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What does a multivitamin do: The request could not be satisfied


Do multivitamins make you healthier?

Some experts say it’s time to give up on daily multivitamins to preserve health, but others disagree. What should you do?

If you take a multivitamin, it’s probably because you want to do everything you can to protect your health. But there is still limited evidence that a daily cocktail of essential vitamins and minerals actually delivers what you expect. Most studies find no benefit from multivitamins in protecting the brain or heart. But some Harvard experts think there is still hope.

“There are potential benefits and there are no known risks at this time,” says Dr. Howard Sesso, an associate professor of epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health. “It is worth considering a multivitamin as part of a healthy lifestyle.”

Caught between expert opinions, what do you do? Start with asking yourself why you would consider taking a multivitamin. If you suspect your diet is nutritionally lax, focus your efforts there.

What we know about multivitamins so far

Despite all the research on vitamins and health, we have only a handful of rigorous scientific studies on the benefits of what Dr. Sesso calls a “true” multivitamin: a pill that provides essential vitamins and minerals at the relatively low levels that the body normally requires.

The Physicians’ Health Study II is the best study completed so far. It was the first and only large-scale randomized clinical trial to test a commonly taken multivitamin like the ones most people take, containing the daily requirements of 31 vitamins and minerals essential for good health.

A large group of male physicians took either a multivitamin or a placebo pill for more than a decade. The results have been mixed, with modest reductions in cancer and cataracts, but no protective effect against cardiovascular disease or declining mental function. Is it safe?

Multivitamin advocates point to the lack of any strong proof that taking a multivitamin for many years is dangerous. “While I agree that the likelihood of harm is small, the likelihood of a clear health benefit is also very small—and also we have no clear proof yet of such benefit,” says Dr. Guallar, a scientist at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Dr. Sesso speaks for the optimists, who urge a wait-and-see approach. “Multivitamin supplementation is low risk and low cost, and it helps to fill potential gaps in the diet that people might have,” Dr. Sesso says. “These are compelling reasons to consider taking a multivitamin for cancer and eye disease that should be discussed with your physician.”

For now, you can take certain steps:

  • Ask your doctor if you really need to take a multivitamin. Could you have a vitamin deficiency?
  • Assess your diet. Do you eat as healthy as you could? Is anything lacking?
  • Do you want expert nutritional advice? See a dietician. Also, Medicare beneficiaries get an annual “wellness” visit with their primary care providers.
  • Do not take high doses of specific vitamins, especially A and E. These may actually be harmful.

What does the evidence suggest?

Physicians’ Health Study II

Researchers looked at the effect of long-term multivitamin use in healthy men on various aspects of health. Here is what they found:

  • Cancer: Men were 8% less likely to be diagnosed with cancer. The protective effect was greatest in men with a history of cancer.
  • Vision: Lower risk of developing cataracts.
  • Cardiovascular disease: No protection against heart attacks, strokes, or death from cardiovascular disease.
  • Brain: No protection against declining memory or mental skills.
  • Caveat: Because of PHSII’s design, the findings on memory loss and vision are somewhat more likely to be chance findings than the cancer and cardiovascular disease results.

Image: Yakobchuk/Getty Images

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Multivitamins’ ‘Benefits’ All in Your Head: Study

By Dennis Thompson HealthDay Reporter

TUESDAY, Nov. 10, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Multivitamins really are magic pills for your health, a new study contends — but just not the way you might think.

The health ‘benefits’ of multivitamins might just all be a trick of the mind, researchers say.

U.S. adults who regularly take multivitamins self-reported 30% better overall health than people who don’t use the supplements, results of a federally funded survey show.

However, a comprehensive medical history — assessing dozens of physical and mental illnesses — revealed zero actual health differences between people who did or did not take multivitamins.

“Users of multivitamins and nonusers don’t differ in any of these clinically measurable health outcomes, but they report at least feeling about 30% better in their overall health,” said lead researcher Manish Paranjpe, a student at Harvard Medical School in Boston.

Reacting to the findings, Andrea Wong, senior vice president of scientific and regulatory affairs at the Council for Responsible Nutrition, a supplement industry trade group, cited problems with the study’s design. The results “in no way discount the multivitamins’ many benefits in combating insufficient nutrient levels and promoting optimum health, nor does it provide basis for consumers to reconsider their decision to take a multivitamin or to take one in the future,” Wong said.


About one-third of Americans routinely take multivitamins in the belief that they contribute to good health, the researchers said in background notes.

But prior studies have found little evidence to support any benefit from multivitamins for an array of health problems ranging from heart disease to cancer, Paranjpe said.

To see whether they could establish any benefit from the supplements, the researchers analyzed data on more than 21,000 people collected as part of the 2012 U.S. National Health Interview Survey.

Participants were asked about their use of complementary medical practices, which included taking vitamin supplements.

Nearly 5,000 people said they regularly took multivitamins, while more than 16,000 said they didn’t. Regular multivitamin users were significantly older and tended to have higher household incomes; they were also more likely to be women, college graduates, married and have health insurance.


Participants were also asked about myriad health problems that might affect them. The researchers assessed them, based on their responses to survey questions about:

  • Their subjective assessment of their own health.
  • Their need for help with routine daily activities, which serve as a measure of disability.
  • Their history of 10 long-term health problems, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma and arthritis.
  • Their bouts with 19 common ailments over the past year, including infections, memory loss, neurological dysfunction and musculoskeletal problems.
  • Their degree of psychological distress, which could indicate problems with depression or anxiety.

Multivitamin users tended to judge themselves more healthy than nonusers, but the nitty-gritty medical details revealed that they really weren’t, the study authors noted.

The strong belief that multivitamins work might trick people into feeling healthier than they actually are, Paranjpe and his colleagues said.

It also might be that folks who take multivitamins are “in general, or just naturally, more positive people,” Paranjpe suggested.

Wong noted that the study was based on survey data that did not ask which specific multivitamins people were taking or how often or how long they’d been taking them. As such, it can’t prove a cause-and-effect relationship and leaves many questions unanswered.

The primary role of a multivitamin is to fill nutritional gaps and make sure people get their daily allowance of underconsumed nutrients like vitamins A, C, D, E and K, calcium, magnesium, dietary fiber, choline and potassium, Wong said.

“The conclusions of the study are a disservice to the public and should not influence consumers’ decision to take a multivitamin or other dietary supplement product,” Wong said.


But research has shown that the best way to obtain the nutrients and minerals you need is through food, said Melissa Majumdar, bariatric coordinator at Emory University Hospital Midtown in Atlanta, and a spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

“As dietitians, most of us feel we can get a variety of our nutrients and vitamins from our foods, and that’s what most of us would preach to our patients,” Majumdar said.


“We, as Americans, like something tangible. We like something we feel like we can do, an action item that’s easy,” Majumdar continued. “But there are certain things we just can’t get from a pill, and we know that vitamins and minerals don’t work independently. They work synergistically. When vitamins and minerals have been studied independent of a food, they don’t have the same benefit.”

Paranjpe said these results shouldn’t be interpreted to say that all supplements are a waste of money.

“There are certainly legitimate uses of vitamin supplements,” he said. “For example, during pregnancy folic acid is commonly prescribed to prevent neural tube defects in the child.


But, Paranjpe added, for the general population who have no specific condition that would require a multivitamin or specific vitamin supplement, “we really have no evidence to suggest that taking a daily multivitamin helps in any way.”

The real concern is that people are wasting money on multivitamins that would better benefit their health if spent elsewhere, Paranjpe said.

“We believe that money could be better spent on things that we do know have a positive health benefit, such as eating a healthy diet,” exercising or socializing, he said.

The findings were published online Nov. 9 in the journal BMJ Open.

More information

Consumer Reports has more on whether vitamin supplements really work.

SOURCES: Manish Paranjpe, student, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Andrea Wong, PhD, senior vice president, Council for Responsible Nutrition, Washington, D.C.; Melissa Majumdar, MS, RD, LDN, bariatric coordinator, Emory University Hospital Midtown, Atlanta; BMJ Open, Nov. 9, 2020, online

Benefits of Taking Multivitamin Supplements Everyday

Every day, we all strive for balance. We try to eat right, exercise more, and sleep better.  We try to navigate through our days and weeks with as little stress as possible, taking everything in stride. But sometimes, even when we are doing our best, we need a boost; we need to increase our body’s wellness to deal with the stress, poor sleep and dietary deficiencies that come from a busy life. That’s where supplements come in. In order to fill our nutrient gaps, most of us have looked to the once-a-day multivitamin for help. So, here’s a quick guide to your multivitamin questions.

What are the Benefits of Taking Multivitamins?

It is clear that a multivitamin supplement has the ability to increase our wellness. Calcium and Vitamin D are proven to aid in bone health, Vitamin D also supports a healthy colon and may prevent colon cancer and many chronic conditions, Folic Acid is proven to reduce birth defects and has been linked to a lower risk of heart disease, colon cancer and other cancers including breast cancer, B Vitamins are proven to increase energy and aid in neurological functions, Magnesium is proven to relax the body, antioxidants are proven to prevent certain cancers, and both Vitamin C and Zinc are proven to increase immune function. These are just a few of the benefits a multivitamin has to offer.

According to a report from Oregon State University, “About 75% of the US population do not consume the recommended intake of fruit, and more than 80% do not consume the recommended intake of vegetables.”1 The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans suggests that nutrients that are often under-consumed included vitamin D, calcium, potassium, fiber, and iron. In addition, research shows that adults with high intakes of added sugar in the diet had lower intakes of many micronutrients, especially vitamin A, C, E, and the mineral magnesium.

Are Multivitamins All We Need?

Although multivitamins are a great supplement to a healthy diet, everybody has unique health needs. Health should never be approached from a one-size-fits-all mindset. For this reason, a multivitamin may not fully address health concerns like poor digestion, inability to fall asleep, or exercise recovery. There are many supplements that can improve specific health needs. For example, Omega-3 fatty acids can support the health of those with high triglycerides, while garlic can help to reduce high blood pressure.

