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What do ovulation cramps mean: Symptoms and what they mean for fertility


Symptoms and what they mean for fertility

Cramps that occur outside of a menstrual period might be a sign that a person is ovulating. Being aware of the symptoms of ovulation may help a person identify when they are most fertile.

Ovulation cramps occur when one of the ovaries releases an egg, which typically happens halfway through a person’s cycle. Doctors sometimes call them “mittelschmerz,which translates as “middle pain.”

In this article, we explore what ovulation cramps feel like and what they mean for fertility. We also look at other symptoms of ovulation and other causes of mid-cycle cramps.

Share on PinterestOvulation cramping begins about halfway through a person’s cycle, rather than right before or during menstruation.

An ovary typically releases an egg about midway through a person’s menstrual cycle. This is ovulation.

For some people, ovulation creates a sensation of cramping or pain once a month on one side of the abdomen. If a person has these cramps every month, the sensation may switch sides from month to month, depending on which ovary releases the egg.

Ovulation cramping may happen before, during, or shortly after the release of an egg.

Not everyone who menstruates has ovulation cramps. According to the University of Florida, about 1 in 5 people who menstruate have cramping around the time of ovulation.

Some people do not experience the cramping every month or do not have the same amount of discomfort every month.

Ovulation cramping may occur if:

  • the follicle where the egg develops stretches the ovary
  • the release of blood and other fluid from the ovary irritates surrounding tissue

The sensation of ovulation cramping can range from mild discomfort to intense pain. It may be difficult to identify the cause of the pain, especially if ovulation cramps do not occur every month.

The primary symptom of ovulation cramping is pain on one side of the abdomen, and this typically lasts 3–12 hours. However, a person who has had ovarian surgery may experience the pain until menstruation.

Below are characteristics of ovulation cramping:

  • pain or cramping on one side of the abdomen
  • pain or cramping that starts midway through the menstrual cycle
  • pain or cramping that switches sides, month by month
  • pain that is sharp and may be severe

Ovulation pain occurs right before, during, or right after the release of an egg, which is also when a female is most likely to become pregnant. As a result, the sensation may help with recognizing fertility.

However, people who do not want to conceive should not use ovulation cramps to determine when it is safe to have unprotected sex — this method is not accurate, the University of California note, and could result in unintended pregnancy.

Some people who menstruate do not experience any discomfort during ovulation.

A person might also recognize that they are ovulating by the following signs:

  • increased cervical mucus
  • breast tenderness
  • spotting or light bleeding
  • increased libido
  • increased basal body temperature

Ovulation cramps occur when one ovary releases an egg. If sperm do not fertilize the egg, the menstrual cycle continues: the egg breaks and the uterus sheds its lining.

If sperm do fertilize the egg, the fertilized egg attaches to the lining of the uterus. This attaching is called “implantation.”

Implantation can cause cramping. It can also cause a small amount of bleeding or spotting, which can occur 3–14 days after fertilization. Implantation bleeding is typically brownish and the flow is light.

Beyond implantation bleeding and cramping, early pregnancy can cause:

  • nausea
  • a frequent urge to urinate
  • fatigue
  • vomiting

Various health conditions cause abdominal cramps, which may happen to occur in the middle of the menstrual cycle and resemble ovarian cramping.

Some other causes of abdominal cramping or pain include:

  • acute appendicitis, which can present with similar symptoms to ovulation cramps
  • endometriosis, which involves uterine lining tissue growing outside the uterus and affects at least 11% of females in the United States ages 15–44
  • uterine fibroids, which are noncancerous growths in the walls of the uterus and can cause pain, bleeding, and a feeling of fullness in the abdomen

Ovulation cramps typically go away on their own. To relieve the pain, the following can often help:

  • over-the-counter pain medications, such as ibuprofen (Advil)
  • a warm compress or bath
  • hormonal contraceptives that prevent ovulation

If ovulation cramps go away within a few hours, a person usually does not need medical attention.

A person should contact a healthcare provider if they have cramping and:

  • pain that lasts longer than 24 hours
  • unusual vaginal bleeding
  • painful urination
  • vomiting
  • have missed a period

Ovulation cramping is often mild and goes away after a few hours. It can let people who want to conceive know that the time might be right.

However, people who do not want to conceive should not rely on ovulation cramps to indicate fertility. This is not an effective way to time unprotected sex.

If the cramping or pain is intense, a warm bath and over-the-counter pain medication may help. Anyone who experiences severe pain or cramps accompanied by vomiting or unusual bleeding should contact a doctor.

Symptoms, How Common It is, and Why It Happens

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Have you ever noticed a twinge or ache on one side of your lower abdomen? Did it happen a couple of weeks before your period? It could be ovulation.

Ovulation pain, sometimes called mittelschmerz, can feel like a sharp, or like a dull cramp, and happens on the side of the abdomen where the ovary is releasing an egg (1–3). It generally happens 10-16 days before the start of your period, is not dangerous, and is usually mild. It generally lasts a few hours, and for some people can last a few days.

Tracking ovulation pain in the Clue app can help you determine when to expect it.

Clue’s research finds that 1 in 3 people regularly track ovulation pain.

Ongoing research by Clue collaborator Ruben Arslan at the Max Planck Institute has found that about 1 in 3 people—36% to be exact—regularly track ovulation pain in Clue. (This is of Clue users not taking hormonal birth control who track relatively consistently).

Other interesting findings about ovulation pain:

  • People will often not feel it in every cycle. This is similar to what’s been found in other small-sample research.

  • People who track ovulation pain often reported in about half of their cycles. Others report it in every cycle.

  • Most people track ovulation pain for just one day per cycle, but some track it for two or more.

Download Clue to track ovulation pain.


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Can ovulation pain help predict the timing of ovulation?

Statistically, the timing of ovulation pain tracked in Clue seems to be fairly promising as a predictor of ovulation. This doesn’t mean you should incorporate it into your fertility awareness method just yet—but it’s interesting for researchers.

In alignment with previous research that used ultrasounds to determine the day someone ovulated, people in Clue most often tracked ovulation pain on the day just before an estimated ovulation. This may be an additional finding to support one theory of why ovulation pain happens—follicular growth pressure (we describe this below). But more research is needed to know for sure.

Others track ovulation pain on the same day as their estimated ovulation in Clue, or outside of that window altogether. The timing of ovulation is estimated by luteinizing hormone (LH) tests, or retroactively by the date of the start of the next period. Both these methods can be inexact (ultrasound is considered the gold standard).

This is the largest dataset of recorded ovulation pain to be included in research, ever.

Seeing what aligns with or differs from small-sample studies is a novel and exciting endeavor that will help pave the way for future findings. Thanks to all Clue users who contribute to this research through tracking.

How to treat ovulation pain

There are no official treatment recommendations for ovulation pain, and for most people it’s not painful enough or too short-lived to bother with pain treatment.

If that’s not the case for you, an over-the-counter pain medication might help. A hot compress or a bath may also help relieve the pain for some people. If the pain is severe enough, talk to your healthcare provider. Hormonal medications are sometimes used to stop ovulation if other methods haven’t worked and the pain is getting in the way of someone’s day-to-day life.

What causes ovulation pain?

Researchers still don’t know exactly what causes ovulation pain. Attempts to answer this question in medical literature date back to the mid-1800s. Over a century later, the answer is still unclear.

Here are some theories for the cause.

Tension of a growing follicle on the ovary, and the inflammatory response that tension creates (4).

Follicles are sacs that contain your eggs. They typically grow to be about two centimeters in diameter before they’re released into the fallopian tube (5–8). Prostaglandins (the same inflammatory compounds involved in menstruation) are produced as the ovarian muscle contracts around the growing follicle, possibly causing pain.

Research that used ultrasounds to determine the timing of ovulation found that ovulation pain was typically felt around the time of the luteinizing hormone (LH) peak, about 24-48 hours before ovulation (4). The pain came and went before the follicle ruptured. This has been challenged in other studies.

