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What doctor treats testicular pain: Epididymitis (Testicle Infection) Diagnosis, Causes, Treatment


Testicle pain – Drugs.com

  1. Mayo Clinic Symptom Guide
  2. Testicle pain

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Nov 23, 2019.


Testicle pain (testicular pain) is pain that occurs in or around one or both testicles. Sometimes testicle pain actually originates from somewhere else in the groin or abdomen, and is felt in one or both testicles (referred pain).

Male reproductive system

The male reproductive system makes, stores and moves sperm. Testicles produce sperm. Fluid from the seminal vesicles and prostate gland combine with sperm to make semen. The penis ejaculates semen during sexual intercourse.


Testicle pain has a number of possible causes. The testicles are very sensitive, and even a minor injury can cause testicle pain or discomfort. Pain might arise from within the testicle itself or from the coiled tube and supporting tissue behind the testicle (epididymis).

Sometimes, what seems to be testicle pain is caused by a problem that starts in the groin, abdomen or somewhere else — for example, kidney stones and some hernias can cause testicle pain. The cause of testicle pain can’t always be identified.

Causes of testicle pain or pain in the testicle area can include:

  • Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage caused by diabetes)
  • Epididymitis (testicle inflammation)
  • Hydrocele (fluid buildup that causes swelling of the scrotum)
  • Idiopathic testicular pain (unknown cause)
  • Inguinal hernia
  • Kidney stones
  • Mumps
  • Orchitis (inflamed testicle)
  • Prostatitis
  • Scrotal masses
  • Spermatocele (fluid buildup in the testicle)
  • Testicle injury or blow to the testicles
  • Testicular torsion (twisted testicle)
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Varicocele (enlarged veins in the scrotum)

When to see a doctor

Sudden, severe testicle pain can be a sign of testicular torsion — a twisted testicle that can quickly lose its blood supply. This condition requires immediate medical treatment to prevent loss of the testicle. Testicular torsion can occur in males of any age, although it is more common in adolescents.

Seek immediate medical attention if you have:

  • Sudden, severe testicle pain
  • Testicle pain accompanied by nausea, fever, chills or blood in your urine

Schedule a doctor’s visit if you have:

  • Mild testicle pain lasting longer than a few days
  • A lump or swelling in or around a testicle


These measures might help relieve mild testicle pain:

  • Take an over-the-counter pain reliever such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), unless your doctor has given you other instructions. Use caution when giving aspirin to children or teenagers. Though aspirin is approved for use in children older than age 3, children and teenagers recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms should never take aspirin. This is because aspirin has been linked to Reye’s syndrome, a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, in such children.
  • Support the scrotum with an athletic supporter. Use a folded towel for support and elevation when you’re lying down.

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What is Testicular Pain & How Can It Be Treated?

Testicular pain is something that can understandably frighten and frustrate many men. Below, we sat down for a quick Q&A with Dr. Natalya Lopushnyan to discuss her approach to diagnosing and treating testicular pain that isn’t the result of an infection, hernia, or cancer. 

What happens when a patient presents with testicular pain? 

Dr. Lopushnyan: When I see a person with testicular pain, I want to make sure there’s no infection, hernia, or tumor. For that purpose, we would do some tests and we would get a testicular ultrasound or scrotal ultrasound. Once we’ve ruled out those causes, we will proceed with further treatments. 

What happens next once you rule out infection, hernia, or cancer? 

Dr. Lopushnyan: This is where it can get frustrating for patients and doctors alike. When I talk about testicular pain, I like to compare it to migraines or headaches. Many people in the world suffer from migraines and headaches, but not a lot of those people have brain tumors. Yes, there is true pain that you may suffer from, but there is no anatomic reason that we can find for that pain. And what’s interesting is that probably the reason for testicular pain and headaches are the same: it’s the result of nerves misfiring or acting up in a way they shouldn’t be. 

Is there a way to treat these “misfiring” nerves? 

Dr. Lopushnyan: We actually treat testicular pain frequently with medications that are used for migraines. If that doesn’t work, there are other options. There are cord blocks where we would actually inject numbing medication around the testicle to numb up those nerves that misfire or that act up in an inappropriate way. And if that doesn’t work, we can take and strip those nerves down and get rid of them completely, and that seems to be very useful and has a very high success rate for some patients. 

What’s the biggest takeaway that you want people to understand regarding testicular pain? 

Dr. Lopushnyan: If you have testicular pain, please don’t be embarrassed. Talk to your doctor about it because we can help. 

Thanks, Dr. Lopushnyan! Watch Dr. L talk about testicular pain in the video below.  

If you’re dealing with testicular pain, don’t suffer in silence. Schedule an appointment with one of our urologists ASAP.

Common causes of testicular pain, swelling and lumps

Experiencing pain, swelling or a lump in the testicle can be worrisome. The good news is, when caught early, many testicular problems and injuries can be fixed and cured.

It may feel embarrassing for a child or teen to talk about testicle health, but as a parent, you should emphasize the importance of communicating any concerns, pain or changes, and to seek care from a doctor.

“If your child notices something different or new, encourage him to tell someone right away so it can be looked at,” says Craig Peters, M.D., Division Director of Pediatric Urology at Children’s Health℠ and Professor at UT Southwestern. “Many testicular problems are treatable or curable if they are caught early.”

What causes testicular pain and swelling?

Many testicular problems cause both pain and swelling. Sometimes, the pain can be dull or achy and worsen over time. Testicular pain can also be sudden and severe and can make a child’s stomach upset.

If your child has sudden, severe pain in the testicles, it’s important to see a medical provider right away. A doctor must treat certain conditions within hours to avoid long-term problems.

Causes of severe testicular pain can include:

  • Testicular torsion – A serious condition that happens when the spermatic cord twists and cuts off blood supply to the testicle.
  • Torsion of the appendix testis – A problem that occurs when a small piece of tissue on top of the testes twists and causes swelling and pain.

Other conditions that cause testicular pain and swelling include:

  • Infection (epididymitis) – A condition that can cause swelling in the epididymis, a tube behind the testicles that helps activate sperm.
  • Hernia – You may notice a hernia as a bulge above the testicle. The bulge can sometimes extend into the scrotum and cause mild, moderate or severe pain.
  • Varicocele – A condition that occurs when there is swelling in the vein that drains blood from the testicles. It can cause a dull ache and swelling and may feel like a bag of worms above the testicle.
  • Hydrocele – A condition where fluid gathers around the testicle. While it may not cause serious problems, it can result in uncomfortable swelling.
  • Summer scrotum or summer penis – A common summertime condition that causes the skin around the scrotum or penis to become red, swollen, itchy and painful. It may look and feel like an allergic reaction or bad bug bite.
  • Orchitis – An uncommon condition that causes the testicles to swell.

The treatment for testicular pain and swelling depends on the type of condition you have. Treatments can include antibiotics, surgery and careful monitoring.

What causes testicular lumps?

There are different types of testicular lumps. Non-cancerous (benign) lumps in the testicle are usually cysts. These lumps are typically the size of a marble, smooth and round, and may feel like fluid. Cysts can stick around for a while, but they usually don’t need treatment.

Cancerous (malignant) lumps in the testicles are usually hard and feel very different from the surrounding testicle. These lumps may also be painful.

Regardless of how a testicular lump feels, it’s important that your child is examined by a doctor. “A lump in the testicle requires an exam and possibly an ultrasound,” Dr. Peters says. “Only an experienced doctor and diagnostic test can confirm the type of lump.”

Importance of testicular self-exams

Starting when your child is a teenager, Dr. Peters recommends talking to your son about doing a testicular self-exam at least once a month.

“A lot of times, someone finds a lump but doesn’t want to say anything, but it’s important to bring it up and see a doctor,” Dr. Peters says. “More than 95% of testicular cancers are curable if they are caught early.”

For more information on how to do a testicular self-exam, read these instructions from the American Cancer Society.

Testicular injury and trauma

Although testicular trauma is rare, it most often affects athletes. In many cases, testicular trauma causes bruising and swelling around the scrotum. While painful, this bruising usually resolves on its own with time.

However, serious trauma to the testicles can sometimes cause testicular fractures. These injuries may require surgery to help relieve pain and limit damage to the testicle.

If a testicular injury occurs and results in bruising, consult a physician. If an injury results in no significant swelling, bruising, nausea or vomiting, the injury can be treated with ice and rest.

To prevent these injuries, Dr. Peters recommends children and teens wear a protective cup when playing sports like hockey, basketball, baseball, football, soccer, karate or lacrosse.

