lymphoma affects not only the lymph nodes, but also an organ.Then they observe, mainly, signs of disruption of the work of this organ. For example, lymphoma of the stomach or intestines can cause abdominal pain, indigestion, diarrhea, etc.

Research methods

Several diagnostic methods are used to diagnose lymphoma: X-rays, computed tomography, bone marrow biopsy and blood tests.

Many people with lymphoma have a reduced number of blood cells ( erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets ).This can be determined in the normal blood test . The most common cause of cell deficiency is the effect of lymphoma on bone marrow (the place where blood cells are formed). However, the number of cells can be reduced in the case when there is no data indicating a violation of the hematopoietic function of the bone marrow.

People with low red blood cell count or anemia may have severe fatigue and shortness of breath. In turn, the reduced number of leukocytes makes people more susceptible to infections; a low platelet count of can cause bleeding.

Slowly progressive and aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be distinguished by the way cells look under a microscope. For this examination, tissue samples of the lymphoma should be taken. Most patients undergo lymph node biopsy – the affected lymph node (or part of it) is surgically removed and examined under a microscope. Sometimes the diagnosis is made ‘by accident’ – during examination in connection with other complaints and diseases, for example, during gastroscopy .

It may seem that during all these studies, treatment is unnecessarily delayed. However, the correct treatment essentially depends on how accurately the diagnosis is made.

Diagnostics in mammology – Biomed Medical Center

Mammology (from Lat mamma – mammary gland and Greek.logos – science) is a field of clinical medicine dealing with problems associated with various diseases of the mammary glands. Precisely different, and not just oncological. In recent decades, these problems have attracted more and more attention of scientists and the public, becoming more and more urgent.

If you are worried about pain in the mammary glands, lumps, discharge from the nipples, there is a change in size, asymmetry of the mammary glands, redness, retraction or protrusion of the skin in the nipple or other areas of the gland, lumps, nodules or pain in the armpits, you have undergone surgery on the mammary gland, trauma or inflammation, then you need to consult a mammologist-oncologist.

It is recommended to visit a mammologist doctor at least once every six months. And in the intervals between visits to the doctor, you need to examine yourself on your own:

  • Raise your bent arm and feel your chest with the other hand.
  • Having conditionally divided it into four parts, carefully examine each quarter.

What are we looking for? Seals, skin changes – too smooth or, on the contrary, wrinkled areas. If you find some kind of transformation, or something like a ball rolls under your fingers, and when you press it, painful sensations appear – immediately go to the doctor.But you should not be afraid ahead of time – malignant formations do not cause pain, which means that unpleasant sensations are a good sign.

When examining the breast, it is important to pay attention to the following signs:

  • swelling and induration in the mammary gland;
  • change in the shape and shape of the mammary gland;
  • wrinkling or retraction of the skin of the breast;
  • peeling of the skin of the mammary gland;
  • the appearance of “dimples” on the skin, when raising the arm above the head;
  • 90,021 nipple retraction;

  • the appearance of bloody discharge from the nipple;
  • the appearance of a lump or swelling on the nipple;
  • changes in the structure of the mammary gland to the touch, breast augmentation;
  • the appearance of a feeling of discomfort or unusual pain in one of the mammary glands;
  • 90,021 swelling of the shoulder or armpit;

  • enlargement of the lymph nodes under the arm from the corresponding side.

If you find one of these signs, urgently contact a specialist in breast diseases! Two main methods are used to diagnose breast pathology: ultrasound and X-ray mammography.

Breast ultrasound

Performed in the first phase of the menstrual cycle (preferably from 5 to 10 days from the onset of menstruation)

Preparation: Not required

Indications: An ultrasound examination of the mammary glands should be performed for any complaints of pain or the presence of masses in the mammary glands, as well as with an increase or soreness of the axillary lymph nodes.It is well known that every woman should carefully examine and feel her mammary glands at least once a week, but not everyone follows this rule!

