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What does blood in stool look like images: Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments


Stools with blood | University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics

Stools with blood can be caused by many different conditions. If you are experiencing bloody stools or bleeding from a bowel movement, you may need to see a doctor. 

Seek immediate medical attention if you are experiencing fever, excessive weakness, vomiting, or seeing large amounts of blood in your stool. 

What does a bloody stool look like?

  • Red blood mixed with the stool
  • Red blood covering the stool
  • Black or tarry stool
  • Dark blood mixed with the stool

If you stool is red or black, it might not be from blood. Certain foods may cause your stools to look red. These include cranberries, tomatoes, beets, or food that is dyed red. Other foods may cause your stools to look black. These include blueberries, dark leafy vegetables, or black licorice. 

Common causes


Blood vessels near the anus that become swollen, due to increased pressure, can bleed or prolapse. Typically, the amount of bleeding from hemorrhoids is small and may be a few drops that appear on toilet paper after passing a stool. Hemorrhoids can occur inside the anus or under the skin around the outside of the anus. The condition is very common, normally painless, and does not lead to cancer. 

If bothersome enough, hemorrhoids can be removed by your doctor. Your doctor may first treat any underlying causes, such as constipation. 

Anal fissures

Small tears in the lining of the anus, typically from constipation or diarrhea, can cause blood with stools. They are painful during and following bowel movements. If you have anal fissures, take measures to prevent constipation or diarrhea. Over-the-counter fiber supplements can help. Your doctor can prescribe additional options to treat an anal fissure that isn’t healing on its own.

What else could it be?

Your doctor can determine the exact cause of stools with blood. Underlying disorders and complications of this condition can be serious. If you’re concerned, always err on the safe side and see a doctor.

Pay attention to what the blood in your stool looks like. 

  • How much blood is there? 
  • How often does it occur? 
  • What color is the blood? 

This will help your doctor zero in on the problem. 

Blood in stools can come from any area of the gastrointestinal tract. 

This includes 

  • Esophagus 
  • Stomach 
  • Small intestine 
  • Large intestine 
  • Rectum 

If the blood is red it typically means it came from the lower digestive tract or rectum. If the blood is darker or black, it typically means it came from the upper digestive tract. Whether or not the blood is mixed with the stools or covering it, can also help determine where it came from and what is causing it. 

Additional causes of stools with blood include

Your doctor will need to do an evaluation to determine if any of these conditions are the underlying cause.  

Tests to find the cause

If you are experiencing stools with blood, your doctor may perform one or more of these tests.

  • Colonoscopy- A small device with a camera is inserted in your colon to look for abnormalities.
  • Upper endoscopy-A small device with a camera is used to look inside the upper digestive tract.
  • Stool culture- A sample of your stools is taken to look for abnormalities.
  • Blood test- A sample of your blood is tested for a number of different potential issues.
  • Capsule endoscopy- A tiny capsule, with a camera inside, is swallowed to take pictures of your digestive track. 

All causes of bloody stools should be determined and monitored by your doctor.

Baby poop: A visual guide

BabyCenter’s editorial team is committed to providing the most helpful and trustworthy pregnancy and parenting information in the world. When creating and updating content, we rely on credible sources: respected health organizations, professional groups of doctors and other experts, and published studies in peer-reviewed journals. We believe you should always know the source of the information you’re seeing. Learn more about our editorial and medical review policies.

AAP. 2015a. Baby’s first bowel movements. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/diapers-clothing/Pages/Babys-First-Bowel-Movements.aspx [Accessed December 2016]

AAP. 2015b. Infant constipation. American Academy of Pediatrics. http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/diapers-clothing/Pages/Infant-Constipation.aspx [Accessed December 2016]

AAP. 2015c. The many colors of poop. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/Pages/The-Many-Colors-of-Poop.aspx [Accessed December 2016]

AAP. 2015d. Pooping by the numbers. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/Pages/Pooping-By-the-Numbers.aspx [Accessed December 2016]

John Hopkins Children’s Center. Undated. Stool color guide. http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/articles-and-answers/healthy-children/stool-color-guide [Accessed December 2016]

Mayo Clinic. 2015. I’m breastfeeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/infant-and-toddler-health/expert-answers/baby-poop/faq-20057971 [Accessed December 2016]

NIH. Undated. What are some of the basics on infant health? National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/infantcare/conditioninfo/pages/basics.aspx [Accessed December 2016]

Blood In Dog Poop | Everything You Need To Know

Blood In Dog Poop | Everything You Need To Know | Vets Now

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Why is my dog pooping blood?

Noticing blood in your dog’s poo can be alarming and it’s easy to start thinking the worst. But blood in your dog’s stool can be caused by a wide range of different things. Common reasons for a dog pooping blood include food allergies, constipation, eating something unsuitable, bacterial or viral infection, colitis, or injury. It is possible that a dog’s bloody stools could also be a sign of something life-threatening such as cancer, toxicity (like eating rat poison), blockages, parvovirus or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, so you should always speak to a vet to rule out these serious conditions.

If you are concerned that your dog needs urgent treatment contact your vet or, out of hours, your nearest Vets Now pet emergency clinic.

