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What does pms stand for in medical terms: definition of PMS by Medical dictionary


PMS Medical Abbreviation



Premenstrual Syndrome

Gynecology, Gynaecology, Obstetrics

Gynecology, Gynaecology, Obstetrics



Personal Medical Services

Contract, Business, Hospital

Contract, Business, Hospital



Phelan-McDermid Syndrome

Syndrome, Genetics, Autism

Syndrome, Genetics, Autism


PMS Pre-Menstrual Syndrome+ 1 variantEmbryology, Health, Business Embryology, Health, Business



Premenstrual Symptoms




PMs PacemakersCardiology Cardiology



Pregnant Mare Serum

Endocrine System, Endocrinology, Health

Endocrine System, Endocrinology, Health



Paint Mixing System

Industry, Construction Industry, Business

Industry, Construction Industry, Business



Payment Management System

Health, Health Service, Government

Health, Health Service, Government



Peritoneal Macrophages

Allergy, Immunology

Allergy, Immunology



Phenazine Methosulfate

Health, Healthcare, Diagnosis

Health, Healthcare, Diagnosis



Pensioner Medical Service

Health, Government

Health, Government



Performance Management System

Management, Technology, Business

Management, Technology, Business



Performance Measures

Military, Technology, Business

Military, Technology, Business



Performance Measurement System

Management, Army, Technology

Management, Army, Technology


PMS PeroxymonosulfateEnvironmental Health, Public Health, Health Environmental Health, Public Health, Health



Power Management System

Architectural, Construction, Electrical Engineering

Architectural, Construction, Electrical Engineering

Definition of Pms at Dictionary.


Most women who menstruate report experiencing symptoms of PMS. One early description of PMS came in a 1931 paper from American gynecologist Robert Frank, who called it premenstrual tension. In that paper, called “The Hormonal Causes of Premenstrual Tension,” Frank wrote: “It is well known that normal women suffer varying degrees of discomfort preceding the onset of menstruation.”

Frank’s work set the stage for British physician Katharina Dalton to help better define premenstrual syndrome in 1953. In her work, Dalton noticed a lack of monthly headaches during pregnancy and figured out that PMS could be treated with progesterone (of which the body has high amounts during pregnancy), a treatment still in use today. The specific phrase premenstrual syndrome is recorded in the 1940s and the abbreviated PMS in the 1970s.

An early popular reference to PMS was in a 1973 All In The Family episode, “The Battle of the Month.” In 1983, the actual words premenstrual syndrome were used in an episode of Taxi. In the 1980s, two women on trial for murder in the UK used severe PMS as a defense, and received reduced sentences that included hormone treatments. Media coverage of the trials helped launched PMS into mainstream usage.

The TV trope of PMS also has contributed to a stereotype of menstruating women as screaming, crying, and being moody and difficult. That stereotype is why, in part, in the 2000s, some doctors and feminists have questioned whether PMS isn’t also a social construct. While the physical symptoms are indisputable, many feel that PMS is used to discredit women as overemotional. As New Zealand researcher Dr. Sarah Romans told The Atlantic in 2012: “The idea that any emotionality in women can be firstly attributed to their reproductive function—we’re skeptical about that.”

PMS Explained – What Does PMS Stand For & How Can You Fight It?

We hear this term thrown around all the time, but what exactly is it? This term describes a set of symptoms that many people with periods experience prior to the beginning of their monthly cycle. Some womxn may only have a few symptoms, while others experience all of them! Over 90% of womxn say they have at least one or two symptoms at some point in their cycle. Unsure of what PMS is? Here’s what you can expect: 

What Does PMS Stand For?

PMS is actually an acronym for premenstrual syndrome. It is a medically recognized syndrome that most commonly occurs to people who get periods during their 30s, but can also be found in teenagers and womxn approaching menopause. Symptoms can include any or all of the following:

  •     Constipation or diarrhea
  •     Cramping
  •     Bloating or a gassy feeling
  •     Awkwardness or clumsiness
  •     Low tolerance of light or noise
  •     Headaches and backaches
  •     Tender or swollen breasts

The best treatment for these physical symptoms are natural remedies that soothe your body! Herbal teas, essential oils, and massages are amazing for relieving PMS period pain because many of us know all too well that the pain is REAL. Try a bundle for PMS that contains natural products that can be delivered to your right to your doorstep so you can stay comfy at home.

What’s PMSing?

If your friends have ever said, “I’m PMSing today,” they are most likely describing the emotional and mental effects of premenstrual syndrome. Because hormones control your period and they are constantly changing throughout the cycle, PMSing can lead you on one wild ride! Possible emotional symptoms include:

  •     Tension, anxiety, or depression
  •     Irritability or hostility
  •     Difficulties concentrating or remembering
  •     Changes in sleep patterns
  •     Changes in appetite
  •     Mood swings and crying spells
  •     Less interest in sex

Many of these symptoms can be treated through a good regimen of self-care. Phew! However, if they interfere with your daily life or bother you in any way, talk to your doctor. There is medical treatment available to you. Do not suffer in silence and remember you are not alone. 

So, what causes PMS?

The medical community hasn’t defined a specific cause for PMS. Hormones may play a role as some people who get periods are more sensitive to hormonal changes than others. It may be more common in woxen with high levels of stress, have a personal history of depression or postpartum depression, or have a family history of depression.

What Can I Do About PMS?

There’s lots you can do to get through this tougher time of the month! You can make lifestyle choices that may reduce your symptoms. For too many people with periods, the PMS meaning is monthly pain and struggle. You have the power to change that by incorporating the following steps into your daily self-love routine:

  1. Choose healthy foods! Food and drinks high in salt, sugar, and caffeine can aggravate PMS symptoms. Avoid these foods two weeks before your period.
  2. Get eight hours of sleep each night. Lack of sleep can actually worsen moodiness of depression. Our favourite show can wait, so get that sleep!
  3. Don’t smoke. There are a million good reasons to kick this habit. Relieving PMS symptoms is just one.
  4. Get regular physical activity. Exercise is great to get the mind and body feeling good again!
  5. Find healthy ways to handle stress. Try journaling, yoga, or just hang out with friends. 
  6. Use natural period products! Keeping the pH levels of your vagina healthy promotes overall wellbeing. Natural tampons and organic pads are the best choice.

Don’t hesitate to reach out for help if PMS is overwhelming you or if you just need an extra hand to help you get through it.

Premenstrual Syndrome – What Is PMS? Physical and Emotional Symptoms

You probably get some signs that your period is coming. For most women, it’s no big deal — maybe tender breasts or a taste for sweets. But for others, the days before their period are harder. If it messes with your daily life, you might have premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Your period is a natural part of your life. And you can do anything you would do any other time of the month. If PMS is a problem for you, there are ways to manage it.

PMS is a group of changes that can affect you on many levels. They can be physical, emotional, or behavioral. The changes come 1 to 2 weeks before your period. Once your period starts or soon after it starts, they’ll go away.


Most women have at least one sign of PMS each month. But it’s not the same for everyone. It can change as you get older. It can be hard to know if you just have a few symptoms before your period, or if it’s really PMS.


One way to think about it is to ask the question: “Do these changes get in the way of my regular life? Do they cause trouble at work or with family and friends?” If you answer yes, it might be PMS. Another way to know is if you have symptoms on the 5 days before your period, for 3 months in a row.

Women with PMS deal with it in lots of ways. You can make changes to improve your diet, sleep, and exercise. You can also learn ways to relax their mind and body. If what you try doesn’t seem to work, you could talk to your doctor.

What It’s Like

PMS shows up in many different ways. Everything in this list could be a sign of PMS. But most women get just a few of these, not all of them.

Physical signs


Emotional signs

  • Tense or anxious
  • Depressed
  • Crying
  • Mood swings
  • Can’t sleep
  • Don’t want to be with people
  • Feel overwhelmed or out of control
  • Angry outbursts

Behavioral signs

  • Forget things
  • Loss of mental focus
  • Tired

Girls and women who still get their period can get PMS. But it’s most common in women who:


Even though PMS is common, doctors don’t know exactly what causes it. It probably has to do with changes in your body chemistry around the time of your period.

Some conditions affect PMS, but don’t cause it. PMS can be brought on, or can get worse if you:

  • Smoke
  • Are under lots of stress
  • Don’t exercise
  • Don’t sleep enough
  • Drink too much alcohol or eat too much salt, red meat, or sugar
  • Are depressed

Women with other health problems may find that those problems get worse before their period. Some of those are migraine headaches, asthma, and allergies.

What You Can Do

There are lots of ways to manage PMS. Even if you can’t totally fix it, it’s nice to know you have the power to help yourself. These ideas might help:

  • Exercise about 30 minutes a day.
  • Eat healthy foods like whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
  • Try to get enough calcium from foods (think dairy, green leafy vegetables, and canned salmon).
  • Avoid salt, caffeine, and alcohol.
  • Don’t smoke.
  • Get plenty of sleep.
  • Work to lower stress.
  • Track your moods and symptoms in a journal.
  • Try over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or naproxen. Be sure to follow the dosing instructions exactly as it says on the label.

Some women take vitamins and minerals like folic acid, magnesium, vitamin B-6, vitamin E, and calcium with vitamin D. Others find that herbal remedies help. If you take any vitamins or supplements, check with your doctor first to make sure it’s safe for you.

What Your Doctor Can Do

If you’ve tried different things, but still have bad PMS, it’s probably time to get help. Make an appointment with your doctor or gynecologist. They’ll ask about your symptoms, your health, and medicines you take. They may take some blood tests to make sure the problem is PMS and not something else.


Your doctor may prescribe medicine. Birth control pills sometimes help with headache and cramps. Antidepressants (medicines that help treat depression) may be an option. Some women take medicine to get rid of extra fluid that makes them feel bloated. Doctors call these diuretics (water pills).

Your doctor might suggest talk therapy. It’s a way to feel better and learn new skills to overcome challenges by talking with a mental health counselor.

If you have notes about your symptoms, bring it to the appointment. Plan ahead about the questions you want to ask. That way you’ll get the best help from your doctor.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)?

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a much more severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It may affect women of childbearing age. It’s a severe and chronic medical condition that needs attention and treatment. Lifestyle changes and sometimes medicines can help manage symptoms.

What causes PMDD?

The exact cause of PMDD is not known. It may be an abnormal reaction to normal hormone changes that happen with each menstrual cycle. The hormone changes can cause a serotonin deficiency. Serotonin is a substance found naturally in the brain and intestines that narrows blood vessels and can affect mood and cause physical symptoms.

What are the risk factors for PMDD?

While any woman can develop PMDD, the following may be at increased risk:

  • Women with a family history of PMS or PMDD  
  • Women with a personal or family history of depression, postpartum depression, or other mood disorders

Other possible risk factors include lower education and cigarette smoking

Talk with your healthcare provider for more information.

What are the symptoms of PMDD?

Symptoms of PMDD appear during the week before menstruation and end within a few days after your period starts. These symptoms disrupt daily living tasks. Symptoms of PMDD are so severe that women have trouble functioning at home, at work, and in relationships during this time. This is markedly different than other times during the month.

The following are the most common symptoms of PMDD:

Psychological symptoms

  • Irritability
  • Nervousness
  • Lack of control
  • Agitation
  • Anger
  • Insomnia
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Depression
  • Severe fatigue
  • Anxiety
  • Confusion
  • Forgetfulness
  • Poor self-image
  • Paranoia
  • Emotional sensitivity
  • Crying spells
  • Moodiness
  • Trouble sleeping

Fluid retention

  • Swelling of the ankles, hands, and feet
  • Periodic weight gain
  • Diminished urine output
  • Breast fullness and pain

Respiratory problems

Eye complaints

  • Vision changes
  • Eye infection

Gastrointestinal symptoms

  • Abdominal cramps
  • Bloating
  • Constipation
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Pelvic heaviness or pressure
  • Backache

Skin problems

  • Acne
  • Skin inflammation with itching
  • Aggravation of other skin disorders, including cold sores

Neurologic and vascular symptoms

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Numbness, prickling, tingling, or heightened sensitivity of arms and/or legs
  • Easy bruising
  • Heart palpitations
  • Muscle spasms


  • Decreased coordination
  • Painful menstruation
  • Diminished sex drive
  • Appetite changes
  • Food cravings
  • Hot flashes

The symptoms of PMDD may look like other conditions or medical problems, such as a thyroid condition, depression, or an anxiety disorder. Always talk with a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is PMDD diagnosed?

