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What is a diuretic pill: Diuretics (Water Pills): Types, Side-Effects, Risks

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Diuretics (Water Pills): Types, Side-Effects, Risks

Commonly known as “water pills,” these drugs help your kidneys get rid of extra water and salt from your body through your pee. Because you have less total fluid in your blood vessels, like a garden hose that’s not turned on all the way, the pressure inside will be lower. This also makes it easier for your heart to pump.

They’re usually the first type of medication that your doctor will try to control your blood pressure.

Drug Names

You’ll often start with a thiazide diuretic:

Others your doctor may prescribe are:

Different diuretics can be taken together, and you can take them with other medications, sometimes in the same pill.

While You’re Taking Diuretics

Let your doctor know what medications (prescription and over-the-counter), supplements, and herbal remedies you use. Also, tell them about other medical problems you have.

They may want to regularly check your blood pressure as well as test your blood and pee for levels of specific minerals and to see how well your kidneys are working. They’ll probably tell you to follow a low-sodium diet and limit how much salt you eat.

Because some diuretics also pull potassium out of your body, you might need to eat more foods like bananas, sweet potatoes, spinach, and lentils, or take a potassium supplement. On the other hand, if you’re taking a “potassium-sparing” diuretic, such as amiloride (Midamar), spironolactone (Aldactone), or triamterene (Dyrenium), they may want you to avoid potassium-rich foods, salt substitutes, low-sodium milk, and other sources of potassium.

If you only need one dose a day, you might want to take your diuretic in the morning so you can sleep through the night instead of getting up to go to the bathroom.

Avoid alcohol and medicines to help you sleep. They may make side effects worse.

Side Effects

The water that comes out of your body has to go somewhere, so you can expect to be peeing more and more often for several hours after a dose.

You also run the risk of getting dehydrated, and simply drinking more fluids may not be enough. Call your doctor if you’re very thirsty or have a very dry mouth, your pee is a deep yellow, you aren’t peeing much or get constipated, or you have a bad headache.

You may feel dizzy or lightheaded, especially when you stand up, if your blood pressure has dropped too low, or you’re getting dehydrated.

Your blood chemistry can get thrown off. You could have too little or too much sodium or potassium in your system. This can make you tired or weak or give you muscle cramps or a headache. It’s rare, but your heart may speed up (over 100 beats a minute) or you might start throwing up because of a dangerously low potassium level.

Diuretics may make it harder for you to control your blood sugar, which can lead to diabetes if you don’t already have it. You might be more likely to get gout.

Taking combination pills or multiple medicines could boost these side effects. To help lower those odds, ask your doctor when during the day you should take each medication.

Who Shouldn’t Take Them?

Some diuretics are sulfa drugs, so they could cause a reaction if you’re allergic.

Older people tend to have more side effects such as fainting and dizziness from dehydration. You’ll need to work closely with your doctor.

Diuretics aren’t recommended for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. We don’t know how these drugs affect an unborn baby. And many pass into breast milk, which can make the baby dehydrated.

Kids can safely take them, but they need smaller doses. The side effects are similar to adults. But potassium-sparing diuretics can cause low levels of calcium, which could hurt bone development.

Lasix Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing

Dizziness, lightheadedness, headache, or blurred vision may occur as your body adjusts to the medication. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

To reduce the risk of dizziness and lightheadedness, get up slowly when rising from a sitting or lying position.

Remember that this medication has been prescribed because your doctor has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

This medication may cause dehydration and electrolytes imbalance. Tell your doctor right away if you have any of these unlikely but serious side effects: muscle cramps, weakness, unusual tiredness, confusion, severe dizziness, fainting, drowsiness, unusual dry mouth/thirst, nausea, vomiting, fast/irregular heartbeat.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: signs of kidney problems (such as change in the amount of urine), numbness/tingling/pain/redness/swelling of the arms/legs, hearing changes (such as ringing in the ears, temporary or permanent decreased hearing/deafness), stomach/abdominal pain, yellowing eyes/skin.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US –

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

What Are Beta-Blockers for High Blood Pressure? List of Beta-Blockers

Beta-blockers are drugs that block the effects of adrenaline, the hormone that triggers your body’s fight-or-flight response when you’re stressed. This slows your heart rate and eases up on the force your heart squeezes with. Your blood pressure goes down because your heart isn’t working so hard. These medicines can also relax blood vessels so the blood flows better.

Drug Names

Beta-blockers include:

Your doctor will probably want you to try another medicine to control your blood pressure before they prescribe a beta-blocker. You may need to take other kinds of medicine for your high blood pressure, too.

While You’re Taking Beta-Blockers

You might have to check your pulse daily. When it’s slower than it should be, find out from your doctor if you should take your medication that day.

Take your medicine regularly with meals to keep the level steady so it works consistently.

Beta-blockers may not work right when you take them while you’re also using another drug. Or they could change how another medicine works. To avoid problems, let your doctor know about any medications — prescription or over-the-counter — or supplements that you’re taking, especially:

Avoid products with caffeine and alcohol. Don’t take cold medicines, antihistamines, or antacids that have aluminum in them.

If you’re going to have surgery of any kind (including dental procedures), make sure the doctor knows you’re taking a beta-blocker.

Who Shouldn’t Take Them?

Beta-blockers may not work as well for older people and for African-Americans.

Doctors don’t usually prescribe them for people with asthma, COPD, or breathing trouble or for those with very low blood pressure (hypotension), a type of heart rhythm problem called a heart block, or a slow pulse (bradycardia). Beta-blockers can make symptoms of these conditions worse.

These drugs can hide signs of low blood sugar. You’ll have to check your blood sugar more often when you have diabetes.

They may not be safe for women who are planning a pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding. Tell your doctor right away if you get pregnant while you’re taking a beta-blocker.

Side Effects

When you’re taking a beta-blocker, you may:

You could also have:

Let your doctor know if any of these bother you a lot. They may change your dose or switch you to a different medicine.

A beta-blocker might raise your triglycerides and lower your “good” HDL cholesterol a bit for a little while.

Don’t stop taking your beta-blocker unless your doctor says it’s OK. That could raise your chance of a heart attack or other heart problems.

Diuretic – Warnings, Precautions, Side Effects & Interactions

Also known as “water pills,” these drugs rid the body of extra water and lower blood pressure.

Diuretics are a class of medications commonly known as “water pills.”

They’re prescribed to treat high blood pressure; swelling of the feet, ankles, and lower legs and fluid in the lungs caused by heart failure; fluid buildup in the abdomen caused by liver damage or certain cancers; and eye conditions such as glaucoma.

Other conditions that may be treated with diuretics include diabetes insipidus, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), kidney stones, male-pattern baldness in women, and osteoporosis.

There are several different classes of diuretics, each of which works differently in the kidneys to help rid the body of extra water and salt.

Examples of diuretics include:

  • Loop diuretics, such as Lasix (furosemide), bumetanide, Demadex (torsemide), and Edecrin (ethacrynic acid)
  • Thiazide diuretics, like Microzide (hydrochlorothiazide), chlorthalidone, and Zaroxolyn (metolazone)
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics, including Aldactone (spironolactone), Inspra (eplerenone), Dyrenium (triamterene), and Midamor (amiloride)
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as Diamox (acetazolamide) — mainly used for glaucoma and altitude sickness

Warnings and Precautions

Don’t take diuretics if you have trouble urinating, or if you’re allergic to the active or inactive ingredients found in the medication.