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What to do when your dog is pooping blood?

If your dog is pooing blood you should always contact a vet to rule out anything serious and ensure they receive any necessary treatment. While in some cases blood in your dog’s stool can indicate something serious, there are also many milder causes which can be treated. Be prepared to describe your dog’s poo (is it hard or soft, is the blood bright red or dark?) and any details leading up to the bloody poo that could help diagnose the problem. If you can collect a sample of your dog’s poo to show the vet, even better.

What does blood in dog poop look like?

The blood in your dog’s poo can look bright red (and fresh) which is usually due to bleeding in the lower digestive tract, or dark/black and tar-like, indicating digested blood coming from the upper digestive tract. You might also notice drops of blood dripping from your dog’s anus as they pass faeces. The appearance of your dog’s bloody poo can help indicate what is causing it, so be sure to tell the vet what it looks like to help them make a diagnosis.

Why is my dog pooping blood and vomiting?

A dog vomiting and passing blood can be a sign of haemorrhagic gastroenteritis or HGE — a potentially life-threatening condition which occurs when large amounts of fluid seeps into the gut and your dog can dehydrate very quickly. While they could indicate another issue, you should contact a vet right away if your dog is displaying these symptoms as if your dog does have HGE, they will need urgent treatment. Learn more about hemorrhagic gastroenteritis here.

Is blood in dog poo an emergency?

It depends. The possible causes vary so widely that a bout of bloody poo could be a minor issue or could be a sign of something that requires urgent treatment. That’s why you should speak to a vet as quickly as possible and, after discussing your dog’s symptoms and examining them, they will be able to advise you on what to do next.

If you think your dog’s condition might be life-threatening or require urgent treatment contact your vet to out of hours, your nearest Vets Now pet emergency clinic, so they can be treated as quickly as possible.

How do you treat blood in a dog’s stool?

Your vet will advise on the best course of treatment depending on what is causing the blood in your dog’s poop. Possible treatments include eliminating or changing something in their diet, anti-parasite treatment, other medication, fluids to treat dehydration and performing surgery, among many other options. Your vet will have a better idea once they have examined your dog and diagnosed what’s causing them to pass blood in their stool.

Can dog food cause bloody diarrhoea?

It’s possible for the food your dog eats to cause stomach upset, particularly when switching from puppy to adult dog food, and this can cause bloody diarrhoea. That’s why it’s important to introduce new food gradually. It can also be caused by your dog eating other toxic human foods they find tasty. If you think the blood in your dog’s poop has been caused by eating something be sure to let the vet know as this could help them diagnose and treat the problem.

Can a dog poop blood from stress?

Stress is a common cause of colitis in dogs which can cause blood in your dog’s poo. Stress colitis can be triggered by things like environmental changes (like moving house or boarding) and anxiety-inducing situations like thunderstorms or fireworks, as well as many other things. Symptoms tend to resolve within a few days but you should still speak to a vet to be sure that stress colitis is what you are dealing with.

Worried about your pet?

Video chat with a vet within minutes.

Blood in puppy’s stool

If there is blood in your puppy’s stool it’s important to contact a vet right away. While this is the advice for dogs of any age, puppies are particularly vulnerable as their immune systems are less developed, making them more susceptible to infections and other environmental factors. If your puppy is less than two weeks old you must contact your nearest vet and take them to the clinic as soon as possible.

What home remedy is good for a dog with bloody diarrhoea?

You should never resort to home remedies for your dog’s bloody poo without consulting a vet first. Even if your dog has bloody diarrhoea but is acting normal, it is still possible that they might need urgent treatment. While it might end up being nothing to worry about, it’s always best to err on the side of caution and not take the risk.

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Vets Now assumes no liability for the content of this page. This advice is not a substitute for a proper consultation with a vet and is only intended as a guide. Please contact your local veterinary practice for advice or treatment immediately if you are worried about your pet’s health — even if they are closed, they will always have an out-of-hours service available. Find out more about what to do in an emergency.

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Blood in dog poop: Everything you need to know

Have you noticed blood in your dog’s poop but don’t know why? We explain reasons for dog pooing blood and what to do in this article.

Blood in stool | healthdirect

After you have used the toilet, you might see blood in your poo (stool), spotting on the toilet paper or drops in the toilet bowl. Many people dismiss this as nothing or they are too embarrassed to seek help. But blood in your stool can indicate a range of problems, some of which are very serious.

If you have blood in your stools and you feel faint, dizzy or light-headed, this may be an emergency. Go to the nearest emergency department as soon as possible or call triple zero (000) and ask for an ambulance.

Go to the emergency department if you have heavy rectal bleeding and also have bad stomach pains.

Appearance of blood in stools

How the blood looks depends on where it is coming from.

Spots of red blood on the toilet paper, drops in the toilet bowl or blood on the surface of your stool indicate a problem in the anus and lower rectum.

However, if the blood is mixed in with your stool, this suggests bleeding might be from higher up in the bowel.

If your stools are black and like tar, and they smell bad, this is also probably because the blood is coming from higher up in the bowel.