“It’s extremely important for all boys to wear a hard, protective cup when playing any contact sport,” Dr. Peters says. “No question about it, it’s the best thing you can do to prevent testicular trauma.”

Learn more

The Pediatric Urology department at Children’s Health offers comprehensive care for the full range of urologic conditions, from simple problems such as bedwetting to the most complex conditions requiring advanced surgical intervention. Learn more about the Urology program and services.

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Groin Pain and Injuries in Men

Groin pain and injuries can be part of the territory for active males. But when unusual pain, swelling or injury affects the groin area, it could be necessary to seek medical attention. Board Certified Urologist Dr. Michael Schlesinger is experienced in diagnosing and treating testicular and scrotal conditions and pain such as epididymitis, infections and trauma. Read more about common groin pain and injuries in men below:


By Chris Woolston, M.S. – Men are always just one misstep away from groin pain. Even if they manage to avoid serious injury, some aches and pains just come with the territory. It’s important for a man to know which types of pain can be shrugged off and which require medical attention.

Pulled groin muscle (adductor strain)

Groin injuries are common among athletes, especially soccer players. One common type of injury is a “pulled groin muscle,” which doctors would call an adductor strain. Soccer players may be at higher risk for adductor strains because of their constant stop-and-go movements and the long strides they take. The pain may grow gradually, and you may not be able to point to the moment when the trouble started. Eventually, the muscle becomes very painful when it moves or is pressed against.

When your groin muscle starts limiting your game, you should see a doctor. X-rays or ultrasounds may be needed to make sure you don’t have a fracture, tear, or more serious condition. You’ll need to take at least several weeks off from sports to give your groin a chance to heal. Your doctor or physical therapist can suggest stretches and exercises to help strengthen the muscle and speed your recovery. In the meantime, rest and ice may help ease the pain.

Inguinal hernia

If you notice a small bulge in your groin area, there’s a good chance you’re looking at an inguinal hernia, a common condition that occurs when part of an internal organ — usually the intestine — breaks through the abdominal wall and starts intruding into the space that holds the spermatic cord. The bulge can also move into your scrotum (the skin pouch containing the testicles, below the penis). This is what doctors look for when they ask you to turn your head and cough during a checkup.

Inguinal hernias can occur when there is a weakness in the abdominal wall or groin muscles. Some men are born with this weakness. In others it can develop over time due to excessive weight loss or gain, persistent coughing or sneezing, or straining while using the bathroom.

This type of hernia usually doesn’t hurt much, although you might feel some pain when sneezing, coughing, or lifting. For some people, this pain is the only sign of trouble. If the pain becomes severe — and if the bulge doesn’t disappear when you lie down — a section of the intestine may be pinched. If so, you’ll probably suffer nausea and vomiting, and you won’t be able to have a bowel movement. This is an emergency situation: Without prompt surgery, your life could be at risk.

Most inguinal hernias aren’t dangerous. While they can often be managed by wearing a supportive belt (also called a truss) and avoiding heavy lifting, men generally opt to have corrective surgery to keep the intestines where they belong.

Trauma to the testicles

Every man has a story about a game of catch or a wrestling match that went seriously wrong. It goes without saying that any blow to the testicles will be very painful. If the pain goes away within an hour and there are no other symptoms, it’s safe to chalk it up to a lesson learned. But if you’re still in serious pain one hour or more after the trauma, you need to see a doctor immediately. There’s a chance that the testicle has become twisted, choking off the flow of blood. This is called testicular torsion, and it’s an emergency. If you don’t get help within six hours, there’s a good chance you’ll lose your testicle.

In some cases, you’ll know right away that you need medical help. Any trauma that breaks through the scrotal sac is an obvious emergency. According to the American Urological Association, you should also get prompt treatment if you develop swelling, bruising, or fever after a trauma to the testicles. A doctor will perform a physical examination — possibly including an ultrasound — to check for injuries. If nothing has been damaged, you can get by with painkillers and, for extra protection and support during recovery, a jockstrap. More serious cases may require surgery.

Epididymitis: A common cause of pain and swelling

Sometimes testicular pain seems to come out of nowhere. Even if you haven’t had an injury, one of your testicles may start gradually aching and swelling. This is often the first sign of epididymitis, a bacterial infection in the tubes that store sperm. The pain may spread to your lower back or side, and it may hurt when you urinate. Some men may also have fever or a milky discharge.

Several different kinds of bacteria can cause epididymitis. You might have caught the germs during sex, or they may be bacteria that have spread from the urinary tract. No mater how it starts, epididymitis is easily treated with oral antibiotics. So don’t put up with that achy feeling. Make an urgent appointment with your family doctor or urologist. With the right medication, you’ll feel much better within a few days. If the symptoms don’t get better or if they return, see your doctor promptly.

Other causes of scrotal pain and swelling

There are a few other, less common causes of pain or swelling in a testicle. The testicle itself can become inflamed, a complication of an infection from a bacteria or a virus. This condition, called orchitis, may follow a viral illness such as the mumps. In fact, about one in three males who get the mumps after puberty will develop orchitis in one or both testicles. Treatment for bacterial orchitis is similar to the treatment for epididymitis. A short course of antibiotics should clear up the problem. If a viral infection is to blame, the only treatment is time. The pain will fade and the swelling will recede. In some cases, the testicle may end up smaller than it was to begin with.

If fluid builds up around a testicle, it can start swelling. It is usually painless, even when it grows rather large. This fluid accumulation is called a hydrocele (HI-dro-seel), and it is generally harmless. Hydroceles usually occur in men over age 40 who have experienced injury or infection in the scrotum or who have had radiation therapy. If the scrotum grows large enough to cause discomfort, the hydrocele may have to be surgically removed.

In cases where surgery is especially risky, a needle may be used to remove the fluid instead.

A kidney stone can also cause pain in the groin if it moves into the urinary tract. In addition to pain in the groin, you may feel nausea or the need to vomit. Men are twice as likely as women to form kidney stones. Call your doctor immediately if you have any of these symptoms.

Should I be worried about testicular cancer?

Whenever you notice any changes in your testicles, it’s only natural to wonder about cancer. While cancer is much less common than epididymitis and other testicular problems, it’s always wise to know the symptoms. The most common sign of testicular cancer is a painless lump. Less often, the testicle may swell. There may be a heavy or achy feeling in the scrotum or the lower abdomen, but severe pain is rare. If you’re concerned about testicular cancer, see your doctor.


American Urological Association. Testicular trauma. 2008. http://www.urologyhealth.org/

American Cancer Society. Do I have testicular cancer? 2008. http://www.cancer.org/

Morelli, V. and V. Smith. Groin injuries in athletes. American Family Physician. October 15, 2001. 64: 1405-1414. http://www.aafp.org/

Ringdahl, E. and L. Teague. Testicular torsion. American Family Physician. November 15, 2006. 74: 1739-1743.

Cleveland Clinic. Inguinal hernia. 2005. http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/1800/1809.asp?index=8099

Inguinal Hernia. Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center College of Medicine. http://www.hmc.psu.edu/healthinfo/i/inguinalhernia.htm

Epididymitis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2006. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/Treatment/2006/epididymitis.htm

Top Five Soccer Injuries. University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. http://sportsmedicine.upmc.com/MySportSoccerTop5.htm

Parmar, M.S. Kidney Stones. BMJ 2004;328:1420-1424 (12 June), doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7453.1420 http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/328/7453/1420

Last Updated: Jan 20, 2017

Diseases and Conditions Health Library Copyright ©2017 LimeHealth. All Rights Reserved.

The post Groin Pain and Injuries in Men appeared first on PHC Urology.

Pain In Testicles – Signs, Causes & Treatment – By Dr. Rahul Gupta

Pain in the testicles is something that every male would have experienced at some point of time in their lives. It could be due to an injury, or a medical condition. Experiencing pain due to sports injuries is also common. It is a pain that occurs in the testicles and in some cases it can be on both the testicles. Sometimes the pain originates from a different region of the abdomen and the spasms are felt in the testicles. Let us have a look at some signs, causes, and treatment plans for such pain in testicles.