Ask your doctor if you should avoid or be cautious using diuretics if you:

Common Side Effects

It’s not uncommon to experience any of the following while taking a diuretic:

  • Dizziness or headache
  • Thirstiness
  • Rash or itching
  • Higher blood glucose or cholesterol level
  • Changes in your sexual function or menstrual period
  • Muscle cramps (loop diuretics)
  • Ringing in the ears (loop diuretics)
  • Low sodium, potassium, and/or magnesium levels in the blood (loop diuretics)
  • High potassium levels in the blood (potassium-sparing diuretics)
  • Enlarged breasts in men (Aldactone and Inspra)

Drug Interactions

Many drugs can interact with diuretics, but double-check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure you’re not taking more than one diuretic at a time (unless your doctor has told you otherwise).

Don’t take loop diuretics if you’re taking Tikosyn (dofetilide).

Make sure your potassium is carefully monitored if you’re using digoxin and a loop or thiazide diuretic.

Dosages of insulin and oral diabetes medications may need to be adjusted while using diuretics.

Ask your doctor about diuretics if you’re taking the mood stabilizer Lithobid (lithium), or if you’re taking any medication that may lead you to feel dehydrated.

Taking Diuretics for High Blood Pressure

One of the most common types of blood pressure medications is known as a diuretic. These medicines lower your blood pressure by helping your body get rid of excess water and salt through your kidneys, allowing your heart to pump better.

Diuretics are commonly known as “water pills” and they treat several conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and kidney problems. For blood pressure, they may be used alone or added to another medication.

Classes of diuretics include:

  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Loop diuretics
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics

John Fedele / Getty Images

Thiazide Diuretics

Thiazide diuretics are used to treat blood pressure and also to get rid of excess fluid, or edema, in patients with heart failure, liver disease, steroid use, and estrogen-replacement therapy. 

Some common thiazide diuretics used to treat hypertension include:

  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Indapamide
  • Chlorothiazide
  • Metolazone
  • Chlorthalidone

Loop Diuretics

Loop diuretics are used to treat edema in congestive heart failure as well as kidney and liver disease. They work by blocking the reabsorption of fluid that passes through your kidneys, and then you pass that excess fluid as urine.

Other loop diuretics are:

  • Lasix (furosemide)
  • Bumex (bumetanide)
  • Demadex (torsemide)
  • Edecrin (ethacrynic acid)

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics

Potassium-sparing diuretics are often used at the same time as other diuretics to maintain the potassium balance in your body. They don’t lower blood pressure significantly when used alone. Potassium-sparing diuretics include:

  • Aldactone
  • Spironolactone
  • Amiloride
  • Triamterene

Side Effects

Diuretics can cause numerous side effects, including some that may be dangerous. The specific side-effect profile is different for each drug, so you’ll want to get familiar with the one(s) you’re taking.

In general, some common side effects of diuretics include:

  • Frequent urination: You may need to urinate more often than usual after taking a diuretic. This symptom usually subsides after a few hours.
  • Electrolyte imbalance: You can lose electrolytes (including sodium and potassium, depending on the drug) in your urine when you are taking a diuretic, so your doctor may monitor your blood chemistry while you’re taking these drugs.
  • Weakness and fatigue: These side effects usually resolve after a few weeks, as you get used to the drug.
  • Muscle cramps: This can occur when a diuretic leads to low potassium levels. In some cases, doctors recommend a daily potassium supplement for their patients on diuretics. Don’t just assume you need one, though. This is a decision that’s best made with your doctor.
  • Dizziness, blurred vision: These symptoms can result from dehydration. Watch for symptoms, which include decreased urine output, excessive thirst or mouth dryness, or dark-colored urine. Let your doctor know the drug could be dehydrating you.

Less common side effects are:

  • Increase in blood sugar levels in diabetics
  • Attacks of gout
  • Impotence in men (rarely)

As with any drug, diuretics sometimes cause dangerous side effects. Contact your doctor right away if you notice any of the following symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Sore throat and mouth ulcers
  • Unexplained bleeding or bruising
  • Ringing in your ears

Do you have an allergy to sulfa drugs? Many diuretic drugs contain sulfa, so tell your doctor if you have an allergy to sulfa (or any medication). Making sure this information is in your chart and on file with your pharmacy can help protect you from getting a drug that you shouldn’t take.

Important Concerns

Dozens of different antihypertensive medications are on the market, and each one has its pros and cons. Your doctor can go over the risks and benefits with you. Your pharmacist is also a great resource for information about how medications may affect you.

To protect your health, you should be aware of several things about taking diuretics to control your hypertension.

  • When you doctor prescribes a diuretic (or any drug), make sure they’re aware of any medications—prescription or over-the-counter—that you’re taking. This includes nutritional supplements and herbal remedies, as well.
  • Consider taking your diuretic in the morning, so you won’t be up at night going to the bathroom.
  • While you’re on a diuretic, your doctor may want to monitor your blood pressure, electrolyte levels, and kidney function regularly, so be certain to keep all of your appointments as scheduled.
  • Remember that diuretics can cause abnormal levels of potassium or sodium. If you’re taking a potassium-sparing diuretic, your doctor may tell you to avoid foods that are rich in potassium. These foods include some salt substitutes.
  • Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding shouldn’t use diuretics.
  • Lifestyle factors, like smoking and salty foods, can keep your medicine from working effectively. Let your doctor know if you need help or guidance giving up cigarettes or making healthy changes to your diet.

Managing Your Blood Pressure

Keeping your blood pressure at a good level is important to your health, and prescription drugs are only part of the solution to hypertension. It can also help if you:

  • Take your medicines as prescribed
  • Check your blood pressure at the same time each day, if your doctor wants you to track it

Lifestyle changes may help you control your blood pressure with lower doses of medication, or they may allow you to go off of medication altogether. These include:

  • Eating a healthy diet
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Exercising regularly

Diuretics | Water tablets | Bupa UK

Interactions of diuretics

Medicines

Diuretics can sometimes interact with certain other medicines. This can have an effect on how well your medicines work, or possibly make side-effects more likely.

There will be a list of medicines potentially affected on the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine, and these may include:

  • digoxin, which is used for various heart conditions
  • antibiotics (eg vancomycin)
  • beta-blockers (eg sotalol)
  • anti-arrhythmics (eg flecainide)
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg ibuprofen)

Your pharmacist or doctor will be able to tell you for sure if any medicines you take may be affected, and may adjust your dose or suggest an alternative if necessary. Don’t stop any medicine without talking to your doctor first.

Food and drink

It’s important not to eat too much salt if you’re taking a diuretic. Too much salt in your diet can counteract the effects of the diuretics. You should also steer clear of salt substitutes, which are high in potassium if you’re taking potassium-sparing diuretics, otherwise your potassium level may rise too high.

Be careful when drinking alcohol while taking diuretics. Alcohol has a diuretic effect of its own and this may cause your blood pressure to fall too low.

Vitamin and mineral supplements

It’s important not to take potassium supplements at the same time as potassium-sparing diuretics. This is because both of these act to increase the level of potassium in your blood. Taking the two medicines together means your level could become dangerously high (hyperkalaemia).

You may also need to be careful if you take calcium supplements. This is because diuretics can increase the level of calcium in your body. The resulting high levels of calcium can cause various side-effects.

