What does it mean if your cervix is high: What Does a High/Slanted Cervix Mean?
What Does a High/Slanted Cervix Mean?
Q1. At my yearly pelvic exam, the doctor had a hard time finding my cervix. He said I have a high cervix. What does this mean? Also, will the high cervix affect my ability to conceive? Are there any other consequences I should know about that relate to a high cervix?
A high cervix means that your uterus is placed “high” in the abdominal/pelvic cavity — usually it is suspended just above the vaginal canal. This should not affect your ability to become pregnant, though. The sperm can still travel to the area of the cervix and pass through its opening into the uterus to fertilize the egg.
What it may mean, however, is that pelvic exams can be more difficult because the speculum (the instrument a gynecologist inserts to see the cervix) will not extend far enough into the vagina to reach the cervical opening. This is not a health problem, but it may cause discomfort during pelvic exams from time to time.
Q2. I am 17 years old and I just had my first visit with the gynecologist. The nurse called back and said I have atypical type cells. What does that mean? Should I be concerned?
One of the most important reasons for making routine visits to the gynecologist is to have a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer. During this easy test, which is done during a pelvic examination, the surface of the cervix is gently scraped, and the cervical cells are then looked at under a microscope for evidence of any changes that may indicate cancer or precancerous cells. Sometimes, something as simple as inflammation from a yeast infection or other vaginal infection can make the cervix cells appear abnormal (atypical). If that is the case, the infection can be treated, and then the Pap smear should be repeated to make sure that the atypical cells have gone away.
However, sometimes atypical cells are labeled as precancerous cells. The pathologist who reads the Pap smear looks at the cells and determines just how abnormal they look and assigns a specific diagnosis. The Pap smear sample may also be tested to see if the cervix cells show evidence of the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that is the cause of cervical cancer (and other gynecologic conditions such as genital warts and vulvar cancer). When an abnormal Pap smear shows evidence of HPV, the risk for the eventual development of cervical cancer is much higher than if there is no evidence of HPV infection, so recommendations for management and follow-up will be different.
Depending on exactly what type of atypical cells are seen in your Pap smear, and on whether or not you have evidence of HPV infection, your doctor may recommend further testing. This might include a colposcopy (an office procedure that permits a close-up view of the cervix and biopsy of abnormal-appearing areas).
Young women who have never had sexual activity with genital contact, or who may have started having sexual activity but are not infected with HPV, should consider having the vaccine that can prevent HPV infection. You should speak with your doctor about the specific details of your Pap smear, find out whether HPV testing is needed, and ask about whether vaccination against future HPV infection may be right for you.
Q3. I just had a Pap test, and I was told I have a slanted cervix. Is this good, bad, or anything to worry about? Is it rare? I’m trying to find out if there are any consequences.
A slanted cervix is generally not worrisome and does not have major medical consequences. The position of the uterus can be anterior (facing the front of your body) or posterior (facing the back). The posterior position is the more common, normal configuration, so the term slanted cervix usually refers to the cervical position of a uterus that is anterior.
The good news is that there is no higher risk of infection, cancer, or other diseases because of an anterior cervical position. That said, if you are trying to become pregnant and do not succeed in a few months, be sure to see your doctor and have a hysterogram (an X-ray that defines the shape and interior of the uterus) to confirm that the inside of the slanted, or tilted, uterus is normal.
Learn more in the Everyday Health Women’s Health Center.
What Your Cervical Position Tells You About Your Fertility
Did you know that the cervical position and texture changes during your menstrual cycle? You can learn how to monitor these changes to your cervix so that you can predict your most fertile windows and increase your chances of conception.
Cervical position tracking can be used throughout the month to help you to predict your most fertile windows. If done right, it can let you know when ovulation is about to occur, or even indicate whether you’re pregnant. It can be used by itself, or in conjunction with monitoring cervical mucus and/or basal body temperature.
Keep in mind that you should consult a fertility doctor if you are:
· Tracking cervical position and ovulation for a year
· Not having a successful pregnancy
· Over age 35
How to Check Your Cervical Position
Checking the cervical position takes some practice. A good time to try is after a bath or shower.
First, wash your hands well and trim your nails.
Next, get into position. Sitting on the toilet or squatting or standing with one leg on the edge of the bathtub are good positions. Use the same position each time you check your cervix.
Gently insert one or two fingers into the vagina. Feel for the cervix – located in the upper front or top.
With practice, you will start to notice the changes your cervix goes through during monthly cycles. Because every woman’s cycle is different, including the lengths of each different phase, it may take several cycles before you get to know your body. Some people are squeamish about checking during bleeding and wait until menstrual flow stops.
How Hormones Change Throughout Your Cycle
The position and texture of your cervix will change during your cycle.
Here’s what to keep track of during each phase:
During menstrual bleeding, the cervix is normally low and hard, and slightly open to allow the blood to flow out. It feels like the tip of your nose.After your period stops, the cervix remains low and hard and the opening to the uterus (uterine is) remains closed.
As you approach ovulation, the cervix rises up to the top of the vagina and becomes softer and moister.At the height of ovulation, your cervical position makes the most fertile. The cervix feels more like your lips than your nose, and the uterine is open to allow sperm to enter.
Sometimes the cervix seems to disappear, which just means it has become so soft that it blends in with the vaginal walls and rises so high that the finger cannot touch it. This is known as SHOW: soft, high, open, and wet. This is the optimal time to have sex to achieve pregnancy.
Once ovulation occurs, the cervix drops lower and becomes more firm, once again feeling like the tip of your nose. The opening to the uterus will become tightly closed. This can happen immediately after ovulation, or may take several hours to several days.
When pregnancy occurs, the cervix will rise up and become soft, yet the uterine is will remain tightly closed. This occurs at different times for different people– as early as 12 days after ovulation or well after the pregnancy has been confirmed by a home pregnancy test or doctor.
Dr. Alan Copperman is a board-certified reproductive endocrinologist and infertility specialist with a long history of success in treating infertility and applying fertility preservation technologies. He serves as Medical Director of Progyny, a leading fertility benefits management company, and co-founded and serves as Medical Director of RMA of New York, one of the largest and most prestigious IVF centers in the country. Dr. Copperman is also the Vice Chairman and Director of Infertility for the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and Chief Medical Officer of Sema4, a health information company. Dr. Copperman has been named to New York magazine’s list of Best Doctors 17 years in a row. He has been recognized by his peers and patient advocacy organizations for his commitment to patient-focused and data-driven care. He has published more than 100 original manuscripts and book chapters on reproductive medicine and has co-authored over 300 scientific abstracts on infertility, in vitro fertilization, egg freezing, ovum donation, and reproductive genetics.
This is for informational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
How to Tell If My Cervix Is High or Low and What It Means
What’s that? You’ve never given much thought to your cervical height? Is it high? Is it low? Does it change? POPSUGAR asked Nicole Sparks, MD, an ob-gyn and ambassador for The Hello Cup, to shed some light on what we need to know about our cervix.
What and Where Is the Cervix?
In case you didn’t know what your cervix was in the first place, it’s a firm cylindrical piece of tissue located at the top of your vagina, just below the base of your uterus — it connects the two. The opening of the cervix, known as the external os, resembles the shape of a tiny doughnut. You may have heard of the cervix in relation to giving birth, that it dilates to 10 centimeters in order for the baby’s head to pass from the uterus, through the vagina, and out into the world. The cervix will also open slightly when you have your period, so your flow can pass through, which explains why you may feel some cramping.
