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What does the clap look like: The Clap (Gonorrhea) Picture Image on MedicineNet.com


Gonorrhea: Causes & Symptoms


Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria.

What is gonorrhea?

Gonorrhea, a bacterial infection, is also called “the clap” or “drip.” It’s a common sexually transmitted disease (STD). You can get gonorrhea by having sex with a person infected with it.

A person can get gonorrhea after a rape. If you have experienced rape or sexual assault, go to an emergency room or call your healthcare provider. Or call the Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN), at 800.656.HOPE (4673) to connect with a trained staff member from a sexual assault service provider in your area.

Who gets gonorrhea?

Sexually active people of any age or gender can get gonorrhea. It spreads easily. Gonorrhea occurs most often in people who have many sex partners and those who don’t use condoms. You may not have any gonorrhea symptoms, so you can spread gonorrhea without knowing it.

How common is gonorrhea?

Around 1.14 million new gonorrhea infections occur in the United States every year. About half of the infections occur in people ages 15 to 24.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes gonorrhea?

Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection. You can get infected when the bacteria enter your body through the penis, anus, vagina or mouth, often during unprotected sex. You can also get or pass gonorrhea through sharing sex toys that haven’t been washed or covered with a new condom. If a pregnant woman has gonorrhea, she can pass it to her baby during birth.

In women, the most common site of infection is the cervix. The cervix is the opening from the vagina to the uterus (womb).

In men, the infection tends to start in the urethra, the tube that helps urine exit the body.

Is gonorrhea contagious?

Gonorrhea is contagious and spreads easily during sexual activity.

However, you can’t spread gonorrhea through casual touching, such as kissing or hugging. You also won’t spread it through sharing bathrooms or plates and cutlery.

What are the gonorrhea symptoms in women?

Women may not have any gonorrhea symptoms. When symptoms are present, they may include:

What are symptoms of gonorrhea in men?

In men, symptoms include:

  • White or yellow discharge from the penis.
  • Pain or burning (possibly severe) when peeing.
  • Throat infection and pain.

Diagnosis and Tests

How do I know if I have gonorrhea?

You may or may not have symptoms of gonorrhea. If you had sex without using a condom, you might be concerned you have an infection, even if you don’t have symptoms.

If you think you have gonorrhea or any STD, contact your healthcare provider. They’ll examine you and perform any necessary tests to figure out if you have an STD.

How is gonorrhea diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will ask you questions about your symptoms and sexual history. A urine test can often diagnose gonorrhea.

During the physical exam, your provider may:

  • Perform a pelvic exam, taking a sample of fluid from the cervix to test.
  • Take a sample of fluid from the penis.
  • Do a throat or anal culture to see if the infection is in those areas.

Your provider will discuss which testing method is best in your situation. You may need to wait a few days for test results to come back from the lab. You may also have chlamydia, another STD. These two infections often occur together. Your provider may test you for both.

Management and Treatment

How is gonorrhea treated?

You’ll need antibiotics to treat gonorrhea. Your provider will tell you if you need the medicine via a shot or by mouth. IM Ceftriaxone and oral azithromycin are prescribed first. Make sure to take your medication as instructed, even if the symptoms improve and you start to feel better.

Never take someone else’s medication to treat your illness. Doing so makes the infection harder to treat.

Does my partner need gonorrhea treatment also?

Yes, your partner is most likely infected, too, so you both need treatment.

What else should I do if I have gonorrhea?

To stay safe and keep your sex partner or partners safe, you should:

  • Tell anyone you had sex with in the last three months that you have gonorrhea. It’s important to do this because gonorrhea may not cause any symptoms. Women especially may not have symptoms and won’t know to get tested and treated.
  • Wait a week after you finish your medication before resuming your sex life.
  • Use condoms and dental dams when you have sex.
  • Get tested for HIV (AIDS) and other STDs (syphilis, herpes, chlamydia).

Can gonorrhea be cured?

Prompt treatment can cure gonorrhea. Take the medication as your provider instructs.


How can I prevent gonorrhea?

The only way to definitely avoid gonorrhea and other STDs is to not have sex (vaginal, oral or anal).

If you are sexually active, you can take steps to protect yourself from gonorrhea:

  • Don’t have sex with someone you know is infected.
  • Always use a condom or dental dam during sex.
  • In addition to a condom, use a spermicide containing nonoxynol-9.
  • Limit sexual partners and get tested.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the outlook for people with gonorrhea?

People who get prompt treatment and follow their treatment instructions carefully can return to normal activity. However, untreated gonorrhea can lead to health complications and even death.

Can gonorrhea be cured?

Yes, treatment can cure gonorrhea. However, this disease is starting to become resistant to antibiotics, making it harder to treat. It’s more important than ever to prevent infection.

What happens if gonorrhea is not treated?

Untreated gonorrhea can cause several long-term health problems.

In women, untreated gonorrhea can:

  • Spread to other reproductive organs, including the uterus and fallopian tubes, and cause pelvic inflammatory disease. PID can cause infertility and tubal pregnancies, which can be life-threatening to the mother and the baby.
  • Cause eye problems in infants born to untreated mothers, leading to blindness.
  • Spread to other parts of the body, causing swollen and painful joints, liver inflammation, and heart valve and brain damage.

In men, untreated gonorrhea can cause:

  • Scars in the urethra.
  • Inflammation of the testicles.
  • Infertility.
  • Prostate pain and inflammation.
  • Other problems if it spreads throughout the body, including swollen and painful joints, liver inflammation, and heart valve and brain damage.

Can I get gonorrhea again?

Yes. Repeat gonorrhea infections are common in people who don’t carefully protect themselves.

What happens if I got gonorrhea, and I’m pregnant?

Talk to your healthcare provider. You can pass the infection to your baby during delivery, which can cause health problems for the baby, including blindness. Your provider will help you get the right testing and treatment to keep you and your baby safe.

Living With

When can I have sex after gonorrhea treatment?

Your healthcare provider will give you instructions about when you can resume your sex life. Typically, you need to wait at least a week after finishing all your medications before having sex.

How can I take care of myself?

If you are sexually active, consider regular STD testing. Since many STDs, including gonorrhea, don’t cause symptoms, you could carry and pass the infection without knowing it. Talk to your healthcare provider about yearly STD and gonorrhea testing if you are sexually active.

What else should I ask my healthcare provider?

If you have gonorrhea, ask your healthcare provider:

  • What medication is best for me?
  • How long do I need to take the medication?
  • When can I resume having sex?
  • How can I avoid getting gonorrhea again?
  • What else do I need to know to stay safe?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Gonorrhea is a common STD. Gonorrhea symptoms include pain and discharge from the penis or vagina. However, many people do not have symptoms. If you think you have gonorrhea, or you had unprotected sex, talk to your healthcare provider about getting tested. With prompt treatment, usually antibiotics, you can cure gonorrhea and prevent long-term health problems. The best way to avoid gonorrhea is to use a condom or dental dam during any sexual activity.

Why is Gonorrhea Called the Clap?

There are many theories as to why the sexually-transmitted disease, gonorrhea, is often referred to as the clap. The name is believed to have derived from French or English language terms, or from the painful treatment that was once used to treat the disease. Gonorrhea is a sexually-transmitted disease that is caused by the bacteria known as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which can be easily spread from person to person. It can be transmitted via vaginal, oral, or anal sex and can be easily cured with antibiotic treatment.

The French Language Theory

One possible theory to the word’s origin is from the French word for brothel, “clapier.” The same term was used in the Middle French language to refer to a rabbit’s nest. Due to the active sex life of rabbits, the term was then used to discuss houses of prostitution. Since at the time, gonorrhea was commonly contracted in these establishments, the name translated began being used for the disease itself. When someone was known to have gonorrhea, they would be said to have “clapier bubo,” with bubo being the term for inflamed lymph nodes in the groin area caused by an infection.

The Old English Language Theory

There is also a theory that the term comes from an old English word, “clappan,” which means to throb or beat. When infected, gonorrhea can lead to pain and burning during urination and a throbbing painful condition in the genitals caused by inflammation from the infection.

The Treatment Theory

When gonorrhea was first known as a disease, medical knowledge was limited, and treatment options with often painful, with little or no improvement. One of the early treatments for gonorrhea in males involved clapping both sides of the penis at the same time in an attempt to push the pus and discharge from the urethra. A penis was also sometimes clapped between a hard surface and a book to achieve the same results. It is no surprise that his form of treatment caused major damage and did little to vacate the infection.

Other Nicknames for Gonorrhea

You may have also heard the term “The Drip,” used for describing cases of gonorrhea, and this term often relates to the visual symptoms associated with a penis that is infected. When infected, a penis may leak or ooze a discharge or drip.

How Does Gonorrhea Spread?