Taking multiple vitamins personalized for your needs is better than taking one multivitamin, but finding a specific supplement and vitamin routine can be difficult and time consuming.  In addition, there are many supplements that negatively interact with prescription medications. For example, taking an  antidepressant with 5-HTP may result in too much serotonin in the body, leading to a dangerous condition called Serotonin Syndrome. You should also be cautious of taking too many vitamins and supplements. Persona’s algorithm is built to create a supplement program that is unique to your body’s need, while ensuring your routine is safe.

What are the Best Types of Multivitamins and Supplements?

If you are struggling with stress, lack of sleep, loss of energy or the inability to find balance in your life, start on the road to better health by incorporating high-quality multivitamins and supplements into your daily routine.

Look for a multivitamin that is:

  • Natural
  • Allergen free
  • Highly bioavailable (Easier for your body to absorb)
  • Purity tested
  • Made without fillers, artificial colors, or additives.

All supplement companies are going to compete to encourage you to purchase their product, but great supplement companies are going to explain why their product is superior. A good multivitamin or supplement will have scientific evidence to support its formulation, and the company should always be willing to share sources.

Multivitamins vs. Personalized Vitamins

Multivitamins have been the go-to supplement to fill nutrient gaps for the last few decades, and they do provide a strong health boost for those lacking in certain nutrients. However, as more research has been done, nutritionists have realized that a one-size-fits-all supplement may not be the best choice for everyone. No two bodies are exactly the same and so many factors contribute to your nutrient needs. So, it’s safe to assume that a single multivitamin won’t provide the same results for everyone. Ideally, you would work with a nutritionist or doctor to assess your nutrition, health history and lifestyle to provide specific recommendations for your needs.

The Verdict on Vitamins

Taking the right vitamins and supplements could help fill nutrient gaps and greatly benefit your health. Creating a personalized supplement routine is the perfect way to make sure you’re taking what’s best for you.

The Persona Vitamin Assessment is a quick and easy online questionnaire that was written by a team of doctors and nutritionists that analyzes your health, lifestyle and current prescription medications. Our algorithm combines 10 years of work by our doctors and nutritionists with 5 trillion combinations of supplements to provide you with supplement recommendations for your specific needs.

Reach out with any questions to take advantage of our knowledge and use it to your health’s benefit!

Foundational Multivitamin Has Got You Covered

Our Ultra Multi also contains proprietary blends of plant extracts from wild blueberry, strawberry, and spinach, as well as carotenoids from vegetables and algae to give you further antioxidant protection against damage caused by free radicals. Natural L-methylfolate provides the most readily absorbable form of supplemental Folate available.  Add to all that the protective effects of Pterostilbene – an activated form of resveratrol which aids in cardiovascular health, blood sugar control, cognitive function, and longevity – and you’ve got the most comprehensive multi-vitamin-mineral supplement available.

Our Ultra Multi is vegetarian, gluten-free, and contains no yeast, soy protein, milk/dairy, corn, sodium, start, artificial coloring, preservatives, or flavoring.


Micronutrient Inadequacies in the US Population: an Overview. Oregon State University. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/micronutrient-inadequacies/overview. Published November 2017. Accessed May 7, 2019


This information is not intended as a substitute for the advice provided by your physician or other healthcare professional or any information contained on or in any product label or packaging. Do not use the information from this article for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease, or prescribing medication or other treatment. Always speak with your physician or other healthcare professional before taking any medication or nutritional, herbal or homeopathic supplement, or using any treatment for a health problem. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, contact your health care provider promptly. Do not disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking professional advice because of something you have read in this article. 

5 signs you’ve chosen the right multivitamin | Nutrition

1. USP verification

The U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention – an independent, nonprofit organization – determines whether dietary supplements are pure and contain the ingredients they list on their labels. The organization uses a particular seal, which is pictured at the top of this page. Don’t be fooled by labels that simply use the letters “USP. Check your multivitamin online to ensure it is USP verified. Additional resources for checking your supplement include, Consumerlab, which evaluates dietary supplements for purity and contamination, and NSF International, which certifies supplement content.

2. Appropriate daily values of ingredients

Choose a multivitamin with 100%of the daily value of most of its ingredients. Some nutrients, such as calcium, can’t be included in a multivitamin at 100% – if it was, the multivitamin would be too large to swallow. Magnesium and potassium levels are kept low to avoid drug-nutrient interactions, so we need to get these nutrients primarily through our diet (see food sources below.). Keep in mind, too, that exceeding 100% of the daily value of certain nutrients is not helpful. Some nutrients – like vitamins A, D, E, and K – can build up in the body and become toxic.

3. The right balance for your age and sex

Nutrient needs vary depending on gender and age. For example, premenopausal women need more iron, while older adults need more calcium, vitamin D, and B6. A dietitian or your family doctor can help you determine how much of specific nutrients you need for your age and gender.

4. Essential micronutrients

Your body needs micronutrients to keep your systems humming. Besides well-known nutrients like vitamin C, calcium, iron, magnesium, and potassium, a good multivitamin will include:

  • Thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin
  • B6, B12, and folate
  • Calcium, magnesium, selenium, and zinc
  • Vitamins A (including beta carotene), E, and K
  • Vitamin D2 or D3

You can skip multivitamins that are made with additional micronutrients for which there are no recommended daily values (examples: boron, nickel and tin).

Should You Take a Multivitamin? – Health Essentials from Cleveland Clinic

More than half of Americans take multivitamins. But can a daily pill really make up for a poor diet?

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

“So many of my patients tell me they know their diet is not great but that I should not worry because ‘at least’ they take a multivitamin,” says dietitian Anna Taylor, RD. “But multivitamins aren’t a surefire way to get what you need.”

Here’s what you need to know about vitamins and supplements.

Is it good to take a multivitamin every day?

Experts are at odds over the effectiveness of multivitamins. While some think they supply missing nutrients, others say they’re nothing more than an expensive crutch.

Internist Raul Seballos, MD, notes that two large studies have finally shed some light on the subject:

  • The Physicians’ Health Study II: Tracked multivitamin use in 14,500 male physicians, aged 50 and above, over an 11-year period.
  • The Iowa Women’s Health study: Tracked multivitamin and supplement use in 38,772 women over an 18-year period. The average age at the study’s start was 61.

Dr. Seballos says these studies found that:

  • Multivitamins won’t prevent heart attacks or strokes. If you’re a healthy adult, taking a multivitamin won’t lower your risk of heart attack, stroke or death from cardiovascular disease. In fact, in 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support any benefit from vitamin and mineral supplementation for the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease.
  • For men, multivitamins won’t prevent common cancers. Taking a multivitamin won’t lower your risks for the most common male cancers: prostate, colon and lung cancer. And taking a multivitamin will not lower your risk of dying from cancer.
  • For men aged 65 years or older, multivitamins do not provide cognitive benefits. Nearly 6,000 male physicians over 65 years were evaluated for cognitive function in the Physician Health Study II. Memory loss and cognitive performance were similar in men who took a multivitamin and those who did not.
  • For women, multivitamins won’t help you live longer. The women’s study found that those who took multivitamins actually had a higher risk of early death. 
  • Taking a multivitamin won’t replace healthy habits. “Taking a multivitamin is no substitute for healthy lifestyle choices, such as exercising and eating a balanced diet,” says Dr. Seballos.

Multivitamins vs. whole foods

When it comes to the essential nutrients our bodies need to thrive, it’s hard to beat what nature provides. That’s because most of the vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals (which are plant compounds that serve as immunity-boosters, antioxidants, anti-cancer agents and anti-inflammatories) that you get from whole foods are superior to the same nutrients delivered in a pill, notes Taylor.

Studies offer proof that a multivitamin will not give you the same health benefits as food:

  • Eat your broccoli. Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables contain components that provide wonderful health benefits, such as helping prevent certain cancers and decreasing inflammation. A 2011 study in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry found that those key components were poorly absorbed and lacked value in pill form.
  • Careful with calcium pills. One study found that calcium supplements can increase the risk of a heart attack. Many doctors recommend that people with a high risk of heart disease get their calcium through diet rather than supplements.
  • Beware of the multivitamin danger. Another study in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that certain dietary supplements, including multivitamins, folic acid, iron and copper, appeared to be associated with an increased risk of death in older women.

But not all vitamins come with health risks — especially if you use them after consulting your doctor first. Some essential vitamins and nutrients are best absorbed in pill form. These include:

  • Folic acid. For pregnant women and women of childbearing years, this synthetic version of folate, which helps prevent birth defects, is best absorbed in a supplement.
  • Vitamin D. Taylor says that vitamin D may be most beneficial in pill form because it contains the type of vitamin D that we absorb best — the kind we get through the sun, not food.

Who should take multivitamins?

Anyone who is malnourished or has a nutritional deficiency should talk to their doctor about taking a multivitamin, says Dr. Seballos.

For everyone else, “Ask yourself, ‘Am I doing everything possible to optimize my overall health before taking a multivitamin and/or supplement?’” he says. “Smart lifestyle choices are your best guarantee of future health.”

How to get the most from your food

To get the nutrients you need from food, Taylor recommends:

  • Don’t overcook your greens. Lightly steaming your broccoli and spinach is the best way to draw nutrients out of the plant cell while not eliminating them (which may occur when boiling).
  • Consider food combinations to enhance nutrient absorption. Iron, for example, is best absorbed along with vitamin C. So eat C-rich fruits or veggies, such as mandarin oranges, strawberries or red pepper sticks, when eating iron-rich food, such as beef.
  • Keep fruits and vegetables in sight. A study in the Environment and Behavior journal found that college students ate more fruits and vegetables from clear glass bowls than opaque bowls. Bottom line: If you can see it on your counter, you’re more likely to eat it.
  • Make meal prep a habit. Spend some weekend time cutting your favorite vegetables (think red pepper sticks or carrots) and putting them in individual sandwich bags. They make an easy snack to grab during the week on your way to work or school.
  • Focus on whole foods. Processed foods causes nutrients to break down, so choose plenty of whole foods like fresh and frozen vegetables, whole grains, beans and nuts. Limit boxed mixes, canned products, frozen entrees and other convenience foods, which are more processed and typically contain fewer vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals.