Signs & Symptoms of Testicular Pain

  • Redness
  • Swelling in Testicle area
  • Tenderness 

Causes of Testicles Pain

Testicle pain can be due to many causes. The testicles are round sacs and are extremely sensitive, and even a minor injury can cause bouts of pain or discomfort. In some instances, the problem arises from the groin region. In other cases, it could be an aftermath of pain that arises elsewhere. One of the common causes of testicular pain is varicocele. This something that is similar to the varicose veins that occur in the leg. Once the veins get enlarged within the skin bags, it can push the testicles outwards- thus resulting in pain. They can also affect sperm production and the shrinkage of testicles. 

Pain in the area of the testicles could be due to diabetes, nerve damage, and side effects of a drug, gangrene, inflammation in the blood in the testicular region, kidney stones, mumps, testicular cancer, and vasectomy. Varicocele can develop over a period and in some rare cases do not require any treatment at all. In most of the cases, testicular pain can be due to a result of a direct injury. A sports injury or an accident in the groin area can cause pain and discomfort. 

When to see a doctor for Testicle Pain?

Severe testicular pain or sudden discomfort in the abdomen region are indications of testicular disease and seek medical attention immediately in such cases. Varicocele is usually associated with sharp bouts of pain that comes and goes away. Also, it is more prone to the left side testicles. A twisted testicle is also an indication that the blood does not flow freely and can result in loss of blood supply. These conditions require immediate medical attention.

Please check with your doctor if you have any swelling in the scrotum area and if you have the symptoms of veins protruding out abnormally. A diagnosis can be easily done by a testicular ultrasound. Check out your sperm production levels too and get medical guidance in case of irregularity. 

Self Care During Testicles Pain

Experts believe that almost 60% of the testicular pains are because of a direct result of physical injury. If you are a sports person, always ensure that you have proper protection when playing the game. The same goes for driving too. Also, avoid garments that are extremely tight in the groin region as this can cut off the blood supply. Varicoceles usually do not require any medical treatment as in some cases the conditions diminish on its own.

In some cases, you might be requiring surgery to treat the veins and get them back to normal to treat testicular pain. Do indulge only in safe sexual practices to minimize chances of STD’s and other sexually transmitted infections. Even these can affect the pain in your testicles. You can also try over-the-counter medications in case of minor to medium pain. Testicular pain usually decreases on its own in many cases. In case when pain in testicles does not subsidize even after a week, check with your doctor and seek medical attention.

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Five Common Signs of Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer can develop in one or both testicles. These organs, which produce sperm and male hormones, are located within the scrotum. Part of the male reproductive system, the scrotum is a loose pouch of skin located underneath the penis.

Although testicular cancer is considered to be relatively uncommon, it is still the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 35. Therefore, it is important for all boys and men to learn to identify the warning signs. Take an opportunity to do so during the month of April, which has been designated as Testicular Cancer Awareness Month as an educational initiative by the Testicular Cancer Society.

Knowing the signs of testicular cancer can improve the likelihood of detecting the condition in its earliest stages, when more treatment options are generally available. This is especially important because testicular cancer is usually considered to be highly curable. Here are the five most common signs to watch for:

  1. A painless lump, swelling or enlargement of one or both testes
  2. Pain or heaviness in the scrotum
  3. A dull ache or pressure in the groin, abdomen or low back
  4. A general feeling of malaise, including unexplained fatigue, fever, sweating, coughing, shortness of breath or mild chest pains
  5. Headache and confusion

In boys, testicular cancer can also cause early signs of puberty, such as accelerated voice deepening and the growth of facial and body hair.

At Moffitt Cancer Center, we recommend that males perform regular self-examinations of their testicles, which can make it easier to notice any changes as soon as they occur. In fact, most testicular cancers are found by men themselves or a partner; few are initially detected by physicians.

To perform a self-examination, check each testicle using both hands. The index and middle fingers should be positioned underneath the testicle, with the thumbs on top. Then, gently but firmly roll the testicle between the thumbs and fingers to feel for any irregularities in its surface or texture. It’s best to perform a self-exam during or right after a warm shower or bath, which can help to relax the scrotum.

If you’d like to learn more about testicular cancer, call Moffitt Cancer Center at 1-888-663-3488 or complete a new patient registration form online to request an appointment with a specialist in our Genitourinary Oncology Program. We do not require referrals.


Diagnosing testicular cancer | Cancer Council Victoria


You will usually begin by seeing your doctor, who will examine your testicles and scrotum for a lump or swelling. Some people may find this embarrassing, but doctors are used to doing these examinations. It will only take a few minutes.

If the doctor feels a lump that might be cancer, you will have an ultrasound. If the lump looks like a tumour on the ultrasound, you will have a blood test and are likely to be referred to a specialist called a urologist. The urologist may recommend removal of the testicle to confirm the diagnosis.


An ultrasound is a painless scan that uses soundwaves to create a picture of your body. This is a very accurate way to tell the difference between fluid-filled cysts and solid tumours. It can show if a tumour is present and how large it is.

The person performing the ultrasound will spread a gel over your scrotum and then move a small device called a transducer over the area. This sends out soundwaves that echo when they meet something dense, like an organ or a tumour. A computer creates a picture from these echoes. The scan takes about five to ten minutes.

Blood tests

Blood tests can check your general health and how well your kidneys and other organs are working. The results of these tests will also help you and your doctors make decisions about your treatment.

Tumour markers

Some blood tests look for proteins produced by cancer cells. These proteins are called tumour markers. If your blood test results show an increase in the levels of certain tumour markers, you may have testicular cancer.

Raised levels of tumour markers are more common in mixed tumours and non-seminoma cancers. It is possible to have raised tumour markers due to other factors, such as liver disease or blood disease. Some people with testicular cancer don’t have raised tumour marker levels in their blood.

There are three common tumour markers measured in tests for testicular cancer:

  • alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) raised in some non-seminoma cancers
  • beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) – raised in some non-seminoma and seminoma cancers
  • lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) raised in some non-seminoma and seminoma cancers.

Doctors will use your tumour marker levels to assess the risk of the cancer coming back after surgery, and this helps them plan your treatment. If the diagnosis of testicular cancer is confirmed after surgery, you will have regular blood tests to monitor tumour marker levels throughout treatment and as part of follow-up appointments.

Tumour marker levels will drop if your treatment is successful, but they will rise if the cancer is active. If this happens, you may need more treatment.

Surgery to remove the testicle

The only way to be sure of the diagnosis is to surgically remove the affected testicle and examine it in a laboratory. The surgery to remove a testicle is called an orchidectomy or orchiectomy. In most cases, the surgeon needs to remove only one testicle. It is rare for both testicles to be affected by cancer at the same time.

For other types of cancer, a doctor can usually make a diagnosis by removing and examining some tissue from the tumour, which is called a biopsy. Doctors don’t usually biopsy the testicle because there is a small risk that making a cut through the scrotum can cause cancer cells to spread.

Having an orchidectomy

The urologist will make a cut (incision) in the groin above the pubic bone. The whole testicle is pulled up and out of the scrotum through this cut, as well as the spermatic cord because it contains blood and lymph vessels that may act as a pathway for the cancer to spread to other areas of the body.

The operation takes about 30 minutes. After the orchidectomy, you can usually go home the same day, but you may need to stay in hospital overnight.


What to expect after surgery

After an orchidectomy, you will need to take care while you recover. You will have a few stitches to close the incision, which will usually dissolve after several weeks. There may be some bruising around the wound and scrotum. The scrotum can become swollen if blood collects inside it (intrascrotal haematoma). Both the bruising and the haematoma will disappear over time.

For the first couple of weeks, it’s best to wear underwear that provides cupping support for the scrotum, which is available at most pharmacies. You’ll probably be advised to avoid strenuous activities, such as heavy lifting and vigorous exercise, for six weeks. You should be able to drive after two to four weeks and go back to work when you feel ready.

Losing a testicle may cause some people to feel embarrassed or depressed, or could lead to low self-esteem. It may help to talk about how you are feeling with someone you trust, such as a partner, friend or counsellor. You can also call Cancer Council on 13 11 20. 

Your ability to get an erection and experience orgasm should not be affected by the removal of one testicle, but some people find it takes time to adjust.  As long as the remaining testicle is healthy, losing one testicle is unlikely to affect your ability to have children (fertility). While it is rare, if you have both testicles removed, you will become infertile. Speak to your doctor before surgery if you are wanting to have children in the future. 

Having a prosthesis

You may decide to replace the removed testicle with an artificial one called a prosthesis. The prosthesis is a silicone implant similar in size and shape to the removed testicle. There are different brands, and some feel firmer than others.

Whether or not to have a prosthesis is a personal decision. If you choose to have one, you can have the operation at the same time as the orchidectomy or at another time. Your urologist can give you more information about your options.