Gonorrhea can spread quite rapidly from person to person through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. The actual infection passes through infected semen or discharge from either the vagina, throat or the rectum. Gonorrhea can be prevented through the use of condoms or a dental dam, during sexual activities. You can also reduce the risk of an infection getting worse or passing it to an uninfected person by having regular healthcare checkups, STI testing,  and seeking treatment when you have the disease.

What Are the Symptoms of Gonorrhea?

Many people have few to no symptoms when they initially contract gonorrhea. When symptoms do appear, they often start with a yellowish-green or thick white discharge coming from the penis or vaginal area. The next symptoms often include:

  • Painful urination.
  • An increase in urination.
  • Pain in the testicles.
  • Pain in the vaginal area.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen that may become severe.

It is important to have regular STI testing if you are at risk of contracting gonorrhea, as 10% to 15% of men will be asymptomatic, and 80% of women may show no symptoms at all.

When May You Show Symptoms of Gonorrhea?

For those who show symptoms, they are likely to show up anywhere from two to seven days after contracting the disease, or in some cases, up to 30 days.

How Common is Gonorrhea?

Gonorrhea is one of the most commonly transmitted STIs across the globe, with 0.8% of women and 0.6% of men in the world developing it at some point in their life. Out of the almost 500 million cases of curable STIs a year, over 100 million of those will be gonorrhea, with the other 400 million cases involving chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and syphilis.

What Can Happen if Your Gonorrhea is Left Untreated?

The good news for those infected with gonorrhea is that it can be easily treated with antibiotics. But it can difficult for you to know when you need to seek treatment because so many people don’t show symptoms. This makes routine STI treatment even more important; if left untreated, gonorrhea can lead to other more serious health complications. Some of the complications that untreated gonorrhea can result in include:

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease, if the infection spreads to the reproductive organs. This can lead to fertility problems.
  • Inflammation of the epididymis, which is the tube that carries sperm from the testicles.
  • Septic arthritis, which is a painful infection in the joints.
  • Endocarditis, which is a dangerous infection of the lining of the heart.
  • A disseminated gonococcal infection, which happens when the infection spreads to the blood or the joints.

Who Is at Higher Risk for Contracting Gonorrhea?

While gonorrhea can be contracted by anyone who has vaginal, anal, or oral sex without barrier-method protection, there are some groups of people who may find themselves at a higher risk. They should have regular STI testing to catch a potential case of gonorrhea before it leads to complications. Higher-risk groups include:

  • Sexually active men and women under the age of 35.
  • Men and women who have begun sex with new partners.
  • Women or men who have sex with multiple partners.
  • Those who have previously had a case of gonorrhea.
  • Someone who currently has another sexually-transmitted infection.

No matter what name you choose to call gonorrhea, it is important to realize that it is a highly transmittable but easily treatable infection that may or may not present any symptoms. Because of this, you can reduce your risk of developing complications from an untreated infection by having regular checkups and regular STI protection.

Why is Gonorrhea Called the Clap?

What is Gonorrhea?

Gonorrhea, sometimes called the clap or the drip, is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that affects both women and men. It is caused by a bacterial infection that is transmitted by having oral, anal, or vaginal sex with a person who already has gonorrhea.

Can you get gonorrhea from kissing? No. Gonorrhea is spread through semen and vaginal fluids but it can infect the eyes, mouth, and throat in addition to the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, urethra, and anus.

Both the infection and slang for it has been around since the 1500s and there are many theories as to the origin of the slang terms: the clap and the drip.

Why is it Called the Clap?

Gonorrhea has been called the clap for potentially hundreds of years. Slang terms for STDs are often common due to the social stigma around talking about them. Many other slang terms exist for other STDs such as chlamydia (the clam), AIDS (Hi-Five), pubic lice (crabs), etc. These are usually based on the name of the disease itself or on an iconic aspect of the disease.

Gonorrhea is unique in that the slang term, the clap, does not have a known origin. However, there are a few interesting theories as to how the term came to exist.

  • The origin could come from old English. The word “clappan” was used to describe a beating or throbbing. This could refer to the painful, burning urination or swelling in the penis or vagina caused by gonorrhea.
  • A number of people believe that the name stems from a proposed treatment during medieval times of “clapping” the penis or slamming the penis between both hands (or a hard surface) to get rid of the discharge/pus and thus the infection. This theory has most likely gained popularity due to the treatment’s gruesome nature.
  • In the 1500’s, “clapier” was an old French word for brothel. The use of the clap then would have referred to the location where the disease most easily spread: brothels. In French, the disease then became known as “clapier bubo” meaning an infection of the penis resulting from a visit to a brothel.

There are also a few theories that come from more modern times. During the early 1900’s, GIs often were infected with gonorrhea during the World Wars. It was sometimes said that they had “the collapse,” which was shortened and transformed into the clap. A 1918 Medical journal is cited as referring to “gonorrhea clap” as well as calling it the “running range,” but does not describe why the name exists.

Read: How to Get Tested for STDs: A Helpful Guide

Why is Gonorrhea Called the Drip?

Gonorrhea is also sometimes called the drip. This slang term is much less common than its counterpart, the clap, and refers to the most common symptom of gonorrhea: the discharge of pus from the penis or vagina.

Similarly, the drip may be a reference to a symptom of gonorrhea. Discharge is a very common symptom of both gonorrhea and other STDs, particularly chlamydia. This often leads to confusion between the two STDs leaving many to wonder, is chlamydia the clap? And, what STD is the clap? 

The clap refers exclusively to gonorrhea. However, given their similar symptoms and that the two STDs can happen simultaneously, it is clear why there is confusion.

Recognizing the Symptoms of the Clap

Sometimes someone with the clap does not show any symptoms. It is unclear how common this is, with some estimates ranging from 10% to over 50%. Symptoms of the clap may appear within one or two weeks after having sex with an infected person. Even with no symptoms, it is still possible to transmit the disease and damage the reproductive system.

There are some differences in how gonorrhea presents in men vs women, but in general the most common reported symptoms in both men and women are:

  • Gonorrhea discharge – For women and men, this includes abnormal discharge from the vagina or penis that may be green, yellow, or white.
  • Burning sensation while urinating – Also called dysuria, this symptom is common with other STDs and is an important sign to get tested.
  • Painful, burning and swollen glands in throat – This is a very common sign of a gonorrhea infection from oral sex.

Women may also have painful periods, bleeding between periods, pain during sex, abdominal pain, or a fever. Men may have less common symptoms such as swelling or pain in either or both testicles.

The clap can also infect one or both eyes causing discharge, conjunctivitis (itchy, red eyes), or sensitivity to light. Gonorrhea may also spread or infect the anus causing discharge, bleeding, and rectal pain.

Read: Gonorrhea In Throat, Mouth or Eyes

How to Diagnose the Clap STD

Gonorrhea can be diagnosed by several different laboratory tests. Doctors can either use a urine sample to test for the bacteria or a cotton swab from the infected area.

The gonorrhea test most often uses a swab from the cervix for women and the urethra for men, but can also include a swab of the anus or other potentially infected areas. This swab is used for a culture or antigen for testing, both of which can identify if gonorrhea is present.

A doctor may also conduct a physical exam to examine symptoms and check for other STDs. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are very similar, so it is important to test for both to ensure you receive the right treatment. 

In order to make a diagnosis, your doctor may ask:

  • How often do you have unprotected sex?
  • Do you have a new partner or multiple sexual partners?
  • Do you exhibit any symptoms like discharge, pelvic pain, or pain when urinating?

These questions are used to determine if you have an STD. 

Getting tested for an STD can be scary and intimidating but remember, you are taking charge of your health and can get treatment if you are infected. 

Read: What to Do If You Think You Have an STD

How to Treat the Clap

Many people want to know how you can get rid of the infection. Since gonorrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, gonorrhea treatment is a regimen of oral antibiotics.

Some strains of gonorrhea in the US have become antibiotic resistant, referred to as “super gonorrhea.” In these instances, a medical physician will decide on the best course of antibiotics such as:

  • Ceftriaxone
  • Cefixime
  • Doxycycline
  • Azithromycin

According to the CDC, “Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health challenges of our time. Each year in the U.S., at least 2.8 million people get an antibiotic-resistant infection, and more than 35,000 people die.”

How long can you carry gonorrhea?

Antibiotics typically clear a gonorrhea infection after one to two weeks. Keep in mind, you should not stop taking the antibiotics prescribed to you until the recommended course of treatment has completely finished. Even if you are relieved of your symptoms, stopping your treatment earlier may allow for the resurgence of bacteria and their development of resistance to the antibiotics. In these instances, the medication will no longer be effective.

Additionally, since antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria are already common, if your symptoms continue after a few days of taking antibiotics, consult your doctor. They may switch you to a different strain of antibiotics.

Yes, gonorrhea can be cured by taking the appropriate medication as directed. However, repeat infections of gonorrhea are common. You and your sexual partner(s) should always be tested in three months of completing antibiotic treatment, especially if you are unsure whether your partner(s) received treatment.