Causes of blood in stools

Blood in your stool can be caused by many different things. These include:

When to see a doctor

If you have any blood in your stool, make sure you get it checked out by a doctor.

As well as blood in your stool, you might have other symptoms that could indicate something more serious is going on.

If you have blood in your stools and you feel faint, dizzy or light-headed, this may be an emergency. Go to the nearest emergency department as soon as possible or call triple zero (000) and ask for an ambulance.

If you are losing weight and have blood in your stools, this suggests an illness that needs treatment. See your doctor as soon as possible.

If you received some trauma to the area, you might have an injury or a foreign object in the area. Seek an examination from your doctor as soon as possible.

Tests for blood in stools

Your doctor will talk to you, examine you, and should arrange some tests to investigate the cause. The doctor will choose the right test for you based on your age, symptoms and medical history. Possible tests include:

  • rectal examination — your doctor or nurse looks and feels around your rectum, anal canal and nearby organs, such as the prostate and bladder
  • anoscopy — a procedure where your doctor will use a camera in a tube to view the last 5cm of your anus and lower rectum
  • sigmoidoscopy — a procedure where your doctor uses a camera to check inside your rectum and most of your lower large intestine (‘sigmoid colon’)
  • colonoscopy — a physician uses a camera that sits within a tube to examine your entire colon

Some of these tests are done under sedation and anaesthetic. Ask your doctor for more information.


If you notice any blood in your stool, see your doctor for an examination as soon as possible.  

The right treatment for blood in your stool depends on what is causing the problem.

For some problems, the treatment could be to make changes to your lifestyle or diet.

If the blood in your stool is caused by something more serious, such as diverticular disease or bowel cancer, you might need more urgent and invasive treatment.

Bowel cancer symptoms: What a healthy stool looks like

Bowel cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the UK, according to the NHS.

While it can affect people of all ages, it’s mainly diagnosed in people over 60 years old.

Bowel cancer symptoms can include persistent blood in your stool, a prolonged abdominal pain, or a change to your toilet habits.

There are ways to gauge how healthy your bowel is by looking at your poo.

This is everything you need to know about the link between your stool and your health.


A healthy-coloured poo is brown, according to Ramsay Health Care UK.

You should look out for red or very dark-coloured stools, it said.

Bright red poo may be caused by fresh blood. This is usually a sign of haemorrhoids, or piles.

But, darker poo could be a sign of something more serious.

“Blood form higher up in the bowel goes dark red or black, and can make your stools look like tar.

“This type of bleeding can be a sign of bowel cancer.”


Your poo should be smooth and soft, it said.

Aim for a sausage-shaped stool, that’s either smooth or has slight cracks on the surface.

But, a mushy stool, or one that’s entirely liquid, could be a sign of bowel cancer.

“A change in bowel habit lasting for three weeks or more, especially to looser or runny stools, could be a sign of bowel cancer.”


A smelly stool is a normal, healthy stool, according to the Taymount Clinic.

“Your poo shouldn’t normally float,” said the clinic.

“If your gut is doing its job, you should be digesting oils and fats which will make your stool sink.

“The odd floater is not an issue, but if it is a common occurrence this can be a sign of bad digestive health.”

Sink or float?

A healthy bowel should make stools that will sink.

“Your poo shouldn’t normally float,” said the Taymount Clinic.

“If your gut is doing its job, you should be digesting oils and fats which will make your stool sink.

“The odd floater is not an issue, but if it is a common occurrence this can be a sign of bad digestive health.”

You should speak to a GP if you’re worried about bowel cancer symptoms.

Your doctor may carry out a quick rectal exam to make sure you have no lumps.

Alternatively, they may suggest you take a simple blood test, or arrange for hospital tests.

The NHS offers bowel cancer screening for all men and women between the ages of 60 and 74.

An additional one-off bowel scope screening may also be suggested by your GP. This is offered to patients at 55 years old, and involves a small, flexible instrument being used to examine the inside of the lower part of the bowel.

Scared out of my mind: stool streaked with blood.


I have an appointment next Tuesday, but I might just lose my mind till then. Any advice, until I see the doc next Tuesday?

1.I have been dieting since 3 months ago and one month ago I started noticing white cotton/paper like stuff in the stool. This dissapeared eventually.

2. Two weeks ago, I was going to a store and while on my way there, I realized I might be having soon diarrhea. I had no possibility of going to a toilet due to the virus, so I ‘held’ it in. I was walking aprox 1.25 miles (2 kilometers), without a loo and I ‘held’ it in several times and it was a ‘go back’ kind of hold and I barely made it before an accident happened. After going to the toilet, the first part was solid, followed by diarrhea. I thought nothing strange of it since I was eating cherries and strawberries. But when trying to flush, I noticed a darker spot between the rest. The diarrhea continued and this time, I noticed some bright red thing between the pieces. It was very very little but it scared me a lot. I could also notice very little bright red blood on the TP. 

My mind was telling me that this was caused by the ‘no loo’ situation, but regardless, I started watching before I flush.

3. The next few times, I thought it was normal, but I cannot tell for sure as I didn’t watch with my phone’s lantern. And this brings me to the present. After eating some fish in tomato sauce, I noticed that my next stool had some strange jelly like things that bound some pieces. The jelly had a reddish tint.