Further tests

If the removal of your testicle and initial tests show that you have cancer, you may have further tests to see whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or other organs. These tests may also be used during or after treatment to check how well the treatment has worked. They can include:

  • CT scan – You may have a computerised tomography (CT) scan of your chest, abdomen and pelvis. Sometimes this is done before the orchidectomy. A CT scan uses x-rays to take pictures of the inside of your body and then compiles them into one detailed, cross-sectional picture. 
  • MRI scan – In some circumstances, such as if you have an allergy to the dye normally used for a CT scan, you may instead have a magnetic
    resonance imaging (MRI) scan. An MRI scan uses a powerful magnet and radio waves to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body.
  • PET–CT scan – You may also be given a positron emission tomography (PET) scan combined with a CT scan. You will be injected with a small amount of a glucose (sugar) solution containing some radioactive material, which helps cancer cells show up more brightly on the scan.

Staging and prognosis

Tests for testicular cancer help to show whether the cancer has spread (its stage). There are several staging systems for testicular cancer, but the most commonly used is the TNM (tumour–nodes–metastasis) system.

Prognosis means the expected outcome of a disease. You may wish to discuss your prognosis with your doctor, but it is not possible for anyone to predict the exact course of the disease. To assess your prognosis, your doctor will consider your test results, the type of testicular cancer you have, the stage of cancer and other factors such as your age, fitness and medical history.


Understanding Testicular Cancer

Download our Understanding Testicular Cancer booklet to learn more.

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Expert content reviewers:

Professor Declan Murphy, Urologist and Director of Genitourinary Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Vic.; Gregory Bock, Urology Cancer Nurse Coordinator, WA Cancer and Palliative Care Network, North Metropolitan Health Service, WA; Associate Professor Nicholas Brook, Senior Consultant Urological Surgeon, Royal Adelaide Hospital and the University of Adelaide, SA; Clinical Associate Professor Peter Grimison, Medical Oncologist, Chris O’Brien Lifehouse and the University of Sydney, NSW; Dr Tanya Holt, Senior Radiation Oncologist, Radiation Oncology Princess Alexandra Hospital Raymond Terrace (ROPART), Qld; Brodie Kitson, Consumer; Elizabeth Medhurst, Genitourinary and Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR) Nurse Consultant, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Vic; Rosemary Watson, 13 11 20 Consultant, Cancer Council Victoria.

Page last updated:

The information on this webpage was adapted from Understanding Testicular Cancer – A guide for people with cancer, their families and friends (2020 edition). This webpage was last updated in June 2021. 

90,000 Treatment of pain in the scrotum in the clinic “Miracle Doctor”

Pain in the scrotum cannot be ignored, since it can be a consequence and symptom of many diseases that need to be diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. The scrotum itself is a complex organ made up of skin and muscle tissue. Inside it there are two sections, in each of which there is a testicle, which has a spermatic cord, as well as an epididymis.

Inside, a certain temperature regime must always be maintained so that sperm cells can form there under favorable conditions.But if painful sensations occur, they, as a rule, turn out to be sharp, intolerable and require an urgent visit to the doctor.

Causes of pain in the scrotum

If we talk about the immediate causes of the described pain, there are many of them. Most often we are talking about diseases associated with the genitourinary system or injuries to its organs. When these organs are injured, the painful sensations, as a rule, for any man are excruciating and incredible.A person may even lose consciousness from this, vomiting spasms may begin even in the absence of violations of the integrity of the testicles.

Pain can begin if an erection occurs frequently and there is no sexual contact. The fact is that when aroused, blood flows to the penis and with subsequent ejaculation, a certain pain can be felt.

If the veins are dilated in the scrotum, it can also hurt. Unpleasant sensations arise there also due to a hernia.Due to the hydrocele, fluid accumulates inside the scrotum. At first, the patient may not experience anything like this, but gradually the unpleasant feelings increase. Finally, one should not forget about tumors and infections.

An inguinal hernia can occur after an opening has formed in the walls of the abdominal cavity. The ingress of organs into this hole turns out to be the cause of pain in this case.

Discomfort occurs after the testicles are twisted.This situation often happens with children and adolescents. Help is possible only with the help of surgical intervention. Moreover, it should not be delayed.

The causes of aching pain may be an adenoma with prostatitis. The sensations are not very intense, but there is nothing pleasant about it. Pulling ailments are caused by orchitis, epidymitis.

Symptoms of pain in the scrotum

Along with pain in the scrotum, there may be other symptoms that should be considered as alarming:

  • Sensation of pain when touching the testicles;
  • Enlargement of one part of the scrotum;
  • Pains are sudden and intensify over time;
  • There is nausea and an increase in temperature indicators.

Why visit a urologist?

One way or another, you cannot delay a visit to the doctor, and self-diagnosis, and, moreover, treatment, is also prohibited. The fact is that already unpleasant pains can subsequently be replaced by more serious complications:

  • Decrease in sexual activity;
  • Infertility is threatening;
  • Possibility of impotence.

This is not an option when you can keep quiet about the problem.In case of injury, call an ambulance immediately. Until she arrives, it is advisable to apply a cold compress to the injured area of ​​the scrotum. An elevated lying position is also recommended, which can be provided by a pillow placed under the buttocks.

At the urologist-andrologist, you will be able to undergo the necessary diagnostic procedures – palpation examination, tests, ultrasound, compulsory examination. Based on the diagnostic results obtained, the doctor will name the cause of the excruciating pain in the scrotum and tell you how to eliminate it correctly and faster in order to cure the disease.



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90,000 what kind of doctor, what diseases he cures – articles about health

Table of Contents

A urologist is a doctor who diagnoses, prevents and treats diseases of the genitourinary system.Both women and men can make an appointment with him. Specialists provide comprehensive medical care for disorders of the ureters, bladder, kidneys and urethra. Also, doctors deal with disorders of the reproductive system in men.

Urology is not only a therapeutic but also a surgical specialty. Therefore, doctors also provide surgical interventions that can be aimed at eliminating various pathologies, as well as congenital and acquired aesthetic defects.

When should I see a urologist?

Make an appointment with a specialist at:

  • Pain in the groin area (including when urinating), in the lower abdomen, perineum and lumbar region
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Presence of blood and pus in urine
  • Rare and frequent urination
  • Impossibility to have sexual intercourse
  • Prolonged erection at night

A patient may be referred to a urologist if there is a suspicion of prostatitis and prostate adenoma, diseases of the bladder and kidneys, an infection of the genitourinary system, infertility, pyelonephritis, cystitis, vesiculitis, polycystic kidney disease, erectile dysfunction and other pathologies.

You should also see a doctor if nothing bothers you. Urological consultations are carried out as part of the annual medical examination.

Important! If you have a history of diseases of the genitourinary system, you should visit your doctor more often. The approximate terms of control examinations and examinations are established by a specialist.

How is a doctor’s examination going?

You should prepare for the appointment in advance.

For this:

  • Abstain from intercourse for 1-2 days
  • Empty the bladder within 1-2 hours
  • Have a bowel movement in a few hours
  • Take a shower and put on clean underwear before going to the clinic

If you already have the results of analyzes and instrumental examinations, be sure to take them with you.If you are taking any medications, write down the names.

Consultation with a urologist includes:

  • Taking anamnesis. Try to answer all the doctor’s questions regarding the symptoms that bother you, genetic predisposition to certain diseases, the duration of their manifestation, and other features. This will allow you to prescribe the necessary clarifying diagnosis and quickly determine the type and degree of development of pathology
  • Physical examination. It includes both visual examination and palpation of the organs of the genitourinary system
  • Urethral swab. The study is being conducted with the aim of detecting pathogenic microorganisms and infections. Diagnosis reveals diseases such as inflammation of the bladder, inflammation of the urethra and prostatitis
  • Issuance of referrals for instrumental and laboratory diagnostics

During a physical examination in men, the specialist estimates:

  • The shape and size of the penis.The doctor determines the degree of its curvature, development and other features
  • Skin condition. This allows you to identify ulcers, cracks, foci of inflammation and other pathological conditions
  • Glans of the penis. This examination reveals phimosis and inflammatory processes
  • Testicular condition. The specialist probes them and the appendages, determines the size, shape and consistency
  • The condition of the scrotum. You can find foci of inflammatory and infectious processes, as well as varicocele (varicose veins)
  • Condition of the bladder and kidneys.This examination reveals inflammatory and other pathological processes

A digital rectal examination of the prostate is also performed. In this case, the patient sits on his side and presses his knees to the chest. The doctor feels the prostate through the rectal wall, assessing its shape, size and general condition. If the patient feels pain, he should inform the urologist about it.