5 things you can do to prevent illness (no multivitamin needed)

Research shows that these five steps can reduce your risk of illness — especially cardiovascular disease and cancer:

  1. Eat a diet low in added sugars, processed foods and saturated and trans fats.
  2. Eat lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein and low-fat dairy.
  3. Maintain a body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 to 24.9.
  4. Remain tobacco-free.
  5. Exercise most days of the week.

Dr. Seballos also recommends telling your doctor about all the vitamins and supplements you take. And ask about important screenings you may need based on your age, sex and family history.

What does a multivitamin do for your body?
– Stride Nutrition


If you walk into any health store or supermarket, you’ll find an entire aisle dedicated to supplements. You’ll find everything from herbs in capsules to megadoses of particular vitamins.

Often, the best way to ensure you are getting enough of all of the dozens of vitamins and minerals is taking a multivitamin. But, are they really necessary?

Are you considering taking a multivitamin? Are you unsure whether it will actually promote good health? Here we will give you a rundown on multivitamins, what they are, and whether there are any benefits to taking them.

We will also highlight some of the vitamins and minerals you should keep an eye for in any multivitamin formulation.  


What is a Multivitamin?

Multivitamins contain several of the vitamins and minerals that are essential for health. In some cases, they may also contain other beneficial compounds like chlorophyll, which has antioxidant properties, or rutin, which is a flavonoid that has anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties (1, 2).

Multivitamins contain anywhere between 5% and several thousand % Daily Value of different vitamins and minerals. They can be found in the form of liquid, pill, or gel capsules.

Since people have different nutrient needs depending on things like their biological makeup, age, and health conditions, there are often multivitamins that are designed for different populations. They are not meant to cure illnesses or diseases, but they may help to fill any gaps in minerals and vitamins that aren’t being filled by your diet to help prevent any nutrient deficiencies that could lead to mild to serious health complications.


Key Vitamins and Minerals to Look Out For

Here are some vitamins and minerals that you should look out for in your multivitamin.

Vitamin E (100%)

Vitamin E is an antioxidant vitamin that helps protect the cells from damaging effects of free radicals (3). It is also important for a healthy immune system, gene expression, and communication between cells.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Vitamin B1 is essential for the growth, development, and function of all of the cells in our body, and it is also important for a healthy metabolism (4). Vitamin B1 is not stored for very long in the liver, so it is important to have a continuous supply through supplements or through what we eat.


Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 is an essential component of enzymes that metabolize fats, medicine, and others (5, 6). Like Vitamin B1, it is only stored in small quantities and for short periods of time in the liver, so we need to make sure to get enough vitamin B1 continuously through our diet.

Vitamin B6 (pyroxidine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine)

Vitamin B6 is involved in over 100 enzyme reactions, including those that are related to metabolizing protein and those that form hemoglobin (7, 8).


Vitamin B12 (cobalamins)

Vitamin B12 is necessary for the formation of red blood cells, healthy brain function, and for synthesizing DNA (9). Deficiencies can result in severe, and possibly irreversible, neuropathy (10). Since vitamin B12 is found almost exclusively in animal sources, vegans may be vulnerable to vitamin B12 deficiency if they are not taking a vitamin supplement or fortified foods (11).


Folic Acid (vitamin B9)

Folic acid, known as folate when consumed in food, is essential to building DNA and RNA and to protein metabolism (12). Folate deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia, and in deficiency in pregnant women could result in neural tube defects in their babies (13).


Vitamin D

Vitamin D is important for calcium absorption and bone mineralization (14). For this reason, it is important that older people consume enough vitamin D to help prevent osteoporosis (ibid). It is also important for cell growth and healthy immune system, brain, and muscular function (15).


Multivitamins: An “Insurance Policy” For Your Health

Ultimately, it is really difficult to know whether you are deficient in vitamins and minerals. The only sure way to determine deficiencies is if you visit your doctor often. Notable symptoms of deficiencies arise only when you have been deficient for quite some time. In some cases, the negative effects are irreversible (16).

Remember that multivitamins aren’t meant to turn you into superman or superwoman. Multivitamins help maintain your health and ensure that your body is getting the vitamins and minerals it needs to be working as it should. They help prevent problems before they become significant. You will likely only feel a difference in your health if you were, in fact, deficient in one of the vitamins or minerals.

Who Could Benefit from Taking a Multivitamin?

While multivitamins are good “insurance policies” for the general population, there are some groups of people who could particularly benefit from taking a multivitamin designed for people like them. These populations include:

  • Women who are planning to or might become pregnant and their male partners
  • Women who are lactating
  • Women who have gone through menopause
  • Teenagers
  • Elderly people
  • People with a weakened immune system
  • People with a diagnosed vitamin or mineral deficiency
  • People who don’t eat a balanced diet
  • Vegans and vegetarians
  • Professional athletes

Note that a multivitamin is not a replacement for a balanced diet. However, if you are or someone you are caring for doesn’t eat enough of certain food groups, multivitamins could help them fill any nutrient needs while they transition to eating a in a more complete manner.  



8 Reasons to Take a Multivitamin Every Day

Why take a multivitamin?

Yes, we can get a lot of nutrients from food, especially fruits and vegetables, but the fact is we don’t.

When we don’t eat enough fruits and vegetables, we miss essential nutrients, which can lower our risk for heart disease, stroke, cancer, and other health conditions. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), adults should consume 1.5-2 cups of fruit and 2-3 cups of vegetables daily. Yet, in a recent CDC study, they found that 76% of adults don’t eat enough fruit and 87% of adults don’t eat enough veggies.

So how to get your nutrients? A multivitamin. A multivitamin is like an insurance policy, a daily guarantee to ensure your body gets the vitamins and minerals it needs. It can make up for the shortfalls that happen when you don’t get what you need through food.

Read: Why A Multivitamin And Why Personalized

8 Reasons To Take A Multivitamin

  1. Healthy aging: As we age, our nutritional needs increase. At the same time, it gets harder for the body to absorb nutrients. Medications can further deplete our body of nutrients. A multivitamin can offset these deficiencies.
  2. Good for your heart: Studies show that taking a high-quality multivitamin may reduce cardiovascular disease. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in both men and women in the U.S. Vitamins B1, B2, B6, K1, Niacin (B3), CoQ10 and magnesium, all play a role in cardiovascular health.
  3. Reduces cancer risk: Vitamin use has been associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. A recent study of 14,000 men aged 50 and older found that daily multivitamin supplementation “significantly reduced the risk of total cancer.”
  4. Boosts immunity: Vitamin C is a strong antioxidant known for strengthening the immune system. Vitamins D and E boost immunity, too. These vitamins can also help reduce allergy symptoms.
  5. Supports eye health: Vitamins A, C, E, Niacin (B3), and selenium support eye health. Lutein and Zeaxanthin also protect the eyes from harmful light waves. Studies have shown multivitamins containing a combination of vitamins, lutein, and zeaxanthin can reduce the risk of macular degeneration. Shop: Focus Vision Pod
  6. Water-soluble vitamins: Excess fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are stored in the body. Water-soluble vitamins (B and  C) are not. Excess water-soluble vitamins simply travel through the body. This means it’s necessary to take these essential vitamins on a daily basis.
  7.  Healthy hair and skin: New research says look for Vitamins B3 (Niacin), biotin, and Vitamin C for fuller hair. For            healthy skin, look for Vitamins A, C, E, and CoQ10.
  8. Feel better: Thanks in large part to the Vitamin B family, taking a multivitamin is associated with a boost in energy levels, feelings of well being, as well as a decrease in stress and anxiety. This alone, makes it worth staying compliant        with a  multivitamin routine.

You’re unique. Your vitamins should be, too. Consider a personalized approach to your multivitamins: Personalized Liquid Vitamin Pods

Further reading: Why You Need A Personalized Vitamin In Your Life

90,000 what is it, what functions they perform, why are they needed

We often feel tired, unwell, especially during the “transition period” when the seasons change. The body lacks vitamins and other nutrients and trace elements. What is necessary for excellent health and proper functioning of the body?

Vitamins and nutrients are essential ingredients for the proper functioning of the body. A person consists of many tiny bricks – cells.These cells have a specific structure, differ depending on their location and purpose.

Together, they form tissues, eg muscle, nervous. Tissues form organs and organ systems. Interacting with each other, with the help of complex biochemical reactions, they form the most complex structure – the human body. And so, just for the correct and long-term functioning of this complex biological structure, the supply of vitamins and nutrients from the outside is necessary.

What are vitamins and nutrients

Vitamins – substances of organic nature, coming from outside or synthesized in the body, are involved in the construction of enzymes and hormones, which in turn play the role of regulators of various biochemical processes.

The useful substances include microelements, essential amino acids and other vital substances that enter the body every day with food.

Trace elements, like vitamins, are the basis of enzymes, specialized cells, hormones. Essential amino acids are vital building blocks. Contained in animal proteins.

What should we eat and what should we drink in order to always be healthy

It is important not only to include in the diet food rich in vitamins, but also its balanced nature.Let’s briefly consider the main groups of vitamins and the foods they contain.

Vitamin A – important for vision, normal skin and hair. The richest in them are liver and fish oil.

Vitamins of group B – participate in energy metabolism. Contained in cereals, cereals, meat, yeast.

Vitamin C – together with vitamins A and E, prevents the formation of free radicals. It is important for connective tissue and iron absorption.Fresh vegetables and fruits are the richest in vitamin C.

Vitamin D – can be produced in the human body independently, from cholesterol in the skin, under the influence of ultraviolet radiation.

