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What enhances calcium absorption: Calcium | The Nutrition Source

Calcium, Nutrition, and Bone Health – OrthoInfo

The health and strength of our bones rely on a balanced diet and a steady stream of nutrients — most importantly, calcium and Vitamin D.

Calcium is a mineral that people need to build and maintain strong bones and teeth. It is also very important for other physical functions, such as muscle control and blood circulation.

Calcium is not made in the body — it must be absorbed from the foods we eat. To effectively absorb calcium from food, our bodies need Vitamin D.

If we do not have enough calcium in our diets to keep our bodies functioning, calcium is removed from where it is stored in our bones. Over time, this causes our bones to grow weaker and may lead to osteoporosis, a disorder in which bones become very fragile.

Postmenopausal women are most vulnerable to osteoporosis. Although loss of estrogen is the primary reason for this, poor lifelong calcium and Vitamin D intake, as well as lack of exercise, play a role in the development of osteoporosis.

Note that men also are at risk for osteoporosis — typically later in life than women — and it is important for them to keep track of calcium intakes, as well.

Calcium needs vary with age. The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies provides guidelines on the amount of calcium needed each day.

Recommended Daily Allowance in Milligrams (mg)

Life Stage Group Recommended Daily Calcium Intake
Females and males 9 to 18 years 1,300 mg
Women and men 19 to 50 years 1,000 mg
Women 51 to 70 years 1,200 mg
Men 51 to 70 years 1,000 mg
Women and men > 70 years 1,200 mg
Pregnant or nursing women 14 to 18 years      1,300 mg
Pregnant or nursing women 19 to 50 years 1,000 mg

Reprinted and adapted with permission from Tables S-1 and S-2, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D, 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences, Courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington, D. C.

Dietary Sources of Calcium

People can get the recommended daily amount of calcium by eating a healthy diet that includes a variety of calcium-rich foods. Milk, yogurt, cheese, and other dairy products are the biggest food sources of calcium. Other high-calcium foods include:

  • Kale, broccoli, Chinese cabbage (bok choy), and other green leafy vegetables
  • Sardines, salmon, and other soft-bone fish
  • Tofu
  • Breads, pastas, and grains
  • Calcium-fortified cereals, juices, and other beverages.

A more complete listing of calcium-rich foods is included at the end of this article.

Some foods make it harder for the body to absorb calcium. In particular, you should avoid sodas and carbonated beverages, not just for bone health but for many nutritional reasons, including preventing obesity. Sodas decrease calcium absorption in the intestines and contain empty calories. Milk, calcium-fortified juices, and water are better beverage alternatives for all age groups.

Calcium Supplements

Although adequate calcium can be obtained through your diet, it is difficult for many people, particularly for those who avoid dairy products. People who are lactose-intolerant or vegans, who do not eat dairy products, have a harder time getting enough calcium from foods.

It is also hard to get enough calcium from the diet during certain times of our lives, such as in adolescence when our bodies require more calcium to build strong bones for life. Postmenopausal women and men older than age 70 also require more calcium to slow down bone loss.

Doctors recommend calcium supplements to those who do not get enough calcium from the foods they eat. Although calcium is sometimes found in multivitamins, it is typically not in significant amounts. Many people need to take separate calcium supplements to ensure they reach the Recommended Dietary Allowance for their life stage.

Not all the calcium consumed — whether through food or supplement — is actually absorbed in the intestines. Research shows that calcium is absorbed most efficiently when it is taken in doses less than 500 mg. Because many calcium supplements come in 500 mg doses, people who require 1,000 mg of supplementation each day should take their doses at separate times. Newer daily slow release formulations of calcium citrate that supply 1,200 mg have recently become available.

Most calcium supplements also contain Vitamin D, which helps the body absorb calcium.

Without Vitamin D, our bodies cannot effectively absorb calcium.

Children who lack adequate Vitamin D develop a condition called rickets, which causes bone weakness and puts them at risk for fracture, bowed legs, and other skeletal deformities, such as stooped posture. Adults with very low Vitamin D can develop a condition called osteomalacia (soft bone). Like rickets, osteomalacia can also cause bone pain and deformities of long bones, and predispose you to fracture.

Vitamin D Recommended Dietary Allowance

The FNB recommends 400 International Units (IU) of Vitamin D for infants during the first year of life. The RDA for everyone from age 1 through 70 years is 600 IU. Recent research, however, supports that the body needs at least 1000 IU per day for good bone health, starting at age 5.