Examination in women is carried out on a chair. During the examination, the doctor examines the condition of the external genital organs and the urethra.The area of ​​the kidneys and bladder is palpated without fail. In this case, the patient’s reaction to all actions is assessed. Pain during examination can be an important sign of inflammation and a number of other pathologies.

Treatment methods

Therapy is always selected individually, taking into account the characteristics of the patient and his current condition, as well as concomitant diseases.

Conservative treatment

Aimed at eliminating symptoms and causes of pathology.

Conservative therapy may include prescription:

90 026 90 027 Injections of drugs that provide quick results

  • Tablets (anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, etc.)
  • Preparations in the form of suppositories, etc.
  • Treatment by a urologist of prostatitis, cystitis and other diseases may be accompanied by the appointment of vitamin complexes and physiotherapy procedures. If you follow all the doctor’s recommendations, you can get rid of the symptoms of pathologies and their causes quickly enough.Therapy is delayed with advanced stages of the disease.

    Surgical treatment

    For a number of diseases, surgery may be required.

    As part of the surgical treatment:

    • Resection of the adrenal gland, bladder and kidney
    • Elimination of prolapse of the kidney
    • Removal of cysts and tumors
    • Removal of stones from the urinary tract, etc.

    Modern urological operations are divided into 3 groups:

    • Transurethral. In such interventions, access to the operating field is provided through the urethra. Usually, stones are removed from the urinary tract in this way, prostate resection for adenoma is performed, urethral strictures are eliminated
    • Retroperitoneal. They are performed with access to the operating field from the lumbar side. Such operations allow eliminating pathological changes in the kidneys and adrenal glands
    • Laparoscopic. In such interventions, access to the operating field is provided through a puncture in the abdominal wall. Laparoscopic operations are prescribed to eliminate congenital organ anomalies, treat varicocele, remove kidney and prostate masses

    Important! The choice in favor of a specific method of treating potency and other pathologies is made by the urologist. Any surgical interventions are carried out only if conservative therapy is inappropriate or does not give the desired result.

    How to make an appointment with a specialist?

    To make an appointment with a urologist for treatment or to diagnose diseases, you need to call +7 (812) 336-33-33. We recommend that you contact a specialist as early as possible, without delaying the consultation and without delaying the diagnosis and the beginning of the course of therapy.

    Important! Try to stop taking medications before visiting the doctor, as this can complicate the examination, changing the overall picture of the disease.

    Advantages of contacting MEDSI

    • Highly qualified doctors. Our specialists have all the knowledge and skills necessary to help patients. Urologists apply international treatment protocols and implement their own methods
    • Possibilities of diagnostics and treatment of the entire list of diseases of the genitourinary system. We offer ultrasound, CT, MRI, endoscopic and other examinations. Specialists treat prostatitis, prostate cancer, decreased sex drive, urolithiasis and other pathologies
    • Full range of services. The clinic provides consultations, diagnostics, preparation for operations, surgical interventions, successful recovery after them
    • Comfortable conditions of hospital stay after surgery. The wards are equipped with furniture and appliances, staff call buttons. Patients are monitored by nurses and doctors
    • Individual approach. Treatment and prevention programs are based on detailed patient reports.This allows you to timely adjust the therapy, selecting it in accordance with the characteristics of the patient

    Do not postpone a visit to a urologist for diagnosis and treatment until later, especially if you are worried about the severe symptoms of certain pathologies. This will only make the situation worse.

    Pediatric urologist-andrologist

    The pediatric urologist-andrologist is a specialist in the male reproductive system and diseases associated with the genital organs in boys! T.In other words, an andrologist is a male “gynecologist”. The name of the specialty also contains the term “urologist”, which means that the urinary system, consisting of the kidneys and the bladder, which girls also have, falls into the sphere of interests of this specialist. So the urologist-andrologist is not only a “boyish” doctor, but also a little “girlish”.

    What does a pediatric urologist-andrologist do?

    As mentioned above, the professional interest of a doctor is diseases of the male reproductive system, and these are not only the external genital organs (scrotum, testicles, penis), but also internal ones, such as the prostate gland, urethra, vas deferens.Violation of hormonal regulation of the reproductive system is also subject to treatment by an andrologist. It is impossible not to mention the psychological complexes in children and adolescents. Quite often, there are fears of the penis, dissatisfaction with the size of the organ, the syndrome of expectation of failure in young men, anxiety. The urological aspect of the doctor’s activity is diseases of the urinary system from the cavities of the kidneys (calyx, pelvis), ureters to the bladder. Diseases of the kidney tissue are dealt with by a nephrologist.

    When is it necessary to consult a pediatric urologist-andrologist? (with what problems you can turn to this specialist for help).

    • If, at the birth of a boy, one or both testicles are absent in the scrotum;
    • The presence of other formations and protrusions in the scrotum;
    • If the head of the penis does not come out or does not open completely in a child over 3 years old;
    • Incorrect location of the external opening of the urethra;
    • If the first signs of puberty did not appear before the age of 13.5;
    • If one testicle is larger than the other;
    • When a child complains of soreness in the scrotum or penis;
    • With swelling or redness of the genitals;
    • With frequent and painful urination.
    • If there are episodes of urinary incontinence during the day or at night in children after 5 years of age.

    It should be remembered that many andrological diseases are secretive and can only be detected by a specialist. Therefore, a visit to a pediatric and adolescent urologist-andrologist can take place not only in case of illness, but also for prophylactic purposes.

    Scheduled visits:

    For the timely detection of possible pathology, parents need to show the boy to a pediatric urologist-andrologist at the age of: first months after birth, 3 years, 6 years, 9 years for preventive purposes.This is the age when it is necessary to identify and timely correct abnormalities of the genitourinary system, such as: cryptorchidism, hypospadias, underdevelopment of the external genital organs, dropsy of the testicular membranes, inguinal hernias, synechiae of the foreskin, phimosis.

    The next visit to the andrologist should be carried out at the age of 12 years. It is during this period that one can assess the degree of development of the boy’s genitals and his readiness to enter puberty (puberty).

    Starting from the age of 14, careful monitoring of the correctness of the course of puberty is necessary, the development of which is often accompanied by the appearance of such diseases as varicocele, cysts of the epididymis, delayed sexual development, hypogonadism, etc.Until the age of 18, andrologist examinations are carried out annually.

    What happens at the reception:

    Advisory reception of children is carried out with the obligatory presence of parents or guardians under the age of 15 years. From the age of 15, a young person is considered legally capable and can be independently responsible for his health, receive all the necessary information about his state of health and make decisions about one or another method of treatment or exposure. In the absence of the teenager’s consent to disclose information about the state of his reproductive health, no one, not even parents, has the right to receive it.The doctor is protected by the “medical confidentiality” law. Therefore, a trusting relationship between a teenager and parents is a guarantee of the absence of secrets and the possibility of obtaining the necessary information about the state of health of “one’s own blood”. The consultation takes place in a calm atmosphere, in the form of a dialogue, during which the doctor finds out the complaints that bother the child or parents, the duration of the disease, the characteristics of the development of the disease, etc. After collecting information about the disease, the doctor proceeds to examine the child – palpation of the abdomen, examination and palpation of the external genital organs.Due to the frequent negative attitude of the child to the examination, it is advisable for the parents to reassure the child and explain in an accessible language what is required of him. The main principle when examining a child is non-invasiveness and painlessness. Any interventions and manipulations are carried out only by agreement with the parents and only with written consent. The result of the admission is the diagnosis and determination of the required list of examinations or the development of a patient’s treatment regimen. All of the above is drawn up in a medical document – “medical certificate”, which is written out in two copies, one is glued into the patient’s outpatient card, the other is given to the hands of parents or a teenager.When prescribing an examination, referral forms for examination (laboratory or instrumental) are written out, on the basis of which the patient receives a specific type of examination (services). The duration of a consultative appointment is on average 20 minutes, however, the duration can vary upwards if necessary, depending on the complexity of the patient.

    What additional examinations can a pediatric urologist-andrologist prescribe?