You and your sexual partner(s) should not have sex until treatment is complete. You also should wait at least one week after completing a prescribed single dose medication. In some cases, the infection may still be present after the course of antibiotics is complete, so make sure to wait until you and your partner(s) are certain the disease is no longer present.

Side Effects of the Clap

Because gonorrhea may have no symptoms, some people go untreated. Even with those who have symptoms, stigma, access, and other reasons get in the way of receiving medical attention.

Can gonorrhea cure itself? Not receiving prompt and proper treatment for the clap can create serious health problems. If you suspect you or your partner may have a STD, you should get tested immediately to avoid these side effects:

  • Infertility
  • Chronic pain,
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Blood or joint infection

How to Prevent the STD the Clap

If you are sexually active, there are a few things you can do to reduce the risk of contracting gonorrhea:

  • Limit your number of sexual partners – Have yourself and your partner get tested before having oral, vaginal, or anal sex. This may be easier to do with fewer partners, The more partners you have at any given time, the more likelihood of contracting gonorrhea or any other STD.
  • Can you get gonorrhea from kissing? No, someone with gonorrhea cannot pass it along via kissing.
  • Use condoms – Use condoms as directed every time you engage in sexual activity to reduce the risk of STDs. Keep in mind, condoms are not 100% effective.
  • Get tested regularly – Since having a history of STDs increases your likelihood of contracting another, getting tested regularly helps limit exposure.
  • Avoid douching – Douche or douching refers to washing out the vagina either with an at-home mix of water and vinegar or using a purchased product that can include antiseptics and fragrances. Between 20% and 40% of women aged 15 to 44 in the US use a douche and believe it helps clean and freshen their vagina as well as avoid getting a STD or pregnancy. Health experts agree that douching is both not effective and increases your risk of a STD or other health problems .

If you experience any symptoms of gonorrhea or suspect you may have a STD, it is very important to get tested. Even if you have no symptoms, sexually active persons should be tested regularly so as to avoid  unknowingly spreading the disease.

How PlushCare Can Help

Think you have gonorrhea or another STD? Book a virtual appointment with a top PlushCare doctor today. They can help you get the proper STD testing done and your lab results will be sent electronically to your PlushCare doctor who will reach out to you with a treatment plan including oral antibiotics. 

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Read More About Gonorrhea

Ask Greg: Why is Gonorrhea Called the Clap?

Greg’s Answer: You’ve gotta love the weird folklore associated with certain nicknames. And this one is probably one of my favorites. But let’s get something clear right off the bat: a lot of people think the clap refers to chlamydia since they start with the same letter. But the clap is actually a euphemism for gonorrhea. Both are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) caused by bacteria, but they require different treatments (more on that below).

Now: why is it called the clap? There are a few different theories behind the nickname, but the one I like the most has to do with an old-timey treatment. Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that can affect both men and women, but men are more likely to show symptoms like greater frequency or urgency of urination (meaning they have to pee all the time or feel like they have to pee but then nothing comes out). They may also get swelling or redness in their penis or testicles or pus-like discharge. Legend has it that once upon a time, people believed that clapping their hands hard on both sides of the penis could forcefully expel the pus and cure the infection. Sometimes this clapping was done by smashing the penis between two hard objects (like two boat paddles according to this article from the Women’s Health Foundation or a book and a table like this Public Library of Science blog suggests).

Are you wincing in pain yet? I hope I don’t have to actually tell you this treatment is not recommended, 100 percent ineffective, and you definitely should not try this at home. It reminds me of another antiquated treatment for a type of skin bump called a ganglion cyst. Back in the 18th century, some people believed that hitting the cyst really hard with a bible (!) would magically cure the condition. To this day, they’re sometimes called “bible cysts,” but again, clapping, smacking, or otherwise hitting a part of your body with an object – no matter how holy – will not heal you.

Another theory holds that the clap is a bastardization of the French word “clapier” which is an old term for “brothel” and also for the nest of rabbits (which have a reputation for being pretty sexually active). There’s also a theory that the name comes from an old English word “clappan,” which means “to beat or to throb.” But none of these linguistic origins are as shocking and entertaining as the actual clapping theory, in my humble opinion.

But the truth is, gonorrhea is no laughing matter, While we do have a treatment for it (a double-whammy of oral and injected antibiotics), we don’t want people thinking they can just get their dose of drugs each and every time they get infected. Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection like strep throat, so you don’t build up an immunity to it – you have to get treated every single time you have it. Antibiotic resistance is a real threat – that means if people keep getting infected and taking the same drugs over and over, the bacteria that outlives the medication gets stronger and may eventually become resistant to the treatment. And as far as treatments go, the ones we have are the only options – there aren’t any new antibiotics in the pipeline for the foreseeable future. As officials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warn, 30 percent of new gonorrhea cases every year are already resistant to at least one drug. And  the consequences of gonnorhea are serious – if left untreated, the infection spreads to the joints and can even be fatal.

So, bottom line: make smart choices, protect yourself, talk to your provider about getting tested, and do what you can to avoid having to deal with the clap.

Why Is Gonorrhea Called The Clap?

Gonorrhea, also called “the clap” is an extremely contagious sexually transmitted disease (STD).  It is a bacterial infection that affects both men and women. Men are more likely to exhibit symptoms associated with the disease. The infection is caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium, also known as the gonococcus, which is transmitted through vaginal, oral, and anal sex and infects the penis, rectum, vagina, eyes, and throat.

The ones who do display the signs suffer from painful urination, testicular discomfort due to pain and swelling in one of the testicles, or a pus-like discharge. Whilst for oral gonorrhea, which is a growing concern people tend to have a sore throat.

Why Is Gonorrhea Called The Clap?

Gonorrhea has been referred to as ‘the clap” since the 1500s. The clapped slang was coined at the same time as the term for the disease itself. It is common to refer to an STD by a slang term due to the taboo and social stigma that surrounds discussing or talking about them. There many STDs that have a slang term attached to them like AIDS is sometimes called Hi-Five, syphilis is referred to as “syph” or “lues”. Sometimes people confuse chlamydia as the clap because the actual chlamydia nickname is very similar to the clap. Chlamydia is referred to as “the clam”.

The slangs or nicknames for the disease are usually based on the disease itself or a very prominent aspect that defines the disease. As for the clap, there are different theories speculating the origin of the term.

What is the Clap? – Theories

There are various different theories around the term “the clap”. Here we mention three of why gonorrhea is called the clap?

  • Some etymologists believe that the term is based on an old-archaic English word “clappan” which means “beating or throbbing”. This can be used to define the symptoms caused by gonorrhea, like painful urination and the swelling of the penis or vagina.
  • According to another theory the term is derived from the French word “clapier” which refers to brothels. In the 1500s the word clapier was used for referring to a rabbit’s nest. Due to the very active sex lives of rabbits, the term started being was used for brothels too. During that time, brothels were where people extracted such diseases, so people started using the term for the disease itself. Gonorrhea was referred to as “clapier bubo”. Bubo was the inflamed lymph node on the groin area.
  • Some people believe that the term was coined with reference to the treatment used for gonorrhea in medieval times. The treatment for gonorrhea in males involved clapping or smashing the penis with both hands at the same time to get rid of the pus or discharge in the urethra. The treatment caused major damages and did not get rid of the infection as well.

Gonorrhea – The Clap | In Recent Times

Gonorrhea or “the clap” is usually treated using antibiotics. N. gonorrhoeae has been showing signs of resistance since the early 1940s. This is worry-some as there are no stand-alone therapies waiting as backups.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that less complicated gonorrhea can be treated using antibiotics like ceftriaxone, which is administered through an injection. If someone is allergic to ceftriaxone, they can be given oral gemifloxacin or injectable gentamicin.

Final Word

STD testing is recommended for people who have an active sex life and even if you don’t it’s good to stay ahead of things. Gonorrhea has been very prevalent since medieval times. Manhattan Medical Arts offers STD testing so that you can keep your health and sex life in check.

Why Is Gonorrhea Called The Clap? Three Theories

If you have any medical questions or concerns, please talk to your healthcare provider. The articles on Health Guide are underpinned by peer-reviewed research and information drawn from medical societies and governmental agencies. However, they are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

Gonorrhea is nothing new. The sexually transmitted infection (STI) has been written about since 2600 BCE and it’s been known as “the clap” since medieval times (Lee, 2012). Something about the nickname clearly resonated because many still refer to it as “the clap” nearly half a millennium later. We’ll get to the possible reasons why in a moment but first, a reminder.

  • The most likely origin of the nickname was “Les Clapiers,” a medieval-era brothel district in Paris.
  • Some etymologists think that “the clap” might have evolved from “clappan,” an Old English word meaning “to beat” or “to throb.”
  • Others claim that before less invasive treatments, men would clap their hands on the penis in an attempt to clear the discharge.