Getting enough vitamin D from what we eat is very difficult. While many foods contain some Vitamin D, few contain enough to meet the daily recommended levels for optimal bone health.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children take Vitamin D supplements.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, children were routinely given cod liver oil for a range of medicinal purposes. When cod liver oil was tied to the prevention and treatment of rickets, Vitamin D was discovered. Soon after, Vitamin D was added to milk — one glass of milk contains about 100 IU of Vitamin D. As a result, parents stopped using cod liver oil. Because today’s children do not drink as much milk as in the past, it is difficult for them to get enough Vitamin D from milk. In addition, other dairy products are not typically supplemented with Vitamin D.  

Although our bodies can make Vitamin D in our skin when it is exposed to good sunlight, it is very important to protect our skin by using sunscreen when we are outdoors. This blocks the excessive UV radiation that can cause skin cancer. However, sunscreen also blocks our skin’s ability to make Vitamin D. This is why doctors often recommend Vitamin D supplements for both adults and children. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children — from infancy through adolescence — take Vitamin D supplements.

Too much calcium and/or Vitamin D can be harmful and cause serious side effects. In addition to establishing RDA guidelines, the FNB has established Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). These represent the highest levels of calcium and Vitamin D that can be consumed by the average individual and still be safe.

These ULs are important guidelines for people who may require different dosages of these supplements. For example, people who live in areas with little sun, those with darker skin, and people who are obese may need more Vitamin D than the recommended daily amount.

Note that ULs are not levels that people should try to reach — they are the safe limits based on current research. When intake goes beyond the ULs listed below, the risk for serious side effects increases.

Upper Safe Limit for Calcium Intake

Life StageUpper Safe Limit
Birth to 6 months 1,000 mg
Infants 7-12 months 1,500 mg
Children 1-8 years 2,500 mg
Children 9-18 years 3,000 mg
Adults 19-50 years 2,500 mg
Adults 51 years and older 2,000 mg
Pregnant and breastfeeding teens       3,000 mg
Pregnant and breastfeeding adults 2,500 mg

Upper Safe Limit for Vitamin D Intake

AgeMaleFemale  Pregnancy   Lactation
0-6 months1000 IU 1000 IU  
7-12 months    1500 IU       1500 IU  
1-3 years2500 IU 2500 IU  
4-8 years3000 IU 3000 IU  
≥9 years4000 IU 4000 IU       4000 IU  4000 IU


Reprinted and adapted with permission from Tables S-1 and S-2, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D, 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences, Courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington, D. C.

More foods in the U.S. are being fortified with calcium and Vitamin D, and awareness of the importance of these nutrients for bone health is growing. In recent years, the media has reported on the potential health benefits of taking high levels of Vitamin D, such as in the areas of cancer prevention, diabetes management, and heart health. As a result, it is becoming more likely that people may consume unsafe quantities of these nutrients.

The FNB conducted an extensive review of the medical literature and found enough evidence of bone health benefits to support raising the UL levels on Vitamin D in adults from 2000 IU to 4000 IU. What the FNB also determined, however, is that very high levels of Vitamin D (above 10000 IUs per day) can cause kidney damage and dangerously high serum calcium levels. Too much calcium from dietary supplements can also cause adverse health effects, including kidney stones, higher risks for heart problems, and possibly increased risk for prostate cancer.

Calcium and Vitamin D are essential for good bone health, but they must be consumed safely. If you are not sure what intake levels are right for you and your health needs, be sure to talk to your doctor.

Many other nutrients — most found naturally and at sufficient levels in a typical diet — contribute to bone health and growth. They include:

  • Phosphorus. A major mineral in the body’s bone crystal, phosphorus is found in dairy products and meat, as well as shellfish, beans, sunflower seeds, lentils, sardines, and cheese. Vitamin D improves phosphorus absorption in the intestine and kidney.
  • Magnesium. Primarily found in bone crystals, magnesium improves bone strength. Older adults are more likely to be deficient in magnesium. Calcium supplements that contain magnesium can help. You can also find it in foods like spinach, bananas, nuts and seeds, avocado, and chickpeas, 
  • Vitamin K. Necessary for bone formation and mineralization, Vitamin K also is important for blood clotting, and may assist in channeling calcium directly to the bone rather than the blood vessels. You can get Vitamin K from leafy greens, avocado, kiwi, asparagus, and pumpkin.
  • Vitamin C. Collagen is the main protein in bone, and Vitamin C is necessary for collagen synthesis. Vitamin C is present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, and in many vegetables, including sweet yellow pepper, red bell pepper, broccoli, and kale.
  • Vitamin A. Vitamin A is necessary for cells to develop normally and for normal skeletal growth, and also is extremely important for eye health. Vitamin A is available in liver, eggs, butter, green leafy vegetables, and carrots. Too little vitamin A is a major cause of blindness worldwide. In contrast, too much vitamin A can cause bone loss and increase the risk of hip fracture. The animal source supplements (retinols) may cause toxicity but plant sources (B carotene) do not. Daily intake of retinols should be less than 10000 IU.