It’s important that you tell your pharmacist or doctor about all the medicines or supplements you’re taking – both prescription and non-prescription. They can then advise you about what interactions and side-effects they may have with a diuretic. Always read the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine too.

What You Need To Know Before Taking Water Pills

Maybe you ate way too much on your vacation last week. Maybe you haven’t been as *ahem* regular as you normally are. Maybe it’s just that time of the month. Whatever it is, you’re swollen and puffy and it’s super uncomfortable.

Sooo…should you just pop a few OTC water pills to help you ditch the bloat and feel normal again?

Hold on, what are water pills, anyway?

Water pills (a.k.a. diuretics) basically pressure your kidneys into flushing out excess water and salt through your pee.

There are actually three classes of diuretics that work in different ways, says Ellen Lunenfeld, M.D., an internist with Summit Medical Group in New Jersey—thiazide, loop-acting, and potassium-sparing diuretics. Each class works on a different part of the kidney’s nephron where urine is made, says Lunenfeld.

They sound pretty harmless, right? After all, you’re just peeing more.

Actually, it goes a little deeper than that. Here’s what you need to know about water pills—and why you should definitely skip self-prescribing them.

1. Water pills are one of the most commonly prescribed medications.

Take note of that word: prescribed. Water pills are meant to help reduce blood pressure, prevent fluid buildup, and reduce swelling respectively, says Linda Anegawa, M.D., an internist at Pali Momi Medical Center in Hawaii.

They’re usually given to people with health issues like hypertension, heart failure, and idiopathic edema (unexplained swelling)—not people looking to cure mild bloating or lose weight. Most doctors recommend against using water pills for those purposes.

2. OTC water pills are different from prescription water pills.

It might be tempting to pick up an OTC water pill at the drugstore if you’re experiencing mild bloating, but Lunenfeld warns against this. That’s because OTC water pills and prescriptions water pills aren’t the same thing.

“The problem with OTC meds like these is that you’re not sure exactly what they’re giving you,” she explains. “They’re not FDA controlled, so they may not be doing what they claim to and in fact might be making you dehydrated.” (With an Rx, a doctor will monitor your dosage and length of use—that doesn’t happen with OTC water pills, hence the dehydration risk.)

Going a step further, OTC water pills could even be toxic and interact badly with other medicines you’re taking, says Anegawa. (Again, with a prescription, a doctor will be monitoring this.) OTC water pills also haven’t been studied in research trials to prove their efficacy, she adds.

3. Water pills aren’t addictive, but they can be dangerous.

Water pills aren’t habit-forming or dangerous, says Anegawa—again, as long as you’re getting them through your doctor. When you start taking them on your own without a recommended dosage, however, you could do some serious damage to your body.

“[Taking them] can cause worsening kidney function, and lightheadedness or dizziness as a result of being dehydrated,” says Lunenfeld. Other scary symptoms caused by dehydration and loss of electrolytes includes heart palpitations, weakness, confusion, and severe dizziness.

3. They don’t really help you lose weight…

Sure, water pills help you shed excess water that’s making you feel super bloated—but only temporarily. Once you stop taking them, your kidneys go back to reabsorbing the normal amount of water and salt for your body, so you’ll go back to your typical body weight soon after you stop taking them.

“When you’re weighing yourself, [you’re adding up] bone, fat, muscle and water,” says Lunenfeld. “When you’re looking to lose weight, you’re looking to lose fat and maintain muscle mass. With a diuretic, you’re just losing water weight, which isn’t really getting you any significant weight loss.”

4. In fact, they might make you gain weight.

Yep, you read that right. If you take any type of diuretic over a long period of time, your kidneys will eventually compensate for their use and you’ll end up holding on to more water weight than you did before you started taking them.

It’s called diuretic-induced edema, which happens when your kidneys start retaining more sodium and water than they need and your body starts to swell, says Anegawa—kind of the opposite of what a water pill is supposed to do.

5. Prescriptions water pills can be helpful if you’re on your period.

While it’s not recommended for healthy women to take any kind of water pills, there is one exception: to reduce period bloating. According to Anegawa, it’s fine for women to take prescription water pills to help de-puff unexplained leg swelling or bloating caused by PMS, says Anegawa.

Again, that’s prescription-only, so don’t head to your nearest drugstore for diuretics. Instead, bring up the issue to your ob-gyn, who may prescribe water pills to take before your period or whenever you tend to feel super-inflated. Since your physician will be keeping an eye on your dose, you’ll reduce your risk of serious side effects and have someone to call if something feels off.

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90,000 Diuretics are … What are Diuretics?

drugs that increase the excretion of sodium ions and water by the kidneys and, therefore, cause a decrease in the amount of fluid in the body.
Diuretics are classified into saluretics, potassium-sparing and osmotic diuretics. Saluretics increase the excretion of sodium ions and, to a lesser extent, potassium ions from the body. These include furosemide (a derivative of sulfamoylanthranilic acid) and a structurally similar bumetanide; ethacrynic acid (phenoxyacetic acid derivative): dichlothiazide, cyclomethiazide (benzothiadiazine derivatives) and oxodoline and clopamide, close to them in action; euphyllin (a xanthine derivative).Potassium-sparing MS, characterized in that, simultaneously with increasing the excretion of sodium ions from the body, they delay the excretion of potassium ions, include the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone, as well as triamterene (aminopteridine derivative) and amiloride (pyrazinamide derivative). Osmotic diuretics are mannitol and urea.
The main effect of M.w. is their natriuretic effect, i.e. the ability to increase the release of sodium ions from the body due to a decrease in their reabsorption in the kidney tubules.Under physiological conditions, less than 1% of the sodium filtration charge is excreted in the urine, i.e. the amount of this ion filtered in the kidneys, since the rest of its amount is reabsorbed in the renal tubules. The ability of individual M.s. increase the excretion of sodium ions in the urine is not the same. So, furosemide, bumetanide and ethacrynic acid increase the amount of sodium released to 25% of the filtration charge, dichlothiazide – up to 8%, potassium-sparing diuretics, as well as euphyllin – up to 2-5%.Thus, natriuretic activity is most pronounced in furosemide, bumetanide and ethacrine acid. Potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, etc.) and aminophylline are the least effective in this regard.
Along with the diuretic effect, an important property of M. with. is their ability to lower blood pressure. The hypotensive effect of M. with. associated with a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance due to a decrease in the content of water and sodium ions in the vascular wall and a decrease in the degree of its hydration, as well as caused by M.with. hypovolemia, which develops as a result of the loss of sodium ions and water by the body.
Under the influence of M.S. the release of not only sodium ions increases, but also chlorine and water ions. In addition, saluretics increase the release of potassium ions, which is undesirable, because this leads to a decrease in its content in the blood and tissues and contributes to the development of hypokalemia. Some MS, in particular benzothiadiazine derivatives, are actively secreted by the cells of the tubular epithelium and competitively inhibit the secretion of uric acid, as a result of which its concentration in the blood increases.Saluretics, as a result of a decrease in the volume of extracellular fluid, and also, probably, due to the stimulation of the dense spot zone in the distal tubule with a large amount of unreabsorbed chloride and sodium ions, increase the secretion of renin by the cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys. Mannitol reduces renin secretion by the kidneys.
Diuretics differ in the localization of their effect in the nephron and their effect on the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms of ion transport in the kidney tubules. Furosemide, ethacrynic acid and bumetanide cause a diuretic effect due to the blockade of active transport of chlorine ions in the thick section of the ascending part of the nephron loop, and therefore this group of M.with. are referred to as loop diuretics. Benzothiadiazine derivatives (dichlothiazide, cyclomethiazide) and oxodoline act on the initial part of the distal tubules. They have a less pronounced diuretic effect than furosemide.
Potassium-sparing diuretics act in the area of ​​the distal nephron. They increase urinary sodium excretion while decreasing the excretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Spironolactone is a structural analogue and competitive antagonist of aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid hormone of the adrenal cortex.The effect of other potassium-sparing diuretics (triamterene, amilorda) is not associated with blockade of aldosterone receptors. These drugs directly reduce the permeability of the cell membrane to sodium and potassium ions. As a result, the exchange of ions between the cytoplasm of the cells of the distal tubule and the intratubular fluid is disturbed, the release of potassium decreases, and sodium increases.
Osmotic diuretics (mannitol, urea), being filtered in the glomeruli, increase the osmotic pressure in the kidney tubules and prevent water reabsorption, mainly in the proximal tubule.In addition, in the proximal tubule under the influence of these M.with. the permeability of the intercellular junctions increases and the flow of fluid from the interstitium into the canaliculus increases. Under the action of mannitol and urea, apparently due to a decrease in renin secretion by the kidneys, the adductor arterioles of the glomeruli expand, as a result of which glomerular filtration increases and blood flow in the medulla of the kidney increases.
Metabolized by M. with. to varying degrees. Thus, most of furosemide is excreted unchanged.One of the possible metabolites of furosemide is its glucuronide. Bumetanide is practically not metabolized. Ethacrynic acid is metabolized, one of its metabolites is a complex with cysteine. Spironolactone is most significantly metabolized. Already after 10 min after its administration, the metabolites canrenone and canrenoate are formed. Only canrenone has a diuretic effect. Slowly excreted by the kidneys, it causes diuresis within 1 day. and more. Triamterene is excreted unchanged by the kidneys only on 1 / 3 .Its main metabolite is the ester of triamterene and sulfuric acid, which has a diuretic effect.