You can have a low, high, or average-height cervix. Dr. Sparks explained that a low cervix means that your cervix sits lower in the vagina, and a high cervix means that your cervix is higher in the vagina. It’s normal for your cervical height and position to change throughout your menstrual cycle, and it’s unique to each person, she said.
How Can I Tell If I Have a Low or High Cervix?
You can measure the height of your cervix by checking for yourself. While you have your period, wash your hands then insert your index or middle finger into your vagina to feel for your cervix — it feels soft and round like the tip of your nose. Note how far your finger is inside, pull out your finger, and measure this length with a ruler. You have a high cervix if the length is 55 millimeters (2.25 inches) or higher. Your cervix is average height if the length is between 45 millimeters (1.8 inches) and 55 millimeters (2.25 inches). If the distance is 44 millimeters (1.6 inches) or lower, you have a low cervix.
How Does Cervix Height Change in Regards to Your Menstrual Cycle?
“The position, anatomy, and texture of your cervix will change depending on where you are in your menstrual cycle,” said Dr. Sparks. This is necessary to prevent the passage of sperm and also to facilitate shedding of the endometrial lining (when you have your period).
During your period, your cervix is normally low and hard, and slightly open to allow the blood to flow out. At the end of your period, your cervix remains low and hard and the opening to the uterus remains closed. The cervix is usually thick and impenetrable to sperm until right around the time of ovulation.
As you approach ovulation, which is almost halfway through your cycle, and the time when you are most likely to get pregnant, Dr. Sparks explained that the hormone estrogen increases and the cervix rises up to the top of the vagina. It becomes softer and moister, and the opening to the cervix will also open to allow sperm to enter. You may notice an increase in cervical fluid when you ovulate, which looks and feels like egg whites. This helps the sperm swim up the vaginal canal and through your cervix to your egg.
Does Cervix Height Change With Pregnancy, Birth, or Multiple Births?
Dr. Sparks explained that one cause of having a permanently lower cervix is if you experience a uterine prolapse, which is when the uterus descends beyond the vaginal walls. Risk factors include weakening pelvic-floor muscles due to getting older, high weight, family history, smoking, straining from constipation, heavy weightlifting, hernias, and having multiple children. Other childbirth-related risk factors for prolapse include having a baby with a high birth weight and experiencing a prolonged second stage of labor, when the patient is pushing. Many notice a lower cervix or prolapse after having multiple children.
How Does Cervix Height Affect Use of Menstrual Cups, Discs, or Tampons?
If your cervix is high, you can use whatever size or length menstrual cup, disc, or tampon that’s comfortable for you. For people who have uterine prolapse, which would mean a lower cervix, as far as menstrual cups go, they may find benefit from using one that’s shorter or one that has a shorter stem. Or try this one from The Hello Cup made specifically for those with a low cervix. It has no stem, so it doesn’t hang outside the vagina.
If you have a low cervix and tampon insertion is difficult, or they tend to slip out, menstrual discs may also be a great option, as they sit just below the cervix. If you have questions or issues regarding your cervix or your period in general, it’s best to talk to your healthcare provider or gynecologist.
Image Source: Hello Cup
Your Cervix in Early Pregnancy
If you’re in the TWW (the Two Week Wait), you might be searching for any early hints which could give you an answer without waiting to miss your period.
Well, we’re here with good news: your cervix might be able to tell you that you’re pregnant before a home test.
This may be the first time that you’ve ever given this little muscle any thought, but read on to find out about the changes to your cervix in early pregnancy.
In this article 📝
- What is your cervix and why is it important?
- How does your cervix feel in early pregnancy?
- Your cervix before your period vs. before you’re pregnant
What is your cervix and why is it important?
Your cervix is a ring of muscle between the top of your vagina and your uterus. It has a small opening to let sperm in, but it keeps things like water out of your uterus to protect you from infections. It also has the pretty crucial job of holding your baby inside the uterus until they’re ready to come into the world.
You probably already know that the cervix changes during labor. It dilates (opens) and effaces (thins and shortens) so that your baby can make their grand entrance.
But what you may not know is that it also changes a lot during a normal monthly cycle.
If you get to know those changes by feeling your cervix in the months before you conceive, you might be able to tell when something is a little different, and that might be the first sign that you’re going to have a baby. Clever, right?
Now, of course, checking your cervix is definitely not a conclusive pregnancy test and the only way to know for certain is to wait until your period is late and then test. But there’s never any harm in knowing your body better and understanding what’s normal for you.
How does your cervix feel in early pregnancy?
What does the cervix feel like in early pregnancy? In a regular, non-pregnant cycle, your cervix should usually feel slightly hard and open at the beginning of the month (during your period). When we say “hard” in this context, we mean that it feels something like the tip of your nose.
As you get closer to ovulation, it should feel increasingly soft, and pretty similar to your vaginal wall. This softening happens because of extra estrogen and increased blood flow to your uterus around the time you ovulate.
Your cervix then gradually hardens again in the week after the egg is released.
If you do get pregnant, your hormone levels will rise and your body will start sending lots more blood to your uterus to allow it to start making things comfy for your baby. It also has to form the placenta and make the mucus plug which will block your cervix until you go into labor.
So that means that if you’re pregnant, your cervix probably won’t harden again after you ovulate. Instead, there’ll be a couple of extra weeks when it feels as soft as it usually does in the middle of your cycle.
The catch is that you have to be quick to notice this early sign of pregnancy. Once the mucus plug is ready, the cervix will probably stay hard and closed for most of your pregnancy.
What about the position of the cervix in early pregnancy?
Another good indication that you might be pregnant is if your cervix feels “high” in your vagina.
Usually, at the beginning of your cycle, your cervix is low down and open. It pulls up towards your uterus and closes as your body gets ready to ovulate (which can make it a little harder to find, by the way). It then lowers again after ovulation 一 unless a fertilized egg implants in your uterine wall.
What causes the cervix to open in early pregnancy?
If your cervix feels open instead of closed in early pregnancy, you may be among the 1% of women who goes through early cervical dilation (which many practitioners still unfortunately call an “incompetent cervix”). This happens more often to women who have hypermobility or who’ve had previous surgery or an injury to this area.
Early cervical dilation is a problem for your baby who still needs time to grow before they make their debut, but it’s important to remember that it’s not your fault and it’s completely treatable. If your cervix is open in early pregnancy, doctors will usually make a small stitch called a cerclage to hold your cervix closed until your baby reaches full term.
Your cervix before your period vs. before you’re pregnant
So, to recap:
Check your cervix roughly between days 21 and 28 of your cycle (one week before your period is due and the time when you’re actually late).
If you find that your cervix feels low, hard and (possibly) open, it might be that fertilization hasn’t happened this time around, and your period is on its way.
If you feel your cervix and it feels soft, higher up (and probably) closed, there might just be a BFP in your near future.
Cervix Position During Early Pregnancy
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The cervix is a tube-shaped organ that connects the uterus to the vagina. Sperm make their way down this passage to the cervical opening. Let’s look at how this delicate organ responds to pregnancy.