Selecting foods high in calcium is one way to help you achieve your targeted daily calcium intake. Here are some major food sources of calcium to assist your meal planning.

Selected Food Sources of Calcium
FoodMilligrams (mg) per servingPercent DV*
Yogurt, plain, lowfat, 8 ounces 415  42
Orange juice, calcium-fortified, 6 ounces 375  38
Yogurt, fruit, lowfat, 8 ounces 338-384  34-38
Mozzarella, part skim, 1.5 ounces 333  33
Sardines, canned in oil, with bones, 3 ounces 325  33
Cheddar cheese, 1.5 ounces 307  31
Milk, nonfat, 8 ounces** 299  30
Milk, reduced-fat (2% milk fat), 8 ounces 293  29
Milk, buttermilk, 8 ounces 282-350  28-35
Milk, whole (3.25% milk fat), 8 ounces 276  28
Tofu, firm, made with calcium sulfate, 1/2 cup*** 253  25
Salmon, pink, canned, solids with bone, 3 ounces 181  18
Cottage cheese, 1% milk fat, 1 cup 138  14
Tofu, soft, made with calcium sulfate, 1/2 cup*** 138  14
Instant breakfast drink, various flavors and brands, powder prepared with water, 8 ounces 105-250  10-25
Frozen yogurt, vanilla, soft serve, 1/2 cup 103  10
Ready-to-eat cereal, calcium-fortified, 1 cup 100-1,000  10-100
Turnip greens, fresh, boiled, 1/2 cup 99  10
Kale, fresh, cooked, 1 cup 94  9
Kale, raw, chopped, 1 cup 90  9
Ice cream, vanilla, 1/2 cup 84  8
Soy beverage, calcium-fortified, 8 ounces 80-500  8-50
Chinese cabbage (bok choy) raw, shredded, 1 cup 74  7
Bread, white, 1 slice 73  7
Pudding, chocolate, ready to eat, refrigerated, 4 ounces 55  6
Tortilla, corn, ready-to-bake/fry, one 6″ diameter 46  5
Tortilla, flour, ready-to-bake/fry, one 6″ diameter 32  3
Sour cream, reduced fat, cultured, 2 tablespoons 31  3
Bread, whole-wheat, 1 slice 30  3
Broccoli, raw, 1/2 cup 21  2
Cheese, cream, regular, 1 tablespoon 14  1

* DV = Daily Value. DVs were developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to help consumers compare the nutrient contents among products within the context of a total daily diet. The DV for calcium is 1,000 mg for adults and children age 4 and older. Foods providing 20% of more of the DV are considered to be high sources of a nutrient, but foods providing lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthy diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Nutrient Database website lists the nutrient content of many foods. It also provides a comprehensive list of foods containing calcium.

** Calcium content varies slightly by fat content; the more fat, the less calcium the food contains.

*** Calcium content is for tofu that is processed with a calcium salt. Tofu processed with other salts does not provide significant amounts of calcium.

Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH): U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24; Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.


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  • What foods are required to restore calcium in the body?

    Contents

    • 1 What foods do I need to replenish calcium?
      • 1.1 Which foods restore calcium in the body?
      • 1.2 Dairy products:
      • 1.3 Fish and seafood:
      • 1.4 Vegetables and herbs:
      • 1.5 Fruits and berries:
      • 1.6 Nuts and seeds:
      • 1.7 Cereals and cereals:
      • 1.8 Protein products:
      • 1.9Black bread and cereal bakery products:
      • 1.10 Juices and drinks:
      • 1.11 Mineral water:
      • 1.12 Tea and coffee:
      • 1.13 Ice cream and sweets:
      • 1.14 Sour milk drinks:
      • 1.15 Food additives:
      • 1.16 Urbechi and oils:
      • 1.17 Spices and herbs:
      • 1.18 Foods rich in vitamin D:
      • 1.19 Related videos:
      • 1. 20 Q&A:
          • 1.20.0.1 What foods should be consumed in case of calcium deficiency?
          • 1.20.0.2 Can vitamin supplements replace calcium?
          • 1.20.0.3 Why is greens good for calcium absorption?
          • 1.20.0.4 What foods should be excluded from the diet in case of calcium deficiency?
          • 1.20.0.5 Can thyroid problems lead to calcium deficiency?
          • 1.20.0.6 Can gluten-containing foods be consumed if calcium is deficient?
          • 1.20.0.7 Can dietary supplements increase calcium absorption?