Diuretics are used for congestion in the large and small circles of blood circulation, caused by cardiovascular insufficiency, with nephritis, cirrhosis of the liver with symptoms of portal hypertension and in other conditions, accompanied by the development of edematous syndrome, tk. these drugs primarily increase the excretion of sodium ions from the body and secondarily increase the excretion of water, thereby helping to reduce edema.Diuretics are also used in the treatment of hypertension and symptomatic hypertension. In this case, saluretics (benzothiadiazine derivatives, oxodoline) are often combined with potassium-sparing diuretics, in particular with triamterene, as well as with the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone.

Diuretics with a maximum natriuretic effect and a minimum latency period of action (for example, furosemide, ethacrine acid) are prescribed for forced diuresis in acute poisoning with various chemical compounds.Mannitol is used for the same purpose. Application of M. with. it is advisable for the prevention of ischemic kidney damage after operations with artificial circulation. For the treatment of cerebral edema, osmotic diuretics and furosemide are indicated as means of dehydration therapy. For the prevention of acute renal failure, especially in renal ischemia, mannitol and furosemide are used, which cause an increase in the flow of fluid through the tubules and thereby prevent the clogging of the lumen of the tubule with the decay products of ischemic cells.M.’s preparations with the maximum rate of development and the severity of the diuretic effect (furosemide) is used in acute pulmonary edema. Some diuretics, such as benzothiadiazine derivatives (dichlothiazide, etc.), are prescribed in the treatment of diabetes insipidus, because these drugs reduce thirst and help reduce polyuria.
General contraindications to the use of all M. with. are hypotension, dehydration and hypovolemia. Contraindications for individual drugs – cm.See table .

Comparative characteristics of the main M.s. is given in the table.

Table

Clinical and pharmacological characteristics of the main diuretics

————————————————- ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —–

| Names | Basic | Doses and methods of administration | Indications for | Contraindications to | Side and | Forms |

| preparations and theirs | pharmacological | | application | application | toxic | release and |

| synonyms | properties | | | | action | conditions |

| | | | | | | storage |

| ———————————————— ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —– |

| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 |

| ———————————————— ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —– |

| Dichlothiazide , | Causes moderate | Inside in single doses from 0.025 | Edema on the ground | Severe renal | Hypokalemia, | Tablets per |

| Dichlo-thiazidum | natriuresis and chloruresis. | up to 0.2 g ; in mild cases – for | cardio- | failure, | hypochloremic – | 0.025 and 0.1 g . |

| (synonyms: | Increases excretion | 0.025-0.05 g per day, more | vascular | pronounced | cue alkalosis, | Storage: |

| hypothiazide, | potassium, magnesium, calcium and | heavy – 0.1 g per day. | failure, | liver damage, | weakness, nausea, | list B; at |

| jade, etc.) | partially bicarbonates. | Elderly people | for cirrhosis | kidney, heavy | vomiting, | dry place |

| | Diuretic effect | prescribed in doses of 0.0125 g 1-2 | liver, renal | sugar molds | heartbeat, at | |

| | develops in 1-2 | once a day.Preparation | failure, | diabetes and gout | rare cases | |

| | hours after ingestion | use courses of 3-5-7 | nephropathy | | possible | |

| | preparation inside and | days with breaks of 3-4 days | pregnant women, | | dermatitis | |

| | lasts 10-12 hours. | or intermittently through | non-sugar | | | |

| | | every 1-2 days. At | diabetes, | | | |

| | | long-term use sometimes | hypercalcemia | | | |

| | | appoint 2-3 times | | | | |

| | | week.With hypertensive | | | | |

| | | disease is usually shown by | | | | |

| | | 0.025-0.05 g per day | | | | |

| ———————————————— ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —– |

| Acid | Calls pronounced | By mouth (after meals) from | Cardiac edema | The same as | Hypokalemia, | Tablets per |

| ethacrine | natriuresis, chloruresis, | 0.05 g , if necessary, a dose of | and kidney | dichlothiazide, and | hypochloremic – | 0.05 g ; ampoules, |

| Acidum | enhances the release | increase to 0.1-0.2 g . | origin, | also anuria and | cue alkalosis, | containing |

| etacrynicum | potassium. Ingestion | Usually the drug in the specified | stagnant | pregnancy. At | dyspeptic | 0.05 each g |

| (synonym uregit | the effect develops through | doses are taken once a day | phenomena in | liver cirrhosis | disorders, | sodium salt |

| and etc.) | 1 / 2 – 1 h and continues 6 – | (in the morning). Intravenously administered at | gate system | the drug is used | diarrhea, | ethacrine |

| | 9 h . Intravenous | 0.05 g . Young children | veins, acute edema | under careful | dizziness, | acid, |

| | introduction effect | the drug is prescribed only at | lungs and head | medical | weakness, | which |

| | develops after 15 min and | resistance to other | brain, acute | surveillance | aggravation | dissolve |

| | lasts 3-4 h | diuretics | renal | | gout, intensification | before |

| | | | failure, | | ototoxic and | used |

| | | | hypertensive | | nephrotoxic | isotonic |

| | | | disease and | | actions | mortar |

| | | | symptomatic | | aminoglycoside | chloride |

| | | | hypertension, | | antibiotics | sodium or |

| | | | prevention | | | glucose.|

| | | | ischemic | | | Storage: cn. |

| | | | kidney damage | | | B |

| ———————————————— ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —– |

| Clopamide , | Possesses high | Inside, starting from 0.04 g ; at | Same as | The same as | Same as | Tablets per |