The release of the egg itself is also an inflammatory event, but it’s not considered as a probable source of ovulation pain. Prostaglandins may help facilitate the release of the egg as the follicle’s tissue breaks down so the egg can pass (9). Research has found that taking high doses of anti-inflammatory pain medication leading up to ovulation may actually prevent it from occurring (10).

Irritation of the abdominal cavity from the follicle’s blood when it ruptures to release the egg (1).

Ultrasound evidence in one study found that in 2 in 3 cycles, 5ml of fluid was visible in the abdomen. These cycles were more likely to be associated with ovulation pain. The “fluid” is suspected to be blood, and is released when the follicle releases an egg. They found this fluid could be seen for up to two days after ovulation (1).

There was also a theory that cramps in the uterus, fallopian tubes, or large bowel caused the pain (4), but this has been largely disregarded.

How to know whether you’re feeling ovulation pain

  1. Track the timing of it with your cycle

Some people feel ovulation pain for the first time when they first begin menstruating. For others it begins later in life, but is most common in people under the age of 30 (3).

For some people, ovulation pain happens around the same time each cycle (when it does happen). For others, it’s more irregular. This depends on the regularity of ovulation. The pain is typically reported just before ovulation occurs.

For some people, ovulation pain is also accompanied by ovulation bleeding (3).

2. Track whether you feel it on the left side, right side, or both

Ovulation pain is typically felt on the side of the ovary that is releasing an egg that cycle.

For about half of women, ovulation alternates between the left and right ovary (11), which may explain why some people report that it alternates from side to side (3).

In the other half, ovulation side is more random, meaning it doesn’t just go back and forth between. Even so, each ovary usually ends up ovulating just as much as the other overall (11).

Most people feel the pain on one side or the other, but others have reported feeling it on both sides at the same time, but with more pain on one side than the other (12). People have also reported equal ovulation pain on both sides in some cycles, possibly indicating cycles in which each ovary releases its own egg.

Some people might only ever feel pain on one side or another, since it’s possible that only one ovary is a source of pain. One early (read: macabre, cringeworthy) study found that the pain was sometimes resolved in early treatments where a single ovary was surgically removed (3). A theory is that some people may have adhesions on only one of two ovaries (2). Adhesions could restrict the follicles or ovary somehow, and pain is felt when the LH spike occurs to trigger ovulation.

3. Track how long it occurs

Most people report that their ovulation pain lasts between 6 and 12 hours (4). In Clue, the majority of people who track ovulation pain do so for only one day. Others track it for two or more days, but it’s difficult to know to what extent other factors play a role, such as ovulatory pain due to endometriosis.

4. Track the sensation or severity

The sensations or pain of ovulation is as unique as the person who experiences it. For some, it’s not painful, but just uncomfortable—some have described it as a sense of fullness or tension (3). For others, it’s been described as cramp-like, sharp, dull, and intermittent. It’s mild for most but more acute and painful for others (1,3).

You can track severity of ovulation pain by using the custom Tags option in Clue.

Other causes of pain in the general area of your ovaries

An appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, or complications of an ovarian cyst can all have similar symptoms as ovulation pain, but tend to be more severe and unexpected. These conditions require immediate medical treatment. Ongoing pelvic pain can be a sign of a condition or infection such as pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis, which also require treatment or management from a healthcare provider.

People with ovarian cysts have follicles that grow large and can rupture. Ovarian cyst ruptures are similar to ovulation, but they are associated with irregular ovulation, involve abnormally large cysts, and tend to be more severe. The rupture causes moderate to severe pain and can lead to other complications (13). Ovarian cysts are not uncommon, and can be caused by some types of hormonal birth control, like hormonal IUDs (14, 15). Other types of hormonal birth control that stop ovulation are sometimes used to treat persistent ovarian cysts. Talk to your healthcare provider about any moderate to severe abdominal pain.

Ovulation pain – NHS

Some women get a one-sided pain in their lower abdomen when they ovulate.

It happens about 14 days before your period, when an ovary releases an egg as part of the menstrual cycle.

It’s also known as mittelschmerz (German for “middle pain” or “pain in the middle of the month”).

Ovulation pain is often normal and just another side effect linked with periods.

Symptoms of ovulation pain

The pain can be a dull cramp or a sharp and sudden twinge.

It’s usually on either the left- or right-hand side of your tummy depending on which ovary is releasing the egg.

It can last just a few minutes or continue for a day or 2. Some women notice a little vaginal bleeding when it happens.

When to see your doctor

See your GP if the pain is severe or you’re worried.

It’s a good idea to keep a diary before your visit. Let the doctor know exactly when during your menstrual cycle the pain comes on and how long it lasts.

Treatments for painful ovulation

Painful ovulation can usually be eased by simple remedies like soaking in a hot bath or taking an over-the-counter painkiller, such as paracetamol.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen may also help, but you should not take them if you’re trying to get pregnant as they can interfere with ovulation.

If you’re in a lot of discomfort, talk to your GP about other treatment options.

Birth control methods that stop ovulation, such as the contraceptive pill or contraceptive implant, can completely banish ovulation pain.

Is ovulation pain anything to worry about?

Painful ovulation is fairly common and usually harmless. But it can sometimes be a symptom of an underlying medical condition.

Some of the underlying causes can result in fertility problems that can prevent you getting pregnant:

  • endometriosis – an inflammatory disease that affects the ovaries and fallopian tubes that can also cause pain during ovulation
  • scar tissue – if you’ve had surgery (for example, a caesarean section or your appendix out), scar tissue can cause ovulation pain by restricting the ovaries and surrounding structures
  • sexually transmitted infections (STIs) – STIs like chlamydia can cause inflammation and scarring around the fallopian tubes, leading to ovulation pain

Why does ovulation pain happen?

Nobody is sure, but one theory is that ovulation pain is the egg breaking through the ovary wall, which releases a small amount of fluid (or sometimes a small amount of blood) that irritates nearby nerves.

Page last reviewed: 02 August 2019
Next review due: 02 August 2022

Ovulation Pain (Mittelschmerz): Why It Happens

Mittelschmerz is the pelvic and lower abdominal pain that some women experience during ovulation. Ovulation generally occurs about midway between menstrual cycles; hence the term mittelschmerz, which comes from the German words for “middle” and “pain.”

The pain of ovulation can range from a mild twinge to severe discomfort and usually lasts from minutes to hours. It is generally felt on one side of the abdomen or pelvis and may vary each month, depending on which ovary is releasing the egg during that cycle. In some cases, a small amount of vaginal bleeding or discharge may occur. Some women experience nausea, especially if the pain is severe.

Who Has Painful Ovulation?

Many women never experience painful ovulation. Some women, however, have mid-cycle pain every month and can determine by the pain that they are ovulating.

What Causes Painful Ovulation?

As an egg develops in the ovary, it is surrounded by follicular fluid. During ovulation, the egg and the fluid, as well as some blood, are released from the ovary. While the exact cause of mittelschmerz is unknown, it is believed that the fluid or blood may irritate the lining of the abdominal cavity, causing pain. The pain goes away soon after the egg is released or once the body absorbs the fluid or blood.

How Do I Know If my Pain Is Due to Ovulation?

Ovulation usually occurs about two weeks before your next cycle, so the timing of the pain makes mittelschmerz easy to recognize. To help determine if your pain is related to ovulation, your doctor may ask you to chart your menstrual cycles, noting any episodes of pain, as well as the location of the pain (the pain of ovulation usually occurs on one side of your lower abdomen). Your doctor also may perform an abdominal and pelvic exam to help rule out other possible causes of pain, such as endometriosis or a cyst on your ovary. If your pain is severe or if the doctor notices any irregularities on the exam, they may order blood tests or ultrasound or X-rays to help determine the cause of your pain.

How Is Painful Ovulation Treated?