Ultrasound of the mammary glands is also indicated for gynecological diseases, and, as a dynamic observation for previously identified diseases of the mammary glands (fibroadenomas, cysts, mastopathy). In case of trauma to the mammary gland (bruises, especially with the formation of a hematoma), an ultrasound scan is necessary. Trauma is often a provoking factor in the development of a tumor!

For prophylactic purposes, an ultrasound of the mammary glands should be carried out annually to all women from 18 to 40 years old (at a later age, it is more advisable to conduct an X-ray mammography).Timely detected disease is the key to successful treatment!

At MC Biomed you can get a consultation with a mammologist who will teach you in more detail and correctly how to examine the mammary glands. At the consultation, you will receive answers to all your questions and conduct all the necessary examinations to exclude or confirm any pathology

90,000 Breast cyst – causes, symptoms and diagnosis

Breast cyst is a formation that occurs in the parenchyma of the breast.It is a capsule that has smooth walls and is filled with liquid. There are no inflammatory processes inside the cyst, and most often this neoplasm is not malignant. However, it is often necessary to treat cyst in the chest , because it can change its shape and degenerate into more serious diseases.

Cysts form when the ducts of the gland become clogged and secretions accumulate in them, resulting in a fibrous capsule over time.Cysts can be small, in which case they can be invisible to the woman and can only be detected with the help of clinical diagnosis. If the cyst reaches a large size, it becomes noticeable when palpated, and huge cysts cause deformation of the mammary glands.

If a cyst occurs in one of the mammary glands, unilateral cyst is diagnosed. The disease can also occur in both glands. Often, cysts are single, but when many cysts are found, nodular mastopathy is diagnosed.

There is also an atypical cyst in the chest , on the walls of which growths form from the inside. The tactics of treating such cysts are different, but, like any neoplasm in the mammary glands, such whales require early diagnosis and timely treatment.

Causes

Breast cyst is formed as a result of fibrocystic breast disease – a disease that occurs in women of reproductive age and has a number of reasons, the main of which is hormonal imbalance.Violation of the ratio of estrogen and progesterone provokes the development of mastopathy, which today is one of the most common breast diseases. Possible prerequisites for cystic mastopathy and the formation of unilateral cysts , as well as bilateral neoplasms, can be various irregularities in the menstrual cycle, lack of childbirth, breastfeeding, irregular sexual activity and its complete absence, diseases of the endocrine system, inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system, repeated abortions , early menopause.The risk of cystic mastopathy increases significantly in the presence of gynecological diseases with a progressive nature, burdened by heredity. Women over 40-45 years old are also at risk.

When determining the causes of the appearance of cysts, doctors often pay attention to whether the patient was under stress, because the woman’s hormonal system is controlled by the nervous system. The occurrence of cysts can be influenced by long-term emotional stress, anxiety, nervous shock, depression.

A significant role in the appearance of this disease is played by abortions, which cause significant harm to the female body, affecting the endocrine system. Improper nutrition and overweight, physical injury, ultraviolet radiation, surgical manipulations on the mammary gland – all this can also provoke an imbalance in the hormonal system, and, as a result, the formation of cysts.

Symptoms

Most often cyst in the chest is detected by the patient herself during self-examination, which must be carried out regularly.Less often, the doctor detects the disease during a routine examination or when a woman contacts when symptoms occur.

The disease can proceed for a long time without causing complaints, and a woman may not know about its development until she goes to the doctor for a routine examination.

With an enlarged cyst, a woman may experience such sensations as pulling chest pain, changes in skin color, organ deformity, fever and fever.It can be accompanied by an increase in lymph nodes, sometimes brown discharge from the nipple appears. A more severe stage of the disease is also indicated by greenish discharge from the nipple .

As a rule, symptoms of breast cyst intensify on certain days of the menstrual cycle – during menstruation, the pain becomes stronger or the discomfort becomes more noticeable.