Aside from a complete medical history and physical and pelvic exam, there are very few diagnostic tests. Because there are mental health symptoms, your healthcare provider may want you to be evaluated for mental health concerns. In addition, your healthcare provider may ask that you keep a journal or diary of your symptoms for several months. In general, to diagnose PMDD the following symptoms must be present:

  • Over the course of a year, during most menstrual cycles, 5 or more of the following symptoms must be present:
    • Depressed mood
    • Anger or irritability
    • Trouble concentrating
    • Lack of interest in activities once enjoyed
    • Moodiness
    • Increased appetite
    • Insomnia or the need for more sleep
    • Feeling overwhelmed or out of control
    • Other physical symptoms, the most common being belly bloating, breast tenderness, and headache
  • Symptoms that disturb your ability to function in social, work, or other situations
  • Symptoms that are not related to, or exaggerated by, another medical condition

How is PMDD treated?

PMDD is a serious, chronic condition that does need treatment. Several of the following treatment approaches may help relieve or decrease the severity of PMDD symptoms:

  • Changes in diet to increase protein and carbohydrates and decrease sugar, salt, caffeine, and alcohol
  • Regular exercise
  • Stress management
  • Vitamin supplements (such as vitamin B6, calcium, and magnesium)
  • Anti-inflammatory medicines
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
  • Birth control pills

For some women, the severity of symptoms increases over time and lasts until menopause. For this reason, a woman may need treatment for an extended time. Medicine dosage may change throughout the course of treatment.

Key points about PMDD

PMDD is a much more severe form of t premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

The exact cause of PMDD is not known.

  • The main symptoms that distinguish PMDD from other mood disorders or menstrual conditions is when symptoms start and how long they last.
  • Symptoms of PMDD are so severe that it affects your ability to function at home, work and in relationships.
  • Aside from a complete medical history and physical and pelvic exam, there are very few tests to diagnose the condition.
  • Over the course of a year, during most menstrual cycles, 5 or more of the following symptoms must be present:
    • Depressed mood
    • Anger or irritability
    • Trouble concentrating
    • Lack of interest in activities once enjoyed
    • Moodiness
    • Increased appetite
    • Insomnia or feeling very sleepy
    • Feeling overwhelmed or out of control
  • PMDD is a serious, chronic condition that does need treatment that may include lifestyle changes and sometimes medicines.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down the questions you want to be answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also, write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also, know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

What it is, symptoms, and treatments

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, refers to the physical and psychological symptoms that females experience in the week or two leading up to their menstrual period.

Headaches, bloating, cramps, and mood swings are among the most common PMS symptoms. For some, these symptoms are a minor inconvenience. For others, the symptoms can be so severe that they miss work or school.

Most females experience some degree of PMS. In fact, over 90% report experiencing PMS symptoms in the week or two before their period.

In this article we look at PMS, including its symptoms, causes, treatments, and tips for coping. We also discuss when a person should see a doctor about their symptoms.

PMS refers to the diverse range of physical and psychological symptoms that people experience before their menstrual period.

The exact cause of PMS remains unknown. However, natural fluctuations in hormone levels, especially those of estrogen and progesterone, in the week or two before menstruation are likely responsible for the symptoms.

Estrogen and progesterone levels decrease dramatically after ovulation. This could play a major role in the development of PMS symptoms.

The drop in estrogen levels may affect a person’s serotonin levels. Serotonin is a brain chemical that helps regulate mood, sleep, and appetite, all of which PMS affects.

Severe or debilitating PMS symptoms are not common, and they may indicate the presence of an underlying health condition. Speak to a doctor about any severe PMS symptoms.

Image credit: Stephen Kelly, 2019.

PMS symptoms range from mild to severe. Some people get their periods without experiencing any PMS symptoms at all.

For other people, however, PMS symptoms can significantly affect their ability to perform regular activities and may even reduce their quality of life.

Physical symptoms of PMS can include:

Psychological symptoms of PMS can include:

  • low mood
  • feeling tearful or crying
  • irritability or anger
  • depression
  • increased anxiety
  • mood swings
  • social withdrawal
  • problems sleeping, such as insomnia
  • difficulty concentrating
  • decreased libido

In PMS, people may also notice that the symptoms of conditions such as diabetes, depression, and inflammatory bowel syndrome worsen.

Also, age can affect the severity of PMS. During perimenopause, which is the transitional period leading up to menopause, people may experience worsening PMS symptoms.

People may not realize straight away that their symptoms are related to menstruation, especially if they have an irregular cycle.

Keeping a diary of when symptoms occur can help a person notice patterns. If symptoms occur at roughly the same time each month, or at the same stage in a person’s menstrual cycle, they may be due to PMS. If not, the symptoms may have another cause.

Severe or debilitating PMS symptoms are not common. Speak to a doctor if PMS symptoms get in the way of daily life. In some cases, severe symptoms may indicate premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) or another medical condition.

Some conditions affecting the reproductive system, such as endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome, can cause severe PMS. A doctor can help treat these conditions and reduce a person’s symptom frequency and severity.

People may want to consider seeing a doctor if their PMS symptoms do not improve after trying over-the-counter (OTC) medications, home remedies, or lifestyle changes.

Sometimes, taking hormonal contraception can give rise to PMS-like symptoms. This is because these drugs change the levels of hormones in the body.

These symptoms may be less predictable depending on the type of contraception a person is using. People may notice their symptoms get better after they change birth control.

Estimates for how common PMS is vary.

The Office of Women’s Health explain that over 90% of females report experiencing some PMS symptoms.

A 2017 study into premenopausal females reported that although 75% experience at least one PMS symptom, only 8–20% meet the clinical criteria for a diagnosis of PMS.

According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, a healthcare provider will make a clinical diagnosis of PMS when:

  • symptoms interfere with daily activities
  • symptoms appear 5 days before the period starts and end 4 days within it starting
  • symptoms occur for at least 2–3 months

A smaller number of people experience a severe form of PMS called PMDD.

Treatment options for PMS vary depending on a person’s specific symptoms.

People can manage PMS symptoms by taking medications, making dietary changes, exercising, trying self-care methods, and making other lifestyle changes.


Taking OTC and prescription medication can help relieve painful symptoms, such as abdominal cramps and headaches.

Examples of medication that people take to treat PMS include:

  • pain relievers such as acetaminophen, which can help relieve muscle pain, cramps, and headaches
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which can reduce cramp pain, headaches, and muscle aches
  • diuretics, which can help relieve bloating and breast soreness

For severe PMS symptoms, a doctor may recommend that a person starts taking hormonal birth control pills to reduce PMS symptoms. These drugs work by affecting the levels of estrogen and progesterone in the body.

Speak to a doctor about severe PMS. They may prescribe medications to relieve depression, anxiety, or other mood-related symptoms.

Use relaxation techniques

Share on PinterestGentle exercise, such as walking and stretching, can help ease PMS symptoms.

Managing stress and using relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or meditation, can help regulate emotional imbalances due to PMS.

Other examples of stress management and relaxation techniques include:

  • yoga
  • tai chi
  • stretching
  • taking a bath
  • going for a walk
  • journaling
  • speaking with a close friend or loved one
  • meeting with a mental health counselor or therapist

Try gentle exercise

Exercising gently can increase estrogen and progesterone levels, which may help reduce PMS symptoms.

A 2018 study involving college-age females found that 1.5 hours of aerobic exercise each week led to improvements in the following physical PMS symptoms:

  • nausea
  • constipation or diarrhea
  • swelling of breasts
  • bloating
  • flushing
  • increased appetite

It is worth noting that uncontrolled external factors, such as sleep patterns, nutrition, and the participants’ living environments, could have affected these results.

In contrast, the results of a 2017 cross-sectional study did not find a significant association between physical activity and improvements in PMS symptoms.

Relieve bloating

Bloating can make a person feel heavy and lethargic. People can reduce PMS-related bloating by:

  • not eating salty foods, which make bloating worse
  • eating potassium-rich foods, such as bananas
  • staying hydrated
  • doing gentle exercise

Learn more about how to relieve menstrual bloating here.

Relieve menstrual cramps

Menstrual cramps usually arise a few days before the period starts and can last for several days. Trying home remedies such as applying heat to the abdomen, doing gentle exercise, trying massage, and using essential oils can help.

Learn more about how to relieve menstrual cramps here.

Eat certain nutrients

Making some dietary changes may reduce mild to moderate PMS symptoms. The following are some examples of nutrients that may help a person manage their PMS symptoms:

  • Magnesium may help relieve migraine episodes related to PMS. Leafy green vegetables, such as kale and spinach, contain magnesium.
  • Fatty acids may help reduce abdominal cramps related to PMS. Good sources include fish, nuts, and green vegetables.
  • Calcium supports bone strength and density. Having adequate calcium levels also helps regulate mood, sleep, and food cravings. A 2017 double-blind trial study reported that college-age females who consumed 500 milligrams of calcium daily for 2 months had significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and water retention related to PMS.

Most females experience at least one symptom of PMS. Fluctuations in hormone levels might play a significant role in PMS, but the exact cause remains unknown.

A small percentage of people can develop a severe form of PMS called PMDD.

Taking OTC pain relievers, making appropriate dietary changes, and managing stress may all help reduce PMS symptoms.

People may wish to see their doctor if symptoms do not improve, if they worsen despite treatment, or if they interfere with their ability to perform daily tasks.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Symptoms & Treatment


What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)?

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a more serious form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMS causes bloating, headaches and breast tenderness a week or two before your period.

With PMDD, you might have PMS symptoms along with extreme irritability, anxiety or depression. These symptoms improve within a few days after your period starts, but they can be severe enough to interfere with your life.

How common is PMDD?

PMDD affects up to 10% of women who have periods.

Who might get PMDD?

You may be more prone to PMDD if you have:

Symptoms and Causes

What causes PMDD?

Experts don’t know why some women get PMDD. Decreasing levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones after ovulation and before menstruation may trigger symptoms. Serotonin, a brain chemical that regulates mood, hunger and sleep, may also play a role. Serotonin levels, like hormone levels, change throughout your menstrual cycle.

What are the symptoms of PMDD?

PMDD symptoms appear a week or two before menstruation and go away within a few days after your period starts. In addition to PMS symptoms, you may have:

Diagnosis and Tests

How is PMDD diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will take a medical history and evaluate your symptoms. You may need to track your symptoms through one or two menstrual cycles. To diagnose PMDD, your provider will look for five or more PMDD symptoms, including one mood-related symptom. Your provider will rule out or diagnose other conditions such as anxiety, depression or reproductive disorders.

Management and Treatment

How is PMDD managed or treated?

Your healthcare provider may recommend one or more of these treatments to help manage PMDD:

What are the complications of PMDD?

Untreated PMDD can lead to depression and, in severe cases, suicide. The disorder can cause severe emotional distress and negatively affect relationships and careers.

If you’re experiencing suicidal thoughts, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1.800.273.8255. This national network of local crisis centers provides 24/7 free and confidential emotional support to people in suicidal crisis or emotional distress.


How can I prevent PMDD?

Treating existing depression or anxiety may make it less likely that PMS could become PMDD. But PMDD could be related to the way your hormones work, and you might not be able to prevent it. In that case, treatment can bring relief.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with PMDD?

With treatment, most people with PMDD get relief from their symptoms and are able to enjoy life more fully. Talking to a mental health specialist or joining a support group may also help.

Living With

When should I call my healthcare provider?

You should call your healthcare provider if you experience:

  • Extreme anxiety and panic attacks.
  • Feeling like you’ve lost control.
  • Severe depression or suicidal thoughts.
  • Thoughts of harming yourself or others.
  • Uncontrolled anger.

What questions should I ask my healthcare provider?

If you have PMDD, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • Why did I get PMDD?
  • What is the best treatment for me?
  • What are the treatment side effects?
  • Should I change my birth control?
  • What lifestyle changes can I make to manage symptoms?
  • Am I at risk for major depression or suicide?
  • What should I do if I feel seriously depressed or suicidal?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

PMDD is a serious disorder that can negatively affect your life, relationships and career. Women with PMDD may harm themselves or others. If you consistently experience severe depression and anxiety or other PMDD symptoms in the weeks leading up to your period, seek help from your healthcare provider. Medications can get hormone or serotonin levels in check so that you feel more like yourself. PMDD isn’t a problem you have to live with. Don’t put off getting the medical and mental health care you need.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) “Lakhta Clinic


Premenstrual syndrome is also called cyclic syndrome, premenstrual tension syndrome, premenstrual illness, etc. , but more often it is simply PMS. Under this abbreviated name, the syndrome is widely known outside of medicine; in particular, the emotional fluctuations inherent in PMS are readily played up, mainly in a comic light, by the producers of literary and cinematographic products.Meanwhile, there is little funny here.