The pain of ovulation usually goes away within about 24 hours, so specific treatment is not required. Over-the-counter pain medicines — such as Aleve (naproxen) or Motrin (ibuprofen) — generally are effective in relieving mittelschmerz. Applying a heating pad to the lower abdomen or taking a warm bath may also help ease discomfort. Women with particularly painful ovulation may find relief by taking birth control pills with combined estrogen and progesterone, which prevent ovulation.

Can Painful Ovulation Be Prevented?

Preventing ovulation, which can be done with estrogen-progesterone birth control pills, is the only way to effectively prevent mittelschmerz.

When Should I Call My Doctor About Painful Ovulation?

Call your doctor if you experience any of the following symptoms during ovulation:

  • Fever
  • Pain with urination
  • Redness or burning of the skin at the site of the pain
  • Vomiting
  • Mid-cycle pain lasting longer than a day

You should also call your doctor if you missed your last menstrual period.

3dpo Cramps | What Causes Cramping After Ovulation?

When you’re tracking ovulation and trying to conceive, it’s common to notice each twinge and cramp. You spend much of the two week wait wondering if your cramping is a sign of implantation or if your period is about to begin.

At 3dpo (days post ovulation), it’s too soon to take a pregnancy test. However, there are plenty of signs and symptoms people trying to get pregnant look for.

Having to wait two weeks to know if you’ve conceived or not can feel like a long time. So, during this two week wait, many choose to document their symptoms. Then they often share with others to see if they just might be pregnant.

Cramping is a symptom many women look for. Could cramping at 3dpo be a sign that you’ve conceived? While cramps can occur for many reasons, it’s one of the most common early pregnancy signs women look for.

While a test is still over a week away, cramping can begin around ovulation. If you’re experiencing cramping at 3dpo, here are a few questions you’re likely wondering about:

What’s happening 3 days after ovulation?

Understanding what is happening in each stage of your cycle can make it easier to understand your symptoms. At 3dpo, if you’ve conceived, you’d be about 2-3 weeks pregnant. This is because we calculate pregnancy from your last menstrual period (LMP) and not when you ovulate.

Knowing where you’re at in your cycle won’t change the outcome, but it can help you understand what you’re feeling. At 3dpo you’re more than halfway through your menstrual cycle but still very early into a potential pregnancy.

At 3dpo you’re in the luteal phase of your cycle. This phase happens after the follicular phase (when the egg is maturing). This luteal phase continues from ovulation until you get your period or a positive pregnancy test.

During a cycle where you conceive, the egg is fertilized within about 12-24 hours after ovulation. This means by 3 days post ovulation, your newly fertilized egg may be gearing up to implant. However, at this stage it is typically still traveling down the fallopian tube and into the uterus where it will implant.

An egg makes its way through the fallopian tube and into the uterus regardless of fertilization. This can make it difficult to know whether the cramping is related to conception or your typical menstrual cycle.

Can implantation occur at 3dpo?

At 3 days past ovulation, the hopefully fertilized egg is still navigating its way from the fallopian tube to the uterus. This journey can take a few days making it most common for implantation to occur about 6 to 12 days post ovulation.

One thing to keep in mind, even with close tracking, it is possible to miss the exact day of ovulation. If you are tracking just using a calendar-based app versus a method which uses temping, there could be a wider range between when you think ovulation occurred and when it actually did.

Unless you’re working with a fertility professional and monitoring via ultrasound and blood work, your estimated day of ovulation could be a bit off. If that’s the case, it may seem like you’ve implanted as early as 3 DPO but it would be more likely that implantation occurred after 5 DPO.

While implantation hasn’t occurred yet, there are still lots of exciting things happening. As soon as an egg is fertilized, the cells begin to divide and it’s working hard to be ready for implantation. While we can’t say with certainty this creates cramps and twinges, some women say they feel different during cycles they conceive compared to cycles they don’t.

Can you feel pregnancy symptoms 3 days after ovulation?

When a fertilized egg implants into the uterus, a surge of hormonal changes occurs. These hormonal changes are responsible for the pregnancy symptoms many women experience. At 3dpo it’s unlikely you will experience any notable symptoms.

Even though there isn’t clear evidence of how or why some women experience what seems like early pregnancy symptoms at 3dpo, some do feel different early into a cycle they conceived. At 3dpo, you can remain optimistic that you’ll have clear answers about your possible pregnancy in just another week or two.

However, in the coming days, some women feel different after conceiving compared to a typical week before their period. A few will even experience very strong typical pregnancy symptoms like morning sickness and a heightened sense of smell.

Some early pregnancy symptoms include:

  • Cramping
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent urination
  • Nausea and morning sickness
  • Changes in smell
  • Higher basal body temp
  • Sore breasts

As you read through this, you might notice that these are also common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). This can make it difficult to know for sure why you’re feeling cramps.

While these symptoms can be related to pregnancy or PMS, if they continue to increase in intensity over the next several days, implantation may have occurred. Once implantation occurs and hcg is released, you may notice more cramping, fatigue and frequent urination.

While the embryo is still quite tiny, the hormone changes can be big even in early pregnancy. Not noticing any symptoms? Don’t count yourself out. Many women have appropriate hormone changes during early pregnancy without experiencing notable symptoms.

To learn more be sure to read Pregnancy Symptoms – 16 Early Signs You Might Be Pregnant

Where do you feel implantation cramping?

While 3dpo is a bit too early for implantation, it’s likely to happen very soon. Many women feel nothing and can go well beyond their missed period before knowing they are pregnant. For people trying to conceive, they are more likely to notice symptoms because they’re actively looking for them.

Some women experience a PMS type cramping with a bit more of a localized feeling. Other women notice general uterine cramping and aches, backaches or even pelvic/hip pain.

A few may even experience painful cramps during implantation. If any pain persists and you aren’t sure the cause, it’s important to reach out to your midwife or doctor.

One nice thing about watching for early signs of pregnancy is that a lack of symptoms means nothing. Plenty of healthy pregnancies occur without any notable symptoms of cramping or implantation. It’s hard not to get excited or worried while trying to conceive. However, just remember that your symptoms or lack of aren’t a concern at just 3dpo.

Why do I feel cramping at 3dpo?

Anecdotally, meaning some women’s personal experiences, they only notice cramps when they’ve conceived. However, what is more likely is that they are simply looking for and more aware of every cramp and twinge while trying to conceive.

Cramping around and after ovulation can occur for several reasons including:

  • Hormonal changes
  • Follicle or corpus luteum cysts
  • Midcycle ovulation pain as exact ovulation time can vary
  • Endometriosis, PCOS (polycystic ovaries) or fibroids
  • Physiology of your fallopian tubes

If you do not typically experience ovulation pain and you notice an increase in pain during one cycle, you may want to reach out to your midwife or physician. While ovulation pain can be common, it can also be a sign of an underlying condition. Find out more about the causes of ovulation pain.

If you experience cramping and go on to have a positive pregnancy in another week or two, it’s possible your body responded to the physiological and hormonal changes of conception early.

It’s very common to experience cramping during early pregnancy. In addition to hormone changes, your uterus is getting ready to stretch and expand, and your little embryo is attaching deeper into your lining.

Wondering how soon you can take a pregnancy test? Be sure to read When To Take A Pregnancy Test For An Accurate Result.

Signs Of Ovulation

Accurate and reliable cycle tracking methods, such as hormonal observation, can help you know exactly when your ovulation occurs and thus the best time to try and get pregnant. In addition to hormonal tracking, you can also observe the following symptoms of ovulation:

Abdominal Cramping

Pain in the lower abdomen may occur because of the rupture of the follicle when the egg is released during the time of ovulation. A woman may feel slight or heavy cramping which lasts from minutes to hours. If you experience severe, long-lasting pain, however, it is recommended that you see a doctor. The doctor may perform an abdominal or pelvic examination in order to rule out other possible causes of pain such as endometriosis, fibroids or ovarian cysts.

Increased sexual desire

Several studies have found that women experience an increase in sexual desire around the time of ovulation, when they are most fertile . This is thought to happen because of a rise in estradiol levels, which causes some women to have an increased sex drive.