Gonorrhea is an infection caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium, which likes to take up residence in mucous membranes. It spreads through vaginal, oral, and anal sex (as well as during birth) and can infect the penis, vagina, throat, rectum, and eyes. Genital infections are most common, but oral gonorrhea is a growing concern.

In 10 to 15% of men (and up to 80% of women), gonorrhea has no symptoms (NYSDH, 2006). But it can also cause painful urination, a pus-like discharge, or pain or swelling in one testicle. Oral gonorrhea might cause a sore throat. Symptoms usually show up between 1 and 10 days after infection. Left untreated, it can cause a testicular infection in men, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, and in rare cases, spread to the blood and joints.

The first reference to “the clap” appeared in a collection of English poems published in 1587 (Boyd, 1955):

They give no heed before they get the clap 
And then too late they wish they had been wise. 

So where did it come from? Historians have settled on the most likely explanation. But a few other intriguing possibilities (and at least one horrifying one) have circulated through the years.

The most likely origin of the nickname was “Les Clapiers,” a medieval-era brothel district in Paris. It literally translates to “rabbit huts,” referring to the small rooms in which prostitutes serviced their customers.

Some etymologists think that “the clap” might have evolved from “clappan,” an Old English word meaning “to beat” or “to throb.” This likely reflected gonorrhea’s symptoms, which can include burning, itching, or pain.

In 1857, the cause of gonorrhea was found to be a bacterium. After the discovery of penicillin in 1928, it has been treatable with antibiotics (although we do not use penicillin to treat it).

But before then, therapies were just a little bit more invasive. One treatment involved injecting mercury, silver or another anti-bacterial agent into the urethra. Some clinicians might have pressed their hands on the penis to ensure the medication would get where it needed to go. (A WWII-era Army hygiene (US Navy, 1942) film showed that soldiers were given tubes of medicine to squeeze into the urethra, but higher-ups advocated massaging it in — no blunt force necessary.)

Another, more spurious claim is that men who couldn’t avail themselves of medical treatments would clap their hands on the penis—or slam it between heavy objects—in an attempt to clear the discharge. Because this would have done nothing to eliminate the gonorrhea bacteria, results were less than stellar. 

But the vivid nature of the treatment ensured “the clap” would endure.

The gonorrhea bacterium has proven to be unusually adept at evolving to elude whatever treatment is thrown at it; N. gonorrhoeae has been showing signs of antibiotic resistance since at least the 1940s (Benedek). Today, experts worry that it’s becoming resistant to the latest drugs, with no stand-alone therapies waiting as a backup. (That’s why you’ve seen stories about a potential lurking “super gonorrhea” in recent years.)

Because of gonorrhea’s ability to survive attempts to snuff it out, the CDC recommends dual therapy with two different antibiotics: ceftriaxone (a cephalosporin) and azithromycin. Each of these antibiotics has a different mechanism of action against N. gonorrhea—the bacteria that causes gonorrhea (CDC, 2015). Cephalosporins work against gonorrhea, and the addition of the azithromycin will hopefully slow down the emergence of antibiotic resistance to the cephalosporins (CDC, 2019). This double-barreled approach increased the chances that the treatment will be effective. And, conveniently, the azithromycin also works to fight chlamydia infection, which may have been caught at the same time as gonorrhea.

The best way to protect yourself against gonorrhea is to use a condom. Get regular screening for STIs and get them more often if you have multiple partners.

And if you experience symptoms of gonorrhea such as a discharge from your penis, as tempting as it may be to slam it between a couple of encyclopedias, it’s a far better idea to make an appointment with your healthcare provider ASAP

  1. Benedek, T. (n.d.). History of the Medical Treatment of Gonorrhea. Retrieved from http://www.antimicrobe.org/h04c.files/history/Gonorrhea.asp.
  2. Boyd, R. H. (1955). Origin of Gonorrhoea and Non-Specific Urethritis. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 31(4), 246–248. doi: 10.1136/sti.31.4.246, https://europepmc.org/article/pmc/pmc1054050
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015, June 4). Gonococcal Infections – 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/gonorrhea.htm.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, November 5). Basic Information about ARG – STD information from CDC. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/arg/basic.htm.
  5. Lee, K. C. (2012). The Clap Heard Round the World. Archives of Dermatology, 148(2), 223. doi: 10.1001/archdermatol.2011.2716, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamadermatology/article-abstract/1105487
  6. New York State Department of Health. (2006). Gonorrhea Gonococcal Infection. Retrieved from https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/gonorrhea/fact_sheet.htm.
  7. Sex Hygiene – Us Navy Training Film. (1942). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pgw1tzf6q90&feature=youtu.be

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Goats and Soda : NPR

This is a color-enhanced transmission electron micrograph image of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterium that causes gonorrhea.

David M. Phillips/Science Source

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David M. Phillips/Science Source

This is a color-enhanced transmission electron micrograph image of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterium that causes gonorrhea.

David M. Phillips/Science Source

People like to make jokes about gonorrhea.

Maybe it’s because this sexually transmitted disease is known as “the clap” (perhaps a reference to the French term “clapier,” meaning brothel, or to an early treatment — clapping a heavy object on the man’s sexual organ to get discharge to come out).

As the old (and not very funny) joke goes, “If you spread it around, is it called applause?”

But a new study illustrates why this sexually transmitted disease is no laughing matter. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterium that causes gonorrhea, is developing resistance to the antibiotics that have successfully treated it for decades.

A global group of experts on sexually transmitted diseases published an article in the scientific journal PLOS Medicine outlining the challenges of drug-resistant gonorrhea. They surveyed 77 countries that participate in a global gonorrhea tracking program and found that more than 90 percent report some kind of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea.

That’s bad news for patients. Because while gonorrhea doesn’t have the death toll that untreated HIV does — annual deaths from gonorrhea are about 2,300 — it still causes incalculable suffering. About 78 million adults contracted the disease in 2012, according to the World Health Organization. Symptoms include painful urination, itching and a puslike discharge from the penis, vagina or anus, or a sore throat (in throat infections).

Infected people can unwittingly pass it on because not everyone shows symptoms. For women — most of whom never develop symptoms — complications can include infertility and chronic pelvic pain. If pregnant, women with gonorrhea can have premature births or pass the disease to their newborns, who can develop lifelong complications from infection.

Epidemiological studies have shown that gonorrhea and chlamydia infections can also make it easier to become infected with HIV. Researchers don’t entirely understand this connection, but they believe the body’s immune response to gonorrhea allows HIV to hijack T-cells recruited to fight gonorrhea. Plus, STDs tend to weaken the integrity of genital mucosal linings, an important physical barrier to infections.

“This has been a real hard issue for people to take seriously,” said Manica Balasegaram, head of the Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership, a joint initiative of WHO and the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative. “It’s not seen as a killer disease, but it’s a big public health threat.”

Unprotected oral sex is one of the main reasons for antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea. Throat infections after oral sex are often mistaken for strep throat or another infection by doctors, who prescribe antibiotics. When gonorrhea in patients’ throats is exposed to those drugs, the bacteria develop resistance to them. A person with drug-resistant gonorrhea in the throat can transmit it when performing oral sex on a partner.

Addressing the antibiotic resistance, Thomas Hiltke, a program officer at the National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases Sexually Transmitted Infections Branch, says, “It’s at a critical stage. We’re at our last class of antibiotics.”

Over the past decade, gonorrhea has gradually developed resistance to several antibiotics. In most countries, there is only one class of antibiotics, cephalosporins, that reliably treat all gonorrhea infections. In other parts of the world, the situation is even worse. In Japan, Spain and France, for example, strains of gonorrhea resistant to ceftriaxone — considered the last line of defense against the disease — are cropping up. Doctors have responded by prescribing higher doses or combining antibiotics.

To keep existing drug weapons from being rendered useless, GARDP has allocated $50 million for research and development over the next few years.

A new kind of antibiotic, called zoliflodacin, developed by the private company Entasis, has been shown to be safe and effective in preliminary clinical trials completed in late 2016. The clinical trials were coordinated and funded in part by the U.S. National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases. Larger clinical trials will start in the U.S., South Africa and Thailand in late 2018. The goal is for private-public partnerships that allow private companies to market the drug in richer countries and public health agencies and nonprofits to distribute it in poorer countries that might not be able to afford it.

One way to fight resistant gonorrhea would be to develop fast and cheap lab tests that doctors could use to diagnose antibiotic resistance. If a lab test told doctors within a few hours or less which antibiotics would work on a person’s gonorrhea, they could tailor the drug regimen, saving the most powerful antibiotics for the most resistant cases.

Jeffrey Klausner, an epidemiologist at UCLA, is working on a DNA test that will provide those answers.