4. Today as I looked again, I could see clearly with the lantern that there are some faint streaks of blood which isn’t bright red, but it is not black either. I also had a softer stool after, which wasn’t exactly diarrhea, with the same streaks. As you can imagine I freaked out and I’m currently out of my mind. The last few times after the BM, my anus was stinging/burning. My stools aren’t narrower than usual, but the last part seems to be a shade darker than the rest.

My personal history: Female, less than a month ago I turned 30. No family history. I don’t drink nor smoke. I am not obese nor fat. I think I do suffer of constipation. When dieting I go aprox once or twice per week. Lately, I have been going every 2 or three days. Most of the time is solid, but sometimes it happens to be softer – but I do chew sugarfree gum, take magnesium and eat fruits.

CT Colonography

Computed tomography (CT) colonography or virtual colonoscopy uses special x-ray equipment to examine the large intestine for cancer and growths called polyps. During the exam, the doctor inserts a small tube a short distance into the rectum. The doctor uses gas or air to inflate the colon and the rectum and takes pictures.

Prior to your exam, your doctor may restrict you to clear fluids on the day before the CT and give you instructions on clearing your bowels. Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking, and allergies. Your doctor will tell you not to eat or drink anything for a few hours beforehand. If you have a known allergy to contrast material, your doctor may prescribe medications to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. You must take these medications 12 hours prior to your exam. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You will need to wear a gown.

What is CT Colonography?

Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical imaging test. Like traditional x-rays, it produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body.

A CT scan generates images that can be reformatted in multiple planes. It can even generate three-dimensional images. Your doctor can review these images on a computer monitor, print them on film or via a 3D printer, or transfer them to a CD or DVD.

CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue, and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays. This is especially true for soft tissues and blood vessels.

CT colonography, also known as virtual colonoscopy, uses low dose radiation CT scanning to obtain an interior view of the colon (the large intestine). This area is otherwise only seen with a more invasive procedure where the doctor inserts an endoscope into the rectum and passes it through the entire colon.

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What are some common uses of the procedure?

The major reason for performing CT colonography is to screen for polyps or cancers in the large intestine. Polyps are growths that arise from the inner lining of the intestine. A very small number of polyps may grow and turn into cancers.

The goal of screening with CT colonography is to find these growths in their early stages. This allows the doctor to remove them before cancer has a chance to develop. The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends that women and men undergo screening for colon cancer or polyps beginning at age 45. As part of its recommendation, ACS suggests CT colonography as an option once every five years. Individuals at increased risk or with a family history of colon cancer may start screening at age 40 or younger and may be screened at shorter intervals (for example, having a colonoscopy every five years). Risk factors for the disease include a history of polyps or having a family history of colon cancer. Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include a persistent change in bowel habits, the presence of blood in the stool, abdominal discomfort or pain, bloating and unexplained weight loss.

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How should I prepare?

You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to your exam. You will need to wear a gown during the procedure.

Women should always inform their physician and the CT technologist if there is any possibility that they may be pregnant. See the CT Safety During Pregnancy page for more information.

The bowel-cleansing regimen for CT colonography may be similar to that for a colonoscopy or consist of a smaller volume of cleansing liquid. Your diet will be restricted to clear liquids the day before the exam. It is very important to clean out your colon the night before your exam so that the radiologist can clearly see any polyps that might be present. You will take either a set of pills and/or a liquid  laxative. Some common preparations are Magnesium Citrate and bisacodyl tablets and/or NuLytely®, Go-Lytely® (Polyethylene glycol electrolyte solutions). You may take additional agents the day before the exam. These may include small quantities of barium and iodinated liquids. These agents help the radiologist better distinguish stool from polyps by “tagging” the remaining stool and fluid.

Be sure to tell your doctor if you have heart, liver, or kidney disease to be certain that the bowel prep will be safe. Your doctor can advise you on dietary restrictions prior to the exam. You will be able to resume your usual diet immediately after the exam.

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What does the equipment look like?

The CT scanner is typically a large, donut-shaped machine with a short tunnel in the center. You will lie on a narrow table that slides in and out of this short tunnel. Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is in a separate control room. This is where the technologist operates the scanner and monitors your exam in direct visual contact. The technologist will be able to hear and talk to you using a speaker and microphone.

During CT colonography, you will lie on your back and then on your stomach and/or side. Sometimes, the doctor may ask you to lie on just the right and left sides. Before starting the exam, be sure to let the staff know if you have any limitations in your ability to move.

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How does the procedure work?

In many ways, a CT scan works like other x-ray exams. X-rays are a form of radiation–like light or radio waves–that can be directed at the body. Different body parts absorb x-rays in different amounts. This difference allows the doctor to distinguish body parts from one another on an x-ray or CT image.

In a conventional x-ray exam, the technologist directs a small amount of radiation through the part of the body under examination. A special electronic image recording plate captures the image. Bones appear white on the x-ray. Soft tissue, such as the heart or liver, shows up in shades of gray. Air appears black.