    Find out which foods are rich in calcium and how to eat them to best replenish this important mineral for bones and health. Here you will find a list of products and tips for preparing them.

    Calcium is one of the most important elements for healthy bones, teeth, muscles and the nervous system. A lack of calcium can lead to osteoporosis, dental caries, and a tendency to fracture. To avoid these problems, you need to make sure you are eating enough calcium-rich foods.

    One of the main sources of calcium is dairy products: milk, cottage cheese, cheese, yoghurts. You can also replenish calcium by eating fish and seafood, nuts, legumes, pumpkin and sunflower seeds, green vegetables and fruits, as well as some types of bread and cereal.

    When choosing products, one should also take into account their digestibility by the body. So, calcium from milk and dairy products is absorbed better than from vegetables, so these foods should be consumed more. In addition, for better absorption of calcium, it is necessary to consume a sufficient amount of vitamin D, which is found in fish oil, egg yolk, fish oil, and mushrooms.

    What foods restore calcium in the body?

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for our body, because it is responsible for the health of bones, teeth, muscles and other tissues. To strengthen your body and restore the level of calcium in your bones and teeth, you need to include foods rich in this mineral in your diet.

    Dairy products are the first food to be consumed. They contain large amounts of calcium and phosphorus, which interact with each other and help strengthen bones and teeth. In addition, protein foods such as cottage cheese, cheese and yogurt contain casein, an element that helps improve calcium absorption in the intestines.

    Vegetables and fruits are another group of foods rich in calcium. In particular, these are broccoli, cabbage, spinach, beans, radishes, apricots, dates and oranges. They contain vitamin D and other elements that promote better absorption of calcium.

    Among fish, scallops and other seafood, many species contain calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. For example, mackerel, salmon and pink salmon are especially useful for nutrition, as they are rich not only in calcium, but also in omega-3 fatty acids, which are needed for heart health.

    It is important to understand that the restoration of calcium in the body is a process that takes time and the right approach. It is necessary to include a variety of foods in the diet, monitor your health and supplement nutrition with vitamin complexes containing calcium and other necessary elements.

    Dairy products:

    Dairy products are a good source of calcium. It can be various types of cheeses, milk, yogurt, kefir, cottage cheese.

    Milk is one of the easiest and most affordable sources of calcium. One glass of milk (250 ml) contains about 300 mg of calcium.

    cheeses are an excellent source of calcium. Fatty cheeses are especially useful, as they contain more calcium. Cheeses such as processed, parmesan, ricotta, mozzarella, roquefort and cheddar contain 200 to 700 mg of calcium per 100 grams.

    Yogurt and kefir are useful even for those who do not tolerate dairy products well. They contain up to 400 mg of calcium in 200 grams of the product.

    Cottage cheese is a source of not only calcium, but also other useful substances such as protein, fat and trace elements. 100 grams of cottage cheese contains about 120 mg of calcium.

    Dairy products are not only a great example of calcium-rich foods, but they are also highly digestible and tasty, making them a great choice for daily meals.

    Fish and seafood:

    Fish and seafood are among the best sources of calcium. Some types of fish, such as salmon, sardines, and tuna, are high in calcium. This makes fish and seafood an excellent choice for those looking to restore calcium levels in the body.

    There are also other seafood containing calcium. Shrimps, oysters, crabs and other seafood are also rich sources of calcium. At the same time, they contain a lot of protein and other nutrients, making them beneficial for human health.

    Fish and seafood rich in calcium:

    Product
    Calcium content, mg per 100 g

    9 0121

    Salmon (red) 214 mg
    Sardines (canned) 382 mg
    Tuna (canned) 247 mg
    Shrimp (boiled) 97 mg

    Oysters (smoked) 90 mg

    restore calcium in the body, it is recommended to avoid large amounts of fat and salt. Canned fish products may contain more salt, so we recommend choosing fresh fish and seafood or canned fish with less salt.

    Vegetables and herbs:

    Broccoli. Broccoli is a rich source of calcium, vitamin C, K and antioxidants. It is recommended to eat raw, baked or boiled.

    Spinach. Spinach is one of the best sources of calcium and contains a whole complex of vitamins: A, C, E, K, B1, B2, B6. It is recommended to eat in green salads or stew, but not infrequently mixed with other vegetables.

    Cabbage. Cabbage contains calcium, iron, folic acid and B vitamins. Recommended as a baked snack, boiled or salad.

    Fresh herbs. Parsley, dill, basil, arugula and onion feathers contain calcium, vitamin K and magnesium. It is recommended to add fresh green herbs to salads, pancakes and soups.