“It’s reasonable to be hopeful,” says Klausner. He notes that there have been promising developments for rapid, cheap and portable laboratory tests for infectious diseases in developing countries, including one for HIV.

But testing isn’t the solution, he warns. Classic public health strategies like educating people about STD basics — how they spread and using condoms to prevent them — remain important, he says: “A technical approach won’t succeed without a strong, well-funded foundation for gonorrhea prevention.”

Rina Shaikh-Lesko is a science journalist who writes about medicine, global health and the life sciences. She can be reached @rinawrites

90,000 properties of thick cotton fabric, thin polish 100% cotton, types of material and its differences from linen. What if the cotton shrinks after washing?

In the modern world, cotton is the most common and common name for fabric. It is familiar to every person, without exception. But as soon as the phrase “cotton cloth” or its abbreviation – “cotton” appears in a conversation, many people begin to ask different questions.It is not clear to many whether there is a difference between these types of fabric and what is the peculiarity of each individual material.

In fact, the majority opinion looks completely ridiculous. Cotton and cotton fabric are one and the same type of textile product with different names. It is made from cotton, or rather, from its fruits. The quality of the material is determined by the length of the fiber – the longer it is, the stronger and more durable the fabric becomes.Even in terms of cost, cotton products are in many ways inferior to their counterparts.

Due to these features, cotton fabric is considered the most common type of fabric to this day.

What is it?

Cotton is considered one of the oldest types of fabric used by mankind for sewing clothes.Work with this material began to be mastered at the dawn of the emergence of the civilized world. But despite this, cotton production did not have an industrial scale for a long time. The first massive cotton crop was harvested in India. On the territory of Europe, he appeared a little later, to be more precise, during the reign of Alexander the Great. After some time, European craftsmen managed to understand and master the principle of manufacturing and sewing products from cotton fabric, after which they managed to establish internal production.

Cotton material appeared in Russia in the 15th century, but its production was rather scarce. That is why the material was considered the most expensive.

Initially, cotton fabrics were processed by hand. This was the most important and fundamental of the reasons that made it difficult to spread the fabric in the world market. Then the situation changed radically due to the emergence of industrial equipment for the corresponding processing methods.

The streamlined process for the production of cotton fabric provided for step-by-step actions.

  • Harvesting. This refers to the weighing of raw materials and their storage.
  • Cleaning. Various debris was removed on the appropriate machines, after which sorting was carried out.
  • Production of continuous filaments. This process refers to the weave of the fibers in the fabric.
  • Weaving yarns. Creation of fabric directly.

Today, the cotton production process takes place exclusively on an industrial scale. After each individual step, the technologists carry out certain checks, on the basis of which they make notes and draw up a description of the prepared product. The finished material not only looks impressive, but also has a host of other advantages, which can be felt with tactile contact.


In the modern world, it is very difficult to find clothes or any other textile item made of 100% cotton. Quite often, during the manufacturing process, some components are added to the fabric, due to which the finished material is of higher quality, has an increased level of strength and has an appropriate appearance.

To a greater extent, cotton is supplemented with fabrics such as viscose, polyester, acetate. Knowing their features, you can understand why cotton products have a lot of advantages. Firstly, the material wrinkles less, which is very important in the modern rhythm of life. And secondly, it becomes possible to increase the color palette.

That is why cotton clothing and textiles can be presented in the brightest and most vibrant colors.

In any store of men’s, women’s, and especially children’s clothing, sellers quite often offer customers ordinary things made of synthetic material for 100% natural cotton. You can take their word for it and after the first wash give an appropriate assessment of the purchased item, and the seller too. On the other hand, during the selection process, some tests can be carried out to determine whether high-quality and 100% cotton is presented in the window or is it synthetic.

First you need to take a close look at the material. Cotton itself does not even have a minimal sheen. If there are unpleasant pellets on the fabric, then there is no cotton in the material. Another way to check the quality of the composition is to wrinkle a small piece of clothing in your fist. If the fabric is wrinkled, then one hundred percent cotton was used in the production. The very last way to check the quality of a material is to wash it.It will be possible to carry out this experiment only after the purchase.

Clothes made from natural cotton dry very slowly, while synthetic fabrics dry instantly.

Pros and Cons

Like any material, cotton fabrics have certain advantages and some disadvantages.Undoubtedly, the important advantages are the high level of strength and quality, as well as an affordable price.

Along with this, he has some negative characteristics. Prolonged exposure to sunlight on cotton fabric negatively affects the density and quality of the material. Any cotton products must be treated with different compounds that do not allow the fabric to wrinkle. The most unpleasant thing is the destruction of cotton fabric due to the appearance of harmful microorganisms in it.This process takes quite a long time, first scuffs appear on the fabric, then small holes. With proper care, the destruction of clothes and any other unpleasant consequences can be forgotten forever.

Species and their properties

Today, there are enough parameters, thanks to which it is possible to obtain various types of fabrics with a base of pure cotton. The production of textile raw materials due to the addition of natural, chemical and synthetic components has increased several times.

  • Batiste. A very fine kind of matter, but quite durable. Has a low level of density. Made from pre-twisted combed yarn. The type of weaving used is plain weaving, due to which a low density is obtained. According to the price criterion, the fabric is very expensive, but very wear-resistant. Batiste is mainly used for sleeping accessories – shirts for women, pajamas for men, as well as tablecloths.

Marquisite material is mainly used for sewing summer clothes, as well as curtains and bedding.

  • Marquis. This type of material resembles batiste in many ways.It uses the same plain weave combed yarn in its production. The only difference is the higher level of curling of the threads.

Marquisite material is mainly used for sewing summer clothes, as well as curtains and bedding.

  • Volts. This is a silky and very delicate material with a high level of density. It is made with combed yarn, which is pre-twisted strongly. The main characteristics are very similar to cambric. Underwear is made from volt.
  • Percale. A very refined and very refined type of matter with a high level of density. The interlacing of the fibers is made according to one algorithm. Despite its strength, it appears to be quite soft and silky. Percale products will serve their owner for a long time. Despite its sophistication, the fabric is easy to wash and many cleaning methods.
  • Poplin. This material is made on the basis of plain weaving of combed yarn. Bed linen is made from poplin.
  • Kisei. The material is very light and transparent. Weaving takes place using a special technology. The threads are intertwined in pairs with the crossing of the warp fibers. The fabric is used to decorate women’s costumes, as well as window curtains.
  • Tulle. Transparent, light and thin patterned material. Its production takes place on specialized machines. This fabric is mainly used to decorate women’s clothing, window curtains, and bedspreads and capes.
  • Guipure. A very famous fabric. It is an elegant fabric made of fine threads. Several methods are used for its production.The first is the removal, that is, the ripping of the fiber, the second is the dissolution of the threads in the form of a pattern.
  • Combed satin. The name itself reads the essence of fabric production. The material is made from combed yarn using satin weaving. It is mainly used for making bed linen and any other home textile products.

Quite a wide variety of textile products are made from medium staple cotton.

  • Chintz. A well-known fabric made from medium twist threads. Chintz is used in sewing summer clothes.
  • Calico fabric. This is a whole group of weaving fabrics, similar to chintz material. Textiles for household use are made from calico fabrics.
  • Calico. Russian material is made of pure cotton. Imported coarse calico contains a certain amount of synthetic fibers.
  • Carded satin. Dense fabric made of thickened threads.
  • Cretonne. A fairly dense and pre-dyed type of fabric, weaving of which is carried out according to the linen type.As a result, products are obtained with the presence of ornaments and various patterns. It is used for furniture upholstery.

Particular attention should be paid to the American stretch fabric. In the production of this fabric, the most advanced technologies are used, while the composition contains cotton in combination with elastane.

Recently, the Polish material polycotton has gained wide popularity.Its peculiarity lies in the combination of cotton and polyester in equal quantities.

Comparison with other materials

Each cotton fabric has certain distinctive qualities inherent only to it.

First you need to consider the combustion process. In principle, any natural material has the property of complete combustion.Products consisting of a mixed composition burn out with the formation of resin droplets. But synthetic fillings do not burn at all, they only melt. During the burning process, the smell of burning paper is emitted from natural cotton. After most of the fabric is burned out, the spoiled material begins to smolder. For comparison, you can check flax – it burns just as well, only the remnants smolder much worse. For another comparative example, wool is suggested. This material burns out almost immediately and completely.At the same time, an eerie smell of burnt hair is exuded.

Another distinguishing feature of cotton is its tactile feel. The touch of cotton causes the most unusual, soft, warm and delicate sensations. For comparison with other types of fabric, it is suggested to also consider linen. With tactile interaction, linen seems to be rather rough, tough and slightly cool. But none of these types of fabrics can compare with natural silk.

Cotton material is hygienic, practical and very beautiful in its properties. Thanks to the wide range of manufactured products, you can always choose the most comfortable things that will meet all the requirements of its owner.