| (clopamidum | natriuretic | required dose | dichlothiazide | dichlothiazide | dichlothiazide | 0.02 g .|

| (synonym | activity. By structure | increase to 0.06 g per day. | | | | Storage: sp. |

| brinaldix) | and action is close to | Maintenance doses | | | | B |

| | furosemide.When receiving | are 0.01 g per day or | | | | |

| | inside the effect comes | 0.02 g every other day. Preparation | | | | |

| | after 1—3 h and | take 1 time per day (in the morning). | | | | |

| | lasts 8-18 h , | With hypertension | | | | |

| | sometimes more than 24 h | appoint 0.01-0.02 g | | | | |

| ———————————————— ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —– |

| Mannitol , | Calls strong | Intravenous jet (slow) | Warning | Violations | Dehydration, | Vials, |

| Mannitum | natriuretic | or drip in the form of 10-15% | kidney damage | excretory | accompanying – | containing |

| (synonym | effect, does not enhance | solutions.Single doses for | with their ischemia, | kidney function, | with dyspepsia | each 30 g |

| mannitol) | the release of potassium. | preventive administration | cerebral edema, acute | heavy | and hallucinations | drug or |

| | Renders | are 0.5 g per 1 kg mass | renal | failure | | 15% solution in |

| | dehydrating | body, therapeutic doses – 1-1.5 g | failure, | circulation | | ampoules for |

| | action.Diuretic | per 1 kg body weight. Daily | stagnant | | | 200, 400 and 500 |

| | effect starts at | the dose should not exceed 140— | glaucoma, | | | ml .Storage: |

| | first minutes after | 180 g | cupping | | | lyophilized – |

| | start intravenous | | convulsive | | | bathroom mannitol |

| | introduction | | status, | | | in bottles |

| | | | forced | | | store at |

| | | | diuresis at | | | conventional |

| | | | sharp | | | conditions, |

| | | | poisoning | | | solutions – |

| | | | | | | at |

| | | | | | | temperature |

| | | | | | | not higher than 25 ° |

| ———————————————— ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —– |

| Oxodolin , | Causes moderate | Inside 1 time per day in doses from | The same as for | The same as | Too.what do | Tablets per |

| Oxodolinum | natriuresis and chlorineresis, | 0.025 to 0.1 g , rarely 0.2 g . At | dichlothiazide | dichlothiazide | dichlothiazide | 0.05 g . |

| (synonym: | enhances the release | when the effect is achieved, the transition is | | | | Storage: |

| hygroton, | potassium.Diuretic | for maintenance doses of 0.05 – | | | | list B: at |

| chlorgalidone and | the effect starts in | 0.1 g , which are prescribed through | | | | dry, |

| dr.) | 2-4 h after ingestion | 2-3 days | | | | cool, |

| | and lasts more than a day | | | | | protected |

| | | | | | | from the light spot |

| ———————————————— ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —– |

| Spironolac – | Moderately increases | Inside in daily doses from | Edematous Syndrome | Acute renal | Hyperkalemia, | Tablets per |

| ton, | elimination of sodium and | 0.075 to 0.3 g which | with cardiac – | failure, | hyponatremia, | 0.025 g . |

| Spironolactonum | reduces excretion | appoint 2-4 doses per day. | vascular | nephrotic | nausea, | Storage: cn. |

| (synonym | potassium. Diuretic | When necessary | failure, | chronic stage | dizziness, | B |

| veroshpiron, | effect is developing | effect daily doses | ascites on the ground | jade, azotemia, | sleepiness, skin | |

| aldactone, etc.) | slowly (on the 2-5th day | reduce to 0.075-0.025 g | liver cirrhosis, | hyperkalemia. C | reversible rash | |

| | from the start of treatment) | | hyperaldostero | caution | form | |

| | | | nizm, | used at | gynecomastia | |

| | | | nephrotic | incomplete | | |

| | | | syndrome, | atrioventricular | | |

| | | | hypokalemia, | blockade | | |

| | | | caused by | | | |

| | | | application | | | |

| | | | saluretics, | | | |

| | | | hypertensive | | | |

| | | | disease | | | |

| ———————————————— ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —– |

| Triamteren , | Possesses moderately | Inside at 0.05-0.1-0.2 g in | The same as for | Hyperkalemia | Hyperkalemia, | Capsules, |

| Triamterenum | expressed | a day in 1-2 doses.At | spironolactone | | hyperuricemia, | containing |

| (synonym: ditac, | natriuretic | simultaneous use with | | | hyperglycemia, | 0.05 each g |

| pterofen, etc.) | activity, reduces | saluretics are prescribed in | | | increase | triamterene. |

| | the release of potassium. | smaller doses, for example 0.025 | | | content | Storage: |

| | Diuretic effect | g triamterene and 0.0125 g | | | blood urea, | list B |

| | starts in 15-20 | dichlothiazide | | | nausea, vomiting, | |

| | min after reception | | | | headache | |

| | preparation inside and | | | | | |

| | lasts 6-8 h | | | | | |

| | (sometimes up to 12 h ) | | | | | |

| ———————————————— ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —– |

| Furosemide , | Causes very | Inside, 0.04 g 1 time per day | Inside at 0.04 g 1 | Severe renal | Hypokalemia, | Tablets per |

| Furosemidum | pronounced natriuresis, | (in the morning).In case of insufficient | once a day | failure, | hypochloremic | 0.04 g ; ampoules |

| (synonym: lasix, | chloruresis, enhances | effect increase the dose to | (in the morning). At | severe lesions | alkalosis, | 2 ml 1% |

| furantril, etc.) | the release of potassium.At | 0.08-0.12 g . Intravenous and | insufficient | liver | aggravation | solution. |

| | ingestion effect | intramuscularly injected at 0.02 g | effect | | latent | Storage: |

| | develops through 1 / 2 -1 h | | increase the dose | | gout, intensification | list B |

| | | 1 every two days, in heavy | to 0.08-0.12 g . | | ototoxic and | |

| | and lasts 4-8 h , at | cases – 0.02-0.04 g 1 time | Intravenous and | | nephrotoxic | |

| | intravenous administration | in a day.With pulmonary edema | intramuscularly | | actions | |

| | effect develops through | appoint intravenously 0.02 – | enter 0.02 g 1 | | aminoglycoside | |

| | a few minutes and | 0.06 g preparation | every two days at | | antibiotics | |

| | continues 1 1 / 2 —3 h | | severe cases | | | |

| | | | – 0.02-0.04 g | | | |

| | | | | | | |

| | | | 1 per day.At | | | |

| | | | pulmonary edema | | | |

| | | | appoint | | | |

| | | | intravenous | | | |

| | | | 0.02-0.06 g | | | |

| | | | preparation | | | |

| ———————————————— ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —– |

| Cyclomethi – | By chemical structure | Orally at 0.0005 g per day, at | Same as | The same as | The same as | Tablets per |

| azide, | and action is close to | severe cases – 0.001— | dichlothiazide | dichlothiazide | dichlothiazide | 0.0005 g . |

| Cyclomethiazidum | dichlothiazide, but several | 0.0015 g per day. Increase | | | | Storage: |

| (synonym: | more active than it. | doses above 0.002 g not | | | | list B |

| cyclopente | Diuretic effect | efficiently.Prescribed for children | | | | |

| azide, navidrex | develops after 2-4 h | inside at 0.00025-0.0005 g c | | | | |

| and etc.) | after taking the drug | day or once every 2-3 days | | | | |

| | inside and continues | | | | | |

| | 10-12 h | | | | | |

————————————————- ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————————————– —–

Bibliography: Lebedev A.A. Diuretics and blood circulation, M., 1984, bibliogr .; A. A. Lebedev and Dubishchev A.The. Clinical pharmacology of diuretics, Kuibyshev, 1985, bibliogr. 90,000 Top 7 Diuretic Drinks and Foods | Pharmacy weekly

Excess fluid in the body hinders the work of the heart and lungs and provokes the formation of edema. Fluid retention can be caused by many different medical conditions, as well as certain medications. Diuretics are used to remove excess fluid from the body.However, there are several foods and drinks that work as natural diuretics in the body.