The word “syndrome” implies the presence of a stable recognizable symptom complex. In this case, even the main, most common symptoms are counted in dozens, and the detailed list of transient dysfunctions possible with PMS includes, according to various sources, from 200 to 300 violations.

The frequency of occurrence is in direct correlation with age, therefore, the average estimates are not reliable enough and in the special literature vary widely – within 40-80% of women of childbearing age.Most authors agree, however, that 4-6% of women suffer from severe and severe premenstrual syndrome.

There are also published data that medical intervention is objectively indicated for at least 25% of women suffering from PMS (in other cases, the condition can be more or less satisfactorily compensated for by their own psychophysiological resources), but in our country only 10 people go to the doctor for premenstrual syndrome. 13% of those in need of treatment.

It should be noted that PMS is mentioned in written sources long before our era, i.e. is not at all one of the “diseases of civilization” and does not serve as a sign of the effeminacy of modern women, who supposedly “wind themselves up” or are looking for an additional reason to attract the attention and sympathy of a partner (surprisingly, this point of view is common even among the patients with PMS themselves) … In recent decades, premenstrual syndrome – and this is a complex and, in fact, a rather strange phenomenon – has been the object of increased attention not only by gynecologists, but also by representatives of a number of other medical specialties.However, to date, a lot of PMS-related questions remain unanswered.


The etiopathogenesis of PMS is unknown. The diversity, polysymptomaticity and variability of this state (in individual cases), and most importantly – a clear cyclical recurrence on certain days of the menstrual cycle naturally lead to the idea of ​​the dominant role of hormonal imbalance. However, the mechanism of such unbalanced hormonal changes has not yet been traced and described with sufficient completeness and evidence.A number of alternative hypotheses are discussed; many researchers are looking for additional factors that form or influence the clinical picture of premenstrual syndrome. Among these factors are mentioned, in particular, a deficiency of certain vitamins and microelements, genetic predisposition, disorders of general metabolism and water-salt metabolism, allergy to one’s own progesterone, an abnormal combination of neurotransmitters produced before menstruation, social and environmental influences, and many others.etc. Perhaps, the cyclic syndrome refers to polyetiological conditions, ie. can be triggered by any combination of many factors, none of which is, however, obligatory.


Manifestations of premenstrual syndrome begin to develop in the luteal phase of the cycle, usually 4-10 before the onset of menstrual flow. As shown above, the possible symptoms are very diverse in their individual combinations. The most common symptoms are irritability, internal tension and inability to relax (hence “premenstrual tension syndrome”), dysthymia (“Everything is wrong and everything is wrong”), depression, transient cognitive impairment (memory, attention), deterioration of hair and skin , painful sensitivity of the mammary glands, digestive disorders, migraine headaches, hypolybidemia, etc.In general, cephalgic, crisis, edematous and other forms of the syndrome, including atypical ones, are distinguished. As a rule, the severity of clinical manifestations begins to decrease at the premenopausal age.


It is easy to see that a thorough study of complaints and anamnesis plays a decisive role in the initial diagnosis of PMS. A gynecological examination is performed, a number of laboratory tests are prescribed. For specific indications, additional instrumental diagnostic procedures are prescribed (to exclude other diseases with cyclic symptoms, for example., endometriosis) and consultations of specialized specialists (in particular, it may be necessary to consult a psychiatrist and / or an experimental psychological examination).


Given the unclear etiopathogenetic mechanisms, there is no common understanding of the optimal therapeutic strategy for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. They begin with the rehabilitation of existing foci of infection and treatment of gynecological diseases, if diagnosed. One or another drug regimen is prescribed, which may include tranquilizers, hormones in balancing proportions, vitamin and / or phytotherapeutic complexes, trace elements, nootropic drugs, diuretics, less often antipsychotics, etc.A variety of physiotherapeutic procedures are quite effective. According to the literature, with PMS it is possible to significantly reduce symptoms and significantly improve the quality in almost all cases.

90,000 “Male PMS”: Myth or Reality?

Severe mood swings, depression, gratuitous lethargy and other symptoms commonly associated with the onset of the menstrual cycle in women also occur in men. Some believe that this is how emotional closeness between partners is manifested – the body of a loving man supposedly adjusts to the rhythm to which the body of the beloved obeys.Sounds dubious? Of course, because our bodies are too different from the point of view of physiology. But does this mean that men who report these kinds of symptoms are just fooling around? D

The menstrual cycle exists to prepare the female reproductive organs for fertilization. A few days before and, in some cases, several weeks after the onset of menstruation, an imbalance of hormones is observed in a woman’s body. Those sensations that a woman experiences at this time are called PMS (premenstrual syndrome).Men do not have menstrual cramps, swelling and headaches that follow cyclical patterns. But their hormonal levels can also change.

In fact, “male PMS” is not a medical concept, but an attempt by amateurs to find a similar (and catchy) term to describe a special psychological state caused by hormonal changes. For the first time, the Scottish physician Gerald Lincoln drew attention to him and even suggested a name – “irritable man syndrome” (CPM).In 2005, therapist Jed Diamond, in a book of the same name, for the first time described in detail how CPM manifests itself and what processes are behind it.

“Contrary to popular belief, men become irritable when their testosterone levels are low, not the other way around. Irritability, depression and withdrawal are the result of a lack of this hormone in the body, ”explains Diamond.

Testosterone levels in men are subject to strong fluctuations – up to four or even five times per hour.

During the day, the level of testosterone in men is not the same: in the morning it is usually increased, and in the evening – decreased.

There are also seasonal fluctuations in the hormone with a peak in November and a decrease in April.

At the age of 40–55, men experience what we call male menopause (or andropause).

Diamond advises men who may be affected by CPM to monitor their hormonal cycles. “For each of us, this period manifests itself in its own way, but we are quite able to prepare for it,” the therapist notes.- The problem is that this phenomenon has not yet been fully understood and studied. Many simply do not attach any importance to this. ”

The good news is that male and female “cycles” cannot influence each other, and the possibility of contracting symptoms from the other is nothing more than a fantasy. “Our research has shown that only female hormonal cycles can synchronize with each other. The manifestations of CPM cannot cause the same reaction in another man or woman if they live together, ”Diamond reassures.

Is it possible to minimize the inconvenience associated with CPM? According to Diamond, the solution to this problem includes proper nutrition (less fatty, sweet and salty) and exercise. If necessary, therapy can also include taking the hormone testosterone – if its level in a man is consistently low.

Based on materials from psychologies.ru

90,000 when emotions are stronger than you / Obstetrics-gynecology, reprudoctology / Articles about health / Articles and encyclopedia / madez.ru

Sudden tearfulness, mood swings, irritability … On the eve of critical days, hormones play a cruel joke with women, and not everyone is able to cope with these conditions. About what premenstrual syndrome is and how doctors can help a woman, we talked with Yanina Stanislavovna Zinkevich, candidate of medical sciences, gynecologist-endocrinologist at the Women’s Health Center.

– Yanina Stanislavovna, from a physiological point of view, is PMS a disease? I don’t want to believe it, because then, probably, 90% of women can be considered sick…

– Unfortunately, few people fully realize the seriousness of this issue. And until some time, premenstrual syndrome really did not cause concern for doctors. However, modern medicine estimates this factor in a completely different way. The condition of women during the second phase of the menstrual cycle can not only cause her discomfort, but even affect the performance of professional duties in the workplace, on family relations. And this is really a problem that can and should be solved with medication.For example, if on the eve of critical days something suddenly flooded a woman and she burst into tears – that’s okay. But if she cries incessantly for several days in a row, we can talk about PMS as a disease.

What happens to the female body? Why are her emotions suddenly spiraling out of control?

– The hormone progesterone is responsible for women’s health, beauty and peace of mind. In the second phase of the menstrual cycle, some time after ovulation, the level of this hormone begins to rise.It is during this period that an imbalance of the two main female hormones – estrogen and progesterone – can occur. As a result, women who release more estrogen on critical days become nervous, irritable and even aggressive, and those who have an increase in the proportion of progesterone feel endless fatigue and depression. In addition, an increase in progesterone in the blood of women causes an increase in glandular tissue and congestion in the blood vessels of the chest, painful sensations, weight gain and fluid retention in the body.Puffiness is, by the way, another type of PMS manifestation.

– On what grounds can a girl determine whether she has premenstrual syndrome and is it time for her to see a gynecologist?

– I recommend at least consulting a doctor if you experience any of the listed symptoms for three months in a row, several days before the onset of critical days. At least, because in the future, the gynecologist, based on the results of your conversation, will draw conclusions about the presence of certain problems, prescribe an examination and, in the future, medical correction.

Do not underestimate the severity and even the danger of premenstrual syndrome for a woman’s health. Studies have shown that women with PMS have a high risk of developing infertility. And if violations are not detected in time, it may be too late.

– If PMS is a disease, then there is a cure? Or is it just a correction of the psychological state?

– Of course, it all depends on the severity of the symptoms.In milder forms, it is enough to correct nutrition, exercise, herbal medicine. So, one of the manifestations of PMS is a strong desire to eat any product. Usually it is necessarily something very unhealthy – very sweet, spicy or salty. While these products, on the contrary, can worsen a woman’s condition, for example, pickles with a tendency to edema.

If it is found that some hormonal imbalance, some wrong reaction of the body to its own hormones, is the cause of premenstrual syndrome, then corrective therapy will be prescribed.

Usually, it is enough to take medication for 6 months to even out the hormonal background of a woman and relieve suffering in the premenstrual period.

To carry out a comprehensive examination and restore the emotional and physical health of a woman at any stage of the menstrual cycle, you will be helped by the specialists of the Center for Women’s Health. Appointment to the gynecologist by phone. 405-999

Material published in the magazine “Wedding”

Key words Mass media about the Center, PMS, endocrinology

Social and clinical features of medicalization of premenstrual syndrome

On the rights of ¡tukopna /

Atagadzhieva Madina Sirazhutdinovna


14.02.05 – social medicine 14.01.01 – obstetrics and gynecology


dissertation for the degree of candidate of medical sciences




The work was performed at the State educational institution of higher

vocational education “Volgograd State Medical University” of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development of the Russian Federation

The defense will take place on March 27, 2010.at 11.30 o’clock at a meeting of the dissertation council D 208.008.04 at the Volgograd State Medical University (400131, Volgograd, Square of the Fallen Fighters, 1) room. 4-10.

The dissertation can be found in the fundamental scientific library of the Volgograd State Medical University.

Abstract sent to

Official opponents:


Scientific consultant

Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Tkachenko Lyudmila Vladimirovna Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Law, Professor Sedova Natalya Nikolaevna Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Fedorovich Oleg Kazimirovich

Lead Organization:

Candidate of Medical Sciences, Doctor of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor Marina Dmitrievna Kovaleva Saratov State Medical University

Scientific Secretary of the Dissertation Council, Associate Professor

Medvedeva L.M.

Relevance of the research topic. At the beginning of our century, Russian researchers (Landa EL., 1908 and Voitsekhovsky I.V., 1909) showed rhythmic fluctuations in neuropsychic activity. The findings of these scientists on the changes in mood, depression, lethargy, depression and irritability that appear before menstruation can be attributed to the first descriptions of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The first publication to give a formal definition of this syndrome dates back to 1931. (Frank).Cyclic emotional disorders, weight gain, hemorrhages of various types, custody and epilepsy have been described by the author as PMS. Ten years later, Gray (1941) described psychosexual disorders as one of the manifestations of PMS. The systemic study of premenstrual disorders and the description of their complex as a syndrome belongs to Dalton (Dalton, 1953). In ICD-10 (Worid Health Organization, 1992), PMS is included in the heading N94-3 “Pain and other disorders associated with female genitals and the menstrual cycle” as a somatic disorder “in the Russian version No. 94.3 Syndrome of premenstrual tension “.