Diagnostics

Preventive mammography is the main and main method for diagnosing breast cysts.It must be done regularly by women after 50 years. At an earlier age, the risk of the disease is lower, so mammography is done as a last resort – if a serious pathology is suspected. In other situations, women under 50 are recommended ultrasound diagnostics.

The diagnostic centers Medskan use a digital mammography Giotto – one of the high-tech diagnostic devices. With its help, it is possible to obtain a high-quality digital image and, thanks to innovative techniques, the radiation load on the mammary gland is significantly reduced in comparison with devices of previous generations and analog equipment.

Diagnosis of diseases of the lymphatic system | “Sensitive”

The human lymphatic system (LS) is a structure that unites disparate organs into a whole. Capillaries, being its conductors, penetrate all tissues, and carry lymph – a biological fluid that affects the vital activity of the body. The function of the lymphatic system is to cleanse cells and tissues of everything that can interfere with the normal functioning of organs and systems. In addition to capillaries, the lymphatic system consists of lymph nodes, vessels, trunks and ducts.

Swollen lymph nodes as a symptom of the disease

In a healthy person, a small increase (by 1 cm) of the submandibular lymph nodes and inguinal lymph nodes (by 2 cm) is considered the norm. What is the evidence of an increase in lymph nodes? It depends on where they are located. Lymphadenopathy on the sides of the neck may indicate diseases such as sarcoidosis, mononucleosis, and tuberculosis. It can also happen with an upper respiratory tract infection.

If the lymph nodes increase in front and behind the auricles, then this may indicate rubella, above the collarbone – for tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis.An enlargement over the left collarbone can be a symptom of stomach cancer. Gum problems, as well as chronic tonsillitis, manifest themselves through an increase in lymph nodes under the lower jaw. Under the armpits, the lymph nodes enlarge if there is breast cancer or sarcoidosis. The latter disease also causes enlargement of the lymph nodes and on the bends of the elbows. Inflammation of the genitourinary system can cause swollen lymph nodes in the groin, and it can also be caused by nonspecific infections.

It is recognized that an early symptom of HIV infection is the enlargement and inflammation of all groups of lymph nodes, with the appearance of soreness and mobility.

The main diseases of the lymphatic system are:

  1. Adenoids and chronic tonsillitis: instead of being protective, the tonsils become a source of infection.
  2. Acute lymphadenitis: a bacterial inflammatory process in the lymph node, which is accompanied by redness, soreness, and sometimes suppuration.
  3. Chronic lymphadenitis: complication of other infectious diseases (syphilis, tuberculosis).
  4. Tumors of the lymphatic vessels: malignant (lymphangiosarcoma) and benign (lymphangioma).

Disease Diagnostics

The following methods are used in medicine to diagnose diseases of the lymphatic system:

  • Consultation and examination by a doctor: taking anamnesis, examining the lymph nodes.
  • Blood tests: general clinical and detailed blood tests, as well as an analysis to determine the leukocyte blood count is mandatory.
  • Lymphography: an X-ray diagnostic method, which is carried out at the Sensitiv Medical Center in Yeisk using X-ray contrast agents.
  • Biopsy: sampling of tissue and lymphatic fluid to detect malignant cells, specific Berezovsky-Sternberg cells and other pathological elements. It is prescribed for suspicion of a malignant nature of the disease.
  • Histological and microscopic examination of biopsy specimens.
  • Lymphoscintigraphy: it is prescribed to determine the usefulness of the lymphatic drainage function, as well as the condition of the lymphatic system collectors.
  • Doppler ultrasonography of the vessels of the lower extremities – duplex scanning of the vessels – ultrasound examination of the vessels using the Doppler effect (allows to differentiate venous and lymphatic edema).
  • Ultrasound in organs near an enlarged lymph node: detection of inflammatory diseases or tumors that interfere with lymph flow.
  • Biochemical and general blood test: allows you to determine the presence of blood proteins, liver enzymes, to identify signs of inflammation.
  • General urinalysis: to exclude kidney pathology.
  • Research of the heart: ultrasound, ECG of the heart to detect cardiac pathology.