    Depending on the identified pathology, the urologist-andrologist may prescribe:

    • Blood hormonogram – to clarify the level of hormones in the body.The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), prolactin, TSH, estradiol, inhibin B are being investigated.
    • Ultrasound of the scrotum with the study of blood flow in the vessels of the testicles and veins of the spermatic cord. Allows you to assess the condition of the testicles, their size, the presence of formations in the epididymis (cysts), dropsy of the membranes of the testicles, cysts of the spermatic cord, varicocele.
    • Ultrasound of the prostate gland (transabdominal) – makes it possible to visualize the prostate gland, assess its structure, size, condition of the veins of the prostatic plexus.It is performed as a routine ultrasound of internal organs. It is important that the study is carried out with a full bladder. Cavity (transrectal) ultrasound of the prostate gland is performed only in adult men and boys after 16 years of age.
    • Ultrasound of the mammary glands. It is carried out to assess the severity of the glandular tissue of the mammary glands in gynecomastia.
    • Urine tests (general and / or Nechiporenko) – allows you to assess the state of the urinary system, exclude the inflammatory process, and determine the presence of salts in the urine.
    • Zemnitsky test – prescribed to determine kidney function.
    • Ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder. This type of examination is necessary to clarify the presence of kidney abnormalities, the presence of stones, salt clots. Allows you to see the bladder, its wall, the presence of residual urine after urination.

    In each specific case, a list of examinations, necessary for a given disease, is assigned. Only the attending physician can determine the scope of diagnostic tests! 90,000 Acute scrotum in children – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of acute scrotum syndrome in a child in Moscow at the children’s clinic “SM-Doctor”

    An acute scrotum is a condition characterized by pain, swelling, and redness of the skin in the corresponding area of ​​the scrotum.The diseases leading to this syndrome can be varied, as well as the tactics of their treatment. The sooner the parents turn to the surgeon, the sooner the diagnosis will be made and the treatment of the causative pathology will begin.

    The main cause of acute scrotal syndrome in children under one year old and over 13 years old is testicular torsion (children born in breech presentation are especially at risk). In children over a year old, this is the torsion of the Morgagni hydatid testicle fixed on the testicle itself or its epididymis. Other diseases leading to an acute syndrome of the corresponding localization are acute inflammation of the testicle or its epididymis, strangulated inguinal hernia, varicocele, as well as traumatic injuries of the scrotal organs.


    Failure to provide treatment for testicular torsion leads to serious blood flow disorders. First, the venous link suffers, and then the arterial one, which disrupts the nutrition of the organ, which is fraught with the development of necrosis. The severity and nature of complications depends on the time and number of turns.

    Hemorrhages and ischemic tissues due to traumatic injuries of the scrotal organs are a good breeding ground for bacteria. Therefore, in order to prevent the development of inflammatory complications, one should consult a pediatric surgeon-urologist as soon as possible after injury.

    Thus, in addition to systemic changes in the body, acute scrotal syndrome is dangerous by damage to the testicle, which plays one of the main roles in the male body.

    How do I get 24/7 help?

    When anxiety symptoms appear in a child and depending on his general condition, you can choose 3 ways to receive medical care: you can go directly to the clinic, call a doctor at home or call an ambulance. “SM-Doctor” has the capacity to provide all three types of assistance.


    Regardless of the causative disease, a condition such as acute scrotal syndrome has a typical triad of symptoms:

    • pain in the scrotum, which increases on palpation;
    • an increase in the affected half of the scrotum in volume due to edema;
    • redness of the skin (in later stages).

    Only a targeted and step-by-step stage of collecting anamnesis and an objective examination, which is carried out by a pediatric surgeon, makes it possible to find out the most likely cause of an acute condition. Further diagnostic search is based on the probable pathogenetic mechanism.

    All diseases leading to the syndrome of acute scrotum are divided into the following categories:

    • ischemic damage, which can lead to testicular torsion or its hydatids;
    • traumatic injuries, manifested by rupture of the tunica albuginea (directly adjacent to the testicular tissue), hematoma inside the testicle, testicular contusion;
    • infectious and inflammatory lesions – orchitis, epididymitis and others;
    • venous changes – varicocele;
    • systemic diseases – hemorrhagic vasculitis.


    The task of diagnostics is not to identify the fact of the acute scrotum syndrome (even parents can determine this condition), but to establish the cause that led to this. To do this, pediatric urological surgeons first conduct an objective examination, and then an ultrasound scan of the scrotum and its organs, which is combined with Doppler ultrasound. Evaluation of blood flow in the vessels allows us to make a conclusion about the safety of the arterial blood supply and the likelihood of the development of irreversible changes.This is important for planning treatment tactics.

    It is important to seek medical help as early as possible – ideally in the first 1-2 hours after the onset of pain in the scrotum. The child must be transported in a horizontal position.


    Treatment for acute scrotal syndrome depends on the causative pathology. All stages of diagnostic and therapeutic care are provided under adequate anesthesia.

    • For testicular torsion, surgery is performed.Surgical intervention should be performed within the first hours after the onset of pain, so that tissue vitality is not affected. The operation consists in returning the gonad to the correct position. The functional state of the organ is assessed after half an hour against the background of thermal application with warm physiological or antiseptic non-alcoholic solutions. If cyanosis and swelling are absent, then the blood flow has recovered. The next step is to fix the testicle in the correct position to prevent recurrence.
    • When Morgagni’s hydatida is twisted, it is removed, the scrotal cavity is sanitized and the wound is sutured.
    • For inflammatory diseases of the scrotal organs, the pediatric surgeon selects adequate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy. In cases of the presence of a purulent focus, its opening and drainage are shown.
    • In case of scrotal injuries, primary surgical treatment is performed with the removal of damaged non-viable tissues and antiseptic treatment of the wound.Complex conservative therapy can also be prescribed. In the presence of hematomas, they are emptied, in the presence of traumatic ruptures – suturing.
    • If a tumor process is suspected, an intraoperative biopsy is performed to establish the final diagnosis, along with the removal of twisted or intact hydatids.

    In uncomplicated cases, the child spends at least 6 hours in the hospital, in complicated cases – at least 1 week. After discharge, the child must spend 7 days at home, come to the clinic for dressings, receive medical rehabilitation therapy and limit physical activity for up to 2 months.In some cases, also refrain from vaccination.

    Treatment result

    With timely access to medical care, both immediate and distant indicators have the best result. Almost immediately after the start of treatment, the child’s condition is normalized due to the relief of the pathological process. This creates the most favorable conditions for a quick and complete restoration of testicular function.

    The surgeons of the CM-Doctor clinic specialize in providing multidisciplinary care to children with acute scrotal syndrome.The center’s own laboratory, expert-class diagnostic equipment and the professionalism of doctors allow us to make a diagnosis in the shortest possible time and carry out differentiated treatment. A delicate approach to each child guarantees an atmosphere of friendliness and comfort.

    At the slightest suspicion of acute scrotal syndrome in a boy, contact “CM-Doctor”. The center is open 24/7, on holidays and weekends. Our mission is to take care of your child’s health.

    You can make an appointment or ask questions around the clock by phone +7 (495) 292-59-86

    90,000 Chlamydia – Center for Disease Control and Prevention Fact Sheet

    Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is easily treatable.If untreated, chlamydia can make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant.

    What is Chlamydia?

    Chlamydia (https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/default.htm) is a common sexually transmitted disease; both men and women can be infected with it. It can cause serious, permanent harm to the female reproductive system, which can subsequently make it difficult or impossible for a woman to become pregnant. Chlamydia can also cause a potentially life-threatening ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus).

    How is chlamydia spread?

    You can get chlamydia through sexual contact (vaginal, anal or oral) with someone who is infected with chlamydia.

    If your partner is a man, you can get chlamydia even if you do not ejaculate (ejaculate).

    If you have previously had chlamydia that you have cured, you can still get it. This can happen if you have unprotected sex with someone who has chlamydia.

    If you are pregnant, your baby can be infected from you during birth (https://www.cdc.gov/std/pregnancy/stdfact-pregnancy.htm).

    How can I reduce my risk of contracting chlamydia?

    The only way to avoid STDs is not to have vaginal, anal or oral sex.

    If you are sexually active, then to reduce the likelihood of contracting chlamydia:

    • Maintain a long-term mutual monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and tested negative for STDs;
    • correct (https: // www.cdc.gov/condomeffectiveness/male-condom-use.html) use latex condoms every time you have sex.

    Is there a risk that I will contract chlamydia?

    Anyone can contract chlamydia through unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex. However, sexually active youth are at greatest risk of chlamydia. This is due to young people’s behaviors and biological factors.Homosexuals, bisexuals and other men who have sex with men are also at risk of contracting chlamydia as it is transmitted during oral and anal sex.