Regulates the exchange of phosphorus and calcium. Egg yolk, cream, butter are rich in this vitamin.

Vitamin E – Reduces the risk of thrombosis, important for good skin condition and muscle development. Contained in vegetable oils, spinach, beets, cabbage.

Vitamin K – is able to form in small amounts in the intestines, with the help of microorganisms.An important component of the coagulation system, it protects the liver and prostate gland from cancer. The richest in them are fresh green vegetables, cabbage, eggs.

Vitamin P – antioxidant, also protects blood vessels from damage. The main source is brightly colored vegetables and fruits, wine, green tea.

How to treat multivitamin complexes, and who needs them

There is a huge variety of drugs that can satisfy the need for vitamins and nutrients per day with just one tablet.Multivitamin complexes are indicated for children, pregnant women, long-term ill people. Also, for the prevention of vitamin deficiency, in the autumn-spring period for everyone else.

Thus, vitamins and nutrients can be obtained both from food and with the help of special balanced multivitamin complexes.

Before buying and using a vitamin complex, you should consult your doctor. Depression and fatigue, which are regarded as vitamin deficiency, can hide completely different problems.

artificial vs natural. What to choose?

Vitamins: artificial versus natural. What to choose?

Vitamins are a group of low molecular weight organic compounds of a fairly simple structure and various chemical nature.

By their chemical nature, vitamins are a composite group of organic substances, which are combined on the basis of their absolute necessity as an integral part of food.

Vitamins are found in food in very small quantities and are micronutrients.

Microelements, essential amino acids and essential fats are not classified as vitamins.

Due to the lack of a precise definition, various substances were classified as vitamins at different times.

Currently, 13 vitamins are known

For more than a century, scientists around the world have been trying to solve the problem of preserving macro- and microelements in processed food.

In fact, efforts to address this very problem in the early 1900s led to the development of today’s popular dietary supplements, multivitamins and mineral supplements.

But before that, naturally, it was necessary to discover the substances that we now call vitamins.

At the beginning of the 20th century, only macronutrients – proteins, fats and carbohydrates – were identified in food.

Poor sanitary conditions and lack of adequate hygiene skills were considered to be the main causes of various diseases.

That is why processing methods were used for selected food products, including treatment with sterilizing solutions to get rid of bacteria and mold, as well as grain polishing and peeling (peeling) – removing the outer shells of the grain.Thus, they sought to extend the shelf life of certain types of food products, but this did not take into account the negative consequences that were simply not known at that time.

For example, polishing and shelling of grain destroyed vitamin B and led to an increase in the incidence of serious diseases such as pellagra (a disease associated with niacin deficiency) and beriberi (a disease associated with vitamin B1 / thiamine deficiency).

Sterilization destroyed the vitamin C in milk, leading to an increased incidence of scurvy among children in wealthy families.

It should be noted that such problems arose in groups of fairly wealthy people who had access to what they thought was “better, better quality and safer” food.

Discovery of vitamins

Of course, such changes in the morbidity structure could not fail to attract the attention of scientists.

As a result of numerous studies, not only the already known three basic elements – fats, proteins and carbohydrates – but also other substances began to be found in food.Such substances, which are essential for human health, have come to be called “excipients”.

So, in 1905, the Englishman William Fletcher, investigating the causes of beriberi disease, made the discovery that the consumption of brown rice prevents the development of this disease.

W. Fletcher suggested that the process of polishing the rice removed special nutrients in the rice husk that could prevent beriberi.

In 1906, the English biochemist Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins also discovered that certain nutritional factors (proteins, carbohydrates, fats and minerals) are essential for human growth and development.His work was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1929 with Christian Eikmann.

In 1912, in a scientific article, Casimir Funk first used the term “vitamin” invented by him, combining two words: “vita” – life and “amine” – a compound found in thiamines, which he was able to extract from rice husks.

Together, Frederick Gowland Hopkins and Casimir Funk formulated the hypothesis of vital insufficiency, according to which a lack of vitamins can cause various diseases.

First vitamins

The discovery of vitamins gave rise to a new direction in the pharmaceutical industry – the production of vitamin products, which usually contained vitamin B from yeast cultures (at that time, individual B vitamins had not yet been identified), iron concentrates and other ingredients.

Vitamon tablets containing vitamins A, B and C, iron, calcium, and Nux vomica, a homeopathic remedy for heartburn, were extremely popular.The following information was provided on the label of this product: “This drug contains vitamins along with other ingredients that will help improve appetite, digestion, cleanse the skin of acne and boils, prevent nervous and physical exhaustion, cleanse the body, increase energy and help in weight gain during malnutrition “.

The medical community was extremely skeptical about such statements, believing that such information about the properties of multivitamins is misleading the consumer.

Despite criticism, in 1922 an article appeared in a medical journal advertising the Metagen multivitamin, produced by the leading pharmaceutical company, Parke, Davis & Co. (now part of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer, USA).

Metagen contains vitamins A, B and C and, according to a review by the American Family Physician magazine, had a positive effect on the health of the entire family, including infants and people with serious illnesses.

Around the same time, the American Medical Association approved the vitamin preparation Oscodal, created by K.Funkom. The man who discovered vitamins invented the process of obtaining vitamins A and D from fish oil.

In the 1930s, new vitamins were discovered and the development of new multivitamin products began.

Initially, vitamin ingredients were extracted from food, but already in the late 1930s, methods for their synthesis in the laboratory were developed, which led to cost savings and the creation of conditions for wider use of vitamins.

In 1941, the National Conference on Defense Nutrition was organized in the United States, resulting in the first Government Recommended Trace Element (RDA) list, including 6 vitamins and 2 minerals.
The variety of multivitamins in our time

Over time, more and more micronutrients were included in the composition of multivitamins, strict rules were developed regulating the quality and safety of such products.

Today we have a huge variety of multivitamins: from natural ingredients and synthetic, from plant and animal raw materials, non-GMO, soy and gluten and others.

Multivitamins are now divided not only by age groups, starting from infancy, but there are also multivitamins for different stages of life (pregnancy, menopause, etc.)), for various pathological conditions and diseases.

Forms of production of multivitamins are also varied: tablets, capsules, powders, liquids, syrups, etc.

We have no more problems?

Despite more than a century of research and innovation, the world’s population continues to suffer from an unbalanced diet and a lack of macro- and micronutrients.

Although at this time the deficiency may not be severe enough to manifest itself in the form of serious diseases such as beriberi or pellagra, it still affects our health.

Unfortunately, most people simply do not get enough of the nutrients they need, even if they believe they are eating a healthy diet.

In 2016, a study was conducted in which more than 10,000 people participated, demonstrating that people taking multivitamins have significantly less vitamin and mineral deficiencies than people who adhere to a regular diet without the use of dietary supplements.




Vitamin content,%

People taking multivitamins and minerals for at least 25 days a month

People not taking supplements

9017 Vitamin D



Vitamin E



Vitamin K

Vitamin A



Vitamin C



Magnesium 9000 3






Natural vitamins vs

When we talk about natural and synthetic vitamins – what do we mean?

Most often, natural vitamins mean vitamins obtained by us with food, mainly from fresh fruits and vegetables.

Synthetic vitamins are vitamins that are produced in production.

However, the process of synthesis of vitamins occurs in both cases: in the first – in nature, in the second – at the plant.

It should be borne in mind that for the production of vitamins in factories most often (in about 95%) of cases, raw materials of plant and animal origin are used. The production of all vitamins “from scratch” is simply not economically viable.

Thus, all vitamins are synthetic, since they are obtained in the process of synthesis and most of the vitamins are natural, obtained from natural raw materials.

It should also be remembered that long-term selection in agriculture was carried out in terms of yield and disease resistance, and not usefulness, the content of vitamins and minerals.

Terms and methods of storing vegetables and fruits, methods of their processing and processing also affect the amount of vitamins they contain.

In this case, the chemical structure of “natural” and “synthetic” vitamins are identical.

Of course, vitamins and minerals from unprocessed fruits and vegetables are the most useful, including in terms of assimilation, since micronutrients in this case are in the most active forms.

However, it should not be forgotten that all vitamins and minerals have the recommended daily intake. For example, for vitamin D, this level is 200 IU. This amount of vitamin D is contained in 1 capsule of a standard food supplement or in about 600 g of raw fish.

There are also a number of conditions in which the intake of industrially produced vitamins is more preferable, for example, for:

  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
  • malabsorption
  • severe infectious pathologies
  • pregnancy and breastfeeding
  • vegetarianism
  • heavy physical labor
  • lack of B vitamins and iron.

So what to choose, vitamins from food or ready-made complexes? You decide.

In any case, before using multivitamin and mineral dietary supplements, you should consult your doctor.

Vitamins | Tervisliku toitumise informatsioon

Vitamins are essential micronutrients. They do not provide energy, but are vital for the normal functioning of the body and maintaining health.

Vitamins are essential micronutrients.They do not provide energy, but are vital for the normal functioning of the body and maintaining health. In order to get various vitamins, you should eat foods from all food groups: whole grains, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, fish-eggs-poultry-meat products, added edible fats (for example, nuts, seeds, almonds) … If you eat very fatty and sugary foods, of course, you will get a lot of energy, but often such foods are poor sources of vitamins.

Vitamins are necessary: ​​
  • because they are involved in metabolic processes, regulate nerves, play a role in the formation of bone and muscle tissue,
  • to protect against infectious and infectious diseases,
  • because they protect the body from the harmful effects of free radicals , which is why many vitamins are called antioxidants.

Vitamins are needed in very small quantities, from micrograms to milligrams, but they must be consumed constantly, since the body does not form a long-term supply of them.

A person is able to synthesize only single vitamins (B 3 , B 5 , vitamin K, retinol from ß-carotene, also vitamin D under the influence of solar radiation), and then only in the presence of initial compounds and favorable external conditions. Most vitamins are found in foods of both plant and animal origin, however, the digestible forms of vitamins D and B 12 are found only in animal products.