Anyone can buy cotton clothes or other textile products made from it at the most reasonable price.

Where is it used?

Arriving at a store selling any fabric product, several questions immediately arise, and the main one is the availability of cotton fabric or any elements of natural cotton textiles.In fact, cotton is present in almost all products that a person uses. For example, bedding. For their production, soft types of fabric are mainly used, for example, satin, coarse calico. For a baby bed – exclusively flannel. Cotton material is light enough, so it is used in the production of summer dresses, men’s shirts. In hot summer weather, in cotton clothes, everyone feels cozy and comfortable.

Cotton fabrics are often used for sewing outerwear.Many firms use exclusively cotton material when ordering uniforms for their employees.

Almost any textile element in household use is cotton, for example, tablecloths, curtains, towels, curtains and much more.


Like any other material, cotton requires special care.For example, in order for the material not to shrink, white cotton items must be washed at a temperature not exceeding 95 degrees; colored ones – at 60. But thin versions of clothes – at a maximum of 40 degrees.

Cotton fabrics are best washed in a washing machine. In addition, the automatic system allows you to set the required washing mode for each separate type of laundry.

For any type of cotton, you can use additional cleaning agents that can soften the water in the machine, thereby giving extra softness to the washed clothes.

Colored cotton fabrics must never be washed with bleach or detergents intended for delicate washing. The drying mode is allowed only for some types of cotton fabric. Information on this can be found on the label of the textile product.

Disregard for the fabric leads to the fact that the material shrinks after washing, accordingly, the size of the thing changes and the symmetry of the product is disturbed.

Master class on sewing bed linen, see the next video.

90,000 Cotton: composition and properties of fabric

Cotton fiber is a plant fiber obtained by processing from cotton.It is grown in many parts of the world: India, Egypt, China and even the Caucasus. The plant is famous for its characteristics: clothes made from it “breathe” on the body, are comfortable to wear and are quite easy to care for.

In this article, we will analyze the history of production, consider in detail the properties and composition of traditional and organic cotton, as well as the main types of fabrics obtained and the features of caring for it.

Production history

Breeders claim that cotton began to be cultivated 7000 years ago in Central America, and several thousand years later in the East – in India and China.At that time, there were a lot of plant species: evidence found in Peru speaks about this fact.

Despite the fact that the cotton bush has been known since ancient times, it appeared in Europe only in the Middle Ages. Until that time, people sewed clothes mainly from leather, fur, linen and wool. But this does not mean that the plant made a significant revolution in the textile field: it simply began to be used more often.

The British learned about cotton a little later – at the end of the 17th century.They did not grow the bushes or process them – they received the raw materials ready-made, and then they created the canvas. Where did they get the materials from? In this they were helped by their own colonies created on the territory of the current United States.

All manufacturing processes were carried out by hand until the industrial revolution. Collecting, processing, spinning, twisting – all this became more accessible at the beginning of the 19th century, when mechanical machines came to the aid of people, which made work easier. By the end of the century, there was no person who did not know what cotton was: everyone appreciated it for its useful properties and quality characteristics.

With the development of technical progress, cotton began to replace synthetic fabrics. In recent decades, clothing made from this raw material has been ousted to second place in terms of production. However, nothing beats a natural fabric made from cotton raw materials.

Properties of cotton fabric

Let’s take a look at the advantages and disadvantages of cotton linen. Pros of buying clothes from this material:

  • Absorbs moisture well.When swelling, the fiber can almost double in volume. And while other fabrics tear easily when they get wet, the cotton only becomes stronger.

  • Things that contain raw cotton remember their shape well after ironing. Therefore, it is a pleasure to have a trouser suit made of this material in your arsenal.

  • Natural cotton consists of hollow fibers, thanks to which things can retain heat for a long time, although it seems as if such a thin fabric is not able to do this.

  • If you have planted a stain, then it can be safely removed in organic solvents, which include vinegar and alcohol.

  • Differs in cheap production, and therefore low prices for raw materials, linen and clothing in general.

  • Some fabrics are as strong as silk. It is very difficult to break them.

The disadvantages include the following:

  • Prolonged exposure to the sun and burnout can lead to loss of quality.Experimentally, researchers have calculated that it takes about 1000 hours of continuous exposure to hot rays for cotton to start to deteriorate.

  • If the material is soaked in boiling water for a week without pulling it out for a second, it will turn into a liquid gruel.

  • Untreated fabric, unfortunately, wrinkles too easily and quickly loses its original properties. Natural resins and acids help eliminate this deficiency.

Cotton fabrics are not ideal in all their characteristics, but in many respects they are superior to artificial ones. Now they have launched the production of raw materials obtained in a modern way – it is called organic. Is it dangerous to health? How is it different from the traditional one? Let’s compare.

Differences between natural and organic cotton

The difference between traditional cotton and organic cotton is not that great – it just lies in the responsibility for the quality of the materials and the harmless production.
Below is a table in front of you that will help you understand the main differences.

Usual Organic
  • Harvesting with harvesters involves the use of harmful substances, defoliants that cause plant leaves to fall off, and the quality of raw materials suffers.

  • Cotton seeds can protect themselves from pests, but farmers often help them with this with chemicals.

  • The cultivation takes a huge amount of water. There is a legend that says that cotton was the reason why the Aral Sea dried up.

  • To increase yields, pesticides are used, which, after production, enter the soil and groundwater. It is very harmful to human health.

  • The collection of raw materials for further production is done manually. Thus, it helps to select exclusively ripe inflorescences.

  • The fibers are separated from the seeds by the farmers. It is important that this significantly improves the quality characteristics of the fabrics.

  • Watering is carried out in a modern way, which does not allow excess moisture to evaporate.Such methods help to significantly reduce the use of fresh water.

  • This production is characterized by the use of natural pest control products. For example, it can be substances based on pheromones or special weeds, which are then removed manually.

  • To fertilize the soil and increase fruiting, farmers practice sowing with organic substances (humus, manure, etc.)etc.).

Thus, the production of regular cotton is directed towards profit. And, unfortunately, the more for the sellers, the worse for the residents of nearby villages and towns. Many farm owners care little about the health of their workers, the correct use of irreplaceable resources and the harm to the ecological environment. But not everyone is so negligent about Mother Nature, supplying quality cotton to the whole world.

Kinds of cotton fabrics

Cotton fabrics are famous for their strength and durability, but the characteristics of the fabrics derived from it are very different.Let’s take a look at the most common ones.

  • Denim . Dense natural cotton twill weave.

  • Jeans (stretch) . A variety of denim, also dense, but with a slight addition of synthetics to make the fabric softer and fit well.

  • Cannet. Clothes made of it are quite rare: this soft, pleasant in its texture and at the same time very dense material is sewn from it for everyday trousers, but they are rarely found on sale.

  • Corduroy. Cotton corduroy trousers were wildly popular decades ago. Thanks to its highly recognizable relief structure, it is difficult to clean the fabric.

  • Chintz. Rough-to-touch material used for cheap dresses, bedding, men’s shirts and baby diapers. It became widespread in Russia in the 60-70s.last century.

  • Jacquard. The embossed image on the upholstery is a merit of this fabric. A variety of patterns are made on it – polka dots, squares, lines. Jacquard is also used as a material for shirts.

  • Flannelette. Very soft and fluffy fiber. Thanks to the convenience and comfort of wearing, pajamas and flannel underwear are sewn from it. Such fabric will look out of place at a formal event.

How to care for cotton clothes

The list of popular cotton fabrics is huge: in addition to what was mentioned above, several dozen more varieties can be distinguished. No matter how different they are, caring for each thing can be reduced to basic rules.

  • We take out all the items from the pockets: it will be unpleasant to get the soaked paper, and even more unpleasant if the ink from it remains on the white shirt.

  • We clean clothes from stains, soak them in a special product if necessary.

  • We check that all the fasteners are fastened, and the clothes themselves are turned inside out. This will eliminate the risk of breaking buttons or lightning.

  • We sort clothes by color: in no case should you wash white clothes with black or colored ones. The latter may shed and your favorite thing will deteriorate.

  • Cotton fabrics can be loaded into the washing machine. If the fabric is too thin or you value its color, it is best to wipe it off by hand.

  • Temperature range: when washing, cotton clothes must be washed at 30-40 degrees. White trousers and shirts require several times hotter water.

  • To know exactly how to handle a thing, always look at the icons indicated on the tags.You can get acquainted with the meaning of each here.

  • Rinse in lukewarm water: avoid extreme temperature fluctuations when washing.

  • We dry only in those places where direct sunlight is excluded.

  • The main thing is not to overdry the cotton fabrics. If this unpleasant phenomenon cannot be avoided, then sprinkle lightly with water before ironing.

  • When ironing, use the cotton or cotton setting on the iron.

  • When storing, do not worry about moths – for her, cotton items are completely inedible.