Cervix Position During Menstruation
The cervix keeps changing its position throughout the menstruation cycle. When menstrual bleeding commences, it’s low, open and quite hard. Once a period is over, it remains low and hard till ovulation while the opening to the uterus remains closed.
Cervix Position During Ovulation
As you approach the ovulation phase, the cervix pushes itself up, grows softer and moistens. This happens so that the sperm have easy access to the uterus and the egg. The opening is so soft that it cannot be distinguished from the vaginal walls. Once ovulation is over, the cervix rises, grows hard and closes the uterine opening again.
Cervix Position During Conception and Early Pregnancy
The ideal time for conception during ovulation is when the cervix is high, soft and open. Once you have conceived, early pregnancy will make your cervix high, soft and closed. Your mucus plug will prepare itself for pregnancy. Mucous is usually thin and colourless. When it starts becoming a plug, it grows thick and white. This stops anything from entering the uterus and protects you and your baby from infections. While some women feel this change in the early stages, others might experience it only in the later stages.
Can the Cervix Position in Early Pregnancy Be Misleading?
Yes. Your cervix could be in a typically pregnant position when you’re not, and vice versa. For some, the body takes a while to change with pregnancy. During the menstrual cycle, your cervix will be soft and positioned higher. But, it will not be as high or soft when you are pregnant. The cause of it being soft is because it is swollen with blood due to the increased amount of estrogen in your body. If your cervix doesn’t show the signs of pregnancy, give it some time and try checking with a doctor or a home pregnancy test. Your body is unique and thus, this means of checking for pregnancy is not reliable.
Why Is Checking the Position of the Cervix Useful?
As we mentioned above, the cervix fills with mucus when you’re pregnant. It also keeps changing its position from high to low and vice versa. The position of your cervix and the amount of mucus around it can help determine if you’re carrying a tiny being.
How To Check Your Cervical Position
Your cervix is generally 3 to 6 inches in length and above your vagina. Here are some steps to check your cervix position after ovulation.
1. Wash Your Hands
Ensure your hands are clean to avoid transmitting bacteria to this sensitive area. The best time is after a shower.
2. Cut Your Fingernails
Long fingernails can cause injury.
3. Position Yourself
Squat and insert your middle finger into the vagina. You may have to go a few inches in to find your cervix.
4. Feel Around for an Opening
Use your finger to feel whether your cervix is open or closed.
5. Record Your Observations
Once done, you should record your observations in a journal or on a fertility app.
You can determine the position of your cervix on the basis of how far you need to insert your finger.
When Shouldn’t You Check the Position of Your Cervix?
It’s prudent to refrain from checking your cervical position if:
- You have a urinary tract infection (UTI) or yeast infection.
- You’re pregnant and your water has broken.
- You’ve just had sex.
Checking the position of the cervix isn’t a reliable method to check for pregnancy. Don’t be disappointed if your cervix hasn’t moved into a pregnancy position. It’s also possible to get a positive pregnancy result before the cervix moves into this position.
All in all, if you want a reliable answer, visit a gynaecologist or take a blood test.
Cervical Length during Pregnancy
Cervical Incompetence during Pregnancy
Cervical Cancer during Pregnancy
Cervical Effacement and Dilatation | Michigan Medicine
Effacement and dilatation allow a baby to be born through the birth canal. Effacement means that the cervix stretches and gets thinner. Dilatation means that the cervix opens.
As labor nears, the cervix may start to thin or stretch (efface) and open (dilate). This prepares the cervix for the baby to pass through the birth canal (vagina). How fast the cervix thins and opens varies for each woman. In some women, the cervix may start to efface and dilate slowly over a period of weeks. But a first-time mother often will not dilate until active labor starts.
Late in your pregnancy, your health professional may check the cervix with his or her fingers to see how much it has effaced and dilated. He or she will wear sterile gloves to do this.
During labor, contractions in your uterus open (dilate) your cervix. They also help move the baby into position to be born.
As the baby’s head drops down into the pelvis, it pushes against the cervix. This causes the cervix to relax and thin out, or efface.
During pregnancy, your cervix has been closed and protected by a plug of mucus. When the cervix effaces, the mucus plug comes loose and passes out of the vagina. The mucus may be tinged with blood. Passing the mucus plug is called “show” or ” bloody show.” You may notice when the mucus plug passes. But you might not.
Effacement is described as a percentage. For example, if your cervix is not effaced at all, it is 0% effaced. If the cervix has completely thinned, it is 100% effaced.
After the cervix begins to efface, it will also start to open. This is called cervical dilatation.
Cervical dilatation is described in centimeters from 0 to 10. At 0, the cervix is closed. At 10, it’s completely dilated. Your cervix must be completely dilated before you can start the pushing stage.
Current as of: October 8, 2020
Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review: Kathleen Romito, MD – Family Medicine
Adam Husney, MD – Family Medicine
Kirtly Jones, MD – Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Endocrinology
Current as of: October 8, 2020
Medical Review:Kathleen Romito, MD – Family Medicine & Adam Husney, MD – Family Medicine & Kirtly Jones, MD – Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Endocrinology
What it is, and how to find (and feel) it
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The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus. It’s a small passageway connecting the vagina to the uterine cavity, about 1–1.5 inches or 2.5—3.8cm long (1). The Latin, cervix uteri translates to “the womb’s neck.” In the vagina, the cervix looks like a smooth fleshy O, about an inch or 2.5cm in diameter, with a hole in the middle — similar to puckered lips.
Your cervix does a lot for you: it keeps unwanted bacteria and viruses out of your uterus, it opens and closes to let sperm in and menstrual blood out, it produces its own lubrication and even grows its own plug if you become pregnant (called a mucus plug). Like the vagina and clitoris, the cervix also contains nerve pathways involved in the sexual response (6).
Download Clue to track your period and menstrual cycle.
The way your cervix feels to the touch will change throughout your menstrual cycle. Its position in your abdomen may also change* (2–5). These changes happen in response to the hormonal fluctuations that facilitate the ovulatory process. Certain ligaments in the pelvis may become shorter around ovulation, for example, and the consistency of the cervical fluid changes (7, 8).
Around ovulation, the cervix is soft (like your ear lobe), slightly open and may be positioned high up in your abdomen. Other times it’s firmer (like the tip of your nose), tightly closed and may be positioned lower down in your abdomen (2–5). Changes in cervical height may influence how you experience certain sex positions or a pelvic exam, at different times of the cycle.
If you’ve never felt your own cervix, you might be curious to know where it is
and how it feels at different points of the cycle.
Here’s a step-by-step feel-guide to finding your cervix:
Start at a time when your cervix is likely to be low and more easily reached (before or after menstruation is great).
Wash your hands very thoroughly, including underneath your fingernails.
Squat on the ground, or lift one leg up onto the toilet seat or side of the tub.
With your palm facing up, guide your longest finger carefully into your vagina (lube can come in handy here).
Feel for a round, raised circle with a dimple in the middle — it’s most likely to be at the top of the front vaginal wall (closer to your belly button than to your back) (1, 5).
Feeling your cervix at different intervals throughout a cycle or two will give you an idea of how it changes for you.