With CT scanning, several x-ray beams and electronic x-ray detectors rotate around you. These measure the amount of radiation being absorbed throughout your body. Sometimes, the exam table will move during the scan, so that the x-ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body. These images are displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf of bread by cutting the loaf into thin slices. When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body’s interior.

Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These multi-slice or multidetector CT scanners obtain thinner slices in less time. This results in more detail and additional view capabilities.

Modern CT scanners can scan through large sections of the body in just a few seconds. Such speed is beneficial for all patients but especially children, the elderly, and critically ill.

For CT colonography, the computer generates a detailed three-dimensional (3-D) model of the colon, which the radiologist uses to view the bowel in a way that simulates traveling through the colon. This is why the procedure is often called a virtual colonoscopy. Two-dimensional (2-D) images of the inside of the colon as well as the rest of the abdomen and pelvis are obtained and reviewed at the same time without any additional radiation.

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How is the procedure performed?

The technologist begins by positioning you on the CT exam table, usually lying flat on your back. They may use straps and pillows to help you maintain the correct position and remain still during the exam.

The doctor will pass a very small, flexible tube two inches into your rectum and gently pump air into the colon using a hand-held squeeze bulb. Sometimes an electronic pump delivers carbon dioxide gas into the colon. Sometimes the doctor inflates a small balloon on the rectal tube to help keep the tube positioned correctly. The purpose of the gas is to distend (inflate) the colon as much as possible to eliminate any folds or wrinkles that might hide polyps from the doctor’s view.

Next, the table will move through the scanner. The technologist may ask you to hold your breath for about 15 seconds before turning over and lying on your back or side for a second pass through the scanner. In some centers, the sequence of positions may be the opposite: facing upward first and then facing down. Once the scan is done, the doctor or technologist will remove the tube.

The entire exam usually takes about 15 minutes.

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What will I experience during and after the procedure?

Most patients who have CT colonography report a feeling of fullness when the colon is inflated during the exam, as if they need to pass gas. Significant pain is uncommon, occurring in fewer than 5 percent of patients. The doctor or technologist may inject a muscle-relaxing drug intravenously or subcutaneously (under the skin) to lessen discomfort, but this is seldom necessary. The scanning procedure itself causes no pain or other symptoms.

When you enter the CT scanner, you may see special light lines projected onto your body. These lines help ensure that you are in the correct position on the exam table. With modern CT scanners, you may hear slight buzzing, clicking and whirring sounds. These occur as the CT scanner’s internal parts, not usually visible to you, revolve around you during the imaging process.

You will be alone in the exam room during the CT scan, unless there are special circumstances. For example, sometimes a parent wearing a lead shield may stay in the room with their child. However, the technologist will always be able to see, hear and speak with you through a built-in intercom system.

After a CT exam, you can return to your normal activities.

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Who interprets the results and how do I get them?

A radiologist, a doctor specially trained to supervise and interpret radiology exams, will analyze the images. The radiologist will send an official report to the doctor who ordered the exam.

In some cases, information about whether you have polyps is available immediately. Some imaging centers can perform colonoscopy and, if necessary, polyp removal the same day as the CT colonography.

You may need a follow-up exam. If so, your doctor will explain why. Sometimes a follow-up exam further evaluates a potential issue with more views or a special imaging technique. It may also see if there has been any change in an issue over time. Follow-up exams are often the best way to see if treatment is working or if a problem needs attention.

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What are the benefits vs. risks?


  • This minimally invasive test provides both 2-D and 3-D images that can depict many polyps and other lesions as clearly as when they are directly seen by conventional colonoscopy.
  • CT colonography has a much lower risk of perforating the colon than conventional colonoscopy. Most people who undergo CT colonography do not have polyps and can be spared having to undergo a full colonoscopy which typically requires sedation.
  • CT colonography is an excellent alternative for patients who have clinical factors that increase the risk of complications from colonoscopy, such as treatment with a blood thinner or a severe breathing problem.
  • Elderly patients, especially those who are frail or ill, will tolerate CT colonography better than conventional colonoscopy.
  • CT colonography can be helpful when colonoscopy cannot be completed because the bowel is narrowed or obstructed for any reason, such as by a large tumor.
  • If conventional colonoscopy cannot reach the full length of the colon—which occurs up to 10 percent of the time—CT colonography can be performed on the same day because the colon has already been cleansed.
  • CT colonography provides clearer and more detailed images than a conventional barium enema x-ray examination.
  • CT colonography can detect abnormalities outside of the colon, including early-stage malignancies in other organs and potentially dangerous conditions, such as abdominal aortic aneurysms.
  • CT colonography is well tolerated. Sedation and pain relievers are not needed, so there is no recovery period and you can return to your normal daily activities immediately after the test.
  • CT colonography is less costly than colonoscopy.
  • No radiation remains in a patient’s body after a CT exam.
  • The x-rays used for CT scanning should have no immediate side effects.


  • There is a very small risk that inflating the colon with air could injure or perforate the bowel. This has been estimated to happen in fewer than one in 10,000 patients.
  • There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk involved with CT scanning.
  • The radiation dose for this procedure varies. See the Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams page for more information about radiation dose.
  • Women should always tell their doctor and x-ray or CT technologist if there is any chance they are pregnant. See the Safety in X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Procedures page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays.
  • Doctors do not generally recommend CT scanning for pregnant women unless medically necessary because of potential risk to the unborn baby.