Vitamins are divided into two groups:

In the case of fat-soluble vitamins, one letter denotes a whole group of compounds with similar structure and action.The danger of excessive consumption of fat-soluble vitamins can arise when using fortified foods or dietary supplements and, due to their accumulation by the body, is formed more easily than for water-soluble vitamins. An overdose of water-soluble vitamins obtained from food is impossible, since the excess is naturally excreted (with urine) from the body.

Tasks of B vitamins:
  • Important in the basic metabolism to supply the body with energy.
  • Indispensable for the normal functioning of the nervous system.
  • Needed to maintain muscle tone in the digestive tract.
  • Essential for healthy skin, hair, eyes, mouth and liver.

The primary symptoms of vitamin deficiency are fatigue and mood swings, as well as skin lesions. B vitamins are more effective when taken together, but excessive use of one of the vitamins can cause malabsorption of the others. One of the reasons for the lack of B vitamins is the increased consumption of processed food, from which a significant portion of the B vitamins has been removed.Another reason is the increased consumption of sugar, as a result of which microflora not suitable for B vitamins is formed in the intestines.

The need for vitamins mainly depends on:
  • from gender
  • from age
  • from health status
  • from physical activity

(see Table 2)

For example, by the time of pregnancy and during the growth of the fetus, very it is important to eat enough folate foods to reduce the chances of having a baby with developmental disabilities.During pregnancy and lactation, the need for most vitamins increases. The need for vitamin D in children and the elderly is greater than that of adults. Stressful or physically active lifestyles increase the need for B vitamins, especially B 1 .

Vitamin deficiency can occur for many reasons:
  • Causes of dietary habits (nutritional deficiencies during fasting; unbalanced monotonous food; improper processing of foods, for example, excessive heating; malabsorption caused, for example, by alcoholism)
  • physiological Causes (increased need for certain vitamins, for example, in young children, pregnant and lactating women or the elderly)
  • Certain medical conditions and specific medications
The absorption of vitamins is hindered by:
  • Excessive coffee consumption
  • Alcohol consumption
  • smoking
  • some medicines
  • also some birth control pills
The amount of vitamins in food also depends on how it is prepared.To reduce the loss of vitamins:
  • Do not cook for too long
  • Put vegetables in boiling water
  • Do not pour vegetable broth, for example, cook sauces or soups on it
  • Avoid reheating food
Table 1
Names, designation and main sources of essential vitamins


9018 9

174 B 2

90 168

Vitamin designation Vitamin name Best sources *
Fat-soluble vitamins 9018


fish, beef and pork liver, butter, eggs, cheeses

sources of β-carotene **: mainly orange and yellow, but also some green vegetables, fruits and berries (rose hips, carrots, kale, spinach, pumpkin , broccoli, lettuce, papaya, persimmon), sweet potato

D calciferol fish, eggs (yolk), liver, fortified milk and dairy products
E tocopherol oils (e.g. sunflower, canola, nuts), seeds, almonds, bread, avocado, paprika, liver
K phylloquinone vegetable products (especially green vegetables)
Water-soluble vitamins

thiamine seeds, nuts, wheat sprouts, yeast, pork, oat flakes, whole grain pasta, bread, country milk, sea buckthorn, liver, fish fillets, whole grain ferris, salmon, legumes, 9016 Kama flour, eggs

riboflavin liver, yeast, almonds, eggs, curly hair empty, cheese, spinach, bread, broccoli, dried apricots and prunes, herring, avocado, pork, legumes, turkey, nuts, seeds
PP, B 3 niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide

nuts, seeds, liver, poultry, yeast, pork and beef, Kama flour, eggs, whole grain rice, fish, cottage cheese, cottage cheese
B 5 pantothenic acid liver, yeast, nuts, fish, legumes, mushrooms, eggs, poultry
B 6 pyridoxine liver, nuts, poultry, fish, yeast, avocado, broccoli, paprika, banana, pork and beef, bread, seeds, egg yolk, legumes
H, B 7 biotin liver, nuts, almonds, yeast, eggs, kale, Kama flour, oatmeal, mushrooms
B 9 folates and folic acid yeast, liver, legumes, broccoli, kale, spinach, nuts, seeds, beets, kohlrabi, green parts of plants, eggs, bread, paprika, rutabaga, flour “ Kama ”, cauliflower, radish, strawberry
B 12 cobalamin liver, beef, poultry, eggs, fish, cheese, pork, milk, cottage cheese, yogurt
C ascorbic acid Vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, rose hips, sea buckthorn, paprika, black currant, cloudberries, strawberries, citrus fruits, red currants, cabbage, broccoli, leeks, rutabagas, gooseberries, raspberries, tomatoes, colored cabbage

* the amount contained in 100 grams of the product covers at least 10% of the daily requirement of an adult woman 90 120 ** β-carotene contained in plant products, if necessary substances (for example, fats) are also converted in the body into vitamin A

Table 2
Recommended daily amounts of essential vitamins according to age


90 169 1.1

9016 1.8


9 0169 3.0

89 9030

a Retinol equivalent: 1 retinol equivalent (RE) = 1 mg retinol = 12 mg (beta-carotene) 90 120 b Alpha-tocopherol equivalent: 1 alpha-tocopherol equivalent (RR) = 1 mg alpha-tocopherol
c Niacin equivalent: 1 niacin equivalent (NE) = 1 mg niacin = 60 mg tryptophan 90 120 d Women of childbearing age are advised to consume 400 mcg of folate per day

Maximum safe single amounts of vitamins in food and dietary supplements in total, in day
Age in years Vitamin A, RE a Vitamin D, μg Vitamin E, α-TE b Vitamin B 1 , mg Vitamin B 2 , mg Niacin, NE c Vitamin B 6 , mg Folate Vitamin B 12 , μg Vitamin C, mg
6-11 months 300 10 0.4, 0 5 5 0.4 50 0.5 30
12-23 months 300 10 4 0.5 0.6 7 0.5 60 0.6 35
2–5 350 10 5 0.6 0.7 9 0 , 7 80 0.8 40
6-9 400 10 6 0.9 1.1 12 1.0 130 1.3 45
10-13 700 10 7 1.0 1.2 14 270 3.0 70
14-17 700 10 8 1.2 1.4 16 1.5 330 3 , 0 100
18-30 700 10 8 1.3 15 1.5 400 3.0 100
31-60 700 10 8 1.1 1.3 15 1.5 300 d 3.0 100
61–74 700 20 8 1.0 1 , 2 14 1.5 300 3.0 100
> 75 700 20 8 1.0 1.2 13 1.5 300 3.0 100
Pregnant 800 10 10 1.6 1.6 500 3.0 110
Feeding mothers 1100 10 11 1.7 1.7 20 1.8 500 3.0 110
9016 MEN 9018

10-13 700 10 8 1.2 1.4 16 1.8 270 3.0 70
14-17 900 10 10 1.5 1.7 20 1.8 330 3.0 100
18-30 900 10 10 1.5 1.7 20 1.8 300 3.0 100
31-60 900 10 10 1.7 19 1.8 300 100
61–74 900 20 10 1.3 1.5 17 1.8 300 3.0 100
> 75 900 20 10 1.2 1.3 15 1.8 300 3.0 100
911 79 VITAMIN
Vitamin A a (μg) 3000 b
Vitamin D 100
Vitamin E

9016 90

Niacin c
Nicotinic acid 10 d
Nicotinamide 900
9016 9016 9016 9016 9016 9016 9016 9016

Folic acid c 1000
Vitamin C 1000

a In the case of retinol and / or retinol palmitate 90 120 b The use of pregnant women in excess of 3000 mcg defects is associated with a day fetal development.Postmenopausal women who have an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures should limit their intake to 1500 mcg per day 90 120 90 171 c 90 172 Only in dietary supplements and fortified foods 90 120 90 171 d Not applicable to pregnant and lactating women

Why multivitamins are dangerous

https: / /www.znak.com/2021-03-02/chem_opasny_vitaminy


With the arrival of spring, advertisements for multivitamin complexes come down on us. Manufacturers declare: multivitamins will help to cope with the blues, not to get sick with ARVI and generally “strengthen the immune system.”During a pandemic, this is especially true, because people are looking for any way to support the body. But are multivitamins really good for you? Do I need to be tested before taking the pills? And in what cases does everyone’s favorite vitamin D break children’s sleep, and vitamin A leads to lung cancer? Let’s figure it out together with the experts.

  • Multivitamins can cause side effects and lead to overdose.
  • There is no consensus among doctors about whether to drink multivitamin complexes for prevention.
  • Evidence-based medicine: strengthening immunity with vitamins is a myth.

“Talk about multivitamins in our country has an unfair presupposition of knowingly beneficial, or at least harmless. “Drink some vitamins” sounds like a good friendly parting word, while “drink antidepressants” or “ping steroids” sounds like an evil mockery. And meanwhile, both, and the other, and the third – the essence of drugs that have their indications, contraindications and side effects, ”warns pediatrician Sergei Butriy .


One of the main dangers of vitamins is possible overdose. Sergey Butriy gave examples:

  1. Vitamin D is the most studied vitamin, its benefits are the most proven, it is taken from the first days of life. It is also the most toxic vitamin: with prolonged overdose, it can cause irreversible kidney damage and other life-threatening complications.
  2. Multivitamins contain iron , which is highly toxic in overdose.
  3. An overdose of vitamin A can cause nausea, vision problems, hair loss, dysfunction of several organs.
  4. Excessive intake of zinc can reduce immunity, lead to sores in the throat and mouth.

Usually, hypervitaminosis occurs as a result of an overdose of fat-soluble vitamins – A, D, E and K.

However, nutritionist at the UMMC-Health clinic Oksana Vydrya notes that multivitamins are preventive vitamin complexes.There will be no overdose from them if you take them according to the instructions.

It is important to read the instructions and dosages carefully at all times. For example, on Western sites, including iHerb, there is a key concept – Serving size (one-time portion). For some drugs, for example, vitamin D, these are 8 drops (they contain 400 IU of the drug – the prophylactic daily dose recommended there for children), and for others 1 drop (the same 400 IU).