Most people don’t learn this until they are trying to become pregnant, and are using cervical position as a sign of approaching ovulation/fertility (cervical position is sometimes used along with other measures like basal body temperature in fertility awareness). But knowing how your cervix changes will give you a new awareness of your body, which is
helpful for more than just pregnancy.
Once you and your cervix are cozy acquaintances, the idea of keeping your cervix healthy may be less abstract. You can keep your cervix healthy by:
Getting an HPV vaccine if you’re eligible,
having regular pap smears and
using barrier protection during sex (condoms, dental dams).
Cervical cancer was once a leading cause of death amongst people of reproductive age in the United States. Rates have dropped dramatically in recent decades, largely due to the evolution of cervical screening and preventative procedures (9). It’s up to you to get screened. Most cases of cervical infection and cancer are caused by unmanaged infections of two strains of Human Papillomavirus (HPV types 16 and 18). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease (10).
Have you gotten up close and personal with your cervix? Let us know your experience or if you have any questions. If you want to take your cervical exploration a step further, you might try asking your doctor to show you your cervix in a mirror next time you have a pelvic exam. You could also host a throw-back to the self-exploration parties of the 70s, and buy your own speculums for at-home use.
*There is little scientific research on the heightening and lowering of the cervix in the abdomen across the menstrual cycle. The phenomenon of cervical height change is most discussed in literature on fertility awareness (5). This material is consistent in its observations, but mostly anecdotal.
90,000 41 weeks pregnant: sensation, weight and fetal development
Probably, this week even your own shadow can piss you off, because the planned date of birth has already come and even passed. But don’t think that you have the longest pregnancy in the world – sometimes the baby just decides to linger a little in mom’s comfortable tummy.
Less than 5% of women give birth exactly on the scheduled date – all the rest sooner or later.Sometimes it is not entirely clear on what day the child was conceived, and some babies simply take a little longer to mature than others. You may not fully believe it now, but your pregnancy will end within this week, maybe a little later.
When will it finally end?
You may have already discussed with your doctor the possibility of stimulating labor. This usually requires a careful analysis of all factors, including your own well-being and the condition of your child.In the 41st week, some pregnant women are so overwhelmed with emotion that doctors may decide to stimulate in the interests of their mental health. Other women calmly choose to “wait and see.” Each expectant mother reacts differently to a post-term pregnancy.
Physical changes at 41 weeks gestation
During 41 weeks of pregnancy, you may be assigned additional check-up dates and diagnostic procedures. You may be sent for CTG (cardiotocography) and ultrasound, check the location of the placenta, the amount of amniotic fluid and the size of the baby.With a post-term pregnancy, the placenta is no longer functioning as efficiently, and it is important to monitor its work.
You may be asked to keep a record of your baby’s movements and activities. If there is a significant change in his behavior, you will need to report it.
This week you may feel pressure on your cervix, a sensation that is difficult to describe. It looks like pain with a cytological smear, it can appear and disappear depending on how hard the baby’s head is pressing.The cervix is now ripening and thinning: during the active period of labor, it will have to expand to 10 cm so that the baby can leave the uterus.
Your vaginal discharge may increase because the cells in your cervix produce a special white and watery substance. Some women may also have mucous discharge this week – this is not a true sign of labor, but it means something is happening.
Emotional changes at 41 weeks gestation
Every bout of pain can mean that your prolonged pregnancy is finally coming to an end! Even the night does not give you a break – you expect to wake up from labor pains.It is very difficult to remain calm in the 41st week of pregnancy. On top of that, you cannot make plans for the future, and it seems that your whole life is now tied to one important event.
This week, you have the right to feel more than just a little upset, anxious, anxious, scared, and tired. Try to get more rest and do not take on activities that require too much energy.
Try to immerse yourself in an interesting book or start watching a series.Look for activities to pass the time and take away from the waiting. Visit your friends, or better yet, ask them to visit you. Do something in the morning and then allow yourself to rest. Try to come up with some activities so that the day does not seem endless.
Try to imagine yourself during childbirth – a strong woman, completely surrendering to having a baby. Despite other desires and feelings, make your own health and the health and safety of your child a top priority.Trust the healthcare professionals who will be by your side.
This week you may have vivid, strange dreams about a baby. You may dream that he was already born, but you did not understand it, or that the baby does not have the gender that you expect. You can lie down tired and wake up even more overwhelmed. In a post-term pregnancy, your imagination can do weird things.
What happens to the baby this week of pregnancy
Most of the original hair and lubricant is gone from your baby’s skin and is now in his stomach and intestines.This “food”, together with bile and dead skin cells, forms meconium – the original feces of the crumbs. Expect to see a black and sticky mass in your diaper.
It may seem to you that the baby is literally about to jump out of you, especially if this is not your first birth. If only it were that simple! Your baby has everything it needs to live outside the mother’s womb, but is not yet ready to give the signal to start.
Now your baby is well developed, can breathe, eat, digest and remove processed food products from the body, cry and communicate his needs.
Advice 41 weeks
If you want to try to induce labor yourself, here are some ways that might work:
Eat hot, spicy food – it causes the intestines next to the uterus to contract more actively, and this can help.
It is believed that you can achieve the desired result through sex, because the male sperm contains prostaglandins, and they are similar to the artificial hormones in a gel used to induce labor.
If you still have energy left, go for a long walk. This will help increase the pressure of the baby’s head on the cervix, which can cause it to thin and expand.
Try stimulating the nipples – some women find this very helpful at the start of labor. If you don’t want to do it yourself, your partner might be interested in doing this!
Live a simple life and don’t start big business.
Cervical leukoplakia: treatment, symptoms, diagnosis
Treatment of cervical leukoplakia
In our clinic, we use a radio wave treatment method and use the innovative PlasmaJet apparatus.
The main goal of treatment is to eliminate leukoplakia foci and prevent malignancy of the disease.
- Radio wave surgery .The most gentle, non-contact method of treatment – all manipulations are performed using an electrode, radio waves act as a scalpel, destroying the affected cells and not affecting healthy tissue. Minimal trauma, recommended for young girls .
- Electrocoagulation . Removal of the affected leukoplakia foci is carried out using high-frequency currents. Quite a traumatic method with a long recovery;
- Cryodestruction .”Cauterization” with cold – leukoplakic plaques are removed under the influence of low temperatures. A fairly painless method, used, as a rule, for flat leukoplakia due to the impossibility of “freezing” the entire depth of the affected layer in difficult cases and the risk of relapse;
- Laser coagulation . One of the most effective treatments for cervical leukoplakia. Due to minimal trauma, painlessness and quick healing, it is used in almost all categories of patients, including women who have not given birth;
- Chemical coagulation .Special preparations are used that contain special acids and destroy the affected foci.
During recovery, you must stop using barrier contraception, using oral contraceptives.
In complex cases of leukoplakia, radical operations are carried out, up to conization and amputation of the cervix.
In case of a timely visit to a doctor, as well as the absence of identified atypia, the prognosis for recovery is favorable. To prevent relapse, it is necessary to eliminate all triggering factors of the disease.