Choosing clothing for sports from cotton

Pure cotton sportswear is a controversial option. And that’s why. Despite the many positive characteristics (the skin “breathes”, comfortable to wear, easy to care for, quickly absorbs sweat and odor), such things wear out very quickly during strength training.Most often, other materials are added to the raw materials to increase performance.

If you want to buy sportswear, then pay attention to the Stayer company. She offers to buy items containing natural cotton. Why choose this particular brand of clothing? In addition to excellent quality at a reasonable cost, you get:

  • stylish design solution;

  • materials safe for the skin;

  • convenience and reliability in all weather conditions;

Who will wear these clothes?

  • individual buyers;

  • professional athletes and beginners;

  • to corporative clients.

Why Trust Stayer?

  • This brand is the official partner of the Russian Freestyle Federation.

  • At the Olympics in South Korea, athletes will represent the country in the outfit of this company.

  • The quality of the products created by the company has been marked by many awards, among which the “Best Sports Product of the Year” award (2016) occupies an important place.

In this article, we examined such a concept as cotton, found out what kind of material it is, and sorted out a description of several varieties. We also paid attention to the rules of caring for products made from natural linen and gave an example of a company that uses cotton in clothing.

Cotton – fabric, clothing, care, advantages and disadvantages


What is cotton?

What is the danger of synthetics and how are natural fabrics useful?

How to properly care for cotton clothes?

The main advantages and disadvantages of cotton products

A little about the history of cotton

In the modern world, textile production is more focused on sewing clothes from synthetic materials.It is cheaper, more practical and more profitable. But when choosing clothes, people, as a rule, still want to buy a quality product made from natural fabric, which will be easy, comfortable and pleasant to wear to the body. One of these natural and, importantly, practical materials is cotton or cotton fabric.

Cotton growing fields

What is cotton?

Cotton is a fiber of vegetable origin that covers the seeds of cotton, a herb from the genus Malvovykh.Outwardly, cotton fiber looks like a hollow tube, twisted around its axis. As the cotton fiber matures, cellulose deposits increase, as a result of which the fiber becomes more durable. Depending on the length of the cotton fiber, the yarn made from it can be classified:

  • for short-fiber;
  • 90,025 for medium fiber;

  • for fine fiber.

This is how ripe cotton is picked

Cotton is highly regarded for its unique properties.It is quite durable: in this regard, cotton fabric will be equivalent to silk in terms of breaking load of natural fibers. Cotton will be superior in strength to wool, but inferior in strength to linen. When wet, cotton, unlike other natural fabrics, increases its strength – by 15% – and does not decrease. When swollen, the fiber can increase in volume by 40%.

Hygroscopicity is a useful feature of cotton

Thanks to the special structure of the fibers, cotton boasts excellent heat-shielding properties.In addition, it is thermoplastic, that is, it lends itself well to ironing with a hot iron and, after heating, is able to “remember” the shape.

Cotton is prized for good thermoregulation

Why synthetics are dangerous and how natural fabrics are useful

Synthetics attract people because they do not wrinkle and keep their shape well. These are its main advantages. But synthetics cause allergic reactions – if you wear such clothes, you can face exacerbations of skin diseases and allergic rashes.Synthetic clothing builds up static electricity, so special products must be used to neutralize it.

Experts recommend wearing cotton clothing

If you do not remove static electricity, then wearing synthetic products will gradually begin to affect the functioning of the human nervous system. Scientists have proven that people who constantly wear synthetic clothing suffer from insomnia. They have disturbed sleep and nightmares. This explains the recommendation of experts to use bedding made from natural fabrics – cotton, linen, silk.

Cotton ideal as bed linen

How to properly care for cotton clothes?

White cotton clothes should be washed at a temperature not exceeding 95 degrees Celsius. Colored – at 60 degrees Celsius. It is recommended to wash white cotton underwear at 40 degrees Celsius. Cotton can be machine washed, but on a delicate cycle. For white cotton, any detergent is suitable, and for colored cotton – only detergents without bleaches in the composition and for delicate washing.

For a cotton product to last a long time, it must be properly cared for.

A special tumble dryer can be turned on if it is written on a special tag or small label for cotton clothes. Cotton needs to be able to dry properly. To do this, it is best to hang the washed clothes while damp, and then iron them in the “wool” mode (provided that they are easy-care cotton products). In other cases, instead of the “wool” mode, you need to iron the cotton fabric in the “linen” or “cotton” mode.

Cotton needs to be able to dry properly

The main advantages and disadvantages of cotton products

Cotton products can be easily cleaned at home from difficult stains, because, like other natural fibers, cotton does not dissolve in organic solvents such as alcohol, vinegar, and formic acid. Also, cotton clothing can “boast” of good hygienic characteristics and breathability (therefore, it is ideal to wear it in hot summer months).In other words, in cotton clothing the body “breathes” easily, and excellent ventilation is created.

Cotton is natural comfort

Because cotton is extremely easy to care for, incredibly practical and highly breathable, cotton makes excellent underwear, bedding and table linen. For the same reason, summer clothes are so popular from cotton – T-shirts, T-shirts, dresses, shirts, sundresses. Cotton products have their drawbacks.In particular, they are subject to:

  • abrasion;
  • 90,025 crease;

  • stretching and irreversible deformation due to a small amount of elastic deformation

Cotton does not cause allergic reactions, therefore clothes for children are sewn from it

Cotton clothing dries slowly. In the light, over time, it can take on an unpleasant yellowish tint (first of all, these are clothes of black and light colors – white, blue, pink, gray) – a feature of many natural fabrics.Cotton products are very sensitive to direct sunlight. Due to “direct contact” with light, the strength of the product is halved.

However, cotton clothing has an unpleasant tendency to “shrink”

A little bit of the history of cotton

Cotton was first used practically for the manufacture of textiles and cultivated in four regions of the Old and New World. Historians say that cotton was first cultivated by a civilization (Mergarh culture) living in the Indus valley in the fifth millennium BC – more than 7000 years ago.

The history of cotton is almost 7000 years old!

During the heyday of the Indian civilization (it occupied a large territory in the north-west of South Asia, now it is the north-west of India and the eastern part of Pakistan), cotton became widespread – first it came to India, and then gradually spread to the Mediterranean Sea. In Europe, cotton was first used since 350 BC – it was brought from Asia Minor to Greece. This was largely facilitated by the wars of Alexander the Great.

90,000 Natural cotton: main types of fabrics and their characteristics

Cotton fabrics of various types are widely used and are always in demand. Despite the abundance of fabrics based on synthetic fibers, natural cotton fabrics and products made from them are highly valued, and their cost always justifies its quality. It is not in vain that people are ready to buy products made from natural fabric that are more expensive in comparison with artificial ones, because they understand that the thing will last a long period, and it will be worn or used with maximum comfort.You will find a huge selection of fabrics made from natural 100% cotton by clicking on the link https://mrcotton.ru/catalog/tkani_100_khlopok/.

Variety of cotton fabrics

In the process of cotton production, fibers of different lengths and densities are formed, which are further used in different ways. So, short threads are given for the manufacture of cotton wool, and long ones go to the area of ​​fabric production. The quality of the material will directly depend on the density and length of the formed cotton threads.In the production of fabric, cotton fiber is strengthened and improved its quality characteristics, elasticity is given with the help of viscose or polyester additives.

  • Satin. The fabric is in great demand and is widely known. On the front side, satin has a slight sheen, and on the back, the pattern looks matte. Sateen is used to sew bed linen, children’s summer clothes, as well as light men’s and women’s suits.
  • Calico. This fabric is mainly used for sewing bedding. In comparison with satin, coarse linen is valued much higher.The fabric is dense, reinforced with high-quality weaving. Coarse calico bedding lasts a very long time. The fabric is not afraid of aggressive care and washing.
  • Linen. The most natural fabric possible. That is why linen is often in demand for sewing clothes for children, starting from infancy. In addition to the well-known fact that flax does not cause allergies and irritation, the fabric also has antiseptic properties.
  • Muslin. In the process of making muslin, cotton threads are intertwined with wool and a thin, somewhat loose fabric is obtained.Many products for children are sewn from muslin.
  • Stretch cotton. When elastic fibers are added to the main raw materials, a natural fabric capable of stretching is obtained. Products made of stretch cotton can fit the figure, which is very convenient for sewing children’s and adult clothes.

Characteristics of natural cotton fabrics

Detailed information on the link https://mrcotton.ru/

  • The ability to retain heat is one of the main advantages of natural fabrics.
  • Ability to absorb excess moisture.
  • Good or excellent web density (depending on the type of fabric).
  • Durability of service.
  • Ability to keep its shape after ironing or steam ironing.