The prevalence of premenstrual syndrome according to domestic and foreign researchers varies from 18% to 92%. This variability is due to the lack of a unified theory of escopathogenesis, a clear classification of the clinical picture. In the last decade, interest in PMS has increased significantly in connection with new data on the occurrence of PMS at an early reproductive age. The age of highest vulnerability has been found to range between 25 and 35 years (Freeman, 1995).On premenstrual days, symptoms of disorders may appear in any system of the female body and in the function of any organ, as a result of which women turn to different specialists (therapists, neurologists, etc.)

The presence of PMS in women interferes with their professional activities, training, habitual social action, and interferes with interpersonal relationships. Its feature is clinical popiformism and a close relationship with autonomic, emotional and mental disorders.Psychological, social and biological factors play a role in the formation of this syndrome. With the progression of the disease, its transformation into a severe climacteric syndrome is possible, which must be taken into account when treating these points. Thus, timely

diagnosis and treatment of PMS in women is an urgent problem in the work of a practicing physician But the problem of PMS is also of great social importance.

The social risks of PMS increase due to an increase in the civilizational load on a woman, and the more she is included in social and work life, the greater the social effect is the synpromising state of the body, and the regularity of PMS puts it in first place among them. The isolation of premenstrual syndrome can have consequences for others in the communicative, industrial, even poetic spheres.Over-medicalization of PMS can either cause a woman to abuse her condition or increase her dependence on health workers and drug manufacturers. (Budarin G.Yu., 2006, Boyaztpova AN, 2007, Mikhailova ON, 2008). The imperfection of the legal framework and the absence of detailed standards for medi cal or PMS do not allow us to avoid either one or the other. Therefore, a comprehensive medical and sociological study of the medicalization of PMS seems to be relevant and practically useful.

Chain of research – determined the necessary and sufficient conditions for the medicalization of premenstrual syndrome for the development of recommendations to improve the quality of life of women suffering from it.

To achieve this goal, it was necessary to solve the following scientific problems:

Based on the analysis of the literature, find out the medical and social characteristics


Based on the materials of our own research, determine the clinical parameters of PMS medicalization;

Conduct a study of the quality of life of women with pre-menstrual syndrome;

Based on the material of a sociological survey, find out the attitude of gynecologists to the medicalization of PMS;

Based on the materials of the survey of patients in antenatal clinics, determine their attitude to the medicalization of PMS;

To develop recommendations for improving the quality of life of women with premenstrual syndrome.

Research hypothesis Premenstrual syndrome is a complex symptomomokomppeke, characterized by a variety of psychoemotional, neuro-vegetative, metabolic endocrine symptoms that appear 2-14 days before menstruation. The complete disappearance of symptoms is observed with the onset of menstruation and relief persists for at least 7 days, so there is an asymptomatic week after menstruation. In the definition of the American National Institute of Psychiatry, it is stated that premenstrual changes, or “the cyclical appearance of symptoms of sufficient severity that disrupt some areas of life and appear in a clear and predictable relationship with menstruation,” increase the intensity of symptoms, assessed in the follicular phase, i.e.That is, on the fifth to tenth day of the menstrual cycle, not less than 30% -50%, compared to the intensity of symptoms, measured in the premenstrual phase (six days before menstruation). In addition, premenstrual changes must have been confirmed for at least two consecutive menstrual cycles.

There is no single point of view on the prevalence of PMS, but most researchers are inclined to believe that it is prevalent in more than 80% of women.There are also no uniform criteria for the provision of medical care in a given period. The syndrome is not a disease. But a woman can receive a certificate of incapacity for work during this period. Therefore, there are variants of it and as a disease. But then the question arises about the parameters of the medicalization of this condition. Both doctors and women themselves are interested in such medicalization, but for different reasons. It is possible to elucidate their attitudes in this matter and have determined “the area of ​​intersection of the needs and capabilities of these two groups of medicalization agents.But it is not possible to do this by purely medical means. It is necessary to use complementary means of the sociology of medicine.

Medicalization is a blessing when it is necessary to alleviate suffering, but it also acts as a social evil in cases of unreasonable expansion of medical interventions, giving medicine an unusual function of social control. We assume that women are interested in medicalizing PMS to improve quality of life, but not interested in increasing medical dependence on doctors and drugs.Doctors are interested in individualized

medicalization of PMS, but are not interested in attributing all women suffering from it to the group of patients. This hypothesis can be verified or refuted by a comprehensive medical and sociological study.

The object of research is premenstrual syndrome as an object of medicalization.

Betrays research – medicalization of PMS as a way to improve the quality of life for women.

The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time the role of doctors and patients as agents of medicalization of premenstrual syndrome has been clarified, a sociological examination of clinical ideas about it has been carried out, and recommendations have been developed to improve the quality of life of women in a PMS situation.

Dissertation candidate, based on the accepted classifications of forms, types and symptoms of PMS and data from his own research, developed the PMS Medicalization Scale:

Needed (extended medicalization) The presence of psychoemotional, neurovegetative and metabolic-etsdocrine symptoms of PMS at the same time; the presence of a cephalgic or crisis form of PMS the presence of a severe form of PMS the presence of PDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder)

Possible (limited medicalization The presence of two groups of symptoms The presence of an edematous form of PMS The presence of a syndrome, not PDD

Inappropriate (non-medicalized PMS) Presence of one group of symptoms Presence of a neuro-mental form Absence of symptoms, other mental illnesses

The dissertation candidate established, on the basis of a study of the quality of life of women in the study and control groups, significant changes in vegetative responsiveness and a high prevalence of vegetative paging syndrome in women with premenstrual syndrome. approximately as 2: 1. Since as the most unpleasant sensations with PMS, the patient eliminated pain (643%),

they also chose pain relievers as a means of help (44.8%). The second place is occupied by sedagovants (253%).

The dissertation candidate found out, ■ according to the majority of gynecological doctors, PMS is considered as a disease or as a marker of another disease that can develop latently, but aggravates the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (893%).

The scientific innovation of the research is disclosed in the provisions submitted to the defense:

1. The medicalization of premenstrual syndrome tends to expand both due to the development of new methods of treatment and due to the interest of its participants. At the same time, patients try to avoid discomfort and get rid of painful sensations through PMS medication, and doctors seek to alleviate their suffering with purely clinical methods, unconsciously expanding their sphere of influence.

2. PMS develops more often in women engaged in mental work (71%), in patients with neurocirculatory distortion (56%), and also 4 times more often in women with underweight (24.6%). This sydrome can occur under the influence of various stress factors caused by physical or mental stress, occupational problems, social insecurity and others.

3. Analysis of complaints of patients with premenstrual syndrome revealed the predominance of pain syndromes and psychovegative disorders.In women of the kosher group, complaints are present in minimal quantities, and they do not change in the dynamics of the menstrual cycle. Typical for women of the main group is the presence of painful and psychovegative complaints in the first half of the menstrual cycle. But they increase sharply in severity in the second half of the cycle.

4. 70.1% of the respondents have attitudes towards PMS medicalization, while 29.9% take a negative position on the evil issue. But all women, indirectly, assessed PMS as a real or potential subject of medical intervention, since none of them recognized it as a natural state that does not require medical intervention. The total number of supporters of documenting the medicalization of PMS (77.8% about) approximately corresponds to the general the number of women focused on its medicalization.

5. The majority of gynecologists are in favor of medicalization of PMS, but limited (88.5%). Doctors fundamentally deny the possibility for a woman to always cope with negative signs of PMS on her own, 11.4% consider a doctor’s help necessary for any manifestation of PMS.

The methodological basis of the study is based on the works of the founder of the national scale of sociology of medicine, academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences A.V. Reshetaikov, the concept of Parsons’ disease, the concept of medicine as social control by U.Sgrong.

Methodological discourse on medicalization is presented by Birke 1999, Rose 1997, Bengon 1991, Conrad and Gabe 1999, Kelly and Field 1994, Nicholson and McLaughlin 1987.

Methods of studying premenstrual synpromis were used in the work: Frank, 1931, Gray, 1941, Dalton, 1953 and LB. Tkachenko, 2006, 2007. The quality of life of women with premenstrual syndrome was studied in accordance with the methodology developed by Kupperman, 1998.

The theoretical and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that for the first time the permissible limits of medication for premenstrual syndrome have been determined, which makes it possible to concretize the work of that ogtgamization of medical interventions.The PMS Medicalization Scale developed by the author can become a model basis for the development of similar scales for different forms and types of PMS.

The author’s program of a sociological study of the attitude of doctors and patients to the medicalization of premenstrual syndrome can be used in the development of standards for the provision of medical care for women with PMS, and the data obtained by the author can be used in the development of legislative provisions regulating the attitude of society to work, actions and misconduct of women in a state of PMS.

The general conclusions of the dissertation can be used in regional and federal programs to improve the quality of life of women and protect their health. The dissertation materials will be useful in undergraduate and postgraduate education of doctors.

The dissertation was approved at scientific forums of different levels (Moscow, 2009, Volgograd, 2007, Samara, 2008, Saratov, 2009, Arkhangelsk, 2009, etc.). Based on materials

research A methodological guide for students of the Faculty of Advanced Training of Physicians of the Volgograd State Medical University “The role of a gynecologist in the medicalization of premenstrual syndrome” has been developed.Dissertshtg is a co-author of the educational and methodological manual “Premenstrual Syndrome: Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, Treatment”. The program for sociological research and the program for studying QOL in women with premenstrual syndrome developed by the dissertation student are confirmed by the copyright certificate. The dissertation was examined by the Regional Ethics Committee of the Volgograd Region.

Based on the materials of the dissertation, 10 scientific works were published, including 2 in editions recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission.

The structure of the thesis.The thesis consists of an Introduction, three chapters, a Conclusion, a List of References (196 sources) and an Appendix. Volume of work – 149 pages

MAIN CONTENT OF WORK IN INTRODUCTION the relevance of the topic is substantiated, a chain, tasks,

scientific novelty, theoretical and practical significance of the work, characterized by

methodological base of the research.

Chapter 1 “LITERATURE REVIEW” includes two paragraphs §1.1.

“Premenstrual sicarom: clinical aspect” is

observational study of cumulative data on etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and

PMS treatment, as described in the modern medical literature.Dissertation candidate

suggests that there is considerable disagreement about the frequency of occurrence of PMS in terms of

to the data of domestic and foreign literature The general conclusion of the candidate is

what is currently most widely used for the treatment of PMS

mainly symptomatic methods This includes diet therapy, hormonal

drugs, prostaglatsdin synthesis inhibitors, physiotherapeutic effects,

acupuncture and others. Psychotropic drugs are rarely recommended. there is

reasons to assume that low, with the exception of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis,

The effectiveness of the recommended treatments for PMS is aimed at normalizing only

separate links of pathogenesis. Therefore, clinicians conclude that it is necessary to search

new pathogenetically substantiated methods of treatment of this pathology.

Section 12 “Premenstrual Syndrome: Sociocultural Aspect” discusses studies of premenstrual syndrome in Western sociology of medicine, since Russian sociologists have not yet paid any noticeable attention to this.The dissertation candidate discusses with representatives of the feminist direction and comes to the conclusion that the biomedical focus on menstruation, the existing legal experience of medical and scientific research, can have dangerous consequences for women and for the status of women in society. Health care transfers physiological and psychological symptoms into disease diagnoses. Reports in the scientific and secular media ignore the positives often cited in reviews and interviews of women who do not consult with doctors – euphoria, energy, and well-being.While the treatment of premenstrual physiological and psychological effects brings relief to women suffering from them, the syndromes pass through all periods of a woman’s life. These syndromes, in general, reduce the social salus of women, they are cited as an assertion of women’s insecurity in the role of a skilled worker, and as an inability to take leadership positions. Therefore, the author considers it fair to criticize the biomedical model of menstruation, which focuses on the negative attitude towards the dependent status of women, as well as the risk and side effects of long-term therapy with anidepressants, when the lack of social assistance provokes an expansion of the medicalization of premenstrual syndrome.

Chapter II “MATERIALS AND RESEARCH METHODS” contains the characteristics of the research field and the rationale for the methods used.

The study was conducted at the clinical sites of the Volgograd State Medical University. To clarify the position of gynecologists on the problem of medicalization of PMS, we conducted a study at the clinical base of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the FUV, interviewing doctors and patients about their attitude to PMS. The survey was conducted in 2008. The respondeshi-doctors were selected among the cadets of the Faculty of Advanced Studies of Physicians so that as many regions as possible were represented. The sample consisted of 35 people from 17 regions of Russia.The ratio of men and women, age groups, as well as the distribution by length of service and the nature of activity corresponds to the distribution in the group

obstetricians-gynecologists practicing in public health institutions in Russia as a whole.