    Carrot. Carrots, in turn, are rich in carotene and pectin fibers, and also contain calcium. It is recommended to eat as a raw snack, baked in the oven or added to soups and vegetable salads.

    By including these vegetables and herbs in your diet, you will provide additional intake of calcium, which is so necessary for healthy bones, teeth and the healthy functioning of the body as a whole.

    Fruits and berries:

    Fruits and berries are a valuable source of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Some of them contain calcium, which is necessary for healthy bones and teeth, as well as for the proper functioning of muscles and the nervous system.

    Figs are among the fruits rich in calcium. One fig contains about 20 mg of calcium. Pomegranates, grapes, prunes and apricots are also rich in calcium.

    Berries, in turn, are also a rich source of calcium. Particularly beneficial for bone health are currants, cranberries, hawthorn, and black currants. In addition, berries contain many other beneficial substances, such as vitamins C and E, folic acid, and anthocyanins.

    Diversify your diet, eat fruits and berries every day and get the maximum benefit for your health!

    Nuts and Seeds:

    Nuts and seeds are an excellent source of calcium and other nutrients needed for healthy bones and teeth. Among them stand out:

    • Almonds – contains a huge amount of calcium, magnesium and vitamin E, which strengthens bones and teeth. It also contains protein, which is needed for tissue growth and repair.
    • Hazelnut – rich in calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and vitamins B and E. It also contains phytochemicals that help prevent bone and tooth decay.
    • Pumpkin seeds are an excellent source of calcium, magnesium and iron. They also contain vitamins B and E, which help strengthen bones and teeth.
    • Hazelnut – rich in calcium, magnesium, zinc and vitamin E. It also contains protein, which is needed for tissue growth and repair.

    Adding nuts and seeds to your diet can help strengthen bones and teeth and prevent bone loss.

    Cereals and Grains:

    Oatmeal is one of the best foods to eat if you need to restore calcium levels in your body. Oatmeal contains a lot of phytoestrogens that help in this process.

    Buckwheat is also rich in phytoestrogens and calcium. It consists of granules that contain the smallest particles, vigilantly monitor the health of bones and actively participate in their restoration.

    Rice is an indispensable product in the diet to restore calcium levels, it has a high amount of nutrients. Rice contains minerals such as magnesium, potassium, iron and calcium.

    Semolina is another calcium rich food. It also contains vitamin D, which is essential for better absorption of calcium in the body.

    Wheat contains not only calcium, but also many other useful substances, such as iron, vitamin B, magnesium and zinc.

    In general, those who want to restore calcium in the body should not forget about cereals and cereals, which contain many useful minerals and vitamins.

    Protein foods:

    Proteins are one of the body’s most important building blocks and are involved in many processes, including tissue repair and the formation of hormones and enzymes. Protein-rich foods will help restore calcium levels in the body, as calcium is a necessary component for protein synthesis.

    • Meat and poultry: chicken, beef, pork, turkey, fish.
    • Dairy products: milk, yogurt, cheese, kefir, cottage cheese.
    • Eggs: egg white contains about 6 grams of protein and is an excellent source of calcium.
    • Legumes: beans, peas, lentils, soybeans.

    However, for proper protein synthesis, you must also consume enough vitamin D, which promotes calcium absorption. So be sure to fortify your diet with vitamin D blocking foods like fish oil, cod liver oil or egg yolks.

    Brown bread and cereal baked goods:

    Brown bread and cereal baked goods are a valuable source of calcium, especially when whole grain flour is used. Whole grain bread contains all the valuable fiber, vitamins and minerals found in wheat grains. It is also rich in protein, iron and zinc, the main food components that are essential for health.

    When choosing bread, make sure it contains calcium. Bread with added milk or yogurt usually contains more calcium than regular bread. Many retail chains also offer special bread enriched with calcium and other trace elements.

    In addition, a variety of buns, pies and other products can be made from grain products. But do not forget that we are talking about the main component – flour. Look out for pasta, cereals, and other grains, as these too can contain calcium and other important nutrients.

    Juices and drinks:

    Milk is one of the most popular sources of calcium, especially for children. It also contains vitamin D, which helps calcium absorption even better. Although milk is too high in calories, it can be replaced with low-calorie kefir or yogurt.

    Juices and drinks is another way to get the calcium you need. Juices from fresh fruits and vegetables are rich in many beneficial substances, including calcium. But be aware that many bottled juices are high in sugar and can be very high in calories. It is best to drink natural juices or water with the addition of lemon to get calcium and other beneficial vitamins and minerals.