“If a mother buys an American drug and wants to give the Russian norm for children 1000 IU per day, then she will have to give 20 drops a day.When this drug runs out, she will go to a Russian pharmacy, buy a Russian vitamin D drug, and out of habit can continue to give 20 drops a day. But the drugs in Russian pharmacies all contain 500 IU per drop, that is, they are given in a dose of 2 drops per day. 20 drops is an excess of 10 times. If given this way for 2-3 months in a row, then vitamin D poisoning is guaranteed, ”says Sergei Butriy.

Side effects

Frequent side effects from taking multivitamin complexes:

  • diarrhea or constipation,
  • nausea and vomiting.

Less commonly, they can cause or worsen headaches, nosebleeds, or insomnia.

“Mothers of babies notice this best of all: many note the baby’s anxiety and sleep disturbance when taking vitamin D. Many even have to stop taking vitamin D. Many even have to stop taking it and come to me with anxiety – how then can rickets be prevented? In this case, I recommend changing the manufacturer and taking at least lower doses, but not giving up completely, ”said Sergei Butriy.

Nutritionist Oksana Vydrya drew attention to the fact that additional substances are used in the production of multivitamin complexes.It is they, and not the vitamins themselves, that can cause an allergic reaction. Therefore, before you start taking vitamins, you need to study the composition of the complex, pay attention to excipients, flavors, flavors and dyes.

Many multivitamin complexes can be contraindicated in pregnant women, people with chronic diseases, taking drug therapy.


In pregnant women, an excess of vitamin D can cause fetal pathology and bone disease in newborns.

Vitamin A should not be taken by smoking men – it can cause lung cancer, emphasized allergist-immunologist Olesya Ivanova .

To buy or not to buy

Today, doctors disagree on whether to drink multivitamin complexes for prevention.

  • According to immunologist Olesya Ivanova, it is better not to drink multivitamins, since it is not clear which vitamin is lacking in a certain person and which vitamin is in excess. For the immune system to function adequately, it really does need a normal level of iron and vitamin D.
  • Evidence-based medicine popularizer Sergei Butriy advises not to buy multivitamins without a doctor’s prescription at all.

“In practice, I rarely have to resort to multivitamins. From the group of vitamins and nutritional supplements, I prescribe vitamin D in a prophylactic dose of 1000 IU per day to all children under 3-7 years old (it is possible longer, but there is still little evidence of benefit), I often prescribe iron preparations, sometimes I prescribe zinc preparations (for prolonged diarrhea, for example ), occasionally vitamin A, calcium and folic acid. “

Multivitamins Butriy prescribes to children with extremely selective eating behavior (these are usually children with autism or other developmental disabilities who can eat 4-7 foods for years, refusing to even try anything else) due to the gross asymmetry of the vitamins and micro / macronutrients received food. “And even then I am afraid of an overdose of dietary supplements a little more than their deficit in nutrition,” the pediatrician said.

  • Nutritionist Oksana Vydrya believes that our body is adapted to assimilate a mixture of vitamins, which means that you can safely buy multivitamins.”Multivitamin complexes ensure the full value of the diet, prevent vitamin deficiencies,” she says.

Vitamins and immunity

Another holivar question: do vitamins really help to strengthen the immune system. On this, the doctors did not agree to the end either.

“This is a myth,” Sergei Butriy is sure. – Immunity cannot be strengthened in any way. When it is suppressed due to a serious illness, it can be supported by some very aggressive measures, for example, in case of true immunodeficiency.You can suppress it when it behaves inappropriately (for example, in autoimmune diseases). But “to strengthen” the immune system in the sense in which parents usually imagine – they say that a generally healthy child often suffers from harmless snot in the garden, and parents want to make it sick less often – there is absolutely nothing.

According to Butria, there is no scientifically proven way to do this, except for the basic ones: a healthy diet (which is enough to get all the necessary vitamins), adequate sleep, adequate physical activity, low stress levels, good hygiene and vaccination skills.

“No, this, of course, is not a myth,” says Oksana Vydrya at the same time. “The life of a modern person is associated with chronic overwork, stress, food on the go (often of poor quality), diets, and this all leads to a lack of vitamins (hypovitaminosis), one of the manifestations of which may be a decrease in immunity.”


You can buy those vitamins (complexes or monocomponent preparations) prescribed by the doctor.

Before taking vitamins, you need to pass tests to determine the deficiency.

Evidence-based medicine doctors say that all the vitamins we need come from healthy foods.

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Why vitamin supplements are not helpful and can be deadly

  • Alex Riley
  • BBC Future

Photo by, Thinkstock

We swallow antioxidants like a magic elixir that can prolong our life.However, at best, they are simply ineffective, and at worst, they can shorten our earthly path. BBC Future columnist explains why.

Linus Pauling made a serious mistake when he decided to change a few things in his traditional breakfast.

In 1964, at the age of 65, he began adding vitamin C to orange juice, which he drank in the morning.

It was like adding sugar to Coca-Cola, but he sincerely and even too zealously believed that it was useful.

Before that, his breakfasts were hardly unusual. The only thing that deserves special mention is that he had breakfast early in the morning before heading to work at California Institute of Technology, even on weekends.

He was tireless and his work was extremely fruitful.

At the age of 30, for example, he proposed a third fundamental law of the interaction of atoms in molecules, based on the principles of chemistry and quantum mechanics.

Twenty years later, his work on the structure of proteins (the building blocks of all life) helped Francis Crick and James Watson in 1953 decipher the structure of DNA (which encodes this material).

Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry the following year for his research on the nature of chemical bonds.

Nick Lane, a biochemist at University College London, wrote about him in his 2001 book Oxygen: “Pauling … was the colossus of 20th century science whose work laid the foundations of modern chemistry.”

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

Linus Pauling was one of the most influential scientists, but his belief in the power of antioxidants may put our lives in danger

But then the “age of vitamin C” began. In his 1970 bestselling book, How to Live Longer and Feel Better, Pauling stated that supplementation with this vitamin can help fight colds.

He was taking 18,000 mg (18 g) of this substance per day, which, by the way, is 50 times higher than the recommended daily value.

In the second edition of this book, flu was added to the list of diseases that vitamin C effectively fights against.

In the 1980s, when HIV began to spread in the United States, Pauling stated that vitamin C could cure the virus as well.

In 1992, Time magazine wrote about his ideas, on the cover of which the headline “The Real Power of Vitamins” flaunted. They were touted as a cure for cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and even cancer.

“It is even more tempting to speculate that vitamins can slow the aging process,” the article said.

Sales of multivitamins and other nutritional supplements skyrocketed, as did Pauling’s fame.

However, his scientific reputation, on the contrary, suffered. Scientific research over the next few years has shown little or no evidence for the benefits of vitamin C and many other dietary supplements.

In fact, every spoonful of vitamin Pauling added to his orange juice was harming rather than helping his body.

Science not only refuted his judgments, but also found them quite dangerous.

Photo by Getty Images


Antioxidants were believed to slow aging, but there is not enough evidence of the real benefits of dietary supplements

Pauling’s theories were based on the fact that vitamin C belongs to antioxidants – a special category of natural compounds, to which also belongs to vitamin E, beta-carotene and folic acid.

They neutralize highly active molecules known as free radicals and are therefore considered beneficial.

In 1954, Rebecca Gershman, then at the University of Rochester, New York, first identified the dangers associated with these molecules.

In 1956, her hypothesis was developed by Denham Harman of the Medical Physics Laboratory at the University of California at Berkeley, who stated that free radicals are the cause of cell destruction, various diseases and, ultimately, aging.

Throughout the 20th century, scientists continued to research this topic, and soon Harman’s ideas were universally recognized.

This is how it works. The process begins with mitochondria, the microscopic engines inside our cells.

Inside their membranes, nutrients and oxygen are converted into water, carbon dioxide and energy.

This is how cellular respiration occurs – a mechanism that serves as a source of energy for all complex life forms.

“Leaking Water Mills”

But it’s not that simple. In addition to nutrients and oxygen, this process requires a constant flow of negatively charged particles – electrons.

The flow of electrons passes through four proteins found in mitochondrial membranes, which can be compared to water mills. So he participates in the production of the final product – energy.

This reaction is at the heart of all our activities, but it is not perfect.

Electrons can “escape” from three cell mills and react with nearby oxygen molecules.

The result is free radicals – very active molecules with a free electron.

To restore stability, free radicals wreak havoc on the systems around them by taking electrons from vital molecules such as DNA and proteins to maintain their own charge.

Harman and many others have argued that, despite its small scale, free radical formation gradually damages the entire body, causing mutations that lead to aging and related diseases such as cancer.

In short, oxygen is the source of life, but it can also be a factor in aging, disease and finally death.

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Photo caption,

A clinical trial is the only way to test how a drug works, and in the case of antioxidants, shocking results have been obtained

Once free radicals were linked to aging and disease, they were viewed as enemies who need to be expelled from our body.

In 1972, for example, Harman wrote: “Reducing the amount [of free radicals] in the body is expected to reduce the rate of biodegradation, thereby giving a person additional years of healthy life.We hope that [this theory] will lead to fruitful experiments aimed at increasing the duration of a healthy human life. “

He talked about antioxidants – molecules that take electrons from free radicals and reduce the level of threat emanating from them.

A experiments on which he hoped to have been carefully conducted and repeated many times over several decades, but the results were not very convincing.

For example, in the 1970s and 80s, various antioxidant supplements were given to mice, the most common laboratory animals – with feed or by injection.

Some of them have even been genetically modified so that the genes responsible for certain antioxidants are more active than in normal laboratory mice.

Scientists have used different methods, but they got very similar results: the excess of antioxidants did not slow down aging and did not prevent disease.