The research program also included a questionnaire survey of female patients on their attitude to the medicalization of PMS. The term “medicalization” was not used in the questionnaires, because the respondents did not know it. Their opinion was found out through comparative analysis on direct and indirect questions.Open sub-questions were included in the questionnaire, but we did not receive information on them.

194 patients of antenatal clinics in Volgograd were interviewed. The sample includes only menstruating women of fertile age. Age representation corresponds to the age distribution in the general population. The survey was conducted from January 14 to February 14, 2008, the general population – all women of fertile age who attended antenatal clinics in Volgograd for a given period.

Manifestations of premenstrual syndrome, prevalence of complaints among patients with premenstrual syndrome and healthy women were studied using the modified Kupperman scale

In the analysis of the QoL of women with premenstrual syndrome, a self-assessment table of the state of women during the menstrual cycle, developed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Volgograd State Medical University, was used, where women rate their symptoms in 1 and 2 halves of the cycle.

Chapter III “OWN RESULTS AND DISCUSSION” contains four paragraphs in §3.1 Clinical Parameters of PMS Medicalization characterizes medicalization as the process during which a condition or behavior becomes defined as a medical problem requiring medical resolution is known as medicalization (Konrad and Schneider 1992). Medicalization is not a mere coincidence; rather, it is the final stage in a series of events. In order for medicalization to become a social reality, one or more organized social groups must be interested in such an outcome and have sufficient resources (forces) (including public opinion, the position of insurance companies and health authorities) to accept the new situation.

Physicians play a major role in the medicalization of premenstrual syndrome (Figueg, 1996), but the role of patients is also great. To determine the required volume of medicalization of PMS, firstly, the number of women suffering from it should be determined. If it is large enough, this phenomenon should certainly be medicalized. Secondly, the clinical parameters of the intervention should be determined – it should not be insufficient, but it should not be excessive either. In the latter case, we will be dealing with an unreasonable expansion of medicalization.Third, the social consequences of PMS should be considered. Is it possible to classify women suffering from it at risk as dangerous to others? Should the courts have considered this condition as mitigating when committing illegal acts? Fourth, what ways can a woman with PMS be able to alleviate in cases where she does not want or cannot go to the doctor? Is she able to cope with the malaise on her own, or does she not need to cope with it at all? Both sociologists and clinicians are looking for answers to these questions.

In studies conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Volgograd State Medical University, in which the dissertation candidate participated, it was shown that PMS develops more often in women engaged in engaged labor (71%), in patients with neurocirculatory dysgonia (56%), as well as 4 times more often in women with underweight (24. 6%). This syndrome can occur under the influence of various stress factors caused by physical or mental stress, occupational problems, social insecurity and others.

It has been established that the presence in the perinatal period of the development of women such complications as prolonged labor (20%), intrauterine hypoxia and fetal malnutrition (11.8%) are unfavorable factors for the occurrence of incompetence of the hypothalamic-hapophyseal system (TTC), subsequently transforming in the PMS.

As a result of these studies, it was revealed that an unfavorable factor is a high infectious morbidity at the age of 5 to 7 years, as well as the presence of extragenital diseases in patients (brain injury, diseases of ENT organs, appencectomy at prepubertal age).It was found that the neuroecdocrine pathology of the mother (neurocirculatory dystonia – 30.5%, climacteric syndrome – 18.5%, PMS –

18%, thyroid pathology – 3.5%) can serve as a predisposing factor for the development of PMS.

It has also been established that the provoking factor for the development of PMS is unrealized motherhood in 92% of women.

Differential diagnosis in women with complaints in the premenstrual period requires taking into account a large number of mental and somatic disorders that can mimic, exacerbate or accompany premenstrual syndrome.Therefore, it is extremely important to collect a detailed medical history and carefully examine each patient.

LV Tkachenko proposed an algorithm for examining ballrooms with PMS, which will facilitate the doctor’s work and will contribute to the correct diagnosis and treatment of PMS, it will be useful in the examination.

Classifications of forms, symptoms and severity of PMS manifestations developed by various authors are given in the work. At the same time, special attention is paid to the fact that premenstrual syndrome meets the criteria for premenstrual syndrome given in ICD-10, but not the criteria for dasphoric premenstrual disorder DSM-IV. The dissertation candidate benefits from the fact that medacalization is necessary for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, possibly – for premenstrual syndrome. In the situation of other mental illnesses – the expansion of primary methods of medicalization.

The established increase in the level of lipid peroxidation in patients with premenstrual syndrome, compared with healthy women, indicates the need to include drugs with antioxidant properties in complex treatment (LV.Tkachenko, YABLvanova, 2002). A high therapeutic effect was obtained after the application of a combined treatment using attkzhsidash (LV Tkachenko, L. Bivanova, 2002):

• adherence to a diet, especially in the second phase of the cycle, with restriction of coffee, tea, food, liquids, animal fats, milk;

• suppositories with diclofenac 50mg 1 suppository, per rectum, at night in the second half of the menstrual cycle, for 10 days;

• vitamin B6 0.02 g-2 times a day from 18 to 28 days of the menstrual cycle;

• Valerian 0.02 g three times a day during the menstrual cycle;

• acgoprotekgor with antioxidant activity – bemigil 0D5g once a day from the 19th to the 28th day of the menstrual cycle, taken in the morning, since when the drug is prescribed in the evening, falling asleep may be disturbed.While taking bemitl, a diet rich in carbohydrates is recommended, taking the drug after meals.

• vitamin E (tocopherol acetate) 400 mg twice a day from the 24th to the 28th day of the menstrual cycle

Thus, the volumes and variations of PMS medicalization are stated. On the basis of the data obtained, the dissertation candidate developed the PMS Medicalization Scale (see page 7 of this abstract).

An indication for the expansion of PMS medicalization is a decrease in the quality of life of women suffering from it, as described in § 32 “Quality of life for women with premenstrual syndrome.”

The analysis of complaints of patients with premenstrual syndrome revealed the predominance of pain syndromes and psycho-lethargic disorders. The analysis was carried out in the dynamics of the menstrual cycle, both in the first and in the second phase. Table 1 shows the most common complaints among women in the main and control groups. As follows from the above data, women with PMS have complaints that relate to all groups. The leading place among them is occupied by symptoms related to disorders of autonomic support of activity, algic manifestations and emotional lability.In women of the control group, complaints are present in minimal quantities, and they do not change in the dynamics of the menstrual cycle. Typical for women in the main group is the presence of painful and psychovegetative complaints in the first half of the menstrual cycle, but they sharply increase in severity in the second half of the cycle

The study of the neurological status in the main group revealed the presence of focal microsymptomatics in the form of asymmetry of the nasolabial folds, mild anisoreflexia, and outward distortion of the eyeballs in 6 patients (6.25%).In the control group, these

imgyums were observed in 4 women (5.1%). The study of the neurological status did not reveal any dramatic differences between the women of the main and control groups.

On X-ray examination, moderately expressed signs of nutracranial hypertesia were observed in 22 (22.9%) patients of the main group and in 17-21.8%) healthy women. There were no observable traumatic changes in women of both groups.

Echoencephaloscopy of women in both groups did not reveal any displacement of the median structures of the evil brain. Signs of increased intracranial pressure (increased vascular pulsation) were found in 35 (36.45%) women in the main group and in 24 (30.7%) women in the control group.

In a neuroofhalmological study, retinal angiopsy of diaptocyrogan in 7 (48.9%) women of the main group and in 33 (423%) healthy women. In other cases, agalogy is not registered. The levels of reactive anxiety in women with 1MS differed significantly from those in healthy women, while personal anxiety in both groups corresponded to a moderate level. The results of their research on the Spielberger test are reflected in Table 1.

“Table 1.Levels of reactive and personal anxiety in women of the main and control groups

Anxiety Main group Control group

Personal 39.8 ± 2.1 35, SD

Reactive 49 ± 1.5 39.6t2, l

Among the patients of the main group, neurotic disorders were detected in 87.12% of cases. The overwhelming majority – 71 women suffered from neuroses, and 3 patients were diagnosed with neurotic personality development. Analysis of the structure of neurotic disorders depending on the leading syndromes is presented in Table 2.

Table Z The nature of the leading neurotic syndromes in women suffering from I redmeg tsgruala rgm syndrome

Leading syndromes Main group


Asthenic 16 19.0

) non-phobic 3 3.6

(depressive 59 70.2

1 steric 6 7D

The study using the “quality of life” test was carried out only in the ballroom, as the questions in it are specific and aimed at identifying the negative impact of the disease. It was inappropriate to fill it with women in the control group. The test results are presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Quality of life of women suffering from premenstrual syndrome

Investigated parameter Indicator

Physical activity 50.21: 1.3

Assessment of the current life span 45D ± 2.5

Self-assessment 55.5 * 1.8

Anxiety associated with pain problems 75DDZ

Estimation of the future 46, & ± 3.1

Mood 61.8 ± 4.5

Relationship with spouse 38.3 ± 1.6

Social kongakgs 63.1 ± 2.8

Average hours per night 6.9 ± 13

Difficulty falling asleep (% of points) 70.8

Sleep with sleeping pills (% of scores) 15.6

Awakening due to pain (% of patients) 323

Restriction of activity due to pain (% of patients) 53.1

Total estimate (%) 48.4 ± 2.7

The data obtained allow us to conclude that pain manifestations in

premenstrual syndrome reduce the quality of life of patients, negatively affecting not only physical activity, ability to function, mood, self-esteem, assessment of the future, but also the entire system of social relationships (contacts with spouses, relatives, friends, colleagues). Consequently, the presence of this pathology leads to an increase in tension and anxiety, an increase in the level of conflict, a decrease in working capacity and, as a result, to the social maladjustment of women.

This is another argument in favor of PMS medicalization. But how do the doctors themselves relate to her? This is stated in §33 “Medicalization of PMS: the opinion of doctors”.

As indicated in the previous sections of the work, the subjects of medicalization are, first of all, doctors and patients. At the same time, if the former’s attitude towards it is formed on the basis of professional attitudes, then the attitude of the latter is associated, first of all, with the level of quality of life.Therefore, a study was conducted of doctors at the clinical base of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the FUV about their attitude to PMS.

), it seemed that about a quarter of the respondents were not familiar with the PMS problem (25.7%), of whom 8.6% believed that there were no serious studies on this problem in our literature, then it was not true. This means that they are simply not familiar with these investigations and, as a result, with the problem as a whole. None of the doctors admitted that they had never made such a diagnosis, although in the answer to the previous question, six people admitted that they were insufficiently competent.But why, poorly understanding the problem, they still diagnose PMS in their patients? Perhaps they valued their knowledge in this area too modestly. Perhaps they did not give an honest answer to the second question. Most likely, they simply found it difficult to answer, which correlates with the total number of those who have come together – 11.4%. But it was important to find out how often this diagnosis was miscarried, since it is this fact that is taken into account when assessing the degree of medicalization of PMS. (it seemed that there were almost twice as many obvious supporters of the medicalization of PMS as there were 3 who doubted it. Although doubters sometimes make this diagnosis, therefore, the necessity of medicalization itself does not deny.

The next question in the questionnaire was directly related to the content of medicalization, was asked to doctors in a form that did not cause them any difficulty in answering: Do you consider it possible to prescribe drug therapy in case of complaints about the redmenstrual system? ” Only a fourth of the respondents unconditionally admit the need for PMS medicalization (25.7%).But only 1 person (2.9%) denies it at all, then it is within the margin of error and does not affect the overall result. The fact that 60% of the respondents are only concerned about the need to take into account the individual characteristics of patients with szdegelsguer that they are good professionals, but not about the fact that they are tricky about medication in a PMS situation. Some emotions are caused by the answer “I can prescribe, at the request of the patient” (8.7%). Since the doctor, at the patient’s request, has no right to prescribe treatment that can harm him, only that which can be beneficial, it is obvious that the respondents who chose this answer also recognize the benefits of drug treatment for PMS, i.e.That is, they are more likely to be supporters of medicalization than to its opponents.

This position is quite understandable, since the subject of professional interest of gynecologists is precisely the female body. In addition, they specifically

prepared for fixing “problems” in this organism. But, on the other hand, they have the necessary knowledge and experience to distinguish illness from the discomfort that every woman experiences before menstruation. Consequently, the recognition of the need for medicalization of PMS for a gynecologist is a purely professional conclusion.