Chernushka sowing. This plant, also known as black cumin, is considered a good diuretic due to its biologically active components with diuretic properties in its composition. Nigella seed has a strong peppery aroma and is used in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine. This plant is being studied with the aim of developing a new method for lowering blood pressure levels.

Hibiscus. This plant is known for its diuretic properties. Moreover, its active components protect the body from excessive excretion of potassium. Hibiscus is used to make hibiscus tea. It is prepared by steeping dried hibiscus petals in hot water.

Alcohol. Alcoholic drinks are known for their diuretic properties. At the same time, do not forget about the negative consequences of alcohol consumption.

Dandelion. The common wildflower is found in many countries, including widespread in Ukraine.It is used as a component of herbal teas and herbal teas.

Ginger. Like dandelion, ginger is widely used in detoxifying drinks and teas due to its diuretic properties.

Parsley. Research has shown that parsley seed extract significantly increases urine volume in animals. Parsley has been used as a homemade diuretic for many years.

Caffeine. This component may have a short-term diuretic effect.It is found in tea, coffee, sodas and energy drinks. Theophylline, a compound found in tea, also has diuretic properties.

It is worth remembering that diuretics should not be used for weight loss. Anyone looking to lose weight should regularly follow a healthy, balanced diet and exercise.

Based on materials from www.medicalnewstoday.com

The best diuretics for weight loss and weight improvement

How you want to remove extra pounds quickly! And it seems logical to take a diuretic pill and “drain” 1.5-2 kg in a couple of days! And many do so, especially on the eve of some important event or the opening of the beach season.

But let’s see if everything is so simple.

What are diuretics?

Diuretics are drugs and should not be used without direct prescription.

Diuretics (diuretics) are real medicines. They have clearly marked indications, confirmed by large studies. They help treat heart failure, arterial hypertension, kidney disease, and some lung diseases.Prescribing diuretics can sometimes save lives.

An overweight person can be prescribed drugs of this group by a doctor, if there is a medical indication for this – heart disease, kidney disease. In the first days of admission, there will be a desired weight loss due to the removal of excess fluid. The keyword is “redundant”.

The principle of operation of diuretics is to increase the excretion of fluid through the kidneys, to stimulate their work. According to the point of application, diuretics are divided into classes: loop, potassium-sparing, thiazide, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, osmotic.

What does the use of diuretics entail?

None of the guidelines for their use have such an indication for use as “weight loss”. At the same time, there is a list of side effects and contraindications associated with the loss of both fluid and salts (potassium, magnesium, sodium).

Uncontrolled intake of diuretics is dangerous for complications:

  • headache;
  • dizziness;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • convulsions;
  • heartbeat;
  • muscle pain;
  • thirst.

Even deaths have been described with ill-considered use of drugs in this group.

Despite the fact that a person is 2-3 consists of water, it is impossible to consider it unnecessary in most cases and try to “drive out” in pursuit of a rapid change in the figure on the scales, especially.

To summarize: all dosage forms of diuretics must be taken strictly according to the doctor’s prescription!

If there is an objective reason to reduce body weight (and diuretics are often used by patients with anorexia – without the need to lose weight), then the goal will be to lose adipose tissue.And any “water-removing” method will not affect this very tissue in any way.

The effectiveness of diuretics against excess weight

After taking diuretics, the weight actually decreases rather quickly. But also quickly returns again.

Long-term use of drugs of this group without medical indications is fraught with serious complications. And no dress that you must fit into tomorrow is not worth your health.

Only adequate nutrition and regular physical activity can be a magic pill for permanent weight loss.

The best cure for excess weight is regular exercise.

What to do if there are still signs of fluid retention: slight swelling of the hands, ankles, the usual shoes become cramped in the evening?

Such phenomena often occur in hot weather, after salty food, in the premenstrual period.

There are several natural ways to reduce the amount of fluid in the body:

  • Reduce salt intake to 5-6g per day.This means excluding highly salted foods and dishes: sausage, semi-finished products, ready-made sauces, mature cheeses, delicacies, canned food, chips, pickled and salted vegetables.
  • Provide an adequate amount of protein in the diet. Proteins in the body play an important role in maintaining water balance. On average, 1 g of protein per kg of body weight per day is the inclusion of a protein product in every main meal.
  • Include foods rich in potassium and magnesium. These trace elements prevent water retention.Fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, bran are the main sources of K and Mg.
  • Adequate drinking regimen – at least 6-8 glasses a day. When there is a shortage of drinking, a paradoxical fluid retention occurs, the mechanism of protection against dehydration is activated and water is not excreted.
  • Do not get carried away with simple carbohydrates (sweets, available starches) – if not all the carbohydrates eaten are spent for energy purposes, they are deposited in the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen. And each gram of it is associated with 3 g of water.Of course, the amount of glycogen stores is limited to 600-800g, but this is already 2-2.5 liters of water.
  • Physical activity, walking, training – not only use the glycogen store (while reducing the amount of fluid associated with it), but also improve blood flow and water excretion by the kidneys.

In order to prevent the accumulation of excess fluid, it is useful to include in the diet foods that have a mild diuretic effect. It is mainly associated with potassium salts, as well as with other, specific for each, components related to polyphenols, anthocyanins.

The use of which products will prevent unwanted edema:

  • all types of cabbage;
  • melons – melons and watermelons;
  • fresh cucumbers;
  • parsley, dill, cilantro, celery;
  • cranberries and lingonberries;
  • lemon and ginger;
  • beets, asparagus and garlic.

Many natural products can be used to regulate the water balance in the body, although in a healthy person the body copes with this on its own.

How else can you improve the water balance in the body

Of course, they will not have a quick and noticeable diuretic effect when consumed in reasonable quantities, these are not drugs. But they will make their contribution to maintaining the water balance. And cucumber slices and cabbage leaves can even be applied to problematic swollen areas – legs and lower eyelids.

Various herbal preparations can be used relatively safely for diuretic purposes. They can be collected by yourself or purchased ready-made at the pharmacy.There is no scientific evidence for their effectiveness and they may work differently in different people.

Diuretic effect is possessed by:

  • dill – seeds, leaves, stems;
  • parsley – leaves and roots;
  • chamomile – flowers;
  • bearberry – leaves;
  • lingonberry – berries and leaves;
  • field horsetail;
  • nettle;
  • turn.
  • bssmertnik – and many others.

But even in the case of herbal preparations, you need to follow the recommended dosage, proportions and take a course no more than 5-7 days in a row.