Breast tenderness

Some women experience tenderness in their breasts just before or after ovulation. This can sometimes be confusing, as breast tenderness is also one of the first pregnancy symptoms. In both situations, it is related to the change in hormone levels in your body, as it gets ready for ovulation or for a potential pregnancy.

Headache and/or Nausea

Unfortunately some women may experience nausea and headaches during ovulation. These symptoms are caused by changing estrogen and progesterone levels during ovulation.

Cervical mucus changes

Cervical mucus, also known as cervical fluid (CF) is a natural and normal substance that is produced by glands in your cervix and then released into the vagina. The appearance and consistency of cervical mucus varies during different stages of the menstrual cycle. As you enter your fertile window, under the effect of estrogen, women experience an increased amount of vaginal discharge that resembles raw egg whites in consistency. You can observe this change in mucus production by testing the discharge with your fingers. Try putting the external watery mucus between your thumb and finger and then stretching your fingers apart. This stretchy, egg white mucus is noted around the time of ovulation.

Ovulation bleeding

Ovulation bleeding can be alarming, but is actually a common symptom of ovulation. Variations in sex- hormone levels are hypothesized to be associated with bleeding patterns, and therefore usually do not require treatment. However, if you have mid-cycle bleeding with heavy spotting, severe cramping, repeated bleeding episodes, or bleeding that lasts more than a few days, it is recommended to consult your doctor. These types of monthly cycle bleeding may be due to other complications or underlying conditions.

A slight rise of Basal Body Temperature (BBT)

Your BBT is a healthy body’s temperature when at rest. After ovulation, high levels of progesterone will cause your BBT to rise slightly and stay elevated until the end of your cycle. The shift happens about one to two days after ovulation. Since it occurs after your ovulation, measuring your BBT enables you to figure out whether you have ovulated, but it does not help you determine the best time to try to conceive. At this point, the fertile window has passed and it is probably too late to try to conceive. The best time to have sex in order to get pregnant is just before the egg is released.

A positive Ovulation Predictor Kit (OPK) result

Keeping track of your hormonal levels during the menstrual cycle is the best way to estimate your possible time of ovulation. Choosing an OPK that allows you to monitor your hormones (the more, the better), will give you the most accurate information about your cycle. Following manufacturer’s instructions carefully will help you to accurately identify the “fertile window” and the optimal time frame to have intercourse in order to maximize your chances of getting pregnant. An average OPK will show you, if your Luteinizing Hormone (LH) level is peaking- but it is actually better to test more hormones than just LH, such as follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) and progesterone (PdG). By measuring more hormones you can pinpoint your ovulation and fertile days more accurately, which increases your chances to conceive.

Regan, P. C. (1996). Rhythms of desire: The association between menstrual cycle phases and female sexual desire. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 5(3).

E.L. Billings, J.B. Brown, J.J. Billings, H.G. Burger, (1972):Symptoms and hormonal changes accompanying ovulation. Vol. 299, Issue 7745, 282-284.

Why It Happens & What You Can Do About It

When painful sex starts out of nowhere, it can be alarming — but most of the time, you do not need to worry about experiencing ovulation pain during sex. Ovulation pain that does not come with other symptoms (such as heavy bleeding) and that is not unusual for you can be considered normal.

Usually, ovulation pain lasts less than 48 hours. After that, you should be able to resume having sex normally without discomfort. For most women, this poses only a minor problem. They can simply work around their fertile window to have sex when it is more comfortable for them. But what if you are trying to conceive?

Women are only fertile for 24 hours after the release of an egg, meaning that it is critical to have sex during that window if you want to become pregnant. When you suffer from painful sex during ovulation, however, this can make the idea of having sex during your fertile window feel less than sexy.

Thankfully, there are a few things you can do to improve dyspareunia during ovulation to make sex more comfortable while you are trying to conceive. Read on to learn why sex may be painful during ovulation, when to worry about painful sex during ovulation, and how to cope with it when you want to become pregnant.

Causes of Ovulation Pain

Ovulation pain — also known as mid-cycle pain or mittelschmerz — occurs in approximately 20 percent of women. If ovulation pain lasts less than three days, is not accompanied by other symptoms, and is not out of the ordinary for you, there is no reason to worry about ovulation pain.


During ovulation, one of the ovaries releases an egg, which travels down the fallopian tubes until it reaches the uterus. Some women feel one-sided pain or soreness in the lower abdomen when the ovary releases an egg. It may switch sides between cycles, depending on which ovary releases the egg during ovulation. You might experience it every month or only occasionally.

Ovulation pain can feel like a sharp twinge, uncomfortable pressure, or intermittent cramps. In some women, it is accompanied by pain during sex. This pain can last anywhere from a few minutes to 48 hours. If it lasts longer than two days, it is more likely that your dyspareunia is due to a medical problem or sexual pain disorder, rather than ovulation.

The exact cause of ovulation pain is unknown, but there are some theories. Before ovulation, hormones prompt your ovaries to grow up to 20 follicles. Any of these follicles can swell and release an egg during ovulation. When the egg travels through the fallopian tubes to the uterus, the fallopian tubes may contract, which could be one possible cause of ovulation pain.

There are other possible causes of ovulation pain, too. Some people believe ovulation pain may occur because the growing follicle stretches the membrane covering the ovary prior to ovulation. Others think that ovulation pain occurs due to irritation from the slight amounts of blood or fluids released into the abdomen when the follicle ruptures to release an egg.

Unfortunately, it’s also unclear why some women suffer from ovulation pain, while others do not. Still, it may comfort you to know that ovulation pain is usually nothing to worry about. If you experience ovulation pain, make sure to keep an eye out for other symptoms of ovulation, such as stretchy cervical mucus (much like the consistency of an egg white) and breast tenderness. If you do not experience other symptoms, it may be more likely that your pain is due to another cause, rather than ovulation.

Other Causes of Mid-Cycle Pain

Ovulation pain can be normal, but cramping and dyspareunia in the middle of your cycle may not always be due to mittelschmerz. There are other potential causes of mid-cycle pain during sex, including:


Implantation occurs when the sperm fertilizes the egg. Sometimes, implantation can cause cramping and/or light pink or brown vaginal discharge. Pay attention to when you feel mid-cycle pain. If you are trying to conceive and you experience pain a few days before your period, rather than two weeks into your cycle, you might be experiencing implantation instead. Ovulation pain is not usually accompanied by bleeding, while implantation can be.

Ectopic Pregnancy

Normally, when a woman becomes pregnant, an egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus, and the sperm fertilizes the egg while it is in the uterus. Sometimes, however, sperm can travel up the fallopian tube to fertilize an egg when it has not yet reached the uterus. This can cause a fertilized egg to implant in the fallopian tube, known as ectopic pregnancy. Rarely, an ectopic pregnancy may also implant in the ovary, cervix, or a C-section scar.

Ectopic pregnancy can cause pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Unlike ovulation pain, it may also cause mid-cycle bleeding. You may also miss your menstrual period or receive a positive pregnancy test, as an ectopic pregnancy still releases the same hormones as a normal pregnancy. Your risk of ectopic pregnancy is higher if you become pregnant with an IUD in place, have had previous pelvic surgery, or become pregnant via in-vitro fertilization (IVF).

Ovarian Cyst

Many women develop an ovarian cyst after the dominant follicle releases an egg. Because this process happens around ovulation, you may confuse pain from an ovarian cyst with ovulation pain. The follicle fills with fluid and becomes the cyst, known as a functional ovarian cyst. You may experience other types of cysts — for example, if you have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or endometriosis — but functional ovarian cysts are the most common.