    Tea and coffee also contain some calcium. However, excessive consumption of coffee and tea can reduce the absorption of calcium in the body. Therefore, it is recommended to limit the amount of coffee and tea you drink and replace them with other drinks.

    Mineral water is another source of calcium. Some brands of mineral water contain a high concentration of calcium. Check the ingredients on the label to make sure your mineral water contains enough calcium.

    Sports drinks is another way to get calcium and other useful elements. But you need to be careful, as many sports drinks contain a lot of sugar and additives that are not very good for our body. It is best to choose natural drinks and water with added electrolytes.

    Mineral water:

    Mineral water is a mineral-rich drink that helps restore calcium in the body. It is known that the location and composition of the source affect the amount and type of minerals contained in the water.

    • Sulfate mineral water: contains an increased amount of sulfates, which improve blood circulation and calm the nervous system. It also helps to remove toxins.
    • Chloride mineral water: rich in chlorides, which have an antiseptic effect and help fight infectious diseases.
    • Hydro-carbonate mineral water: contains hydrocarbons, which contribute to the normalization of the acid-base balance of the body.

    Mineral water is an excellent source of calcium, essential for healthy bones and teeth. Regular consumption of mineral water will help fill the calcium deficiency in the body and prevent the development of bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

    Tea and coffee:

    Tea and coffee are beverages that many people drink every day. However, if you want to restore the level of calcium in the body, you should limit their intake.

    Black tea, green tea and coffee contain tannins, substances that can increase urinary calcium loss. In addition, coffee also contains caffeine, which can cause calcium to be depleted from bones.

    If you are not ready to give up tea and coffee completely, include other foods rich in calcium in your diet to compensate for the loss. For example, dairy products, nuts, green vegetables, and fish are rich in calcium and can help fill in calcium.

    • Limit tea and coffee intake to restore calcium in the body
    • Black tea, green tea and coffee contain tannins that can deplete calcium
    • Coffee contains caffeine, which can deplete calcium from bones
    • Remember to compensate for calcium loss by eating other foods rich in this mineral

    Ice cream and sweets:

    Although ice cream is not a major source of calcium, it may contain small amounts of this important mineral. However, eating a lot of sweets can lead to a decrease in the concentration of calcium in the body.

    With a large consumption of sweets, especially with the addition of chocolate, coffee and tea, an increase in the excretion of calcium in the urine is observed in the body, which can lead to the development of bone diseases.

    If you can’t resist treats like sweets and ice cream, it’s a good idea to opt for less unhealthy options like popsicles, sorbets, and natural fruits and berries for a sweet snack.

    Fermented milk drinks:

    Kefir. Kefir is one of the healthiest sources of calcium. It contains more calcium than most other dairy products due to the fermentation process. Kefir also contains probiotics, which help improve digestion.

    Curd. Cottage cheese contains a large amount of calcium. It is also rich in proteins, which make it easier for calcium to be absorbed. Cottage cheese pairs easily with other foods, such as vegetables or fruits, so it’s easy to add to your diet.

    Yogurt. Not only kefir, but also yogurt contain a sufficient amount of calcium. Especially when yogurt is made with skim milk. Yogurt also contains probiotics and vitamins that are good for bone health.

    Yogurt. Curdled milk is a rich source of calcium, which also contains many beneficial bacteria after fermentation. These will be probiotics that will help improve the functioning of the digestive system and, accordingly, improve the absorption of calcium.

    Ryazhenka. Ryazhenka is also a fermented milk product that contains a large amount of calcium. In addition, fermented baked milk contains bifidobacteria, which are considered beneficial for digestion, so this is a good choice for strengthening bones and overall human health.

    Food additives:

    Calcium preparations. The main sources of calcium in the human body are dairy products, nuts, fish and green vegetables. However, in case of a lack of calcium in the body, some people prefer to take calcium supplements. Calcium is most readily absorbed in the body in the form of calcium carbonate, calcium lactate, or gluconate.

    Vitamin D. This vitamin helps the body absorb calcium and is essential for maintaining healthy bones. It also plays a role in protecting the nervous system and the immune system. Vitamin D can be obtained from certain foods, such as fish liver oil, egg yolks, and mushrooms. Vitamin D is also added to some calcium supplements.

    Magnesium preparations. Magnesium plays an important role in calcium absorption. It is also essential for regulating heart rate and maintaining a healthy nervous system. Magnesium can be obtained from foods such as nuts, green vegetables, and whole grains. If necessary, you can take magnesium supplements.

    Phosphates. Phosphates also help the body absorb calcium as part of bone tissue. Phosphates can be obtained from meat, fish and dairy products. However, excess phosphate can impair calcium absorption, so it should be consumed in reasonable amounts.