But does this attitude apply to all patients, or is PMS seen as a disease that not everyone suffers from? You can model the situation in terms of formal logic by trying to figure out which of the following syllogisms contains the true conclusion:


/. All women of fertile age must menstruate

2. The state before the onset of menstruation qualifies as premenstrual

syndrome (PMS) _

Therefore, all women of fertile age are expected to experience PMS.


1.In <% zshaatsh {yferttshseov№rsEtadsyukyyzhinstruct

2. Condition before started! menstruation in some cases can qualify as premenstrual syndrome (PMS) _

Accordingly, some women of fertile age may experience PMS.

We found out that there is no consensus among doctors on this issue, although the majority (71.5%) consider the conclusion of the second syllogism to be true.At the same time, those who found it difficult to answer and those who chose the conclusion of the first syllogism can be combined into one group, although the criterion for unification here is through rejection (there is no woman who does not suffer from PMS, it is impossible to determine the percentage of suffering from PMS).The greatest percentage of supporters for the answer “PMS affects more than 40% of women” – 48.6%. But there are quite a lot of those who believe that about 90% are suffering. This is approaching the recognition of PMS as an inevitable condition of all menstruating women and corresponds to the opinion about the need for its medicalization. In principle, everyone except those who found it difficult to answer “, recognizing the presence of PMS in different groups of women, advocate its medicalization.

This conclusion needed verification, so we asked a direct question about the recognition / non-recognition of PMS as a disease.All those who have withdrawn in one way or another interpret PMS as a painful condition, although only 31.4% recognized it as a disease. An exception is

consider those who consider PMS as a psychophysiological marker of a normal menstrual peak (11.4%).

To finally find out the distribution of those who insist on medicalization of PMS and those who do not object to it, we asked the respondents why they consider it possible to intervene and help a woman with PMS. The analysis of rating estimates showed that doctors consider the decline in the quality of life of women in PMS to be the most compelling reason for intervention – 68.6%. It is interesting that in second place was such an incentive as a desire to improve family relations and stabilize a woman’s personal life during this difficult period (50%). In the previous question, we brushed aside the indifference of doctors to social topics related to PMS, but here it suddenly turned out that caring for the patient’s social status plays a very important role for them: 37.1% thought about the woman’s work capacity, about the possibility of antisocial behavior – 5.7 %.

And yet, the largest number of answers corresponds to the doctors’ ideas about PMS as a disease – physiological suffering and the possibility of primary pathology were recognized, respectively, by 48.6% and 45.7% of respondents. Considering that a decrease in the quality of life also occurs in a number of cases in As a result of the disease, we can safely say that the clinical parameters of PMS for gynecologists are reason # 1 for intervention, and social ones are reason # 2.

If doctors recognize the pathological nature or the presence of pathological components in the PMS, which requires their intervention, then how serious do they consider the reasons for such intervention? This was clarified by us by means of an indirect question.Surprisingly, doctors fundamentally deny the possibility for a woman to always cope with the negative signs of PMS on her own. But there were supporters of the fact that a doctor’s help is always required (11.4%).

The majority of respondents, consistently demonstrating professional attitudes in their answers, and not any other, point to the main role of the severity of pathological symptoms (68.6). In principle, we could get such an answer by asking not about PMS, but about any disease.This position is a reflection of the behavior of patients, who, for the most part, go to the doctor when the symptoms of the disease are in something

start to get in the way. If they are easily tolerated, few will agree to spend time visiting the clinic. But it is important for us that the role of PMS medicalization is indirectly recognized by the fact that a) the vector of PMS development is traced towards the disease and b) the doctor is considered as an agent of assistance in this situation.

Social factors in overcoming a woman’s negative manifestations of PMS by doctors are rated very low: the ability for self-realization, self-sufficiency – 0%, intelligence and awareness – 5.7%.The obtained results should have been confirmed by the answers to the question about the direction in which PMS research should develop, but here the first place was taken by psychological research (57.1%). And only in second place are the methods of drug therapy (54.2%), although the difference in the number of responses is insignificant.This suggests that doctors understand the role of socio-psychogenic factors in the fight against negative manifestations of PMS, but do not have sufficient information about them. and therefore experience difficulties in their work.The data obtained do not contradict the previous ones, since both the socio-psychological methods themselves and their use in practice are quite compatible with medicalization, if it is not absolutized, does not expand to such limits when the social component is eliminated. Being supporters of the medicalization of PMS, well versed in the medicinal methods of influencing a woman’s body in this difficult period for her, doctors see the possibility of alleviating her physiological suffering in the non-medical sphere.But they do not know the appropriate methods. However, they are not obliged to own them – the issues of social support, regulatory regulation, psychological adaptation are within the competence of other professional groups.

The position of women themselves and their attitude to the PMS problem is discussed in §3.4 “PMS medication: the opinion of patients.”

The first question of the questionnaire was the question about the awareness of the patients. Most of the patients, to one degree or another, are aware of the problem (85.6%).At the same time, those who read about it themselves (27.3%) turned out to be more than those, the doctor told the din (16.0%). This indirectly indicates that doctors do not play an active role in the formation of patients’ attitudes towards PMS, therefore, their role as agents of medicalization in this case cannot be recognized as decisive.

But being informed and using this information in practice are two different things. Therefore, we asked the respondents if they experience PMS. According to the results of the survey, it turned out that 75.8% of women register PMS, and 14.4% categorically deny it.Moreover, more than a third of patients experience it rather hard (35.6%). In general, more than half (53.1%) of chup classify their condition as severe. Obviously, those who found it difficult to answer., Either do not feel discomfort, or experienced it sometimes, it was insignificant, and therefore easily forgotten. The data obtained made it possible to assume that if the overwhelming majority of patients experience PMS, moreover, more than half of them tolerate it rather hard, then this will be exactly the group that is interested in the medicalization of premenstrual syndrome, i.e.That is, he resorts to the help of a doctor, uses medication and non-medication therapy.

But in the survey 17.0% of the respondents admitted the ineffectiveness of going to the doctor. True, 18.6% nevertheless admitted that they consult with a doctor, but they also noted that they use their own means to relieve discomfort. That is, the doctor does not play a decisive role in resolving the PMS problem, the patients consider it to be purely personal. This can be interpreted as mistrust of the doctor, but it seems to us that, despite the severity of the problem.their condition, patients are used to considering it natural due to the regularity of what is happening. Therefore, they do not treat him the way they treat their other ailments and diseases.

If we evaluate the responses of patients according to the criterion of their attitudes towards PMS medicalization, then 70.1% of respondents have them, while 29.9% take a negative position on this issue. But all women, indirectly, rated PMS as a real or potential subject of medical intervention, since none of them recognized it as a natural condition that does not require medical intervention.

The question arises, however, whether the refusal to help a doctor is not the result of physiological, but socio-psychological experiences in women with PMS? We tried to clarify this issue. Those who did not experience social and psychological difficulties in connection with PMS turned out to be a clear minority (29.4%). Communication problems arise in 24.7%, and certain difficulties in their personal life

experience 45.9% of women. It follows from this that the need for medicalization of PMS in patients may arise not only because of physical discomfort, but also, to no less extent, because of social and psychological discomfort.35.6% of respondents suffer from mental and social discomfort (irritability, aggressiveness, depression). It follows from this that both clinical and psychosocial factors act as incentives for the medicalization of PMS in patients, while the ratio between them according to the survey results looks like 2: 1.

But what kind of medicalization options do women themselves choose? And how focused are they on medication-assisted methods of care? Since the patients noted pain as the most unpleasant sensations in PMS (64.3%), they chose, first of all, pain relievers (44.8%).It is characteristic that the second place is occupied by sedatives (25.3%). Moreover, the ratio of 2: 1 is preserved here as well.

At the same time, attitudes towards PMS medicalization were revealed in 70.1% of the respondents, which fully corresponds to the answers to the question “Do you resort to medical care to alleviate the course of premenstrual syndrome?” There, the same 70. 1% of women showed attitudes towards PMS medicalization. We found out the attitude of patients to the possibility of receiving a certificate of incapacity for work on PMS days.It turned out that only a fifth of the republican women (19.1%) consider it necessary, but there are few categorical opponents – only 15%. The majority, however, prefer freedom of choice in this situation, believing that the opportunity to receive a “sick leave” for them should exist, but only as an opportunity (35%). If we consider that 23.7% are critical of the issue of certificates of incapacity for work in a given period, but admit such an opportunity for those who really suffer, we can say that the total number of supporters of documenting the medicalization of PMS (77.8%), approximately corresponds to the total number of women oriented towards the medicalization itself.

the actual social components of the PMS patient experience and determine their role in attitudes towards its medicalization, we asked about their everyday sensations during this period The number of those who note a decrease in working capacity during this period (17.5%) is close to the number of those who consider it compulsory to issue disability certificates for the diagnosis “Syndrome

premenstrual stress ”(19.1%). One fifth of the resuscitated PMS physiological problems are assessed as social1 (20.1%).Interestingly, when answering the question “Do the surrounding changes in your behavior, mood during PMS period?” a factor of more respondents chose the answer “when how” than when asked about their own social experiences of the PMS. But this only means that women are more concerned about the opinions of others about them than about their own real situation.

It is important to note that PMS as a pathological condition is consistently recorded by respondents in more than half of the answers to all the questions posed.This correlates with their attitude towards the medicalization of this syndrome But – mainly, without the participation of a doctor! We double-checked this position, as it is fundamentally important when discussing the issues of medacalization. The majority of women named … a loved one (34%) as the most desired and reliable assistant in PMS, which was quite unexpected. But in the socio-psychological context (the nth state, this looks convincing. In addition, comparing these data with the scales of QOL indicators presented in §32 of this work, one can understand this position. It is the participation and understanding of a loved one that helps to overcome fears and a decrease in self-esteem in PMS period.

The fact that 22.2% of women rely only on themselves during this period corresponds to the previously obtained data and characterizes the group of “self-sufficient” patients.The underestimation of the role of the psychologist is surprising (2.1%), but the system of psychological support for women in this period in our country has not been worked out at all, therefore the republican women simply do not know about the need and content of psychological assistance. But the fact that only 14.4% of patients hope for the help of a doctor makes one think. Recall the data given above – only 18.6% of women admitted that sometimes they consult with a doctor, and sometimes they accept their own methods of treatment. The question arises: why is helping a doctor in a PMS situation so unpopular with women? In the previous paragraph of the dissertation, based on a survey of doctors, we concluded that the majority of gynecologists are supporters of medicalization of PMS, albeit limited (88.5%).Obviously, their role as agents of PMS medication is very

1 “Being sick” is a physiological assessment, “feeling sick” is a social one, as it characterizes changes in status in connection with a person’s self-esteem.

insignificant Doctors do not contribute in any way to the negative expansion of medicalization – this is a positive point. But they also do not provide the necessary level of medicalization at which it is possible to maintain a sufficiently high quality of life for women with PMS. Although they have all the necessary information and skills for this.

IN THE CONCLUSION the results of the research are summed up, conclusions and practical recommendations are formulated.


1. PMS has several basic forms – neuropsychic, edematous, cephalgic, crisis, as well as atypical forms (vegetative-vascular myocardial dystrophy, hyperthermic, ophthalmic form of migraine, hypersomnic form, “cyclical” severe ulcerative and hyperactive stomatitis, up to , cyclic “bronchial asthma”, indomitable vomiting, irvdocyclig, etc.). Medicalization is necessary for cephalgic and crisis forms, desirable for edematous forms, undesirable for neuropsychiatric forms. Atypical forms correlate with concomitant disease, manifesting the need to expand primary methods of medicalization.

2. Depending on the number of symptoms, the duration and intensity of their manifestation, M.Kuznedova (1970) offers a distinction between mild and severe forms of PMS. PMS medicalization is necessary in severe cases (the appearance of 5-12 symptoms 3-14 days before menstruation, and 2-5 of them (or all) are pronounced).

3. Clinical diagnostic categories have been proposed for differential diagnosis (Bytet & \ Vilkins, 1996): “premenstrual syndrome”, “premenstrual dysphoric disorder”, “premenstrual aggravation”, as well as “other mental illness” and “absence of disorder”. Medicalization is necessary for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, possibly for premenstrual syndrome. In the situation of other mental illnesses – the expansion of primary methods of medicalization.

4. The study of the neurological status in the main group of the examined patients revealed the presence of focal microsymptomatics in the form of asymmetry of the nasolabial folds, mild angaoreflexia, and outward distortion of the eyeballs in 6 patients (6.25%).