Ovarian cysts may cause cramping, nausea, and/or bloating. Most ovarian cysts are harmless and will resolve without treatment after your menstrual period. However, if a cyst is abnormal or continues to grow, it may need to be removed (they might even contribute to infertility). Cysts can also burst, which can become a medical emergency. Always see a medical provider if you experience a sudden, severe surge of pain that is out of the ordinary for you — even if it occurs during ovulation.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) results from inflammation of the pelvic organs. PID results from an untreated vaginal infection, such as bacterial vaginosis, or sexually transmitted infection (STI). When harmful bacteria from the vagina travels through the cervix, it can spread to the uterus and fallopian tubes, resulting in PID. PID may cause mild to severe pelvic pain and deep dyspareunia. Ovulation pain can definitely hurt, but it should not cause unusual vaginal discharge or fever. If you experience these symptoms, you should see a medical provider as soon as possible. Untreated PID can lead to scarring and infertility.


1 in 10 women has endometriosis, a condition where tissue similar to that of the uterine lining grows outside the uterus. This tissue bleeds during menstruation just like the endometrium, which can cause disabling pelvic pain and deep dyspareunia. Many people assume endometriosis pain occurs only during menstruation, but it can affect you at any time throughout the menstrual cycle. Endometriosis pain occurring in the middle of your cycle can be easily confused with ovulation pain, especially if it happens to you every month.

Unfortunately, endometriosis goes undiagnosed for years in many women; the average woman with endometriosis waits eight years between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Mid-cycle pain due to endometriosis can be treated via excision surgery, a laparoscopic procedure where a skilled minimally-invasive gynecologic surgeon removes endometriosis lesions through small incisions in the abdomen.

Sexual Pain Disorders

Occasional discomfort during sex, especially during ovulation, is usually nothing to worry about. In many cases, dyspareunia can be caused by inadequate lubrication during sex (often due to skipping foreplay), anxiety about sex, or deep thrusting, which, in some positions, can lead to the penis hitting the cervix, causing pain. These problems are easily fixed by using a water-based sexual lubricant, engaging in plenty of foreplay (which helps you relax as well as increasing arousal), and changing sexual positions.

However, sometimes, dyspareunia becomes chronic or even constant, which can indicate the presence of a sexual pain disorder. If dyspareunia occurs outside of ovulation or lasts longer than 48 hours during ovulation, you may actually have a sexual pain disorder. You are also more likely to have a sexual pain disorder if you also experience pain in other situations, including gynecological exams or tampon insertion.

Sexual pain disorders include vaginismus (painful, involuntary contraction of the vagina upon penetration), vulvodynia (chronic pain and irritation of the vulva with no clear cause), and interstitial cystitis (painful irritation of the bladder, which can cause dyspareunia in certain positions). Your OB/GYN can help you determine if your dyspareunia is due to ovulation or a sexual pain disorder.

How to Cope with Painful Sex During Ovulation

Dyspareunia during ovulation is probably nothing serious — but that does not mean it will not affect your sex life. Ovulation pain presents an obstacle to having sex during your fertile window. This is especially impactful if you are trying to conceive, as you will need to have sex when you are most fertile to increase the likelihood of conception.

So, what can you do to make sex more comfortable during ovulation? Making small changes may help, such as:

  • Over-the-counter pain relievers, especially NSAIDs, can relieve pain and inflammation associated with ovulation. Check with your doctor to make sure they are safe for you to take. Try taking them 30 minutes before having sex to give them time to work before getting busy in the bedroom.
  • If sex is most painful for you during the 48 hours surrounding ovulation, you may benefit from tracking your menstrual cycle and timing sex so that you can still be comfortable while utilizing your fertile window for conception. Because sperm can live in the vagina for up to seven days, you may be able to have pain-free sex in the days leading up to ovulation, while avoiding having sex during your ovulation pain.
  • Experiment with different sexual positions to find out what feels most comfortable for you during ovulation. If you experience deep dyspareunia, positions like doggy-style may aggravate your pain. Try having your partner penetrate you from behind while laying down (i.e. spooning) instead, as this position limits the depth of penetration. Many women also benefit from trying the woman-on-top position. This position allows the woman to control the angle and depth of penetration to make it more comfortable for her.
  • Sexual aids. Adding a specialized toy to your bedroom routine can help alleviate sexual pain. One toy designed to help with deep dyspareunia is the Ohnut. The Ohnut is a set of flexible rings worn around the penis. The Ohnut provides a cushion that prevents your partner from thrusting too deeply into the vagina, which can minimize sexual pain. You might consider using an aid such as the Ohnut during ovulation if you suffer from dyspareunia.
  • After sex, taking a warm bath with Epsom salts may help to soothe any residual pain. It will also encourage you to relax, which is important for pain relief. You may also try using a heating pad if having sex during ovulation triggers abdominal pain for you. Most heating pads can be microwaved for 30-90 seconds for a quick solution to ovulation pain.

What if I’m Not Trying to Get Pregnant?

If you are not trying to get pregnant but still want to be intimate with your partner despite ovulation pain, there are other sexual activities that may be less painful than penetrative sex. You may want to try mutual masturbation or oral sex during ovulation instead.

You may also consider visiting your doctor for a prescription for oral birth control pills. The combined birth control pill, containing both estrogen and progesterone, may prevent ovulation, and therefore prevent your pain.

90,000 Leg cramps

Leg cramps are independent muscle contractions that cannot be controlled. Leg cramps occur mainly in the calf muscles.

When leg cramps occur, the person automatically straightens the leg and tries to get rid of the sharp pain and numbness.

Cramps in the legs of the cause

The causes of leg cramps are varied, from varicose veins to common mineral and vitamin deficiencies.A phlebologist will help you answer this question why you have cramps in your legs during an internal examination. It is mandatory to check the veins and blood vessels in the legs using a duplex scan.

In general, the causes of leg cramps are many, and below we list the most common:

  • Lack of vitamins and minerals due to dehydration, excessive physical exertion or unbalanced diet. Lack of adequate amounts of vitamin B6 or magnesium can cause leg cramps.
  • When treating diabetes , hypoglycemia may develop. This is due to the administration of large amounts of insulin. Such a serious treatment can only be carried out under the supervision of a specialist (he selects the drug, the optimal dosage and frequency of injections).
  • Increased exercise can cause this symptom, despite taking multivitamin complexes. A huge load on the muscles of the calves and thighs is present in almost all sports, and especially in football, basketball, swimming, weightlifting, etc.d.
  • Thrombophlebitis and varicose veins provoke leg cramps even in the initial stages.
  • Atherosclerosis increases the load on the veins and blood vessels. The disease develops due to genetics, bad habits, or an unhealthy diet, which includes eating food with a lot of animal fat (an increase in bad cholesterol in the blood).
  • Cardiovascular disease can affect blood flow throughout the body, resulting in swelling, pain and cramps in the lower extremities.
  • Hormonal changes during pregnancy or the use of contraception adversely affect the condition of the veins and blood vessels. Because of this, leg cramps appear even during adolescence, including in men due to an increase in the volume of female hormones (rare).
  • An increased load on the central nervous system can lead to this symptom. This includes stress and lack of sleep. Symptoms disappear quickly when regimen is restored and when stressful situations are avoided.

But leg cramps appear not only due to serious illnesses such as thrombophlebitis or diabetes mellitus. Even young people develop leg cramps for the following reasons:

  1. Girls prefer beautiful long-heeled shoes to the detriment of their own comfort. Uncomfortable shoes can lead to varicose veins, severe pain and leg cramps.
  2. Regular stress at school or work leads to an overload of the central nervous system and an increase in blood pressure.
  3. Lack of normal nutrition leads to both chronic gastrointestinal diseases and a lack of vitamins. Anyone should eat at least 3 healthy foods a day.
  4. During illness, a person does not always turn to a specialist. Self-administration of painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs begins. Taking these drugs in combination with antibiotics leads to serious consequences, which can cause leg cramps.

How to treat leg cramps

To treat seizures, you must first establish the cause and then neutralize it.

If the convulsions do not bother you much, and do not occur more often than once every few months, then there is no particular reason for concern, if you have convulsions quite often and painfully, then be sure to consult a doctor, since the reasons for this may be different, from simple to very serious, and it may be that seizures are a signal from your body about the need for immediate treatment. The sooner you start treatment, the more likely you are to prevent seizures and save yourself.