    Talk honestly and openly about this with your doctor. Ask if you need to be tested for chlamydia or other STDs. If you are a sexually active woman under the age of 25, you should get tested for chlamydia every year. If you are over 25 and have risk factors such as a new sex partner, multiple partners, or a sex partner with an STD, you should be tested for chlamydia every year.Homosexuals, bisexuals and other men who have sex with men, as well as pregnant women, should also be tested for chlamydia. (Https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/screening-recommendations.htm)

    I’m pregnant. How will chlamydia affect my child?

    If you are pregnant and have chlamydia, you can infect your baby during childbirth. This can lead to an eye infection or pneumonia in your newborn. Having chlamydia will also increase the likelihood of preterm birth.

    If you are pregnant, you should get tested for chlamydia at your first prenatal visit to your doctor. Tests and treatments are the best ways to prevent health problems.

    How do I know if I have chlamydia?

    Most people with chlamydia have no symptoms. If you have symptoms, they may not show up for several weeks after having sex with an infected partner. Even when chlamydia does not cause any symptoms, it can damage the reproductive system.

    Women with symptoms may notice:

    • unusual vaginal discharge;
    • burning during urination.

    Symptoms in men may include:

    90 026

  • discharge from the penis;
  • burning sensation when urinating;
  • Pain and swelling of one or both testicles (although this is less common).
  • Men and women can also contract chlamydia of the rectum. This occurs through receptive anal sex, or by spreading from another infected site (such as the vagina).Although these infections often cause no symptoms, they can cause:

    • rectal pain,
    • allocation,
    • bleeding.

    You should see your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms or if your partner has an STD or STD symptoms. STD symptoms may include unusual pain, foul-smelling discharge, burning sensation when urinating, or bleeding between periods.

    How will my doctor know if I have chlamydia?

    There are laboratory tests for the diagnosis of chlamydia.Your healthcare provider may ask you to have a urine test, or may take a swab from your vagina with a cotton swab (or ask you to do so) to check for chlamydia.

    Can chlamydia be cured?

    Yes, with the right treatment, chlamydia can be cured. It is important that you take all the medicines your doctor has prescribed to heal your infection. Taking medication correctly will cure the infection and may reduce the likelihood of future complications. Do not give your chlamydia medications to anyone else.

    Re-infection with chlamydia occurs frequently. You should check again about three months after your treatment ends, even if your partner (s) also received treatment.

    I have been treated for chlamydia. When can I have sex again?

    You should not have sex until you and your partner (s) have completed your treatment. If your doctor prescribes a single dose of a medicine, you should wait seven days after taking this medicine before resuming sex.If your doctor prescribes the medication for seven days, you should wait until you have taken all doses before resuming sex.

    What happens if I do not receive treatment?

    The initial harm caused by chlamydia often goes unnoticed. However, chlamydia can lead to serious health problems.

    In women, if untreated, chlamydia can spread to the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes (the tubes that carry fertilized eggs from the ovaries to the uterus), which can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).(https://www.cdc.gov/std/pid/stdfact-pid.htm) PID is usually asymptomatic, but some women may experience abdominal and pelvic pain. Even if it doesn’t cause symptoms initially, PID can cause permanent harm to your reproductive system. PID can lead to long-term pelvic pain, inability to conceive (https://www.cdc.gov/std/infertility) and a fatal ectopic pregnancy (https://www.cdc.gov/std/pregnancy/stdfact-pregnancy .htm) (pregnancy outside the uterus).

    Men rarely have health problems due to chlamydia. Sometimes the infection spreads to the canal that travels sperm away from the testicles, causing pain and fever. In rare cases, chlamydia can prevent a man from having children.

    If untreated, chlamydia can also increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS.

    90,000 ᐈ Epididymitis ~ 【Inflammation of the epididymis】

    Treatment of epididymitis

    The disease can impair fertility and even lead to infertility, so treating epididymitis at home is dangerous.The patient is advised to use local methods to relieve swelling, over-the-counter pain relievers, or physical therapy, but only after consulting a doctor.

    During treatment, the scrotum must be immobilized and supported, therefore it is recommended to rest, preferably lie in bed, and wear tight underwear during activity.

    Antibiotic therapy is used in the treatment of epididymitis. If the pathology is caused by a sexually transmitted disease or inflammation of the urinary tract, the antibiotic is used the same as in the case of the underlying disease.

    Pain and swelling are relieved with pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs. Chronic epididymitis requires treatment for up to 8 weeks and does not always completely heal.

    Operations for epididymitis

    If a complication in the form of an abscess occurs, surgical treatment and even removal of the epididymis or the entire testicle may be required. But removal threatens only in case of severe purulent inflammation, which does not lend itself to other methods of treatment.

    In case of infection with systemic symptoms, hospitalization and surgery should be considered.Removal of the testicles can also be used for pain that does not respond to treatment.

    Procedure for epididymis removal:

    • The procedure is performed on men with epididymitis, orchitis, or both.
    • Epididymectomy is performed under local anesthesia.
    • The operation consists in removing a fragment of the epididymis, which has developed inflammation. An incision is made in the scrotum to reach the epididymis, and the bilateral vas deferens are ligated to prevent sperm from flowing out.

    Operations for epididymitis are also indicated for men who have undergone surgery on the prostate. After surgery, pain usually lasts 24 to 72 hours, but it may take several weeks for a full recovery. Most patients complain of soreness, swelling and bruising, which usually go away after 2 weeks. Ice packs are commonly used to speed up the healing process. The patient can take anti-inflammatory pills.

    Control of healing

    Acute epididymitis caused by infection is almost always completely cured if the patient takes the required antibiotic in the correct dose and for as long as the doctor recommends.If the disease is caused by a sexually transmitted infection, then partners should also receive appropriate treatment.

    Chronic illness must be treated for 6–8 weeks, and complete cure is not always achieved.

    The urologist, as a rule, appoints a follow-up visit after 14 days to assess the effectiveness of the prescribed procedures and, if necessary, adjust the treatment. If the symptoms have not completely disappeared, additional methods of diagnosing the genitourinary system will be required.

    90,000 What does an andrologist treat. Medline-Service

    Andrologist is a medical specialist who diagnoses and treats pathologies affecting the organs of the male genitourinary system. Only representatives of the stronger sex apply to this doctor.

    What does andrologist do

    What does an andrologist do? The scope of his activities is quite extensive. A narrow-profile specialist studies and prescribes treatment for pathologies associated with the urinary, urinary and reproductive system of a man.The doctor treats male problems, which are accompanied by a lack of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, infertility. Patients who have not reached the age of majority are dealt with by a pediatric urologist-andrologist. If the young person is already 18 years old, if there are complaints, it is necessary to contact an andrologist for adults.

    After a thorough examination, the doctor gives a referral for a diagnostic examination, the results of which will help to establish an accurate diagnosis. After this, a comprehensive therapy regimen is prescribed.The multidisciplinary medical clinic “Medial” employs professional andrologists with many years of experience and extensive experience. Patients who come to us receive a full range of medical services and a guarantee of quality treatment.

    Where better to go when you need a male andrologist

    To sign up for a consultation with a specialist, you must contact one of the following medical institutions:

    • Diagnostic Center. In multidisciplinary diagnostic institutions, each patient can make an appointment with a urologist-andrologist for a preventive examination, which it is advisable to undergo at least once a year, even if there are no health complaints.The doctor will give a referral for laboratory and instrumental examination, the results of which will help assess the general condition of the genitourinary system.
    • Highly specialized clinic of urology and andrology. Patients come to a specialized medical center with characteristic symptoms: pain, pathological discharge, problems with potency, frequent urination, suspicion of diseases of the reproductive system. Such narrow-profile clinics are equipped with all the necessary equipment that will help to establish an accurate diagnosis and select an effective treatment.Here the patient will receive first aid, individually select a therapy regimen for outpatient treatment.
    • Inpatient hospital. Patients who need constant medical supervision or require urgent surgical treatment are sent to the hospital. During an inpatient stay, specialists have the opportunity to constantly monitor the patient’s condition, adjust treatment, and monitor the dynamics of the condition.