In the first control group, these symptoms were observed in 4 women (5.1%). The study of the European status did not reveal significant differences between women of the main and control groups. The revealed EEG changes in the patients of the main group show that intense neuroendocrine shifts in the reproductive system in this pathology cause functional stress in various body systems and reduce the range of dative reactions.

5. There were no patients with a normal level of depression in the main group. The overwhelming majority were women with a clinically expressed level of depressive disorders: moderate and severe (80.2%). Considering that with an indicator of more than 20 points, the appointment of non-depressants was recommended, the number of patients requiring medication for depression was large. Among women in the control group, 76.9% of the level of depression did not go beyond the normal range, and in 23.1% it was within the range of mild and moderate swelling and did not require drug correction.

6. The revealed significant fluctuations in the IWT during the menstrual ileus in women suffering from PMS, as well as the presence of hypersimpagacogonic autonomic responsiveness in every third woman in the second half of the menstrual ikus indicate a pronounced tension of the adaptive-compensatory mechanisms of neurovegetative regulation in this pathology. In women of the main zuppa, the level of reactive anxiety was significantly higher than in healthy women; At the same time, the indices of personal anxiety in both groups were equal to the average level and did not differ significantly.Thus, the personal hyuennosges of patients with premenstrual syndrome and healthy women were suitable, the differences were manifested in their reactions to the current current situation.

7. In women suffering from premenstrual syndrome, neurotic disorders of varying severity are significantly more often detected. Regardless

of the prevailing syndrome, these patients were distinguished by a decreased background mood, a pessimistic assessment of the current life situation, changes in previous interests: to work, study, family.According to the results of studies in women with premenstrual syndrome, the presence of a syndrome of autonomic dysgonia of varying degrees is found

Expressed ™. In the control group, only a mild degree of SVD was found in every third woman.

8. Most of the patients, to one degree or another, are aware of the PMS problem (85.6%). 75.8% of women have PMS, and 14.4% categorically deny it. In general, slightly more than half (53.1%) classify their condition with PMS as severe.

9. Doctors cannot influence the expansion of medicalization through their recommendations to patients, since only 14.4% of patients rely on doctor’s shmosh, and 17.0% of respondents admitted the ineffectiveness of going to a doctor in a PMS situation. Therefore, the role of doctors as agents of medicalization of PMS needs to be intensified.

10. The majority of gynecologists admit that social and psychological methods of helping women in a situation with PMS lag behind clinical methods and believe that they need to be developed in the first place (603%).


1. It is necessary to develop an OST “Premenstrual Syndrome”, which would take into account the clinical parameters of its medicalization that were identified in our study (see table on page 7), and also determine the conditions for issuing a certificate of incapacity for work for PMS sufferers.

2. It is possible to recommend law enforcement and judicial authorities to take into account the PMS factor when considering cases of asocial behavior of women, and forensic experts – to develop criteria for assessing PMS as a factor of social pogogenicity.

3. It is advisable to expand the scope of services of medical psychologists and psychotherapists for women suffering from PMS, including them in the list of services provided under the CHI program.

4. To increase the awareness of patients and doctors about the nature, effects and methods of treatment of premenstrual syndrome, it would be useful to centrally publish a series of scientific and popular scientific materials on this topic.

5. It is useful to introduce the topic “PMS medicalization” at the postgraduate stage of training for the specialties “Obstetrics and Gynecology”, “Neurology”, “Psychiatry” and “Clinical Psychology”. Man in the space of disease: humanitarian methods of researching medicine.Saratov. Publishing house of SSMU. 2009-03 nji-

6. Kurushina O. V., Atagadzhieva M. S. Assessment of the psychoemotional status of women with premenstrual syndrome. // Materials of the X Anniversary All-Russian Scientific Forum “Mother and Child” -Moscow 2009.-OD pl.

7. Tkachenko L.V., Kurushina O.V., Atagadzhieva M.S., Ivanova L.B. Premenstrual syndrome: clinical picture, diagnosis, treatment. Volgograd. VolGMU Publishing House. 2009.-13 pl.

8. Tkachenko L.V., Rybak VA, Kurushina £ 0., Atagadzhieva M.Protection of the reproductive health of the family: Medical and organizational technologies of the XXI century Samara, 2008. – OD pl.

10. Atagadzhieva M.S. Clinical parameters of PMS medicalization. Volgograd Publishing house of VshSMU. 2008-13 pl.



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science against PMS – Knife

Like the Marvel Hulk, she too was transforming – not into a caricatured bitch with PMS, but into a hypersensitive paranoid-depressive version of herself. These hormonal attacks destroyed her relationship, but even after this, the girl did not want to admit their existence for fear that she would be known as a walking stereotype.Finally she shared with me and asked – is there an antidote?

Surprisingly, premenstrual mood swings are still a medical mystery. They are known to be caused by a combination of hormonal fluctuations, individual biology, and environmental factors, but this delicate balance of ingredients makes finding a way out of them a long journey of trial and error.

“PMS has been talked about for as long as there is speech,” says Ira Jaffy, a gynecologist at the Langon Clinic in New York. “If there was one 100% working way to deal with it, we would all use it.But so far no one has found him. ”

I did some research and, as I later told my unhappy friend, found that there are still proactive steps that can be taken to minimize the damage.

The first step is to acknowledge that mood disorders exist, that you may be susceptible to them, and that it is not embarrassing.

Over the past half century, the number of working women has increased dramatically, and discussion of the psychological effects of menstruation has become a taboo.We still live in a world where women are discriminated against just because they have uterine bleeding – remember Donald Trump’s famous attack on Fox News reporter Megyn Kelly: “She has blood gushing everywhere.” Therefore, admitting that periods affects our state of mind can seem risky. But until we start discussing the problem openly, we will not see progress in solving it. So it’s time, right?

What causes mood swings during PMS?

Most women know the physiology of menstruation, but not everyone understands how complex hormonal and chemical changes occur in the body before and after it.

PMS occurs once a month during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which is the 14-day window prior to the onset of menstruation. Not all women suffer from PMS, but 80-90% of them experience some kind of physical and emotional changes on the eve of bleeding, and about 15% experience multiple severe symptoms that seriously affect their lives.

“PMS can have a variety of symptoms,” says Dr. Jaffey. “In particular, increased irritability, short temper, trouble concentrating, and a tendency to cry on small occasions are the same symptoms that define clinical depression.”

Hormonal reasons for this are a lack or excess of estrogen or progesterone at a particular point in time. At the very beginning of the cycle, just after menstruation, estrogen enters the bloodstream, forcing the lining of the uterus to grow new cells. But in the middle of the cycle, the amount of estrogen decreases and the level of progesterone rises, which helps to stabilize these cells. This is key – the progesterone spike usually coincides with mood swings that last until your period begins.As soon as bleeding begins, the level of both hormones drops, and a relief of the psycho-emotional state is observed.

But hormones are only part of the puzzle. Women also experience changes in the rate and volume of secretion of neutrotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). The latter substance is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, also known as the “anti-anxiety neurotransmitter”. GABA reduces anxiety and improves mood.When these neurotransmitters are randomly generated by the body, melancholy, tearfulness, and unreasonable anger ensues.

It would seem that since scientists know what happens to the female body, why can’t they invent a universal pill for PMS? The problem here is not only the complexity of regulating the level of several substances at once and the occurrence of chain reactions, but also that the body of each woman reacts differently to the intervention. The doctor can, according to the analyzes of a particular patient, determine what is not so specific with her hormones, and adjust their level.

But there is no universal medicine, taking which, every girl would feel like herself again.

Elizabeth Burton-Johnson, professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Massachusetts, has been looking for such a drug for years. According to her, surges in hormones and neurotransmitters do not exhaust a number of factors in the onset of PMS – evidence is that women who take hormonal birth control pills are also not immune to mood swings.

The manifestation of PMS symptoms is influenced by the level of cortisol that is released during stress, the food a woman takes, the presence or absence of support on difficult days, smoking, the frequency of sports – and even with the healthiest lifestyle, individual psychological attitudes and characteristics of chemical processes in the brain can ruin everything. Of course, this does not mean that resistance is useless.

Which food helps?

Since we will not wait for a miracle pill, we will have to change our lifestyle, and nutrition plays a crucial role here.It is common knowledge that maintaining normal blood sugar levels is the key to health. When sugar drops, we get irritated, worried, and tired. When it is constantly elevated, it threatens with diabetes, the symptoms of which, oddly enough, are similar.

On the days of the luteal phase, sugar levels fluctuate along with other substances that prevent us from living in peace. According to female nutritionist Robin Srigley, the diet at this time of the month should consist of foods rich in “lean protein” (skinless chicken breasts, tofu and other soy foods, beans, lentils, dairy products, eggs), as well as fiber (bran, berries , pistachios, peanuts, corn), plus some healthy fats (olive oil, nuts, fish).

The trick to trick the body is to add a teaspoon of cinnamon to drinks. The ovaries are insulin sensitive, and cinnamon stimulates the conversion of sugar into energy.

Some studies show that a surge in progesterone reduces the body’s sensitivity to insulin, which is not good – it is this state that causes thoughts like “I need to eat something urgently, otherwise I am now tearing someone apart.”

Food can also help curb estrogen – for this purpose Srigly recommends eating broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale.Their fiber binds the excess amount of the hormone.

The next step is to get rid of anxiety and feelings of dullness by counteracting progesterone. This hormone can induce ravenous appetite, which can be fought with protein-rich foods. Progesterone selectively breaks down proteins, which will increase the metabolic rate by 10% if you eat lean beef, veal, chicken, turkey, fish and seafood.

Now take a vitamin – according to a study by Burton-Johnson, women who consume more vitamin D and calcium are 30-40% less prone to the pangs of premenstrual syndrome.B vitamins also reduce symptoms. Egg and milk for breakfast, salmon and spinach for lunch – and you can do without pills.

The popular cliché that sweets help against PMS is a myth.

On the contrary, dessert should be avoided: it will quickly increase blood sugar, and then drop just as sharply, and the mood will only get worse. The exception is a small piece of the dark chocolate itself.

What is the role of stress?

When we are nervous, the adrenal glands release cortisol into the bloodstream.Too much cortisol means an increased susceptibility to inflammation, poor resistance to infection, and depression. Stress before menstruation causes a vicious circle effect: a release of cortisol – pain – a new release of cortisol.

Therefore, the luteal phase should be the period when you take on whatever brings you pleasure.

Try to postpone important tasks, showdowns and marathons until the beginning of the cycle, read more, walk, do yoga and any other activities that relax you, whether it is cleaning the closet or drawing demons on the pages of the magazine “Relax”.

According to research by Iranian psychologists, partner support significantly reduces the manifestations of PMS, so the best behavior is to share this article with a guy, tell your feelings about your feelings without false shame and ask him to make your life easier. You can also just whine in posts shared only with a group of sympathetic women.

Remember that asking for help is not a sign of weakness, but suffering in silence when you can avoid it is a sign of stupidity.

90,000 “Goodbye, hysterical!” Stories of women from Novosibirsk about the incredible consequences of PMS

In the publication of the Om1 portal.ru – stories of women from Novosibirsk, whose premenstrual syndrome led to incredible consequences, as well as doctor’s advice on how to avoid a severe form of this disease.