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What are the limitations of CT Colonography?

A radiologist, a doctor specially trained to supervise and interpret radiology exams, will analyze the images. The radiologist will send an official report to the doctor who ordered the exam.

CT colonography is strictly a diagnostic procedure. If any clinically significant polyps are found, your doctor will have to remove them using conventional colonoscopy.

CT colonography may not differentiate stool from artifacts and smaller polyps as well as conventional colonoscopy.

CT colonography is not recommended for patients who have active Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease or diverticulitis, because of increased risk of perforating the colon. Patients with a history of bowel perforation and those experiencing severe pain or cramps on the day of the exam should not undergo CT colonography.

Some insurance companies do not cover CT colonography as a screening test for colonic polyps, but they may cover the cost if a patient has symptoms related to the colon. Recently, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) assigned a grade of “A” to CT colonography as a screening modality for the detection of colon cancer. This decision, according to provisions included in the Affordable Care Act, mandates coverage by private insurance companies participating in the insurance exchange program. Medicare does not currently cover CT colonography for screening but may do so in the near future due to the decision of the USPSTF.

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This page was reviewed on June, 15, 2020

90,000 Stool with blood and mucus, black stools: diagnosis of causes and treatment


The article was checked by a gastroenterologist Melnikova E.G. is for general informational purposes only and does not replace specialist advice.
For recommendations on diagnosis and treatment, a doctor’s consultation is required.

In the Clinical Hospital on Yauza, diagnostics and treatment of diseases is carried out, in which there is stool with blood, an admixture of mucus, black feces.Rapid diagnostics includes all the necessary tests – blood, urine, feces, and modern research methods – ultrasound, endoscopic with advanced capabilities (in monochrome, endo-ultrasound), real and virtual colonoscopy (CT option). Conservative and high-tech surgical treatment is carried out (including endoscopic and laparoscopic, abdominal and proctological operations).

Blotches or streaks of blood in the stool appear against the background of the following factors:


The disease is characterized by varicose veins of the anus and rectum.This condition is accompanied by the appearance of hemorrhoids. It develops against the background of stagnation with a sedentary lifestyle, constipation and excessive body weight. Hemorrhoids also occur during pregnancy.

It is characterized by the appearance of dark red blood during bowel movements. It does not mix with faeces. It is accompanied by itching and burning.

Anal fissure

It is accompanied by a rupture of the intestinal mucosa, mainly on the wall of the anus.In this case, pain is felt during the bowel movement. The discomfort persists for several hours. Over time, the cracks change – there is a replacement of the connective mucous tissue.

Colorectal cancer

A malignant process develops as a result of the degeneration of polyps. Most often it is a hereditary disease. Among the risk factors are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The progression of the malignant process is slow.It is characterized by the presence of occult blood in the stool, weakness, weight loss and anemia.

Ulcerative colitis

Chronic inflammation of the colon mucosa is characterized by bloody diarrhea. In the feces, mucus impurities are also present. Abdominal pain is not a common symptom. The stool is watery and mucus. The complicated course of a chronic disease is accompanied by fever, intoxication of the body, spastic pains and an increase in anemia.

Intestinal inflammation

The inflammatory process occurs against the background of various infectious diseases that have a bacterial, viral or parasitic (protozoal) nature: enterovirus, salmonellosis, dysentery, amebiasis, etc.

Ulcer perforation

In case of perforation of the ulcer, intense bleeding occurs. It is accompanied by severe pain in the upper abdomen, dry mouth, excessive sweating and vomiting (black-brown masses).

Intestinal diverticulosis

It is characterized by inflammation of the hernial protrusions, which are located on the intestinal walls. The disease does not manifest itself until the inflammatory process develops. It is accompanied by hyperthermia and abdominal pain on the left side. Diarrhea or constipation, nausea and vomiting are also common. In case of rupture of diverticula, development of peritonitis is observed.

Crohn’s disease

An inflammatory process affecting the intestinal walls.It is accompanied by the appearance of nodules (granulomas). This condition is not completely treated – you can only achieve remission. Numerous ulcers appear on the mucous membrane. Bleeding is observed only with a complication of the disease.


If traces of blood are found on stool, linen or toilet paper, consult a doctor. Also, additional signs may indicate dysfunction of internal organs.


There are two types of bleeding:

  • Sharp.It is characterized by large blood loss and occurs in a matter of minutes. It is accompanied by weakness, pallor of the skin, a drop in blood pressure (blood pressure) and an increased heart rate. The patient needs emergency medical attention.
  • Chronic. It is accompanied by regular blood loss in moderation. This condition is accompanied by the development of anemia.

Blood in stool may not be visualized, but can be detected during laboratory examination.This phenomenon is called latent blood.

Other symptoms

Blood in the stool can be accompanied by abdominal pain, false urge to defecate, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, unpleasant taste in the mouth, weight loss, and fever.