“No one has been able to reliably prove that they (antioxidants – Ed.) Can prolong life or improve health,” says Antonio Henriquez of the National Center for Research on Cardiovascular Diseases in Madrid, Spain.“The mice didn’t react much to the supplements.”

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“Unlike our smaller brothers, scientists cannot place members of our society in laboratories in order to track their health throughout their lives, and also exclude all external factors that may affect the final result.

The only thing they can do is organize a long term clinical trial.

Its principle is very simple. First you need to find a group of people of about the same age, living in the same area and leading a similar lifestyle. Then you need to divide them into two subgroups.

The former receives the supplement to be tested, while the latter receives a pill or placebo.

To ensure the purity of the experiment, no one should know what exactly the participants are getting before the study is completed – not even those who dispense the pills.

This technique, known as double-blind testing, is considered the benchmark for pharmaceutical research.

Scientists have conducted many similar experiments since the 1970s, trying to figure out how antioxidant supplements affect our health and life expectancy. The results were disappointing.

For example, in 1994, a study was organized in Finland with the participation of 29,133 smokers aged 50 to 60 years.

In the beta-carotene supplement group, the incidence of lung cancer increased by 16%.

Similar results were obtained from an American study involving postmenopausal women.

They took folic acid (a type of B vitamin) every day for 10 years, and thereafter, their risk of breast cancer increased by 20% compared to those who did not take the supplement.

It only got worse from there. A study of more than 1,000 heavy smokers, published in 1996, had to be discontinued about two years ahead of schedule.

After just four years of beta-carotene and vitamin A supplementation, lung cancer cases have increased by 28% and deaths by 17%.

And these are not just numbers. The supplement group had 20 more deaths each year than the placebo group.

This means that 80 more people died in the four years of the study.

Its authors noted: “The study results provide strong reasons for not taking beta-carotene supplements, as well as beta-carotene in combination with vitamin A.”

Fatal Ideas

Of course, these noteworthy studies do not give us the full picture. Some trials did prove the benefits of antioxidants, especially in cases where participants were not able to eat properly.

However, the findings of a 2012 scientific review based on 27 clinical trials of the efficacy of various antioxidants do not favor the latter.

In only seven studies, supplementation was found to have some degree of health benefit, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and pancreatic cancer.

Ten studies showed no benefit of antioxidants – the results were as if all patients were receiving a placebo (although in reality this was certainly not the case).

The results of the remaining 10 studies indicated that many patients were in significantly worse condition than before taking antioxidants. In addition, among them, the incidence of lung cancer and breast cancer has increased.

“The suggestion that antioxidant supplementation is a magic cure is completely unfounded,” says Henriquez.

Linus Pauling had no idea that his own ideas could be deadly.

In 1994, before the publication of the results of numerous large-scale clinical studies, he died of prostate cancer.

Vitamin C was not a panacea at all, although Pauling insisted on it until his last breath. But is its increased consumption associated with additional risks?

It is unlikely that we will ever know for sure. However, given that many trials link antioxidant intake to cancer, this is not entirely out of the question.

For example, a 2007 National Cancer Institute study published in the United States found that men who took a multivitamin had twice the risk of dying from prostate cancer than those who did not.

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Taking extra doses of vitamin C will not even protect against the common cold

A in 2011, a similar study of 35,533 healthy men found that supplementation with vitamin E and selenium increased the risk of cancer prostate by 17%.

Since Harman proposed his famous theory of free radicals and aging, scientists have gradually abandoned the clear separation of antioxidants and free radicals (oxidants). It is now considered obsolete.

Antioxidant is just a name that does not fully reflect the nature of a particular substance.

Take, for example, Pauling’s beloved vitamin C. When properly dosed, it neutralizes highly active free radicals by taking a free electron from them.

He becomes a “molecular martyr” by taking the blow and protecting the cells around him.

However, by accepting an electron, it itself becomes a free radical, capable of damaging cell membranes, proteins and DNA.

As food chemist William Porter wrote in 1993, “[Vitamin C] is the real two-faced Janus, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, an oxymoron of antioxidants.”

Fortunately, under normal circumstances, the reductase enzyme is able to restore vitamin C to its antioxidant appearance.

But what if there is so much vitamin C that the enzyme simply cannot cope with it?

Although such a simplification of complex biochemical processes is not able to reflect the essence of the problem, the results of the above clinical studies indicate what this can lead to.

Divide and Conquer

Antioxidants have a dark side. In addition, even their bright side does not always work for our good – in light of the growing evidence that free radicals are also important for our health.

We now know that free radicals often function as molecular transmitters that send signals from one part of the cell to another. So they regulate the processes of growth, division and cell death.

Free radicals play a very important role at every stage of a cell’s existence. Without them, cells would continue to grow and divide uncontrollably – a process called cancer.

Without free radicals, we would also be more likely to contract infections. Under conditions of stress caused by the penetration of unwanted bacteria or viruses into the human body, free radicals begin to be produced more actively, acting as a silent signal for the immune system.

As a result, the cells at the forefront of our immune defenses – macrophages and lymphocytes – begin to divide and fight the problem. If it’s a bacterium, they’ll swallow it, like Pacman the blue ghost in the popular computer game.

The bacteria will be trapped but still alive. To fix this, free radicals are back in action.

Inside the immune cell, they are used for exactly what they got a bad reputation for: killing and destroying.The uninvited guest is torn to pieces.

From the beginning to the end, a healthy immune response depends on the presence of free radicals in the body.

Geneticists João Pedro Magalhães and George Church wrote in 2006: “Fire is dangerous, but humans have learned to use it for their own good. Likewise, cells seem to have been able to develop mechanisms to control and use [free radicals].”

In other words, it is not worth getting rid of free radicals with antioxidants.

“In this case, we will be defenseless against some infections”, – emphasizes Enriquez.

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Photo Caption,

There is little doubt that a balanced diet is necessary to maintain good health, but most of us do not need supplements to meet nutritional needs

Fortunately, the human body has systems that responsible for maintaining the stability of biochemical processes.

In the case of antioxidants, the excess is removed from the bloodstream into the urine.”They are simply excreted from the body naturally,” says Cleva Villanueva of the National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico City.

“The human body has an incredible ability to balance everything, so the effects [of supplementation] will be mild anyway, and we should be grateful for that,” says Lane.

We began to adapt to the risks associated with oxygen even when the first microorganisms began to breathe this toxic gas, and a simple pill cannot change what was created over billions of years of evolution.

No one will deny that vitamin C is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle, as are all antioxidants.

But, except when prescribed by a doctor, a healthy diet is still the best way to prolong your life.

“Taking antioxidants is justified only when there is a real deficiency of a particular substance in the body,” Villanueva says.

“A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is generally very healthy,” says Lane. “Not always, but most of the time it is.”

While the benefits of this diet are often attributed to antioxidants, a healthy balance of prooxidants and other substances, whose significance is not yet known, play a role.

For decades, scientists have tried to understand the complex biochemistry of free radicals and antioxidants, attracted hundreds of thousands of volunteers to their research and spent millions on clinical trials, but modern science can not yet offer us anything better than the advice we have known from school: eat by five vegetables or fruits every day.

90,000 Doctors told whether it is necessary to take vitamins during the COVID-19 pandemic

British doctors have found that a lack of vitamin D in patients infected with coronavirus infection can cause a more severe course of the disease. According to experts, the vitamin is very important for immunity and can protect the body from the penetration of the virus. We find out whether it is necessary to take vitamin complexes during the COVID-19 pandemic and how to do it correctly.

Does the sun help?

Photo: depositphotos / ParStud

A group of British doctors investigated the statistics of new cases of coronavirus infection and deaths from it.Doctors concluded that the severity of the disease is related to the latitude in which the infected person lives: cases of severe COVID-19 are more often recorded in regions with seasonal vitamin D deficiency, formed by ultraviolet rays.

According to Dr. Garrett Davis, vitamin D is very important for immunity and can protect the body from the penetration of coronavirus. The researchers later confirmed their theory in laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, scientists note that for a full study of the issue, it is necessary to conduct research throughout the year.

Earlier, scientists from Boston University in the United States also reported that vitamin D can reduce complications from coronavirus infection and, in some cases, even prevent death. At the same time, a lack of vitamin increases the likelihood of the most severe forms of coronavirus by 15%. Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Evgeny Shlyakhto, in turn, noted in his report that vitamin D deficiency is observed in 71.3% of those infected with coronavirus, of which 36.3% of patients have a severe shortage.

Vitamin D plays a key role in ensuring absorption of calcium and phosphorus from food in the small intestine.Some of the vitamin D requirement is met by its formation in the skin when exposed to direct sunlight. The intensity of the process depends on the season, time and length of the day, the presence of clouds and shade, the content of melanin in the skin, the use of sunscreens. In food, vitamin D is mainly found in fatty fish and to a lesser extent in butter, cheese and other fatty dairy products.

Not a myth of British scientists?

Photo: portal of the mayor and the government of Moscow

Physician-therapist Lyudmila Lapa told Moscow 24 that, according to her observations, 70% of patients in our country are deficient in certain vitamins.

“For example, vitamin D is the same hormone, the lack of which causes unwell, up to headaches, nausea, vomiting, and so on. All these problems are related to the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, and it is 80% of the immune system”, – explained the specialist.

A person who does not have the proper amount of the protection hormone vitamin D, which is responsible for the thyroid gland, cannot cope with metabolic processes in the body. Naturally, such people get sick longer and more severely.

Lyudmila Lapa

General practitioner

At the same time, the doctor advised not to take vitamins on their own, but first take an analysis and contact a therapist or endocrinologist with the results.

“It is better to check to be sure that there is a deficit. You do not need to take anything uncontrollably. Fortunately, we have a lot of tests to control what is happening to our body,” the specialist concluded.

Associate Professor of the Department of Endocrinology of the Higher Medical School, endocrinologist Denis Kuznetsov also believes that vitamins help to survive the disease easier and without complications.