Surely, every reader will have a question, which doctor should be consulted with cramps in the legs. But here is just a dilemma, since there is no specialized doctor who specializes in seizures. Therefore, with this problem you need to contact a therapist who, after examination, will refer you to a specialized doctor. If you have varicose veins, you will be referred to a phlebologist who specializes in venous diseases. Read about a phlebologist’s consultation. If the cause of seizures lies in damage to the arteries, then you need to contact a vascular surgeon.If you have diabetes, you will most likely be referred to an endocrinologist, and if you have sciatica, you will be referred to a neurologist.

Thus, you see that it is no accident that seizures do not have their own doctor, since their causes are the prerogative of completely different categories of doctors and each of the reasons must be studied with a specialized approach. In addition, we can conclude that a seizure is not an independent ailment, but just a sign of a large list of various ailments.

Conduct a comprehensive examination of the veins in the legs

If you have leg cramps, and you want to establish the exact cause of the cramps and completely get rid of them, then sign up for a consultation right now.Center for phlebology “First Phlebological Center” checks the condition of the veins, arteries and blood vessels of the legs.

9 causes of pain during ovulation in women

Almost every woman has pain in the lower abdomen at least once in her life. And if during menstruation their presence does not scare anyone, then during ovulation it often raises questions.

REASON # 1. Ovulatory syndrome

If you have left or right lower abdominal pain, it may be caused by ovular syndrome.It usually makes itself felt in the middle of the menstrual cycle or 14 days before it starts. Doctors warn that this syndrome “changes” its dislocation every month, and if in January your left side of your abdomen hurt, then in February your right side will hurt. In this case, the pain is usually mild and lasts from several minutes to several hours.

In addition, bloating, spotting in the middle of the cycle and general cramps can occur, which is completely normal, specialists calm down.In their opinion, ovulatory syndrome is not a reason to see a doctor, with the exception of severe pain, which can only be relieved with painkillers.

REASON # 2. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that develops in women when the male sex hormone (androgen) is produced too intensively. Complications from PCOS can be extremely serious, from infertility to cancer.

To find out if you have PCOS, you need to see your doctor who will examine you and order a blood test or ultrasound. If the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment is carried out strictly individually: in addition to prescribing special drugs, it will be necessary to follow a special diet, and also to ensure that an unplanned pregnancy does not occur.

REASON # 3. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

After fighting off a sexually transmitted disease such as chlamydia or gonorrhea, bacteria can move into the vagina or cervix and affect reproductive organs – and this is how pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can occur.As a result, women often experience severe abdominal and pelvic pain.

If you think you may have a PID, see your doctor first for a diagnosis. If your fears are confirmed, you will most likely be prescribed antibiotics, and the sooner you start treatment, the more chances you have to prevent any scarring or damage to your reproductive organs.

REASON # 4. Cesarean section or appendicitis scar

If you have a fresh cesarean or appendicitis scar, chances are good that you are in pain during ovulation.As the doctors explain, it’s all about the scar tissue on the abdomen, which irritates the blood and thus causes pain.

In order to get rid of unpleasant sensations, specialists prescribe myofascial massages and physiotherapy. These techniques target specific areas where scar tissue is present, making the treatment more effective.

REASON # 5. Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a common gynecological disorder in which cells in the endometrium (the inner layer of the wall of the uterus) grow outside of this layer, such as on the ovaries and vagina, causing pelvic pain and severe menstrual cramps.

If you think you have endometriosis, your doctor may order laparoscopic surgery, which will reduce or delay the progression of the disease in most (up to 92%) patients. In addition, special drugs may be prescribed.

REASON # 6. Salpingitis

Another cause of pain during ovulation can be caused by salpingitis, in which there is inflammation of the fallopian tubes as a result of a bacterial infection, in particular – gonorrhea and chlamydia.In addition to lower abdominal pain, women may experience lower back pain.

If the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctor will prescribe a course of antibiotics. Moreover, the earlier treatment begins, the better, since this disease leads to damage to the fallopian tubes and, as a result, to infertility.

REASON # 7. Ectopic pregnancy

If a fertilized egg is implanted somewhere other than the uterus (most often in the fallopian tubes), the woman will have an ectopic pregnancy.One of its signs is a sharp one-sided pain in the lower abdomen.

If any symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor who will conduct an examination, as well as prescribe a blood test and an ultrasound scan. If an ectopic pregnancy is confirmed, the doctor will need to remove the ectopic tissue, either by injection or surgery.

REASON # 8. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

If you have IBS, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation may occur regardless of the cycle, but the pain usually increases right before your period begins.The reason is hormonal fluctuations, which during the cycle both exacerbate the symptoms of IBS and drown them.

If you think you have IBS, see a gastroenterologist. He should design the treatment so as to reduce the symptoms you are experiencing.

REASON # 9. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)

Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) may experience ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, a condition in which the ovaries seem to swell and become sore from too much hormone in the body.

Fortunately, this is easy to define: if abdominal pain and nausea occur 10 days after the drug is injected, it is OHSS. Symptoms usually go away on their own, but there are treatment options, such as taking pain relievers and drinking plenty of fluids.

90,000 Convulsions in pregnant women are due to toxicosis, hemoglobin and calcium deficiency | Child health | Health

Moreover, painful contractions in the calf muscles, feet, neck, back and hands can make themselves felt at any stage of pregnancy and turn the expectation of a baby into a nightmare.

Half of the pregnant women who have faced this problem have legs pulling together three times a week, and for those who are especially “lucky” – every day. Usually pain occurs in the morning or before bedtime, but it can appear in broad daylight.

Overcoming the desire to pull out the traitorous leg, the poor thing asks one and only question: “Why would she suffer such torment?” But the cause of painful contractions often lies on the surface and lies in improper diet and lifestyle.

Toxicosis is to blame

Gynecologists say that micronutrient deficiencies are the most common cause of painful cramps.Often she is diagnosed at the very beginning of pregnancy, when the expectant mother, twisting at night from muscle pain, at the same time complains of exhausting toxicosis. It turns out that these states are interconnected. Indeed, along with the vomit, a pregnant woman loses a huge amount of vitamins and minerals.


To relieve spasm, vigorously massage the contracted muscle as if you were crushing dough.Be prepared for the pain to go away, but the area that has been “kneaded” will remain sensitive for a long time.


A raging muscle can also be pricked with a pin, put a mustard plaster on it, or warm it up well under hot water.


If the calf muscle contracted, smoothly straighten your leg and gently pull the toe towards you. Then release the tension and pull again with great effort. Repeat until the muscle relaxes.Then, to restore blood circulation, massage your feet or walk around the room.

Try eating a crouton, a few crackers, or a handful of raisins in the morning without getting out of bed. Eat small meals frequently throughout the day. If it still turns inside out, tell your gynecologist. Most likely, he will prescribe intravenous injections of cocarboxylase and ascorbic acid.

Calcium deficiency

Fortunately, nausea usually goes away by the end of the first trimester, but the risk of mineral deficiency still remains, because you need to provide them not only for yourself, but also for the little one, whose appetites are increasing every day.In the second trimester, the baby’s skeleton grows and the rudiments of teeth are formed, which means that you need more calcium. Few people know that this mineral is not only responsible for the formation of bone mass, but also participates in the process of blood clotting, the absorption of nutrients and ensures the normal functioning of muscle cells. If there is not enough calcium, the muscles begin to rebel and report their displeasure with the cramps.

If the calcium you drink as part of the vitamin-mineral complex for pregnant women is not enough, it must be taken additionally.Lay on pumpkin, broccoli, beans, and figs. But dairy products should not be abused. Calcium of animal origin causes excessive ossification of the baby’s skull, provokes early closure of the fontanelle and makes it difficult for the head to pass through the birth canal. And keep in mind that you should not feast on canned fish, peas, carbonated drinks and chocolate, since these foods interfere with the absorption of calcium.