    Groups of diseases in outpatient andrology

    What a male andrologist treats in outpatient andrology:

    • Inflammatory processes affecting the internal and external genital organs.This includes diseases such as urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, vesiculitis, orchitis, epididymitis, etc.
    • Diseases of an infectious nature, including sexually transmitted infections.
    • Hormonal disorders.
    • Tumors of benign etiology.
    • Reproductive dysfunction.
    • Weakening of potency, decreased libido.
    • Physiological and functional pathologies characterized by defects in the external and internal genital organs.

    Symptoms that require consultation with an andrologist

    If a man is constantly worried about one of the symptoms described below, it is better not to hesitate to visit an andrologist. It is important to remember that the sooner a disease is diagnosed and treated, the better the chances of a full recovery and recovery.

    Pain in the lower abdomen in men

    Constantly disturbing acute, dull or aching pain in the lower abdomen in a man most often signals the progression of diseases such as:

    • inflammation of the organs of the genitourinary system;
    • prostate adenoma;
    • genital infection;
    • urolithiasis;
    • tumors of benign or malignant nature;
    • inflammation of the testicle or epididymis;
    • acute retention of urine outflow, etc.

    Pain in the lower abdomen is an alarming symptom that should not be ignored and tried to stop on its own. In some diseases, self-medication can lead to dangerous, irreversible consequences. Therefore, the first thing to do is to sign up for a consultation with an urologist-andrologist and undergo a comprehensive examination, which will help determine the cause of the discomfort and prescribe adequate treatment.

    Pain, burning in the genitals in men

    The most common cause of burning and pain in the genitals in men is infection.Pathogenic microorganisms, having penetrated into the mucous membranes, contribute to the progression of inflammatory processes.

    Itching, burning and soreness can also cause diseases such as:

    • urolithiasis and nephrolithiasis;
    • cystitis, urethritis, epididymitis, orchitis, balanitis, balanoposthitis;
    • prostate adenoma;
    • genital oncology.

    Similar symptoms can be observed in patients with diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, leukemia, pyelonephritis.Therefore, you first need to find out the reasons for the deterioration of the condition and only then start therapy.

    Genital discharge in men

    Discharge from the male genital organs are physiological and pathological. In the first case, the discharge is a transparent, odorless secret that flows from the urethra at the time of sexual arousal.

    Pathological discharge is conditionally divided into 3 groups:

    • Associated with sexually transmitted diseases.With such pathologies, the discharge is mucous, abundant, sometimes with the presence of purulent inclusions. The liquid can be translucent, cloudy, yellow or yellow-green in color.
    • Associated with non-venereal inflammatory processes. In this case, the causative agents of pathology are conditionally pathogenic microflora that lives in the body of every person. The most common pathogens are: staphylococci, streptococci, Candida fungi, Escherichia coli. The pathogenic flora is activated as a result of a decrease in the body’s immune functions.This leads to the progression of inflammation, which is accompanied by discharge, pain, burning sensation, itching.
    • Not associated with inflammatory processes. Allocations of this group mainly arise against the background of injuries, tumor processes in the organs of the genitourinary system, as well as pathologies of the nervous system.

    Problems with urination

    Common causes of urinary disorders in men:

    • weak bladder;
    • inflammation or adenoma of the prostate gland;
    • benign or oncological tumor in the prostate;
    • urinary tract infections;
    • urolithiasis or nephrolithiasis.

    Problems with urination in such diseases are accompanied by concomitant pathological symptoms such as burning, pain, itching, fever, general malaise.

    Acute pains in the male genital organs

    Severe pain can be localized:

    • in the groin;
    • genitals;
    • 90,027 one or both testicles;

    • prostate area;
    • in the lower abdomen.

    Discomfort increases during and after intercourse, walking, intense physical exertion.Sometimes pain bothers in a state of complete rest. This symptom is typical for the acute stage of diseases of an inflammatory or infectious nature. Also, a sharp pain in the male genitals may indicate urolithiasis or kidney stones.

    Decreased libido in men (weakened sexual desire)

    A common cause of decreased sexual desire is hormonal disorders, accompanied by a decrease in the male hormone testosterone.

    There are other reasons that negatively affect male libido:

    • urological diseases;
    • oncology;
    • mental disorders;
    • chronic stress;
    • prostatitis;
    • prostate adenoma;
    • general somatic pathologies;
    • taking certain groups of medications, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, tranquilizers;
    • 90,027 old age.

    Changes in the nature of urination

    Violation of the nature of urination can be an important symptom indicating the progression of internal disease. Most urological pathologies are accompanied by an increase or decrease in the amount of urine, as well as a complete absence of urination. If the problem with urination lasts more than 2 days, you need to contact an urologist-andrologist and find out the cause of its occurrence.

    Frequent urination

    Frequent trips to the toilet in men can be triggered by diseases such as:

    • overactive bladder;
    • benign prostatic hypertrophy;
    • prostate cancer;
    • urinary tract infections;
    • urolithiasis or nephrolithiasis;
    • urinary tract injuries.

    Frequent urination can be disturbing when drinking a lot of liquids, alcohol, caffeinated drinks. If after 2 – 3 days the problem has not disappeared, it is better to see an andrologist and undergo a diagnostic examination.

    Weakening or lack of erection

    The main causes of erectile dysfunction are:

    • hormonal disorders;
    • infectious and inflammatory processes;
    • vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis;
    • neurological disorders;
    • physiological age-related changes.

    Do you need preparation for the appointment?

    No special manipulations are required before visiting an andrologist. Immediately before the consultation, it is advisable to take a refreshing shower, put on clean linen. If any laboratory tests or additional instrumental examination are prescribed, the specialist will tell you in detail how to properly prepare for them.

    At the reception of an andrologist

    What does an andrologist do at the first appointment? To begin with, he asks the patient about disturbing symptoms, asks leading questions, collects anamnesis and other important information.Next, an examination of the genitals and the prostate gland is carried out, which is palpated through the rectum.

    What else does the andrologist look at during the consultation:

    • genital development;
    • symmetry of the scrotum;
    • 90,027 the condition of the scrotal veins;

    • structural features of the penis;
    • condition of the skin and mucous membranes of the intimate zone.

    If necessary, the specialist gives a referral for additional diagnostic research, which includes the delivery of laboratory tests and instrumental examination of the organs of the genitourinary system.After the diagnosis becomes known, the doctor develops an individual therapy regimen that will help get rid of the pathology as soon as possible. After a successful cure, the andrologist makes preventive recommendations that will help prevent relapses.

    Diagnostics at the andrologist

    Modern laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods will help to establish an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment in the shortest possible time. To diagnose diseases of the genitourinary system, the following studies are prescribed:

    • general clinical analysis of blood, urine;
    • bacterial culture from the urethra;
    • biochemical analysis;
    • blood test for identification of prostatic antigen;
    • analysis for the level of hormones;
    • spermogram;
    • Doppler ultrasound for the study of the vessels of the genitourinary system;
    • endoscopy;
    • uroflourometry;
    • rheophalography;
    • cytoscopy;
    • magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography;
    • X-ray of the abdominal and pelvic organs.

    Treatment methods

    After determining the diagnosis, the specialist selects an individual therapy regimen. Treatment can be conservative or surgical. It all depends on the nature of the disease and the stage of its progression.

    Treatment without surgery

    The drug regimen of therapy will help eliminate the root cause of the pathology, alleviate concomitant symptoms, and normalize the functioning of the organs of the genitourinary system. Depending on the etiology of the disease, the following groups of drugs can be prescribed:

    • antibiotics;
    • antiviral;
    • antifungal;
    • antiprotozial;
    • hormonal;
    • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory;
    • pain relievers;
    • immunostimulants;
    • antipyretic;
    • antispasmodics;
    • diuretics.

    As an adjunct to conservative therapy, physiotherapeutic procedures are often prescribed, which enhance the effect of drugs and accelerate recovery. The following techniques have proven themselves well:

    • laser therapy;
    • shock wave therapy;
    • magnetic therapy;
    • manual or hardware massage;
    • ozone therapy;
    • electrophoresis.

    Surgical Techniques

    If drug therapy is powerless, the doctor decides on surgical treatment.To solve specific problems, the following operational methods are assigned:

    • lithotripsy – with ICD;
    • laparoscopy – for ICD, tumor diseases, nephroptosis, obstruction of the spermatic ducts;
    • circulation – with phimosis;
    • transurethral surgery – for prostate adenoma;
    • Orchipexia – with cryptorchidism.

    Cost of services

    The cost of treatment with an andrologist at the Medial clinic is calculated individually, taking into account the specific clinical situation.Our patients are always satisfied with the service and the effectiveness of the treatment.