    Micronutrient complexes. Micronutrient complexes may contain calcium, magnesium, phosphate, vitamin D, and other minerals and vitamins needed to maintain healthy bones and the body as a whole. However, before taking such drugs, you should consult with a specialist and make sure they are safe and effective.

    Urbechi and oils:

    Urbechi or crushed seeds contain vitamin D and calcium, making them an excellent source for restoring calcium in the body. They can be added to various dishes such as oatmeal, yogurt or smoothies.

    There are many types of oils that contain calcium. For example, flax seed oil contains about 7% calcium per teaspoon, while sesame oil contains over 1% calcium per serving.

    Oils that include fortified supplements such as vitamin D or calcium can also be a good source of calcium. They help restore calcium, especially in those people who are deficient in this important nutrient.

    • How to choose oils and urbech?
    • Buy natural products free of additives and preservatives.
    • Look for calcium and vitamin D content on labels.
    • Remember to learn how to use these foods in your cooking to get the most health benefits.

    Spices and herbs:

    Herbal products contain many trace elements that help calcium absorption. These include spices and herbs. For example, cinnamon, ginger, and turmeric contain manganese, which plays an important role in mineral metabolism in the body. Also, dill and parsley contain magnesium, which promotes the absorption of calcium.

    In addition, garlic, basil and rosemary contain silicon, which not only strengthens bones, but also promotes their growth and healing. It also reduces the risk of osteoporosis and other diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

    • Cinnamon – rich in manganese, promotes calcium absorption;
    • Ginger – contains manganese, which helps strengthen bones;
    • Turmeric – rich in manganese, facilitates the absorption of calcium;
    • Dill – contains magnesium, which helps the absorption of calcium;
    • Parsley – rich in magnesium, helps to strengthen bones and teeth.

    Silicon content of some herbs and spices:

    Herb/Spice
    Silicon content, mg per 100 g

    90 126 11.0

    Rosemary 17.0
    Garlic 14.0
    Basil
    Parsley 6.20

    Foods rich in vitamin D:

    Fish. Sea fat, salmon, mackerel, herring, eel and other types of fish contain a lot of vitamin D, in particular vitamin D3. It is not necessary to eat fish every day, but eating it at least 2-3 times a week will be beneficial for health.

    Dairy products. Milk, yogurt, cheese and cottage cheese are also rich sources of vitamin D. Choose fatty foods as they contain more vitamin D than low fat foods.

    Eggs. The vitamin D found in the yolk makes eggs a useful product for those looking to maintain their calcium levels in the body. One egg a day can be an excellent source of vitamin D.

    Mushrooms. Although mushrooms are not the richest source of vitamin D, they can still significantly improve it. The resulting level of vitamin D after eating mushrooms depends on the method of their preparation: with prolonged sauteing, vitamin D burns out.

    Reinforced products. Some brands of margarine and orange juice may be fortified with vitamin D. These products are a useful method of obtaining vitamin D, it is recommended to choose quality and proven manufacturers.

    Related videos:

    Q&A:

    What foods should be consumed in case of calcium deficiency?

    Calcium-rich foods such as milk, yogurt, cheese, cottage cheese, green vegetables (broccoli, spinach), seeds and nuts (hazelnuts, almonds), soft-boned fish (sardines, salmon) should be consumed.

    Can vitamin supplements replace calcium?

    Yes, you can, however, it is important to consider that calcium-rich foods are preferable because the nutrients contained in foods are better absorbed by the body.

    Why is greens good for calcium absorption?

    Greens contain vitamin K, which is involved in the process of bone formation and improves the absorption of calcium and other nutrients.

    What foods should be excluded from the diet in case of calcium deficiency?

    Limit foods that can reduce calcium absorption, such as coffee, salt, sugar, alcohol, and sodas.

    Can thyroid problems lead to calcium deficiency?

    Yes, a lack of thyroid can lead to reduced absorption of calcium and other nutrients. In this case, it is important to consult a doctor and take the recommended medications.

    Can gluten-containing foods be consumed if calcium is deficient?

    Yes, you can, as gluten does not interfere with calcium absorption. However, for people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity, gluten-free foods should be chosen.

    Can additional nutritional supplements increase calcium absorption?

    Yes, there are supplements that can help increase calcium absorption. For example, vitamin D, magnesium, and boron help the body absorb calcium better.