Do not “drive out” the water

In the third trimester, you may experience edema.The skin loses its elasticity and becomes loose. There is little pleasant in this, so many women try to “expel” stagnant fluid from the body with the help of diuretics. And they do it in vain. These drugs remove not only water, but also minerals dissolved in it. The balance of trace elements is disturbed, and seizures occur.

Instead of draining liquid, try reducing your intake to one liter (include soups and fruits). The main thing is not to overdo it.Less water can provoke metabolic disorders. It is also worth removing pickles and nuts, herring, sauerkraut and black bread from the diet. They contain a lot of white spice, and it retains fluid in the body.

It’s veins to blame

Starting from the tenth week of pregnancy, the volume of circulating blood in your body begins to gradually increase, and by the third trimester, 1-1.5 liters more is already running through the veins. “Excess” red fluid is necessary for the normal development of the fetus.It delivers more oxygen and nutrients to the baby. But what is good for a toddler is not at all good for your blood vessels.

Metamorphoses in your body test the veins for strength. From the moment of conception, the body begins to produce the hormone progesterone, the concentration of which increases every week. It was he who helped the ovum to attach to the uterus, and now he is responsible for its growth and does not allow it to contract. However, having a relaxing effect on the “house” in which the toddler lives, progesterone reduces the tone of the muscle walls of the veins.The vessels cannot cope with the pressure of blood, they swell and crawl out to the surface of the skin like snakes. The outflow of venous blood from the legs worsens, and this leads to a malnutrition of the calf muscles. As a result, convulsions occur.

Walk at least 30 minutes a day. As you walk, the muscles of the legs contract, squeeze the veins and push the blood up towards the heart. If you already have a venous serpentine running from your knees to your hips, train yourself to wear compression garments. Put it on as soon as you wake up and take it off before bed.Place a roller or pillow under your feet at night and be sure to pick up a venotonic cream with your gynecologist.

Do not press on the vena cava

In the third trimester, seizures often occur against the background of the inferior vena cava syndrome. If you have been given polyhydramnios, announced that the baby will be born large, or you are expecting twins, then you are at risk. When the expectant mother, having acquired an impressive tummy, lies on her back, the enlarged uterus compresses the inferior vena cava, which is slightly to the right of the spine.It is through it that the blood carrying carbon dioxide flows from the lower extremities to the right ventricle of the heart, and from there is directed to the lungs.

When the venous line is pinched, blood pressure drops and oxygen saturation in the blood is inevitably impaired. Some women begin to choke, complain of dizziness, tinnitus and “flies” in front of their eyes, but most do not experience discomfort. This is where the main catch lies: there are no unpleasant sensations, and the outflow of venous blood is disturbed.Further processes are similar to those that occur with varicose veins. Muscles do not receive the nourishment they need and contract painfully.

After the 25th week of pregnancy, sleep on your side, preferably on your left, because in this position the kidneys work better, the swelling of the legs decreases, and more oxygen is supplied to the baby. However, lying on your back is also not forbidden, but only on one condition: you need to put a pillow under the right buttock in order to redistribute the weight of the uterus to the left half of the body and thereby reduce the pressure on the inferior vena cava.

Follow Hemoglobin

If, along with convulsions, you are tormented by dizziness, weakness and fatigue, it is possible that the reason for these misfortunes is a low level of hemoglobin. You can find out for sure with the help of a clinical blood test. The normal indicator for pregnant women is 100-150 g / l. Expectant mothers who are in this range can easily tolerate the natural blood loss during childbirth and then breastfeed their baby without experiencing any of the difficulties caused by iron deficiency.And those who fall short of the norm often have problems not only after and during childbirth, but also long before them. Even a moderate lack of hemoglobin is fraught with insufficient oxygen supply both to the organs of the expectant mother and to every cell of the baby. And if for a woman this can turn into weakness and convulsions, then the baby will face more serious troubles. A low level of hemoglobin and red blood cells in the mother’s blood can lead to a delay in fetal development and even affect the formation of the brain.

Most often, low hemoglobin indicates an iron deficiency, so enrich your diet with beef, liver, egg yolks, buckwheat, walnuts and pomegranate juice. Just try not to use them at the same time with milk, cottage cheese, kefir, tea and coffee. These foods contain calcium and caffeine, which are not at all “friendly” with iron and prevent the body from assimilating it.

See also:

90,000 Pregnancy with epilepsy – GBUZ MO MONIIAG

To have healthy children is a natural desire of every woman.Many myths and prejudices prevent women with epilepsy from deciding to have a child, while many misconceptions have no foundation. With the right approach to pregnancy planning and drug therapy, it is highly likely that a woman with epilepsy will be able to give birth to a healthy baby.

Epilepsy complicates approximately 0.3-0.5% of pregnancies. Between 14% and 32% of these patients report an increase in seizure frequency during pregnancy.Pregnant women with persistent or newly diagnosed seizures are at high risk and require close supervision by a neurologist and obstetrician gynecologist.

There is also a risk of having a baby with developmental defects due to the fact that most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have a negative effect on the fetus. This exposure is called the “teratogenic effect” and can lead to congenital malformations in the child or developmental and learning disabilities as the child grows.

If during the treatment of epilepsy a woman is not planning a pregnancy, it is recommended to use reliable contraception to avoid an unplanned pregnancy.

What are the actions of a woman with epilepsy planning a pregnancy?



1. The need for anticonvulsant therapy.

2.Determination of the minimum amount (ideally monotherapy) and the minimum effective dose of AEDs, against the background of which there are no seizures.

3. Taking AED with a slow release of the active substance or dividing the daily dose to reduce the maximum concentration in the blood, which can reduce the risk of malformations in the child.

4. Start taking folic acid at a dosage of at least 1 mg per day.


1.All AEDs are teratogenic; there is no consensus on which of the AEDs is the safest.

2. The risk of fetal anomalies increases with the number and dosage of AEDs taken.

3. Anomalies of fetal development caused by the intake of AED can occur only in the first weeks of pregnancy, when all the systems and organs of the fetus are laid.

4. Changing the therapy for AED after the first trimester does not in any way affect the risk of congenital malformations.

5. 95% of children born to mothers receiving treatment for AED have no abnormalities!


1. Epilepsy is not a contraindication for carrying a pregnancy.

2. Do not cancel the PEP! Do not change the dosage of PEP yourself! Do not replace AEDs, against the background of which remission of epilepsy was achieved – taking AEDs during pregnancy is vital, since many factors increase the risk of recurrence of even well-controlled seizures before pregnancy.The most frequent provocateurs of seizures during pregnancy are missed PEP, emotional stress and sleep disturbances !!!

3. It is necessary to register for pregnancy in order to timely undergo prenatal screening, to consult an epileptologist.

4. Treatment of obstetric complications is carried out according to clinical guidelines.

5. Epilepsy is not a contraindication for natural childbirth, while labor management and pain relief do not differ from generally accepted standards.In most cases, prolonged epidural analgesia is possible.

6. Epilepsy is not an indication for a caesarean section, even with several attacks during pregnancy !!! Indications for cesarean section are increased frequency of epileptic seizures, convulsive seizures more often than 1 time per week in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, serial or status epilepsy, convulsive seizure during childbirth.


1.Continue taking PEP !!! There is a risk of epilepsy decompensation in the postpartum period !!!

2. In case of drowsiness, double vision and involuntary movement in the eyes, ataxia, an urgent study of the AED concentration in the blood is necessary. If the dosage of the drug was increased during pregnancy, then it is advisable to return to the daily dose used before pregnancy.

3. Breastfeeding of a newborn is not contraindicated! An exception should be made for phenobarbital and lamotrigine.The mechanisms of their excretion from the body of the newborn are not formed, which can lead to the accumulation of the drug.