Treatment of pathologies of the cervix | TS Clinic – Krasnodar
Diseases of the cervix make up an essential part of the general gynecological pathology. Therefore, modern medicine pays increased attention not only to early detection, but also to effective treatment of diseases from this group. At the same time, the approach to each patient may differ. The diagnosis and features of the course of the disease in a particular case are of leading importance. Let us analyze the features of treatment using the example of the most common pathologies of the cervix:
- Treatment of cervical erosion
- Treatment of cervical leukoplakia
- Treatment of cervical polyps
- Treatment of cervical cysts
- Treatment of cervicitis and endocervicitis
a significant part of the general gynecological pathology. Therefore, modern medicine pays increased attention not only to early detection, but also to effective treatment of diseases from this group. At the same time, the approach to each patient may differ. The diagnosis and features of the course of the disease in a particular case are of leading importance. Let us analyze the features of treatment using the example of the most common pathologies of the cervix.
Treatment of cervical erosion
If erosion is detected at the initial stage, when the area of altered tissue is small and there are no accompanying complications, then the doctor may suggest conservative therapy.It consists in the appointment of anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, hormonal drugs. The exact scheme is selected individually, taking into account the possible cause of erosion. Additionally, treatment is used, which is aimed at general strengthening of the body and increasing the immune defense.
If conservative therapy is ineffective, as well as in cases where erosion is detected in an advanced form, surgical treatment is prescribed. Today in the arsenal of a gynecologist there are many minimally invasive and effective techniques, among which the following should be noted:
- Cryodestruction. The focus of erosion is exposed to liquid nitrogen, which literally “freezes” pathological tissues and destroys them. During the procedure, the doctor tries to limit the effect of liquid nitrogen on unchanged areas of the cervix, but damage to normal tissues cannot be guaranteed. To prevent possible negative consequences, after cryodestruction, a woman should undergo preventive examinations by a gynecologist for some time.
- Diathermocoagulation. This method involves the impact on the erosion foci of a high-frequency current, followed by “burning out” of the pathological areas.The method is highly effective, but it can lead to scarring of the cervix. Therefore, such treatment is often offered to women who do not plan to have a child in the future.
- Chemical coagulation. Chemical coagulation differs from the previous method in that erosion foci are “burned” not by electric current, but by special chemicals. The procedure does not lead to the appearance of scars on the mucous membrane of the cervix, so it can be prescribed even to those women who are planning a pregnancy.
- Radio wave treatment. Radio wave electromagnetic radiation can also be used in the treatment of erosion. The principle of the method lies in the evaporation of pathological cells without heating them. Thus, during the procedure, the likelihood of burning healthy tissues is excluded. Other advantages of the method include high efficiency, quick healing, painlessness, and absence of scars.
- Laser vaporization. Laser erosion removal is the most modern procedure.It does not require anesthesia, is performed quickly, and is characterized by a high degree of safety. The effectiveness of such treatment is also at the highest level, which is why this method is used more and more often.
Along with minimally invasive surgical methods, traditional erosion excision with a scalpel or electrocoagulating loop is used. As a rule, such methods are used with extensive spread of the pathological focus or in the presence of concomitant complications.
Treatment of cervical leukoplakia
By analogy with the previous disease, both conservative and surgical methods are used in the treatment of leukoplakia.Usually, treatment is complex and is aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease and the pathological foci themselves. To solve the first problem, drugs from different groups are used, taking into account the cause of the disease in a particular woman. Most often, leukoplakia develops when:
- Human papillomavirus infection
- Hormonal imbalance
- Sexually transmitted infections
- Concomitant inflammatory gynecological diseases
Accordingly, the doctor may prescribe antibacterial, hormonal, anti-inflammatory drugs.
In order to remove leukoplakia foci, surgical methods are used that are identical to those prescribed for the treatment of cervical erosions. Such procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis, do not require a long rehabilitation period and strict restrictions. The effectiveness of treatment is determined at a repeated visit to the gynecologist and after a follow-up examination.
Treatment of polyps of the cervix
It is possible to remove polyps that are located on the cervix or in the cervical canal only by surgical methods.If the polyp is located on the cervix and can be seen visually, then removal occurs with a scalpel, radio wave loop or laser. If the neoplasm is localized in the cervical canal or uterine cavity, then more complex methods are used.
One of these operations is hysteroscopy (hysteroresectoscopy). This technique involves the use of special endoscopic equipment, which is equipped with a video camera and completed with the necessary instruments. The operation is performed under intravenous anesthesia and takes about 30 minutes. After removing the polyp, the doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs to prevent complications. The operation also implies a short rehabilitation period, the course of which will be described in detail by the attending physician.
Treatment of nabotovye cysts of the cervix
Despite the fact that nabotovye cysts are not accompanied by any symptoms and do not affect a woman’s fertility, their treatment is necessary in
without fail.The main danger of this disease is a significant increase in the risk of developing infectious and inflammatory complications in the pelvic organs. In cases where the size of the cysts is small and their number is small, the doctor may use a wait and see approach. It implies dynamic monitoring of the state of neoplasms and the appointment of treatment in cases where they begin to increase in size. If the cysts are large, lead to deformation of the cervix, or are often accompanied by infectious or inflammatory complications, then treatment is carried out as soon as possible.
Remove nabotovy cysts surgically. Classical surgery involves piercing the cyst wall, emptying it and rinsing the cavity and coagulation of the bed. Also, cysts can be cauterized with liquid nitrogen or chemicals, removed with a laser or radio wave method. After removal for prophylactic purposes, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Treatment of cervicitis and endocervicitis
Taking into account the inflammatory nature of cervicitis and endocervicitis, the treatment of these diseases is carried out by conservative methods.The frequent combination of cervicitis and endocervicitis with other gynecological pathologies is also taken into account. That is why treatment often involves the appointment of drugs from several groups, including:
- Hormonal drugs
- Anti-inflammatory drugs
- Antifungal drugs
- Antiviral drugs
Complex therapy is most effective when it is prescribed for an acute process systemically and not locally. If the treatment of cervicitis and endocervicitis is not carried out, then the diseases with a high degree of probability become chronic. In this case, conservative therapy may be ineffective, and the doctor has to prescribe surgical techniques – cryodestruction, laser and electrosurgical treatment.
How to reduce the risk of cancer? Myths about the disease and advice from an oncologist
Is it true that cancer can be contracted and can be cured with baking soda?
World Cancer Day is celebrated on 4 February with a focus on promoting awareness and fighting prejudice associated with the disease.
On this occasion, the BBC Russian Service spoke with oncologist ohm Alexander ohm Petrovsky m, who dispelled several main myths about oncology, spoke about the situation with cancer treatment in Russia ; and what to do to reduce the risk of the disease.
With the Deputy Director for Science of the National Medical Research Center of Oncology named after V.I. N.N.Blokhina spoke Ekaterina Sedlyarova.
BBC: Is it true that everyone has cancer cells?
Alexander Petrovsky : Really true. The vast majority of people have cancer cells. Another thing is that it is absolutely not necessary that they will form into a cancer disease. The immune system often deals with single cells. But when a tumor appears, often the immune system becomes powerless. And the person must be treated.
Photo author, AFP / Getty Images
A symbol of the fight against breast cancer laid out from pink balls on a football field in Beirut
BBC: Can you get cancer?
A.P .: There is no evidence that cancer can be contracted. But we know for sure today that there are certain infections that, if they are in the human body for a long time, can increase the risk of malignant tumors. They are called so – virus-associated tumors.
Cervical cancer in women is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. This tumor occurs almost only in those women who have this type of infection.