How to distinguish cotton from synthetics, recognize natural cotton fabric

Do you want to sew a blouse, dress, sundress from a canvas containing 100% cotton? This is an excellent choice, because natural fabrics provide maximum wearing comfort.Now in stores there are materials that are visually similar to cotton, but in fact are woven from artificial fibers. It is not so easy to distinguish them, but we are ready to share our secrets in order to eliminate mistakes when choosing.

Polymer raw materials are cheaper than natural ones, but often we are offered fabrics in which synthetics predominate, passing them off as cotton, without impurities. Let’s understand the issue so that each purchase brings only positive emotions.

Cotton or viscose

It is not easy to distinguish between these materials, but we know how to determine if the fabric in front of you is artificial or not. Viscose is produced from natural raw materials – natural cellulose. The technological process is called xanthogenation, as a result of which fibers are obtained for the production of threads. During the reaction, the crystal lattice of the substance changes, which is why viscose is considered synthetics. It is characterized by the properties of natural fabric, due to which it is widely used for sewing summer wardrobe items.

A cotton mother is not characterized by shine, but for artificial materials it is a characteristic feature. If we compare viscose and cambric, which has this property, it can be noted that viscose is denser. The shine of the cotton fabric is given by the natural silk fibers that are included in the composition. Therefore, you can notice the differences by looking closely.

It is permissible to investigate the composition of the fabric experimentally. If you have a cut at home, you want to know if it is viscose or cotton, you need to draw out several threads at the cut and set them on fire.The character of the flame will be the same in both cases. Even combustion products are not much different. To determine what fibers a fabric is made of, you need to pay attention to the smell. When burning cotton, it is similar to paper. Viscose, however, will leave behind a stench that is characteristic of smoldering cotton wool.

Recognizing Polyester: Consumer Diagnostics

In the store, you should rely only on visual perception and tactile sensations. Synthetic fibers tend to roll.Barely noticeable spools are the main proof that you are holding a fabric, which is dominated by artificial threads. But on this basis, they can only be recognized if the material has been on the shelf for a long time.

Polyester on colored canvases gives a peculiar gray tint. Light dust can be seen on the surface. Of course, this is not because the fabric is really dirty. This is how light is reflected from the polyester fibers. Finding the differences is not easy.Looking closely, we can assume that the material is synthetic.

Now do some tactile research to make sure you are being offered a synthetic fiber cloth. Natural cotton is smooth. If you run your hand over the fabric, it glides. But the presence of polyester is manifested by light sticking of the palm to the surface.

Did the matter remain cold after your contact? Thermal conductivity is not typical for polyester.This is another sure proof that unnatural fibers predominate in the composition.

Try to fold a fold: if it unfolds quickly, you have synthetics in front of you. Natural fabrics wrinkle. This indicates that they have a property called drape, a feature characteristic of them. When unrolling the roll, did you notice that the material is electrifying? Refuse to purchase if you do not plan to purchase synthetics.

Drawing conclusions

In fact, it’s not so scary that in addition to natural fibers, synthetic fibers are included in the composition of fabrics.The presence of impurities is permissible, but if they do not exceed 30%. Artificial threads are added to the material using technology, the characteristics do not change significantly from this. The cloth becomes smooth, wrinkles less, clothes made from it are pleasant to wear, it can be easily washed.

Modern synthetic fibers are hygroscopic and breathable, you will not feel discomfort wearing the product for the season. As an example, alpine skiing clothing is made from non-natural materials.At the same time, it breathes, removes moisture, but retains heat. Modern weaving manufactures synthetics as a high-tech fabric with excellent consumer properties. But if you still prefer natural fabrics for a number of reasons, ask the seller for a certificate, the composition will be indicated there in percentage terms.

90,000 Linen or cotton – which fabric to choose?

Natural Linen is often confused with its main competitor, cotton.And this is completely wrong. Linen and cotton are completely different plants with fibers that have completely different properties. So which should you choose: linen or cotton? Which of these fabrics is better?

How to distinguish linen from cotton?

Cotton fabrics – matte, soft and warm. Linen fabrics have a slight sheen. They are smoother and slightly thicker than cotton. Linen looks and feels like cotton, but is still slightly harder and thicker (though not always).

100% Cotton 175 g / m2

100% Linen, 155 g / m2 – Linen.ru

When a linen thread breaks, uneven “tassels” are formed at the break at both ends. While the cotton thread always breaks neatly and evenly.

Linen or cotton – which is stronger and more durable?

Linen texture consists of stem fibers 4 cm long with pointed edges at both ends.It is very durable – up to 70 cN / text. (this is a unit for measuring the strength of a yarn in centi-newtons). For comparison, cotton strength is more than two times weaker than linen – only 28 cN / text.

Natural linen fabrics and products can last longer and retain their properties for more than 20 years. Cotton products fade in the sun and become less durable.

The secret of the durability of linen textiles is that it contains complex cellulose, so its tensile strength is twice as high as that of cotton.At the same time, and , the abrasion resistance of flax is 3.5 times greater than that of cotton .

Because of its high strength, linen is used to print money in the United States. American dollars contain nearly 25% flaxseed fiber.

Which fabric absorbs moisture and breathes better?

The hygroscopic properties of natural linen fabric are better than that of cotton, therefore linen absorbs moisture much more efficiently and “breathes” better

Linen fabrics for curtains, bed linen and clothes in Linen.ru

Linen and cotton – compare heat resistance

The heat resistance of these two materials is also different: 120-130 ° C for cotton and 160-170 ° C for flax. Products made of linen fabric give a feeling of coolness even in hot weather, keeping warm in cold weather.

For a person wearing linen clothing in hot weather, the skin temperature is 3-4 degrees lower than that of a person wearing cotton or silk clothing.

Linen fabrics, like cotton, are resistant to any organic solvents and alkalis.However, while cotton is easy to dye, linen is more difficult to dye and bleach as it contains more additional waxes.

Linen fabrics from flax cultivated in different regions differ in the degree of rigidity. Linen contains up to 80% cellulose and 5% lignin, which gives the fabrics firmness. The least amount of these substances is found in light gray fibers, therefore they are considered the highest quality.

90,000 what is this fabric (polycotton)

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Natural cotton and man-made polyester have many advantages, but their disadvantages are very noticeable when used in their pure form.Light and chemical industry experts have solved this issue by combining cotton and polyester. The result is a new fabric – polycotton.

General Description

[adrotate banner = “18”] Polycotton began to be produced in the 20th century (late 50s). It is one of the most common blended fabrics for bedding. For example, about 80% of all hotels in the world use bedding sets made from this material.

Polyester and cotton are mixed in different proportions depending on the purpose of the fabric.Most often, the threads are intertwined with a simple plain weave. Outwardly, the fabric resembles coarse calico. Polycotton is used to make bed linen, covers for furniture and bedding, home textiles, slings, clothes.

Fabric composition

Obtaining polycotton made it possible to almost completely get rid of the disadvantages inherent in pure fibers. Pure cotton has the following disadvantages: [adrotate banner = “1 ″]

  • strong crease;
  • fast color loss;
  • 90,025 shrinkage;

  • loss of shape even after a short period of use.

Polyester has the following negative qualities:

  • poor air conductivity;
  • hardness;
  • 90,025 electrification;

  • Poor coloring.

If polyester is strongly dominated in the composition of polycotton, the manifestation of its negative properties increases. If there are more natural raw materials, then the fabric is like cotton. It is best if the proportions of the fibers are approximately equal. The optimal ratio for bedding is 50% polyester and 50% cotton or 35% polyester and 65% cotton .

The quality, appearance and useful properties of polycotton depends on the percentage of fibers. Most common fiber combinations:

  • 15% cotton and 85% polyester;
  • 35% cotton and 65% polyester;
  • 50% cotton and 50% polyester;
  • 65% cotton and 35% polyester.

Fabric properties

[adrotate banner = “1 ″] Positive characteristics of polycotton:

  1. Wear resistance. Frequent washing and long-term use do not affect the quality and appearance of items made from this fabric.The color retains its brightness.
  2. No fiber migration. Threads and fibers are not knocked out of the warp and do not move.
  3. Crease resistance. The fabric does not require ironing after washing and does not wrinkle during use.
  4. Practicality in operation. The fabric can be machine washed, strong stains are removed with less powder than usual. The material dries quickly and does not absorb dirt.
  5. Relatively low cost.
  6. Minimal deformation and shrinkage.Polycotton keeps his shape, does not sit down. It is easy to cut and sew.
  7. Good hygroscopicity and breathability.
  8. Excellent tensile strength.
  9. The fabric is attractive in appearance.

If polyester in the fabric is more than 75%, polycotton acquires the following disadvantages:

  1. Poor air conductivity.
  2. Electrification.
  3. Weak resistance to friction. Hooks and pellets very soon appear on the front surface.

It is better to choose a high-quality polycotton, in which polyester is no more than 50%. In this case, the fabric will be without such disadvantages. However, for sewing covers, a material with a higher content of polyester fibers is suitable.