    The elderly and calcium | Tervisliku toitumise informatsioon

    After menopause, the acidity of the stomach decreases, due to which calcium is no longer absorbed as well as at a younger age. But to prevent osteoporosis, it will not be enough to receive only the necessary doses of calcium. It is important to ensure a daily intake of all vitamins and minerals (vitamins C, K, D, magnesium, zinc, etc.) with food.

    The average daily calcium requirement for both men and women from the age of 31 is 800 mg per day. Calcium absorption is improved primarily by appropriate amounts of vitamin D obtained from food and supplements (for people over 60, 20 mcg per day).

    The Estonian Osteoporosis Society recommends that postmenopausal women consume even 1200–1500 mg of calcium per day to prevent this disease. Calcium absorption is complex and is facilitated by vitamins D, C, and A, as well as magnesium, phosphorus, boron, manganese, iron, and unsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, calcium is certainly recommended to be taken with appropriate amounts of vitamin D and to eat varied, so that the body naturally receives all other necessary vitamins and trace elements with food. Zinc is also considered to enhance the action of vitamin D. The need for phosphorus is approximately 600 mg per day, but its amount must be in the correct proportion with the amount of calcium, otherwise there is a risk of calcium deposition in the muscles, incl. in the heart, as well as in the kidneys in the form of stones. Vitamin K is required for bone formation. Studies have shown that in the body of a person with osteoporosis, the content of vitamin K is usually only 36% of what is required.

    The female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone have a significant effect on calcium metabolism. Therefore, during menopause, it is also useful to consume small amounts of foods containing phytoestrogens, such as soy. In case of hypolactasia (lactose intolerance), instead of cream, it is recommended to eat fermented dairy products (yogurt, kefir, yogurt, buttermilk, acidophilus milk).

    A lot of proteins are consumed in developed countries. When proteins are digested, acids are released, which are neutralized in the body with the help of calcium. Thus, excess protein can threaten bone strength and contribute to osteoporosis.

    You should also pay attention to fats and salt obtained from proteins. Excessive salt intake increases the excretion of calcium from the body in the urine.

    In case of osteoporosis, it is necessary to choose foods with a high content of calcium from each group.
    Table 9 lists various foods by way of example and indicates the amount of calcium contained in their typical servings.

    Table. Approximate calcium content of foods

    901 26 300 g oatmeal / 35 g cereal

    9012 6
    Food group
    Serving Size (g; tsp; dl)
    Serving Calcium (mg)
    I Cereals and potatoes 9055 5
    Rye bread 30 g muesli (average) 60
    50 g rye bread 11.2
    30 g sepik 10.2
    30 g tin bread 3
    30 g waffles with cream 3
    Potatoes 100 g boiled, without peel 6.7
    100 g boiled, in skin 5.6
    Cereal porridge 347
    300 g rice porridge / 40 g rice 319
    3 00 g semolina / 35 g manna 298
    300 g buckwheat / 60 g buckwheat cereals 169
    100 g boiled rice 2. 2
    Pasta 900 96 100 g boiled pasta 7
    II Vegetables, incl. beans, mushrooms
    50 g spinach 44
    100 g cabbage (raw ) 42
    100 g boiled cabbage (with fat) 42
    100 g boiled swede 35
    100 g boiled carrots 35 901 27
    100 g boiled cauliflower 22
    100 g boiled beets 14
    100 g tomatoes 9
    100 g mushrooms 2.3
    III Fruits and berries
    2 for berries (average) 64
    9012 7

    1 for fruit compote, apricots 31
    15 g dried fruit 11
    1 dl pure berry juice 7

    8. 2
    100 g fruit, fresh apples 6.2
    2 for berry drink 3.8
    IV Meat, fish and eggs groceries 30 g boiled sausage 22
    50 g liver pate with carrots 11.8
    5 0 g boiled chicken 8.3
    50 g boiled beef 6.1
    50 g boiled pork 5.3
    30 g bacon 3
    Fish and fish products 30 g sprat (in oil) 90
    75 g lean fish 40.5
    50 g oily fish 32.4
    50 salmon pate 21.5
    50 g smoked fish (herring) 21.5
    50 g tuna (in oil) 6. 5
    Eggs 1 chicken egg 28.5
    1 quail egg 6.4
    5
    30 g low fat cheese (15% fat; 10%) 312 ; 315
    30 g full fat cheese (30% fat) 263
    50 g fu (from soy milk) 255
    2 dl milk 240
    2 dl kefir 240
    autumn 147
    100 g ice cream cream (12% fat content) 150
    901 27

    100 g curd cream (4%) 75.5
    50 g sour cream (20% fat) 40
    50 g cottage cheese (4%) 34
    30 g unripe cheese and seeds
    10 g nuts (average) 14
    10 g pumpkin seeds 4.

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