Therefore, it is generally impossible to contract cancer as such, but, nevertheless, certain infections can significantly increase the risk of its occurrence.
BBC: One of the myths about cancer – it arose Acts from anger and resentment . Is it really so?
A.P .: There are many reasons for cancer. No one investigated anger and resentment separately, but the stress factor was definitely investigated.And stress is one of the important mechanisms for the emergence of malignant tumors. If resentment and anger cause stress in a person, then it is quite possible that they can increase the risk of malignant tumors.
Petrovsky considers the main obstacle in cancer treatment in Russia to be that most people do not have the habit of going to the doctor for prevention
BBC: Some people think that moles are cancerous cells .
A.P .: None. Moles are benign skin growths. And when we say “cancer”, we mean already a malignant neoplasm. So, almost every person has these benign neoplasms [moles]. Everyone can find a mole. But malignant, fortunately, are rare enough.
BBC: Is it true that ra cage are immortal?
A.P .: No, not true. Immortality does not exist. And in cancer cells as well. They have a certain period of life, and the danger that cancer cells have is that they divide more often. More often and faster than regular cells.
Therefore, tumors develop quickly enough, can lead to significant problems and even death of a person. But each cancer cell itself has its own period of life.
Photo author, Stanislav Krasilnikov / TASS
Caption to photo,
The tumor cells themselves are not transmitted from parents to children, but the family can share a genetic predisposition to cancer among themselves
BBC: Can It happens that the cancer cell will divide, being passed on from parent to child, and thus live indefinitely?
A.P .: The tumor itself is not. But there are genetically determined malignant tumors. Sometimes a person may have certain mutations that lead to the emergence of malignant tumors in entire families, but this does not mean that we inherit the same cancer cell, no.
We pass on a certain sequence of genes that leads to the abnormal development of either clone of the cell. Which, in turn, leads to the appearance of a tumor.
BBC: It is believed that if you don’t smoke too much, lip cancer will develop. ..
A.P .: This is not so. Smoking increases the risk of many tumors, including cancer of the lip, pharynx, tongue, mouth, and so on. And if you do not smoke, then a higher temperature is obtained in the mouth and throat, which provokes burns and somewhat increases the risks [of developing cancer].
But that doesn’t mean you have a lower risk of lung cancer and an increased risk of lip cancer.
BBC: Is it true that cancer cells “ eat ” sweet?
A.P .: Cancer cells, like all cells, need energy. This requires glucose. Glucose is the basis of energy for everything, for any cell in the body. Therefore, this statement is true in relation to any other human cell.
Photo author, Getty Images
Smoking increases the risk of many tumors, including cancer of the lip, pharynx, tongue, oral cavity
BBC: Pr Editing e t Is soda a threat to cancer cells?
A.P .: This is such a big myth that the alkaline environment contributes to the fact that tumor cells die, do not develop … This is not true. If it worked that way, we would all be perfectly treated with baking soda. Unfortunately, there is purely fiction behind this.
BBC: How do you assess the situation with oncology in Russia?
AP: Unfortunately, the number of oncological diseases is increasing every year. As in the whole world. In 2016, about 600 thousand people fell ill.At the same time, unfortunately, about half of them died from this disease.
That is, this problem is indeed very serious and the whole world must fight it, because, unfortunately, oncologists alone cannot cope with oncological diseases.
BBC: Why? No effective drugs? Medicine still not at that level?
A.P .: This is a multifactorial process.Partly due to the fact that the sick come already at common stages, when it is impossible to help a person and really save him. Because the disease has been developing for many years and has spread very much.
Partly due to the fact that we do not yet know how to treat some types of cancer, despite our best efforts. And partly because something is missing somewhere. In some cases, there is a lack of professionalism, in others – medicines, equipment, and so on.
Photo by AFP / Getty Images
Unhealthy diet increases the risk of cancer, but that doesn’t mean cancer cells “feed” on sugars
BBC: Why do people come by the doctor at already at the last stage of cancer?
A.P .: Most often this happens because in Russia most people do not have the habit of going to the doctor when they are doing well. Oncological diseases, unfortunately, give symptoms only when they become widespread. Most often, the symptoms of oncology are not symptoms of the tumor itself, but symptoms of complications of its manifestations.
The second reason is that some people do not believe [in medicine]. After all, there is still a myth that cancer is a fatal disease and, whatever you do, the treatment will only make it worse, and the disease will still progress and lead to death.This is not true.
Therefore, some, not believing in traditional medicine, postpone their visit to the doctor as much as possible until they feel really bad. Or they begin to use untested, unconventional methods, which, unfortunately, have only one result.
All this leads to the fact that we cannot cure patients who come to us at common stages.
Photo author, Stanislav Krasilnikov / TASS
According to Petrovsky, 80% of children with cancer now fully recover
BBC: Is it enough to check every year or, say, every half a year to cultivate the habit to come to the appointment at doctor at on time ?
A.P .: Developing a good habit is not easy at all. These are just bad habits we cultivate well …
Any woman knows that from time to time she has to go to the gynecologist. The dentist should be visited regularly. But many skip these habits.
It is necessary not only to go to the gynecologist. There are also other organs in humans. It is necessary to pay attention to the entire body, or at least to those organs where tumors develop most often.
There is a method for early detection of tumors.We can heal almost any tumor at the first stage. At least all of the most common. For example, cancer of the lung, stomach, colon, breast, cervix, prostate.
Photo author, AFP / Getty
Women should be regularly examined by a gynecologist and mammologist, but many neglect such preventive examinations
There are also those tumors that are very difficult to diagnose at an early stage. Let’s say pancreatic cancer.Unfortunately, he is also poorly treated.
If we talk about tumors of the hematopoietic tissue, their diagnosis at an early stage is generally absent. But they are very well treated. Even in common stages.
In principle, a person’s more responsible attitude to their health and regular examinations, even when there are no symptoms, would significantly change the situation.
Photo author, Getty Images
Scientists are constantly improving methods for diagnosing cancer at an early stage
BBC: And yet, are you seeing some progress in ? that the number of people with a responsible attitude to their health is increasing ?
A.P .: There is progress. There are more and more such patients, but we still have a reserve for development. In Russia, about 53% of cancer patients are those who have tumors in the first and second stages. In developed countries, there are about 70% of such patients.
BBC: A exists Is there a gender difference?
AP: In Russia, women live longer, so they get sick more. But the incidence is higher in men, if we recalculate the indicators for age.In each age group, it turns out that men get sick more often.
BBC: Does the Environment and Ecology Affect Cancer Incidence?
A.P .: Of course. If a person lives next to a hazardous industry that releases carcinogens into the environment, then the risk for this person is higher than that of someone who lives in a clean Siberian forest.
And we, residents of a metropolis, are more likely to get sick than a person who lives in an ecologically clean area of the country.
How selfies can save your life
BBC: What can you note modern innovations in oncology treatment? How expensive is cancer therapy now ?
AP: Development is ongoing and in all directions: in surgery, in radiation and drug therapy.
There are hundreds of anticancer drugs now, and new ones are constantly appearing. All this leads to a significant improvement in treatment results. And those patients who were previously considered incurable are now recovering.
Fifty years ago, 80% of children with cancer died. Now the situation is reversed – 80% of children are recovering. Fully. They never remember it again, they live an ordinary life.