“But there is a main problem with vitamins – it is difficult to measure them and understand whether there is a deficiency. One of the most striking and important from the point of view of medicine is vitamin D, which can be measured, there are special tests, and it is very easy to compensate for it”, – explained the interlocutor of Moscow 24.

It is recommended to take an analysis for vitamin D once or twice a year, and if it is below a certain threshold, then take the dose prescribed in the clinical guidelines. It is not recommended to take vitamins on your own, they should be prescribed by a doctor.

Denis Kuznetsov


He added that vitamins are necessary, in addition to protecting against viral infections, to protect against cancer, diseases of the cardiovascular system and many others.

Do vitamins for beauty work?

Photo: depositphotos / avemario

Associate Professor of the Department of Endocrinology of the Higher Medical School, endocrinologist Denis Kuznetsov told Moscow 24 that the digestibility of multivitamins depends on the specific composition and on the manufacturer’s compliance with the manufacturing technology.

“There are many different opinions and studies on how vitamins are absorbed. Most of the vitamins that we eat in pill form are excreted in the urine, but some remain in the body, so this is not a reason not to take them. But if we are talking about basic vitamins such as A, C, E, if you regularly eat fruits along with the required amount of fat, then vitamins and mineral complexes are not needed, “he explained.

When they say that this vitamin is for beauty, then most often it is a marketing ploy, because in the rarest cases there is some reasonable clinical data behind it.But at the same time, if a woman takes multivitamins so that she has better skin or better nails and hair, they will most likely help.

Denis Kuznetsov


The endocrinologist said that vitamins are better absorbed if they are injected into the body, but there are more stringent requirements for such drugs, and they are usually prescribed by a doctor. According to him, when taking pills, substances first enter the liver, and not into the blood. There they are filtered out, and then “scatter through the body.”In the case of an injection, the substances bypass the barrier and end up immediately in the bloodstream, the specialist noted.

“But for a person, injections are a painful thing and require special training for the person who makes them. For example, if a person has diabetes, then it is better for him to inject vitamins through an injection, this practice exists. In particular, to protect nerve tissues.” , – said Kuznetsov.

The doctor added that some people “inject themselves with all kinds of vitamins” as self-medication, but this can lead to bad consequences.

Read also

How to choose the right vitamin complex

Immunity is the innate ability of an organism developed during evolution to withstand hostile external influences, and above all, viruses and bacteria. Without immunity, a person could not exist. Immunity is provided by various components. First of all, these are lymphocytes and leukocytes, as well as phagocytes that absorb foreign microorganisms. In addition, human skin and mucous membranes play a significant role in immunity, producing substances that kill microbes.

Immunity is not always constant – due to various reasons, it can weaken, and then the body will become an easy target for various diseases.

Signs of a low level of immunity:

  • people are often sick and slowly recover
  • fatigue, constant weakness
  • long-term wound healing
  • poor condition of the skin and mucous membranes, skin rashes
  • various pains of unknown nature

Weak immunity affects almost any system of the body and can even lead to death, if you do not purposefully engage in its strengthening.

Lack of immunity can be due to various reasons:

  • chronic stress
  • hereditary factors
  • lack of vitamins and minerals
  • old age
  • diseases causing a lack of immunity, e.g. AIDS
  • many other serious chronic diseases

There are also situations in which the human body needs to mobilize all the body’s defenses, including immunity.In such cases, immunity should be much higher than in normal situations.

People who need to improve immunity:

  • pregnant and lactating mothers
  • suffering from various infectious diseases
  • athletes in training
  • people working in difficult conditions

If the treatment of immunity associated with diseases is a difficult task and requires the intervention of qualified doctors, then each of us can improve immunity associated with a lack of vitamins.

It is worth noting that if you start taking vitamins to maintain immunity, then this will not always give the desired effect, especially if the lack of immunity is associated with other reasons. The presence of essential vitamins in the body does not directly affect the immune system. However, indirectly, as a means to keep the body in optimal shape and improve metabolism, the use of vitamins is very beneficial.

How to determine the lack of vitamins and minerals?

As you know, in a cold season, a person begins the so-called blues.Fatigue, lack of sleep, melancholy are all signs of a lack of vitamins. Each of them has a certain area of ​​influence in the human body. Deficiency of vitamins can lead to poor health, lethargy, inability to concentrate on something important, apathy, bad mood.

The reasons for the lack of vitamins can be different:

  • Recent illnesses
  • improper and unbalanced diet
  • lack of sun
  • pregnancy and lactation period
  • Disorders in the work of the gastrointestinal tract, which impede the effective absorption of vitamins from food

Finding vitamin deficiencies is not always easy.These can be various disorders in the work of the gastrointestinal tract, nervous and cardiovascular systems, deterioration of the condition of hair, nails and skin. They are not always associated with a lack of vitamins. Therefore, if you suspect that the cause of all the problems with your body is precisely a lack of vitamins, then it is best to clarify this diagnosis with your doctor. Indeed, under the mask of vitamin deficiency, more dangerous diseases can also be hidden.

Most common vitamin deficiency symptoms:

  • Hair loss.You should start taking vitamins PP, B2, B6
  • Rash or too dry skin. With such symptoms, vitamins A, P, C should be taken
  • Bleeding gums. Replenishment of the lack of vitamins P and C

Particular attention should be paid to nutrition in case of vitamin deficiency. Namely, start monitoring what you eat.

Where vitamins are found

Vitamins and minerals necessary for metabolism and immunity are found primarily in food.These are not only vegetables and fruits, but also meat, fish and dairy products. However, the greatest amount of vitamins is found in fresh fruits and vegetables. That is why the signs of vitamin deficiency are most often found in winter and spring, when there are not enough plant products in food. Of course, it is not necessary to immediately become a vegetarian, but eating more vegetables, fruits and greens is necessary.

It is recommended to preserve and freeze plant foods so that they can be consumed later and receive the necessary vitamins, macro- and microelements.Although it should be remembered that natural products contain more nutrients than those that have been heat treated.

But in any case, it is impossible to get the whole complex of vitamins from food, adhering to even a carefully balanced and proper diet. Therefore, it is recommended to take pharmacy vitamin complexes. To decide whether to take vitamins to strengthen the immune system for adults, you should see your doctor. Only he can determine the violation of immunity as a result of vitamin deficiency and help to choose a complex that is suitable for a particular person, taking into account his characteristics.

If there is no time or opportunity to consult a doctor, then it is important to know which group of vitamins is responsible for certain functions of the body and which vitamins can increase the immunity of adults.

Vitamin A

Another name for the vitamin is retinol. It strengthens hair, promotes good skin condition, rapid healing of wounds and scratches, nail and hair growth. Vitamin A is especially beneficial for the eyes and improves vision. In addition, it slows down aging and is also essential during puberty.It is found in foods such as carrots, broccoli, peppers, pumpkin, potatoes, melon, peach, apricot, avocado. Also, a lot of vitamin A is found in beef, beef liver, fish, butter, and egg yolk. In the human body, vitamin A is dissolved with the help of fats.

B vitamins

This group includes a whole complex of vitamins. These vitamins, taken in sufficient quantities, will strengthen the nervous system and help avoid stress. Many B vitamins are found in potatoes, cauliflower, nuts, tomatoes, rye bread, buckwheat, oatmeal, cottage cheese, milk.If a person has stress, melancholy, blues, poor sleep, dizziness, then he should take vitamins of group B.

Vitamin C

The main function of vitamin C is to maintain the immune system of the human body. Therefore, it is used in the prevention of colds. Contained in kiwi, viburnum, parsley, currants.

Vitamin D

Essential for bone growth and strength. It is found in large amounts in liver, fish, meat, eggs, cottage cheese, cheese.Also, vitamin D [1] is produced in the skin when a person is in the sun. In this regard, residents of regions where there are few sunny days a year are advised to take it additionally.

Vitamin E

This is a source of youth, helps to slow down the aging of the human body. It has a particularly beneficial effect on a woman’s reproductive capacity.

Vitamin complexes

To avoid chronic vitamin deficiency, it is recommended to take special vitamin complexes.Of course, they are not a substitute for natural foods – the best sources of vitamins. But sometimes the body, for example during illness, requires an increased dose of vitamins. And in this case, vitamin complexes are irreplaceable. As a rule, they contain most of the vitamins necessary for the human body. In the manufacture of complexes, special technologies are used that allow the body to simultaneously assimilate a variety of vitamins.

When taking vitamins, it should be borne in mind that an excess of one or another vitamin may bring harm rather than benefit.And sometimes even greater than its lack, up to the most severe poisoning. Therefore, you need to drink vitamins strictly in accordance with the instructions of the doctor and the dosage.

Vitamin complexes are divided into several categories:

  • universal
  • vitamins for children
  • vitamins for pregnant and lactating women
  • vitamins for those involved in sports

Vitamin complexes are classified as dietary supplements, which means that they can be bought at a pharmacy without a prescription.They differ greatly in composition and price, and it is not always possible to understand their features and advantages. Therefore, it is impossible to answer unequivocally which vitamins are better for adults to take for immunity. Still, it is better not to save much on vitamins and buy products from well-known manufacturers, so as not to run into a “dummy” (or even worse). On the other hand, inexpensive vitamins are not always bad, and among the drugs available for the majority of the population, you can also find good vitamins for immunity.If you doubt the quality of this or that vitamin set, then you can look on the network what reviews are left by the people who took it and find out its rating.

Let’s consider some popular universal vitamins for raising immunity in adults:

  • Multi-tabs Immuno plus. It contains all the main vitamins of groups A, B, C, D, as well as folic acid.
  • Vitrum. Contains 20 essential vitamins and minerals. It has established itself well on the market as a reliable vitamin complex.
  • Centrum. Contains 25 components. Differs in good antioxidant properties.
  • Revit, Complivit, Alphabet – good vitamins for enhancing immunity in adults in the lower price sector. They contain the most essential vitamins and are highly digestible.
  • Immunal. A unique complex specially designed to strengthen the immune system. Created on the basis of Echinacea purpurea extract.