“I never thought that PMS could be a serious problem that would literally change my life for the worse. Previously, I didn’t pay attention to my behavior, but at the age of 33–34 years old, I began to clearly express aggression. I could not understand what was happening to me.
How did it all start? At the age of 25, I gave birth to my first daughter, Daria, was on maternity leave for three years.And at the age of 30 I had a son, Artyom. Two years later I went to work (I am an accountant by education). At first everything was fine, but by the age of 33, it was as if I was replaced. And this applies to both relationships with family and colleagues. I had a feeling as if I was not living my life and the world was crumbling. In the morning, she could never yell at the children, throw out all her anger on them. My husband also got a hard time: without realizing it, I could throw a frying pan or a TV remote control into him for the banal “Good morning, honey”.My husband said that it was as if the devil had possessed me, and tried to keep his daughter and son away from me in general, took them to kindergarten or to my mother-in-law. I didn’t agree with his opinion and believed that everyone was to blame, except me.
It was almost the same at work. She reacted with aggression to every request of colleagues (whether it was to prepare a report, print a document or answer a question on the timing of salary payments). She could not answer anyone calmly. And when the director made a remark to me, I found something to answer him in an impolite form.The result – I was fired …
My husband and friends tried to influence me, offered to drink a course of sedatives, go to the doctor, because in a short period of time I seemed to be replaced, but I didn’t really want to listen to them. But in vain! When I accumulated a whole bunch of symptoms (aggression, apathy, headache, constant mood swings, heaviness in the stomach), my husband literally took me to the hospital by force. In the clinic I was examined by a therapist and referred to a psychiatrist. This doctor did not find any ailments in me, he referred me to a gynecologist.There they listened to me, conducted an examination and said: “Elena Viktorovna, you have a regular PMS. Do not worry! I am prescribing a course of treatment with hormones and physiotherapy. This is not a joke, take your health seriously. ” I doubted the objectivity of the diagnosis, because how can PMS affect the condition so radically? I went to a paid clinic, but they said the same thing. As a result, the treatment took about a month, after which my condition began to improve. After some time, I was not recognized.My husband said: “Is my old Lena really back!” After treatment and at home, my relationship began to improve, and after a while I found a new job.
My advice to all women – do not delay the visit to the doctor, it is better to see a specialist on time than to suffer all your life later! I can say with confidence: now my life has changed for the better. I’m happy!”

“The fact that the diagnosis of PMS should be treated by a doctor, I was convinced from my own experience and from the symptoms of my daughter.At the age of 16, I gave birth to a child, everything was fine, I did not have any depression, etc., as is the case with young mothers. But over time, something began to happen in my body – it seems like nothing hurts, but you feel bad and you are ready to kill everyone around you. By the age of 20, I became unrecognizable. I began to treat my husband, with whom we were together literally from school, as an enemy. It constantly seemed to me that he was deceiving me, throwing tantrums over every trifle, and for a banal message to him on the phone from someone she was ready to kill.She asked: “Well, who is she?” Deep down I knew that I was wrong. But she could not do anything with herself. It seemed like in an advertisement: “Everything is bad, nothing helps.” My husband closed himself from me many times in the shower or in the room, because he could not predict what would arise in my head again. Once I threw a plate at him, because he didn’t wash the dishes, threw a scandal over the fact that my husband bought the wrong milk … The list goes on and on. Our life was like a powder keg.My husband tried to smooth over the situation, periodically offered me a massage, gave me gifts, but nothing helped. As a result, he told me: “Goodbye, hysterical! I pack my things and leave. You need to be treated. ” These words sounded like a sentence. I could not come to terms with the fact that a loved one could do this to me. Nevertheless, my state of health was the same – nothing seemed to hurt, but everything was bad. I went to the hospital and referred to a gynecologist. There I was told, they say, where I was before, PMS treatment should not be delayed, as this can lead to disastrous consequences.I underwent a course of treatment, after some time my condition improved, my nerves returned to normal …
Now my daughter is 24 years old, I look at her and see myself at this age. When she noticed the same aggressive behavior towards her husband, she forcibly took her to the gynecologist. I don’t want her to experience the same. ”

“During PMS, I did not notice any signs of aggression, everything was expressed differently with me. For the past two years, every time a few days before my period, I have the desire to eat literally a ton of sweet and fast food.Previously, I was always slim, and recently I have gained up to 70 kilograms. The doctor told me that this comes from a lack of the hormone melatonin in the body, they say, this is a standard syndrome before the menstrual cycle. He prescribed medication for me, advised me to rest more and sign up for the pool.
Now I feel much better, in a few months I have already managed to lose seven kilograms. I believe that every woman should immediately consult a gynecologist when certain symptoms appear, because this particular doctor is truly a doctor for the fair sex. “

PMS is a gynecological, not a psychological problem

In order to thoroughly understand what this three-letter word “PMS” means and how to deal with it, the editors of the Om1.ru portal turned to the head of the gynecological department of the clinic “MEDSI” Inna Alexandrovna Mazur. A specialist in the field of women’s health said that PMS is a pathological symptom complex that is expressed only a few days before menstruation. This is one of the most common diseases among the fair sex of reproductive age.

“Women should understand that from a medical point of view, PMS is not a whim, but a gynecological problem. The history of the detection of this disease goes back a long way – even Hippocrates mentioned in his memoirs that women may experience mood swings before menstruation. If we consider the study of this syndrome closer to our time, then this disease, as a gynecological diagnosis, was first published by Robert Frank in 1931.Later, in 1953, American scientists defined the criteria for diagnosing PMS and developed a treatment plan, that is, from that moment on, premenstrual syndrome began to be treated as a disease. A number of researchers agree that this diagnosis is inherent exclusively in women of reproductive age living in cities with a population of one million and engaged in intellectual work. It turns out that the residents of Novosibirsk are at risk. ”

According to the expert, Russian scientists recently conducted research and found that in our country about 74% of women suffer from premenstrual syndrome.Basically, these are representatives of the fair sex of reproductive age from 15 to 45 years old.

150 PMS symptoms
It’s no secret that every woman experiences PMS individually. For some, this ailment goes away calmly, and for some it is expressed in aggression, mood swings, pain in the head and lower abdomen, and much more. Doctors say that PMS can manifest itself in 150 different symptoms. But one woman can have no more than five or six.These can be reasons of a psychological nature (anxiety, mood swings, tearfulness, irritability), physiological (swelling of the mammary glands, pain in the small pelvis or headaches). Moreover, most often women cannot explain what exactly is wrong with them.

“The normal premenstrual cycle consists of two periods and is due to the functions of the ovaries. In this case, an ovulatory and pre-ovulatory peak occurs and a sharp drop in hormones occurs.Against the background of the so-called collapse, some biochemical or neurochemical mechanisms are triggered in the central nervous system. This happens in absolutely all women. But in someone, the syndrome manifests itself with weak signs, and the patients, in principle, do not notice them. And this means that the ovaries are working correctly, the hormonal background is normal. If a woman has a pronounced aggression, mood swings, pain in different parts of the body during PMS, then you should immediately consult a doctor. Because symptoms can be so severe that they affect quality of life, relationships and overall health. “

There is only one way out – to make an appointment with a doctor. But often patients go to different doctors – depending on the symptoms that prevail. It can be a neurologist, endocrinologist, nutritionist, but they get to the gynecologist last. Therefore, the treatment is less effective.

“If left untreated, PMS can develop into serious illness. Because if we are talking about vivid symptoms, then in the first place are neuropsychiatric or psycho-emotional indicators, which can lead to severe depression and aggression.This can have serious consequences if ignored.

Moreover, if a woman suffers from a severe form of PMS at the age of 30–35, it can lead to premature menopause. Accordingly, these ailments are superimposed on each other, causing serious consequences, up to problems with many vital organs. ”

It is definitely possible to overcome the severe form of PMS! But to a weak degree, it can still be expressed. This ailment has a certain period – several days before menstruation in women of reproductive age.It goes away with menopause. As long as the ovaries are functioning, the likelihood of PMS symptoms will be.

“Now there are modern methods of treating this disease – medication (vitamins and hormonal preparations), physiotherapy and phytotherapy. Along with the complex of treatment, women are offered to change their lifestyle – to devote more time to rest, do fitness or swimming. This has a positive effect on the body. But at the same time, do not forget about the principle: proper nutrition is the key to health and beauty.It is worth reducing the use of salt, coffee, fast food. But often during PMS, women crave junk food. Because during this period, fluid retention occurs, which causes a feeling of constant hunger. Some patients during this period can gain up to five kilograms every month. ”

How to identify PMS?

PMS occurs exclusively a few days before menstruation. Therefore, women should listen carefully to their bodies.

“There is an effective diagnostic tool. This is a questionnaire, each patient can make it individual for herself. It indicates the symptoms that most often appear, the time to understand whether this is due to menstruation or not. And when such a diary is kept (it is enough to keep it for 2-3 months), then an indicative picture emerges that the symptoms are repeated the same, at the same time. That is, the attachment of symptoms to menstruation is a diagnostic criterion for premenstrual syndrome. “

The doctor advises that if you have symptoms of PMS, you should not self-medicate. The right step is to see a doctor who will prescribe an effective treatment. Even if nothing bothers you, then as a preventive measure it is recommended to visit a gynecologist once every six months.

The main thing – do not forget that you are a woman! Love yourself and listen carefully to your body.

Alena Sorokina

90,000 Why are you so craving for sweets during PMS? – B O D Y Z O N E

All women are well aware of this irresistible desire to eat a cake or a chocolate bar, a bun or a bar, a dessert with whipped cream, which occurs about once a month, during “those very” days.What drives our insatiable appetite? Of course, hormones! During the entire monthly cycle, our appetite either decreases or, on the contrary, is activated, and all due to changes in the hormonal background. And so we decided to figure out in more detail what hormones are responsible for such manifestations, and what to do in order not to succumb to the temptation to gorge on harmful sweets.

What is PMS?

This abbreviation stands for “premenstrual syndrome”, and it is characterized by those few days before the very menstrual period, in which many girls experience the most pleasant sensations.Nervousness, irritability, even aggression, aching joints and lower back, swelling and, of course, a very noticeable increase in appetite and the desire to eat something sweet and harmful. All this can be explained in terms of nature, which “took care” of all these unpleasant symptoms. But, in fact, they are necessary.

The female body begins to prepare for a probable pregnancy and for bearing a fetus. It stores nutrients in advance, so that an environment has already been created that will give the fetus everything it needs at first.That is why, subconsciously, we want to eat something as high-calorie as possible (fatty, fried, sweet) in order to accumulate these nutrients in the body in the form of fatty deposits. And here it is worth remembering that the calorie content of foods is not always equal to their nutritional value and usefulness, and therefore you need to carefully monitor your diet in the days before menstruation.

What hormones “increase” appetite?

From a medical point of view, this desire of the body to accumulate calories can be explained by the production of various hormones, with an increase or decrease in their level in the blood.For example, during ovulation (and this is a few days after the end of menstruation), the maximum amount of the so-called “female” hormone estrogen is produced. It is he who is responsible for the synthesis of eggs and for ensuring that pregnancy occurs. If fertilization does not occur, estrogen levels drop and progesterone begins to be produced instead. The peak of its production falls just a few days before the very menstruation, therefore this period is characterized by nervousness and the desire to eat sweets.

Now let’s see why our body so insistently requires sweets? The fact is that the production of hormones is regulated by a special part of the brain – the pituitary gland. And it is quite understandable that it, like any other area of ​​our brain, requires energy to function. The surges of estrogen and progesterone, the need to replace one hormone with another, and to regulate their amount on different days of the cycle, leads to the fact that the brain spends a lot of energy. Accordingly, he will need fast calories, fast energy for saturation and replenishment, which can be obtained primarily from sweets (simple sugars or carbohydrates).At the same time, a high level of progesterone provokes a decrease in blood glucose levels, which, again, makes you want sweets. And the same progesterone will stimulate the production of a large amount of gastric juice, and all the food eaten will be digested faster, provoking additional “outbursts” of hunger.

What to do to resist the temptation?

A slice of quality dark chocolate or a portion of your favorite fruit will not hurt anyone. But if you feel an incredible urge to eat Snickers or something similar (and not very healthy), you need to fight it.And in fact, it is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. Here are some helpful tips for overcoming your “brutal” appetite.

  1. Do not limit yourself to food. This does not mean that you can eat anything. But do not cut back on the calorie content of the diet – before menstruation and during them, any diet will inevitably fail. Try not to go hungry, eat whole meals rich in protein, fat, and carbohydrates, or snacks in between (fruits, dried fruits, vegetables, dairy products, but no cookies!).
  2. Increase the calorie intake. If the body needs a nourishment, give it! But the calorie content of the diet for several days during PMS should not be raised at the expense of harmful sugary foods. It is better to lean on food rich in protein – it takes longer to digest, which means it satiates better, moreover, protein is the main building material for all cells in our body.
  3. Include iron-rich foods in your diet. During menstruation, iron will be actively wasted by our body, and therefore, before these days it is worth stocking up on a sufficient amount of it.Eat red meat, liver, fish and seafood, beets and red fruits.
  4. Limit salt intake. One of the main problems many women and girls experience is puffiness. During PMS, water is retained in the tissues of the body, which is why the kidneys are overloaded, trying to remove it, and edema occurs. You can leave the amount of water the same and drink plenty of it. But for these couple of days, salt must be eliminated almost completely so that it does not provoke fluid retention.

We hope that these tips from our studio BODYZONE will help you overcome your insatiable appetite and endure a couple of “difficult” days!