If all home remedies have been tried, and the swelling persists or is accompanied by other symptoms (shortness of breath, frequent urination, etc.), be sure to see a doctor so as not to miss a more serious cause of fluid retention.

what is it, a list of the best medicines

Diuretics are drugs that stimulate the elimination of urine and other fluids from the body. Represented by several pharmacological groups.They have a wide range of indications, are often used in combination with other drugs.

Contents:

Diuretics: What They Are

Diuretics are drugs that accelerate the formation of urine and its elimination from the body.

Such funds are prescribed mainly to combat tissue edema against the background of diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys and liver, as well as for the treatment of severe pathological conditions that require a rapid decrease in fluid.

All diuretics differ in the mechanism of action of the diuretic effect. The pharmacological property of the drugs lies in the effect on the epithelium of the renal tubules, where the formation of urine occurs.

In addition, some medications affect certain enzyme and hormonal substances that are responsible for the normal functioning of the kidneys.

Indications for diuretics

The main indications for taking diuretics are the following conditions:

  1. Elimination of swelling of cells and tissues as a result of varying degrees of heart failure and vascular diseases.

  2. Kidney pathology.

  3. Normalization of high blood pressure.

  4. Removal from the body of toxic and other harmful substances due to poisoning.

  5. Ascites.

  6. Liver cirrhosis.

  7. Glaucoma.

  8. Osteoporosis

Edema is the main symptom of pathological conditions of the heart, blood vessels and dysfunction of the excretory system. Fluid buildup is associated with high sodium retention. The mechanism of action of diuretics is precisely that it removes sodium from the body, thereby eliminating puffiness.

At high blood pressure, high sodium levels negatively affect the tone of the blood vessels, leading to their constriction.Therefore, taking diuretics removes this element from the body, increasing the lumen of the vessels and normalizing the blood pressure.

Due to poisoning, a certain amount of toxins and harmful compounds is reduced in the process of kidney function. However, in order to speed up their excretion, patients must be prescribed diuretics. First, patients are given an intravenous infusion of medicinal solutions, and then diuretics are administered, which, together with the liquid, eliminate toxic substances from the body.

Contraindications for drugs

The use of diuretics is not always advisable. There are certain conditions that prohibit the use of this kind of drugs. These include:

  1. Low levels of potassium in the blood.

  2. Individual intolerance to sulfanidamide substances.

  3. Severe respiratory failure.

  4. Acute kidney disease.

  5. Any type of diabetes.

An implicit contraindication to taking diuretics is ventricular arrhythmia. With such a clinical condition, a therapeutic dose adjustment and strict medical supervision are required.

Diuretic tablets for edema

To combat puffiness, the most effective drugs are:

  1. Lasix – refers to loop diuretics, prevents sodium and chlorine retention.

  2. Britomar is available in the form of tablets for oral administration. Possesses long-term therapeutic activity.

  3. Diuver is a loop diuretic drug. Often prescribed for heart failure and severe edema.

All medicines have contraindications, so you need to take it as directed by a specialist.

Diuretic diet pills

Taking diuretics is beneficial for weight loss. This is due to a decrease in excess fluid in the body, an increase in metabolism and a decrease in appetite. However, medications should be taken with caution in order to exclude side effects. Therefore, you should first consult with your doctor.

List of effective diuretic drugs for weight loss:

  1. Furosemide.

  2. Hypothiazide.

  3. Veroshpiron.

  4. Fitonefrol.

  5. Phytolysin.

Most popular diuretics

Effective diuretics in the fight against puffiness in various diseases are:

  1. Thiaziform agents.Have a direct effect on the function of the renal tubules. They prevent the reverse penetration of chlorine and sodium into the body. These include Meticlothiazide, Cyclomethiazide, Bendroflumethioside.

  2. Hypothiazide – has an average diuretic effect. The main indications for taking such a medicine are tissue edema, severe pathologies of the heart and kidneys. Also, the drug is often prescribed to patients to lower blood pressure, since it helps to remove sodium and, thereby, restore blood pressure.In addition, Hypothiazide can be prescribed for the formation of bladder stones and diabetes insipidus.

  3. Indapamide – helps to reduce the pressure indicator, improves the tone of the walls of blood vessels, increasing their lumen.

  4. Furosemide is the most effective diuretic drug. Pharmacological activity is noted already 10-15 minutes after the intravenous infusion of the drug.It has a wide range of indications.

Diuretics are an integral part of the treatment of many diseases associated with edema and high blood pressure. Such funds have a high therapeutic effect, but they have contraindications. Therefore, it should be used only as directed by a doctor.

Diuretic helped with autism spectrum disorder

Formula of bumetanide

The diuretic drug bumetanide reduced the severity of autism spectrum disorder symptoms in children aged three to six years.With its help, it was possible to reduce the amount of chlorine ions in the body, which led to a decrease in the level of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. The conducted clinical trial showed not only the effectiveness of the new method of therapy, but also the absence of pronounced side effects in all participants in the experimental group. Research published in Translational Psychiatry .

One of the reasons for the development of autism spectrum disorders is considered to be a violation in the work of neurotransmitters.Previously, it was shown that there is a connection between the onset of autism symptoms and an increased level of GABA, which opens channels for chlorine ions and causes inhibition of neurons in the brain: the more there are, the more pronounced inhibition will be.

It is quite difficult to reduce the level of GABA in the brain. Therefore, it is advisable to simply reduce the total level of chlorine using, for example, diuretics: this will also entail a decrease in the activity of GABA. Similar studies have already been carried out on laboratory animals and on small groups of children: in them, diuretics (they are also diuretics) have shown their effectiveness.

Lingli Zhang of the Shanghai Institute of Pediatrics and colleagues from China and the UK recruited 83 children with autism spectrum disorder, aged three to six years, to participate in the study. Bumatanide was chosen as a diuretic, since it had already shown positive results in previous studies.

The new study was conducted on a larger sample of patients and using new methods of monitoring the effectiveness of treatment. The children were divided into two groups: 42 children (experimental group) received 0.5 milligram of the drug twice a day for three months, the second group (control) did not receive treatment.

To assess the severity of the disease, the researchers used the CARS scale (Childhood Autism Rating Scale): the control and experimental groups were divided so that the total score on the CARS scale was equal. In addition, at the beginning and at the end of the study, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, scientists determined the concentration of the neurotransmitter GABA in the insular lobe and the visual cortex.

Based on the results of three months of clinical trials of bumetanide, a significant (p = 0.0012) improvement was obtained in the experimental group – 34.51 on the CARS scale (compared to 37.27 in the control group): the higher the score on the scale, the more pronounced manifestation of autistic disorder.The most notable changes were seen in decreased motor abnormalities, improved eye contact, interactions with people and objects, and overall activity levels.

In addition, the participants showed a marked decrease in the level of GABA in the studied areas of the brain. It was also possible to establish a significant relationship between the normalization of the number of neurotransmitters and clinical improvements in patients (p = 0.0194).

Among the side effects, four patients showed a decrease in total potassium levels, which were corrected during the study with potassium supplements and diet.Also, scientists noted a decrease in appetite in four and general weakness in one child.

Despite promising results, the authors believe that further research and more extensive clinical trials are needed before recommending bumetanide for widespread use in the treatment of autism; nevertheless, methods for assessing the level of GABA in the brain can be used as a biochemical marker of efficacy treatment in autistic patients; and for the early diagnosis of autism in children.