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Together against breast cancer

Together Against Breast Cancer

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Updated 16.08.2018

Various forms of neoplasms in the mammary gland are found in every second woman after the age of 30. Most of them are benign and do not pose a threat to health and life. Malignant tumors, and in particular breast cancer , are ten times less common, but they are still one of the leading cancers in women over 40 years of age.

Causes of breast cancer

The exact causes and features of the development of benign and malignant tumors, unfortunately, still remain unclear.However, numerous experimental and epidemiological studies have identified a number of factors that increase the risk of breast cancer .

All their diversity can be represented in the form of three groups:

  • Factors of the functioning of the reproductive system of the female body.

It has been noted that breast cancer survivors are characterized by late onset of menopause and menstrual irregularities. Among nulliparous women, late sexual intercourse, as well as those who have had an abortion, the risk of morbidity is higher.

  • Genetic factors. Statistics show that women with relatives who have had breast cancer are themselves at risk. If a breast cancer appeared in a mother or sister in the premenopausal period and affected both glands, the risk of pathology increases.
  • Various pathologies caused by changes in the endocrine and metabolic systems of the body. There is a clear direct link between cancer risk and estrogen levels in the body. Therefore, women with various hormonal disorders are more susceptible to disease.Also, many researchers believe that eating large amounts of animal fat increases estrogen levels. Patients who have had benign breast tumors are also at risk.

Breast cancer prognosis

Breast cancer is amenable to conservative and surgical treatment. Its success depends on the stage of the disease at which the disease was diagnosed. So survival rate of patients with stage I cancer is 84%, with stage II – 71%, with III – 48%.Stage IV, at which a significant number of metastases are formed, is characterized by an 18% survival rate.

The likelihood of recurrence of breast cancer depends on the degree of damage to organs and tissues at the time of diagnosis of the disease. In advanced stages of cancer after lumpectomy, local recurrences may occur at or near the surgical site. Although there is no cure after secondary cancer, it can be effectively controlled by prolonging and improving the patient’s quality of life.

Possible prevention of breast cancer

Today’s experience in fighting against breast cancer suggests that early detection and effective treatment of oncological pathologies can only be achieved through systematic preventive examinations.

The following signs should alert:

  • lumps and swellings in the chest, in the armpit;
  • deformity of the mammary gland;
  • 90,021 nipple discharge;

    90,021 unusual pain sensations;

  • swelling, redness and increased vascular pattern of the skin;
  • peeling or puckering of the breast skin.

These signs do not at all indicate the presence of breast cancer , since they are often found in benign tumors. In addition, there are no strictly permanent and specific symptoms of breast cancer. Only a specialist can assess the nature of the process, including based on the results of various diagnostic techniques.

Breast tumor symptoms

Most of the malignant tumors of the breast are first discovered by women themselves.Therefore, it is very important that every woman is aware of the normal changes taking place in her body, for example, at different stages of the menstrual cycle.

When examining and probing the surface of the entire chest and armpit with your fingertips, you need to know which condition is normal, and be alert if you find unusual symptoms. A UK survey found that many women confuse breast cancer symptoms.

Symptoms of breast tumor that women can identify on their own:

  • breast swelling and lumps;
  • change in the shape and shape of the mammary gland;
  • wrinkling or retraction of the skin of the breast;
  • peeling of the skin of the mammary gland;
  • the appearance of “I lobes” on the skin, when raising the arm above the head;
  • 90,021 nipple retraction;

The appearance of bloody discharge from the nipple;

  • The appearance of a lump or swelling on the nipple;
  • changes in the structure of the mammary gland to the touch;
  • the appearance of discomfort or unusual pain in one of the mammary glands;
  • 90,021 swelling of the shoulder or armpit;

  • enlargement of the lymph nodes under the arm from the corresponding side.