Photo author, Dmitry Serebryakov / TASS
This is largely the contribution of our understanding of how cancer develops, how it proceeds, what mechanisms need to be influenced.The results of this understanding are the creation of new drugs, a change in the tactics and ideology of treatment.
As for the cost, of course, each new type of treatment is more expensive than the previous one. Anticancer drugs can be disastrously expensive today.
BBC: How much?
AP: A person’s treatment can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars a year. It is very difficult to choose an economic model that would cover all the necessary treatment costs.
Photo author, Sergei Fadeichev / TASS
In Russia, medical care is at the mercy of the regions. Unfortunately, it turns out that the region that is economically more successful has more opportunities to treat patients compared to the region where the economic component is lagging behind. And this leads to a slightly different level of care for cancer patients in different regions of the Russian Federation.
BBC: C Affect this area? After all, big pharma is all in the West.
AP: There are difficulties with Crimea, because some Western companies refuse to work with this region. But in general, there are no restrictions, with the exception of economic ones. There are federal centers for Crimean residents where they can receive all the necessary treatment.
BBC: Which country is currently practicing the most advanced cancer treatments ?
A.P .: This is not an entirely correct question. Science has no boundaries. There is no Russian science, American science, and so on. This is a world heritage.
As soon as something is published in [scientific peer-reviewed] journals, all of these techniques become known, available. And if you have the opportunity, you use them and treat patients according to the latest technology.
Photo author, AFP / Getty Images
Duchess of Cambridge during a visit to the German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg (July 2017)
BBC: Why then people from Russia going to Israel or Germany for treatment?
A.P .: This is largely due to the myth that something is better somewhere. In the overwhelming majority of cases, a person simply has a financial opportunity, and he uses this opportunity. Again: in most cases, there are no significant differences in the treatment of patients in Germany, Israel and leading institutions in Russia.
BBC: But there is data, that more positive outcomes in people who left for treatment …
A.P .: Indeed, such statistics exist. It’s just that when you start counting everything based on a specific category of patients, it turns out that there is no significant difference.
Unfortunately, in many Western countries the average level of an oncologist may be slightly higher than the average level of such doctors in Russia.
Oncology is a problem that is solved not only by oncologists. We are visited by patients who have already been examined before or have not gone to doctors at all.They might not be immediately diagnosed. Or it may not be possible to immediately make the correct diagnosis, or not to perform some diagnostic procedures on time. This can lead to prolongation of the disease.
But if we take the leading Russian centers and compare them with the leading foreign clinics, we will see that although sometimes we lose to them in the organization, in the level of comfort, but in terms of the technologies used and the results we are, in general, at one level.
BBC : What was the worst experience in of your practice?
A.P .: I still cannot understand how this happens. Sometimes a woman is diagnosed with an oncological disease, even if it is not the most terrible and difficult (she will be cured, but the disease worsens the quality of her life and, in a sense, inhibits her functioning as women and wives) – and at such a difficult moment, some men abandon such women.
Photo author, AFP / Getty Images
Women who lost their breasts in the fight against cancer in 2017 participated in the frank X Cancerland show at New York Fashion Week
This is always the most incomprehensible situation for me , but this is not professional, but vital.Humanly, it is difficult for me to come to terms with such situations. They have a greater effect on me b o than professional [difficulties].
BBC: What advice would you give our readers ? Three main ones.
A.P .: First advice: go to the doctor when nothing hurts. And do all the research you need. Women should go to the gynecologist and examine the mammary glands, men – the prostate gland.We all need to check the lungs, colon and stomach.
Second: when something starts to bother you, you should immediately go to a specialist doctor. Especially [problems with this] we see in people who have reduced social responsibility.
And third. The hardest part. Try to protect yourself as much as possible from bad habits. Smoking, alcohol abuse, junk food. All this directly affects our health, including leads to oncology.
Effective treatment of cervical erosion in Kazan
Most often, cervical erosion does not manifest itself in any way, and for a girl it often becomes an unpleasant surprise during a routine gynecological examination.
For some, on the contrary, the symptoms are pronounced, which causes women a lot of problems. This defect manifests itself in different ways: bloody discharge, pain during and after intercourse, mucopurulent discharge. The latter symptom is most often accompanied by an inflammatory process, which can worsen the course of the disease.
A gynecologist can make a diagnosis at the first visit. However, sometimes a visual inspection may not be enough.
Additional diagnostic methods include:
gynecological examination in mirrors;
smear for oncocytology;
colposcopy – examination of the cervix using a special optical device, which allows you to magnify the image several times;
cervical biopsy – taking a small piece from the cervix, further examination of which allows you to make an accurate diagnosis.
Once the diagnosis of cervical erosion has been confirmed, treatment can begin. The method of treatment is selected based on the size and type of the lesion, as well as the severity of the disease. Of course, the treatment of cervical erosion in Kazan should be comprehensive.
Basic treatment methods in our clinic:
Anti-inflammatory or hormonal therapy, it is also possible to prescribe antibacterial, antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs;
Radio wave treatment.
If you are interested in the prices for the treatment of cervical erosion, you can always check them with the administrators or in the corresponding section on the website.
Radiowave treatment of cervical erosion
Let us tell you more about the radio wave treatment of cervical erosion.
This method is the effect of a high-frequency Surgitron apparatus on the affected area. The operation of this device involves the evaporation of existing defects by radio waves.Tissue cells that resist the effects of waves begin to generate heat, while diverging to the sides and evaporating. Treatment of cervical erosion with radio waves is carried out without pressure on the tissue, while damage is minimal, and an electric burn is simply impossible.
Treatment of cervical erosion by the radio wave method has many advantages:
Sometimes just one procedure is enough to exclude relapses;
Gentle technique without tissue destruction;
Exposure occurs only on the affected area, healthy tissues are not damaged;
Fast healing period;
Strong antimicrobial effect.
Prices for radio wave treatment of cervical erosion will pleasantly please you, and the effect of such treatment will make you forget about such a problem for a long time.
Cryodestruction of the cervix
Cryodestruction of the cervix is a unique technique for eliminating defects of the cervix. Such treatment involves the use of liquid cooled nitrogen (the temperature can reach 180 degrees).
Through vaginal discharge, the pathological tissues affected in this way are removed for several months.After that, the growth of absolutely healthy tissues begins.
The advantage of cryodestruction of cervical erosion is minimal trauma to the walls of the cervix and the exclusion of exposure to healthy epithelial tissue.
High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion of the cervix
What is high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion?
High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) is a sexually transmitted precancerous disease caused by infection with a virus called the human papillomavirus (HPV).Besides the cervix, HSIL usually includes the vagina and vulva. In both women and men, HSIL can also include the anal canal and perianal skin.
HSIL develops after specialized flat cells on the surface of the cervix become infected with the virus. Infected cells show an abnormal developmental pattern called dysplasia. HSIL is not cancer, although HSIL patients have an increased risk of developing a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. For this reason, most HSIL patients are offered treatment to remove an area of abnormal tissue.Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) is an associated condition that is also caused by HPV. However, compared to HSIL, the risk of developing cancer from LSIL is much lower.
Continue reading to learn more about your report on HSIL pathology of the cervix.