4. Take PEP after feeding!

5. The most common complication in newborns is skin manifestations in the form of allergic reactions. The use of phenobarbital during pregnancy can lead to both sedative manifestations (drowsiness, poor sucking, muscle weakness, lethargy, lethargy) and withdrawal symptoms (motor agitation, restless sleep, frequent unreasonable crying) if, for any reason, breastfeeding milk stops.

6. If the newborn shows low activity, lethargy during feeding, gastrointestinal disturbances and other symptoms suspected of intoxication, the issue of artificial feeding should be discussed with the pediatrician.

7. Women with epilepsy should breastfeed while lying on the bed or sitting on the floor, preferably in the presence of relatives, to minimize the risk of injury to the mother and / or baby during the seizure.

90,000 Supplemental calcium in food or tablets, before pregnancy or early in pregnancy, to prevent complications during pregnancy associated with high blood pressure

What is the problem?

The purpose of this review was to determine whether calcium supplementation or calcium fortification, begun before or early in pregnancy and continuing through at least mid-pregnancy, leads to a reduction in the incidence of preeclampsia, high blood pressure, and other serious health problems. and mortality among pregnant women, as well as adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes.

Why is this important?

After the 20th week of pregnancy, women may develop a condition called preeclampsia, characterized by high blood pressure and proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine). Many women, especially in low-income countries, do not get enough calcium from their diet. Supplemental calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy has been shown to reduce the risk of serious consequences associated with high blood pressure and proteinuria (protein in the urine), such as seizures (eclampsia), stroke, blood clotting disorders, pulmonary edema, kidney failure, and death.However, calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy slightly reduces the incidence of preeclampsia in women. It is important to know if calcium supplementation before pregnancy and early in pregnancy can reduce the incidence of complications associated with high blood pressure.

We searched for randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of calcium supplementation before or early pregnancy on the incidence of preeclampsia in women.

What evidence have we found?

We searched the medical literature on June 29, 2017 and August 10, 2017 and found one randomized controlled trial. Women with low antioxidant levels received calcium, antioxidants, and other supplements from the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, or a dummy pill (placebo). In both groups, the tablets included folic acid and iron. Only 60 women took part in this study, which was conducted in a hospital in Indonesia.

Women taking calcium in combination with antioxidants and other supplements had a lower risk of developing preeclampsia, miscarriage, or stillbirth (when assessed together) compared with women in the control group. In women taking calcium supplements, the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth at any stage of pregnancy was also reduced (moderate-quality evidence). It is possible that women who take calcium in combination with antioxidants may have a reduced risk of developing preeclampsia (separately) (low-quality evidence) and early termination of pregnancy, but we cannot be sure.Calcium supplementation did not result in a clear difference in the number of women developing severe preeclampsia or placental abruption — very few women had these problems (low-quality evidence). Other outcomes were rare or not reported.

What does this mean?

Women who received calcium also received antioxidants and other supplements. This means that we cannot be sure that the reduction in the risk of preeclampsia and miscarriage or stillbirth, or any other outcome, was the result of calcium supplementation or not.To confirm this, more research is needed to determine whether calcium supplementation is associated with a reduced risk of other outcomes, such as preterm birth, caesarean section, low birth weight, stillbirth, or neonatal death before hospital discharge. Only 60 women were included in the study, so the quality of the evidence is not high and future studies should be large enough to present results that are more certain.

One trial is currently underway on the use of calcium supplementation before pregnancy, but is not yet completed.

Cat in heat | Affinity Petcare

A melting point is a period of sexual activity during which a cat can let a male come in for mating. The cat is always ready to mate, but she also has a period of estrus. It is common for all mammals that their first estrus begins when they reach puberty. From this moment on, the cat is ready to reproduce.In cats, estrus occurs differently for each individual, however, for all it begins at about the age of 8-10 months.

There are various factors that determine the onset of puberty in pets. The weight of the female, for example, must meet the minimum parameters of the norm for estrus to begin. Also, estrus is due to the breed of the cat: in short-haired females such as Siamese cats, puberty begins earlier than in long-haired females such as Persians. Other external factors, such as the presence of males in the environment or the length of daylight hours, also determine the onset of estrus.

Since cats are solitary in nature, they have to meet each other in order to mate and reproduce. Therefore, both the male and the female must show clear and understandable signs of their readiness for mating, which can be seen from a distance by a representative of the opposite sex. This is the reason why the symptoms of estrus are extremely noticeable and clear. Both the male and the female show changes in daily behavior. Both individuals begin to meow loudly and persistently.The cat constantly meows, rubs, rolls on the floor and freezes when touched, taking the same position as during coitus. This position is called lordosis: the spine bends and the tail is set aside. Also cats are especially playful and try to get our attention in any way.

Females and males are in heat differently. In the female, estrus, like molting, occurs most intensively in spring, when daylight hours are the longest. A cat may have several leaks at intervals of 2-3 weeks.If cats live in a house with heating and artificial lighting, then they can be in heat in winter.

The estrous cycle of the cat is divided into four phases. The forerunner only lasts 1 or 2 days, during which a change in the pet’s behavior is noted. The cat becomes playful, urinates frequently, makes sounds, rubs its head and neck against objects, rolls on the floor, stretches the spine and raises the pelvis. The cat’s appetite increases markedly. At this time, the female does not allow the male to approach her. The next phase is the heat itself, during which the manifestations of such behavior intensify – this is the period of sexual receptivity.During this period, the heat itself occurs directly. The period lasts from 4 to 6 days in the presence of mating, and from 10 to 14 days in the absence of coitus. During estrus, the cat meows, attracting the male, her meow is intense and shrill. The next phase is called the resting stage, it follows ovulation and proceeds without sexual activity. This phase lasts from 3 to 16 days if the female has not been fertilized, and 2 months if fertilization has occurred. The last phase of estrus in a cat is a period of break and rest, when the ovaries are resting and hormones are not reproduced.

Males are in heat differently. Upon reaching full maturity, cats are able to mate whenever the female allows it. The culmination period in cats lasts from September to March. During the mating season, males become more aggressive; if they go for a walk, they can return with signs of a fight. The male marks his territory with small secretions of urine containing pheromones to attract the female. This phenomenon is known as territory mark, the cat sprays urine on furniture, walls and all kinds of vertical surfaces, and this smell is very unpleasant and difficult to eliminate.Also, the cat constantly rolls on the floor throughout the house.

There is no doubt that estrus is a difficult period in the life of cats and the people with whom these pets live. To eliminate estrus, you can contact your veterinarian for advice about the possibility of castration. In the meantime, patience is the best way to stay calm with your pet’s behavior.

Cramps after sex: causes and solutions

 Sometimes sex is not only pleasure, but also pain.


Research has shown that one in ten women feel pain during or after sex. By the way, unpleasant sensations can overtake women of different ages.

The main causes of cramping after sex:

1. Sperm contains prostaglandins that cause uterine contractions, but this reason only takes place if the sex was unprotected.

2. Perhaps painful sensations arise from mechanical stimulation of the cervix and the lower part of the uterus.

3. Another possible cause is a spasm of the pelvic floor muscles, which occurs when the muscles around the vagina are tense.

4. In the case when pain and spasms radiate to the back or legs, the cause can be much more serious – for example, uterine fibroids or endometriosis.

5. It could be irritation of the bladder, ovaries or uterus as a result of friction during sex.

6. Other reasons include lack of lubrication, stress and psychological barriers.


How to get rid of cramps after sex:

  • doctors recommend trying sex positions during which pressure on the cervix is ​​minimal.

  • during severe pain, it is worth taking ibuprofen, which blocks prostaglandins and reduces cramping, also relieves any pain during or after sex.

  • cramps in the uterus are very similar to pain during critical days, therefore, the methods of treatment are very similar.One of the easiest is to put a heating pad on your lower abdomen.

  • Another way is to empty the bladder before sex.

When to see a doctor:

If the pain is severe, radiates to the back or legs and is accompanied by bleeding – do not hesitate and go to the gynecologist.