Earlier, we talked about how other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, affect the development of autism, as well as about the way to treat such patients using virtual reality.

Yaroslav Rezchikov

90,000 Instructions after hospital discharge: taking diuretics (diuretics)

Your doctor has prescribed a medicine called a diuretic.Diuretics help to reduce the amount of water in the body. They help you urinate more often and help remove water and salt from your body. Diuretics help with high blood pressure (hypertension) and other conditions.

Name of diuretic ________________________________________

Home care

  • Follow the directions for use of your medicine. It tells you when and how to take your medicine. Ask for instructions if you weren’t given one right away.

  • Tell your doctor if you are taking other medicines, including herbal tinctures or over-the-counter medicines.

  • Plan ahead until you are sure how the drug works for you.

  • Take a diuretic in the morning. This medication will make you urinate more often than usual. If you take it in the morning, you may not have to get up at night and go to the bathroom. Thus, the medication will not interfere with good healthy sleep.

  • Take this medicine exactly as recommended, even if you feel well.

  • Learn to measure your heart rate. Record your measurements. Ask your doctor what heart rate readings indicate that you need medical attention.

Possible side effects

Tell your doctor if you experience any of the following side effects. Do not stop taking the medicine until your doctor tells you to.Minor side effects include:

  • Dizziness

  • Headache

  • Loss of appetite

  • Diarrhea

  • Sensitivity to light

  • Nervousness

    Spasm

When to Call a Doctor

Call a Doctor Immediately if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Blood in urine or stool

  • Black, tarry stools

  • Cough or hoarseness

    9209

  • Fever or chills

  • Pain in the lower back or side

  • Difficulty urinating or pain when urinating

  • Small red bumps on the skin

  • Ringing or any buzzing in the ears ha

  • Skin rash or urticaria

  • Severe stomach pain with nausea and vomiting

  • Unusual bleeding or bruising

  • Vision of objects in yellow colors

  • yellow eyes

  • Increasing thirst

  • Irregular heartbeat

  • Cramps or muscle pain

  • Weak pulse

✔ diuretics at home for hypertension

✔ diuretic

Reviews diuretics at home for hypertension

At my age, problems with pressure are already commonplace.I don’t even remember when they started. Often the heart beats, and everything darkens in the eyes. My son brought me hypertal pills. I put it under my tongue, and it immediately becomes easier for me. Now we are buying these pills, tk. they help me well. Reviews of diuretics at home for hypertension

Real reviews of diuretics at home for hypertension.

✔ Where to buy diuretics at home for hypertension

Potency remedy for hypertension How to bring down blood pressure without drugs maximidin medicine for pressure The manufacturer of the Hypertal remedy for hypertension positions it as a highly effective drug capable of restoring the natural work of the cardiovascular system and adjusting the level of blood pressure in a short course.In the review, we will analyze the principle of action of the agent and its properties, which will allow us to understand how effective the treatment is.
drugs for low blood pressure list of drugs The drug begins to work 5 minutes after administration. After the course expires, natural processes continue to operate in the body, which prevent the development of hypertension. The manufacturer provides the following medical testing data in Moscow. Volunteers between the ages of 18 and 80 were required to take Hypertal as directed by a doctor.

For the first time, the pressure began to rise at the age of 27. I work as a taxi driver, move a little, work at night. Osteochondrosis was added. Over the years, the exacerbations became more and more serious, even though I was taking expensive medications. But the price of Hypertal is very scanty. I immediately tried it on myself, and then ordered it for my mother. We are being treated successfully together. It helps a lot.

Various infusions or decoctions are prepared from raw materials at home. For the treatment of hypertension, diuretic folk remedies are widely used.They enhance kidney function, reduce swelling. Herbs can be used individually or in a collection of them. Before using. Remedies for hypertension with folk remedies at home. Treatment of hypertension with diuretics – useful information. Diuretics for hypertension. When it comes to treating hypertension with diuretics, doctors discovered in the 1990s that these drugs worked well. Pressure diuretics are also prescribed. This is one of the groups of drugs. To understand which diuretic is better for hypertension, it is necessary to analyze in more detail the features of all subspecies of this category of medicines.Diuretics differ from each other. They are not. Content. Diuretic herbs for hypertension: fees, recipes. Arterial hypertension. How to lower blood pressure. Effective diuretic herbs for tea and tinctures. Natural diuretics for hypertension. Folk diuretics for hypertension, with proper use, have. Medicinal plants can be purchased at the pharmacy or prepared by yourself. At home, various infusions or decoctions are prepared from raw materials. With self-compiling fees.Features of treatment with diuretics for hypertension. The effectiveness of herbal treatment for hypertension has long been proven. They are used not only as a home doctor, but are often prescribed by doctors to help with traditional therapy. Natural diuretics are especially helpful when mature. Diuretics are medicines that allow you to remove excess fluid from your body. The doctor prescribes diuretic medications for hypertension if. How to lower or increase blood pressure at home? These are the most commonly prescribed medications by your doctor.However, without. In the article Folk remedies for hypertension, there are many very effective recipes for complex effects. In addition, at home, you can make a tincture of dandelion leaves by combining in equal parts finely chopped dandelion leaves and vodka in an airtight glass. According to doctors, pressure diuretics are the most effective medicines to help stabilize blood pressure. Medicines in this group help in the removal of excess fluid and salts from the tissues.Excessive congestion. More where to look at home diuretics for hypertension: My work is connected with mental stress and constant stress, so I know the problem of high blood pressure firsthand. It is inconvenient to carry the tonometer with you everywhere, and even so I already feel when the pressure rises. The drug Hypertal was brought by a colleague. After the first pill, there was a significant improvement in my condition, so I decided on the full course. Pressure surges began to appear much less frequently, I am very pleased with the result, I will continue to take it according to the instructions.Once at work, I began to notice that I had no strength at all, my head often ached, felt sick, and once I started to bleed from my nose. This was the last straw, I passed the examination, it turned out that I had problems with my blood pressure and urgently needed to put it in order. He underwent a course of treatment, but after a while the problem came back again. Then my wife bought me Hypertal. I began to take it, and my health soon improved. Now I take the course twice a year and I don’t remember the pressure. how does the drug telzap affect blood pressure. increase pressure without medication quickly.medicine for pressure lorista reviews. blood pressure medicine hyposart
At my age I don’t have a lot of problems with blood pressure, but I “won” the jackpot. Sedentary work, very often you have to sit at the computer at night. Chronic lack of sleep, in the morning, swelling under the eyes. And, what is there to hide, I do not go in for sports, I eat far from the most useful food. So I got myself a headache in the form of hypertension. And so, I am on the Internet with “you”, so I read a lot of interesting things according to folk recipes.It turns out that many plants can improve well-being. So as not to be fooled with the preparation of broths, I found a complex remedy based on the strongest herbal ingredients. It’s very easy to take. It is inexpensive. It’s just impossible to buy at the Hypertal pharmacy in my city, but delivery in 4 days. I don’t see much difference where to buy. The main thing is that he helped me. The pressure is normal, the state of health is excellent, I began to get enough sleep, there was no swelling under the eyes. With the help of the tool, you can not only lower blood pressure, but also prevent the further development of the disease by eliminating the cause of the disease.The tool quickly normalizes blood pressure, allowing you to reduce the load on the heart muscle and restore the work of the entire cardiovascular system. Hypertal hypertension is indicated for the following diseases and conditions.
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