The cervix is part of the female reproductive tract. It is located in the lower part of the uterus, where it forms an opening in the endometrial cavity. The outside of the cervix is lined with specialized cells called flat cells that form a barrier on the surface of the cervix called the epithelium.The tissue under the epithelium is called the stroma.
How do pathologists make this diagnosis?
The diagnosis of HSIL is usually made after a small tissue sample is removed during Pap tests or biopsy. The diagnosis can also be made when the cervix is partially or completely removed for another reason.
When examined under a microscope, the abnormal flat cells in HSIL are darker and larger than normal squamous cells. The chromatin or genetic material that is found inside the nucleus of a cell can be characterized as gross or vesicular, which means that they are divided into small groups.In a Pap test, abnormal flat cells often form small clusters, but individual abnormal cells may also be visible.
When a larger tissue sample is removed by biopsy or excision, abnormal squamous cells will only be visible in the epithelium on the surface of the tissue. Unlike normal healthy squamous cells, abnormal cells do not get smaller or flatter as they move from the bottom of the epithelium to the top.
Cells infected with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) produce large amounts of a protein called p16.Your pathologist may do a test called immunohistochemistry to look for p16 inside abnormal cells. This will confirm the diagnosis of HSIL and rule out other conditions that might look like HSIL under a microscope. Almost all cases of HSIL are positive or reactive for p16, which means your pathologist has seen the p16 protein in abnormal cells.
What happens after a squamous intraepithelial lesion is diagnosed with a pap smear?
After you have been diagnosed with HSIL, your doctor should refer you to a specialist who will perform a colposcopy.A colposcopy allows your doctor to see the entire outer surface of the cervix. During a colposcopy, your doctor will look for any areas on the surface of your cervix that look abnormal. If an abnormality is found, the doctor may decide to take a small amount of biopsy to confirm the HSIL diagnosis and look for squamous cell carcinoma. Your doctor may also take a small sample of tissue from the endocervical canal and endometrium.
All HSIL patients should be closely monitored or offered treatment to correct the disease.
Several treatment options are available:
- Laser Ablation – A laser is used to remove an abnormal flat layer on the surface of the cervix.
- Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) – A knife is used to remove tissue from the surface of the cervix.
- Excision of the large loop of the transformation zone (LLETZ) – Similar to LEEP (see above).
- Cold Knife Cone Biopsy – Same as LEEP (see above).
- Hysterectomy – In this procedure, the entire uterus and cervix are removed.This procedure is usually only performed when squamous cell carcinoma occurs and in large tumors.
There are many factors to consider when choosing a treatment option. Talk to your doctor about the options available.
Degree of illness
Larger tissue samples are usually sent for pathological examination as a single piece of tissue, and then the tissue is divided into several pieces before examination under a microscope. Your pathologist will describe the number of parts (or “blocks” as they are often called) that HSIL shows in your report.
For example, your report might say, “3 out of 14 blocks are positive for high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL),” which means that 3 out of 14 pieces of tissue tested show disease.
A margin is any tissue that the surgeon must cut to remove the tumor from your body. If you have had surgery to remove the entire tumor from your body, your pathologist will carefully examine the edge to make sure there are no cancerous cells on the cut tissue.
The number and type of fields will depend on the type of procedure performed to remove the tumor from your body. Typical fields include:
- Endocervical edge – This is where the cervix meets the inside of the uterus.
- Ectocervical margin – This is the lower part of the cervix closest to the vagina.
- Stromal margin – This is the tissue inside the wall of the cervix.
The limit is considered positive when HSIL is visible at the edge of the cut tissue.Detection of HSIL at the border increases the risk that the tumor will grow back at that site.
Jason Wasserman MD, FRCPC (updated Nov 3, 2021)
90,000 How to distinguish real fights from training ones?
Natalya Nikolaevna Shemyakina, head of the obstetric department of the Leleka maternity hospital, will help you figure it out.
Training contractions, or as they are also called, fake, or Braxton Hicks contractions are irregular contractions that do not have an increasing intensity.The uterus may become toned, but normally, it should pass quickly.
For example, the tone arose once in half an hour and the uterus relaxed rather quickly. Then the tone reappeared only after two hours and passed again. These are training contractions, they do not increase in intensity and they do not become more frequent.
Training contractions are physiologically provided by our body. This is how the uterus prepares to do the hard work during childbirth. Normally, training contractions appear in the stages of pregnancy close to childbirth – from the 37th week of pregnancy.
The appearance of training contractions in early pregnancy is not the norm
The uterus can tone up with an active lifestyle, physical exertion, with a change in body position, but this tone should quickly pass. Normally, the uterus should not be toned often. And even more so, contractions, as such, should not be until the 37th week of pregnancy.
Early Brexton Hicks contractions are a threat of premature birth. If a woman has contractions periodically during the day: after an hour, after 2, then again after an hour, (even if they are not regular), for periods up to 37 weeks – such a tone should alert the expectant mother.
Because this is not the norm, but the threat of premature birth. This is a reason to consult a specialist and change your rhythm of life, put on a bandage. The causes of premature birth are most often internal, caused by hormonal disorders and a violation of the woman’s physical health. But significant physical activity and stress can also cause premature birth.
Unlike training contractions, labor contractions are regular. The uterus comes in tone at first once every 15 minutes, and after a while – once every 7-10 minutes.The contractions gradually become more frequent, longer and stronger. And it already occurs every 5 minutes, then 3 and, finally, every 2 minutes.
Real labor contractions are contractions every 2 minutes, 40 seconds. If the contractions intensify within an hour or two – pains that begin in the lower abdomen or in the lower back and spread to the abdomen – most likely these are real labor pains.
Training contractions are NOT so painful as unusual for a woman. When the expectant mother sees how the belly is toning, its shape changes and it becomes dense, like an inflated ball.This may scare you a little. But a woman must understand that in real, labor pains, there must be a clear frequency, increase and increase in frequency over a certain period of time. Real fights never stop, but training ones do. The uterus is either toned or relaxed.
Often women confuse contractions with tone, which is caused by other physiological processes in the body. For example, increased intestinal peristalsis, intestinal infections, colic, etc.
What else should alert a woman ?! If, within an hour or two, the uterus periodically comes to tone and mucous, bloody (streaked with blood or brown) discharge appears, then most likely there are structural changes in the cervix – it opens.Also an important sign to seek help is the passage of the mucous plug long before childbirth. Her discharge in terms of childbirth, a week or two before childbirth is normal.
Tracking labor pains
There are several methods for determining the types of contractions. A woman can do this herself, writing down the frequency and duration of contractions on paper or track them using special programs for a computer and phone. Or you can go to a doctor at an antenatal clinic or a maternity hospital, where a specialist will conduct fetal monitoring (CTG of the fetus).With the help of 2 sensors, the fetal heartbeat, uterine contractions are monitored and it is determined whether these are training contractions or labor.
When to go to the hospital?
If within an hour or two there is an increase and increase in pain, its intensity increases, the frequency of contractions is clear and regularity can be traced, you can go to the hospital. A woman can make a mistake, but it is better to come and make sure for sure whether these are labor or training contractions.
If amniotic fluid leaves, then you can slowly pack up and go to the hospital.Since, normally, after this, labor should begin.
The main thing is that a woman should not panic.