With chronic or acute bleeding, iron deficiency anemia progresses. Anemia is manifested by pallor of the skin, general weakness, dizziness, palpitations during exertion.

In any case of acute blood loss, it is necessary to see a doctor urgently.

At the Clinical Hospital on Yauza, you can undergo express diagnostics of gastrointestinal bleeding, establish and eliminate its cause (ligation of a blood vessel, endoscopic injections of stomach ulcers, removal of tumors and polyps).

In addition to bloody blotches, the development of pathologies may be accompanied by the presence of mucus or pus in the feces.Any unusual event during bowel movements is a good reason for an urgent appointment with a doctor. Our experts will be able to identify and fix the problem. Make an appointment with the clinic at a convenient time and forget about illnesses.


  • determines the inflammatory process;
  • diagnoses anemia caused by blood loss;
  • determines dysbiosis, worms, occult blood;
  • (CA 19-9, CA-50, CEA) – establishes the presence of malignant processes in the body.

Diagnosis of diseases accompanied by bloody stools consists in identifying the degree of anemia and inflammation, establishing the localization and causes of bleeding.

In the medical center on Yauza, you can undergo a full range of diagnostic tests: general analysis of urine, blood, feces, feces examination for dysbiosis, worms, occult blood, all types of biochemical and oncological markers.

Ultrasound diagnostics, intestinal radiography, computed tomography on a modern tomograph (including virtual colonoscopy) will help to visually determine the pathological process.

Experienced and qualified doctors of radiation and endoscopic diagnostics, together with gastroenterologists, surgeons, coloproctologists, will give an objective assessment of the patient’s health condition with an admixture of blood in the stool and will help to eliminate the threat as soon as possible, to achieve good results in individually selected treatment.

Approximately 30-50% of people over 25 years old have intestinal diseases, which subsequently develop into serious chronic pathologies.Don’t fall for false modesty. Make an appointment with your doctor today to be healthy tomorrow.


All diseases in which there is a stool with an admixture of blood require medical attention. If this symptom is found, it is necessary to contact a proctologist or surgeon and undergo an examination. Based on the result obtained, the doctor will prescribe treatment.


If necessary, doctors of the Clinical Hospital on Yauza perform endoscopic, laparoscopic or abdominal operations to remove neoplasms, ligate (bandage) bleeding vessels, and laser coagulate them.


Conservative treatment at the Yauza Clinical Hospital may include:

If blood appears in the stool against the background of hemorrhoids or cracks, then conservative treatment methods are often sufficient. Drug therapy is aimed at eliminating the pain and spasm of the sphincter. Also, drugs are prescribed that normalize the stool. The need for enzymatic support arises only with lactose deficiency and with allergies to cow’s milk proteins.


Preventive measures include timely diagnosis and the appointment of adequate treatment of the pathological process in the body. Also, arrange for proper nutrition, excluding stool disturbance.


What if there is blood in the stool?

If you have bloody stools, see your doctor to determine the cause. The doctor directs the patient for a comprehensive examination and, based on the result obtained, prescribes treatment.

What examinations do you need to undergo?

Laboratory diagnostics are required. Also, recto- and anoscopy is prescribed to determine pathological changes in the intestinal mucosa.

You can see prices for services in the price list or specify by phone, indicated on the website.


  1. Ioskevich N.N. Practical guide to clinical surgery: Diseases of the digestive tract, abdominal wall and peritoneum // Minsk: Vysh. shk. 2001.

  2. Terdiman J. Colonoscopic management of lower Gastrointestinal Hemorage Current gustroenterology reports // J. P. Terdiman. 2001.

90,000 How is bowel cancer diagnosed?

  1. Symptoms
  2. Examination


Symptoms of bowel cancer depend on the location and stage of the tumor.However, similar symptoms can be observed with other diseases. An important fact is that often symptoms appear only in the advanced stages of cancer.

Most common symptoms:

  • Blood in the stool,
  • Much mucus in feces,
  • Stool changes – diarrhea or constipation;
  • Abdominal pain,
  • Weight loss,
  • Weakness, powerlessness.

However, none of these symptoms are specific to colorectal cancer only.For example, blood in the stool can occur with hemorrhoids, and diarrhea can cause a bowel infection.

If the swelling causes bleeding, it can continue for many months. In this case, the person may not even notice that he is losing blood, and his main complaints will be shortness of breath, fatigue and dizziness, which are essentially symptoms of anemia. When the tumor grows large, it can completely block the intestines. In this case, a blockage or significant narrowing of the intestines prevents the movement of feces and intestinal gases, so bloating occurs.The contents of the intestines cannot penetrate through the blockade, accumulates in the intestines, not only water and nutrients are absorbed, but also toxins that cause nausea and vomiting. In this case, urgent medical attention is needed, since an increase in pressure in the intestine can cause it to rupture, as a result of which all the contents of the intestine will enter the abdominal cavity, causing a life-threatening acute surgical pathology called peritonitis.


Patients with suspected bowel cancer need urgent evaluation.With a manual examination, a pathological mass can be felt in the rectum, which may indicate rectal cancer located close to the anus. However, imaging tests are required to inspect the segments of the intestine behind the rectum or to confirm the presence of a tumor mass in the rectum.

Endoscopy , which is called colonoscopy when examining the intestines, is the main test method for diagnosing bowel cancer.This is an outpatient procedure during which the rectum and colon are examined from the inside using a special probe (endoscope). An endoscope is a long, flexible bundle of silica optical fibers, about the thickness of a finger. This instrument is placed in the rectum. The colon is expanded with a small volume of air so that the doctor can examine the tissues lining it (the image can be seen on the video monitor). If a part of the intestine needs to be assessed in more detail, an instrument is inserted through the endoscope for a painless biopsy or tissue sample.These tissues are sent to a laboratory for analysis. Microscopic analysis of tissue biopsy is essential for correct diagnosis and staging of bowel cancer.

During colonoscopy, the entire colon can be examined, while another method of examination is sigmoidoscopy. allows you to examine the lower third of the colon, rectum and sigma. There are two types of instruments available for this – a rectoscope and a flexible sigmoidoscope. The rectoscope is used for patients who are not prepared for examination, i.e.e. the lower part of the intestine is not cleansed with laxatives or enemas. However, with a rectoscope, you can view about 20 cm of the rectum, while the flexible sigmoidoscope is more difficult to use, but allows you to image most of the descending colon and rectum. If diagnostic imaging tests indicate that a more detailed examination is needed, a complete colonoscopy with biopsy should be performed.

It is very important to distinguish bowel cancer from Crohn’s disease and severe ulcerative colitis (it should be noted that both diseases are risk factors for the development of bowel cancer).In the case of severe ulcerative colitis, characteristic signs can be observed endoscopically – general inflammation of the mucous membrane, edema, fragility of the mucous membrane with hemorrhages. In Crohn’s disease, repeated cycles of ulceration, followed by periods of healing, occasionally cause a portion of the mucous membrane to lift up, which as a result becomes similar to polyps, called fake or pseudopolyps . A characteristic feature of Crohn’s disease on endoscopic examination is a typical appearance of a mucous membrane similar to a cobblestone pavement.

Barium enema (or air contrast barium enema) is an X-ray examination method used to obtain an image of the colon. Two days before the examination with a barium enema, the patient should take light, mostly liquid food, and in the evening before the examination, a laxative should be taken. On the day of the examination, a barium enema is administered, air is admitted into the colon and an x-ray of the abdomen is taken.


Coloproctology is a branch of gastroenterology and abdominal surgery that studies diseases of the rectum and colon, and develops methods for their diagnosis, treatment and prevention.The issues of timely diagnosis of proctological pathology are always relevant, since almost one third of the population of our country suffers from these diseases.
In our clinic, they treat every treatment, to any problems of patients with great delicacy. A distinctive feature of our doctors is an individual approach and the use of the latest achievements in medicine, which significantly expands the possibilities of conservative therapy and achieve high results of surgical treatment.
When should you see a coloproctologist?
You should definitely consult a specialist coloproctologist if you are worried about:
pain in the anus, rectum, coccyx, in the abdomen;
bleeding or blood in the stool;
“Bumps” and lumps in the anus;
sensation of a foreign body in the rectum;
discharge of mucus and pus from the anus;
false urge to defecate;
constipation (rare or regular urge to stool, but each time with great difficulty), as well as a feeling of incomplete emptying after stool;
thin, ribbon-like feces;
the need for hands to empty the rectum;
itching and burning in the anus;
Diseases of the rectum and colon can manifest themselves in a variety of ways, and at the same time, many of them are similar in their symptoms.Among the main signs of damage to the colon or rectum are constipation, bleeding from the anus during bowel movements, and diarrhea. A feeling of heaviness in the abdomen, its bloating and recurrent cramping pains are also characteristic of some diseases of the colon.
In proctology, it is very important to conduct a comprehensive examination, which includes:
visual inspection,
rectal digital examination,
abdominal ultrasound diagnostics,
X-ray and endoscopic examination according to indications.
This examination is almost painless.
Endoscopic methods – anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy – allow the doctor to see the state of the mucous membrane of the rectum and colon, diagnose diseases in a timely manner, even at the initial stages of development.
Our clinic uses modern non-surgical methods of treating many diseases. Such procedures can be performed on an outpatient basis, as a result, the patient does not need to stay in the hospital, and he can immediately go home.But the choice of the method of treatment in each specific case is determined by the doctor.
Endoscopic research methods can diagnose many diseases of the rectum and colon, in particular, polyps, cancer. This method allows the doctor to see the tumor, as well as take a small piece of it – a biopsy, for subsequent cytological examination.

How to properly prepare for a visit to a proctologist?
Before you come to an appointment with a proctologist, you will have to cleanse the intestines from the contents.This is done in two ways: Mechanical washing of the intestines with an enema or the use of special laxatives (microlax). If the patient is tormented by severe pain, profuse bleeding or a pronounced inflammatory process, then it is better not to cleanse the intestines on your own! The doctor will conduct an initial and manual rectal examination and prescribe treatment. After the pain syndrome is removed, the proctologist will conduct the necessary instrumental examination.