What is the benz: The Bends: Prevention, Symptoms & Treatment
Decompression Sickness – Harvard Health
What is it?
Decompression sickness, also called generalized barotrauma or the bends, refers to injuries caused by a rapid decrease in the pressure that surrounds you, of either air or water. It occurs most commonly in scuba or deep-sea divers, although it also can occur during high-altitude or unpressurized air travel. However, decompression sickness is rare in pressurized aircraft, such as those used for commercial flights.
When you scuba dive with compressed air, you take in extra oxygen and nitrogen. Your body uses the oxygen, but the nitrogen is dissolved into your blood, where it remains during your dive. As you swim back toward the surface after a deep dive, the water pressure around you decreases.
If this transition occurs too quickly, the nitrogen does not have time to clear from your blood. Instead, it separates out of your blood and forms bubbles in your tissues or blood. It is these nitrogen bubbles that cause decompression sickness. The condition is called the bends because the joint and bone pains can be so severe they double you over.
What happens inside your body during decompression sickness is similar to what happens when you open a carbonated drink. When you open the can or bottle, you decrease the pressure surrounding the beverage in the container, which causes the gas to come out of the liquid in the form of bubbles. If nitrogen bubbles form in your blood, they can damage blood vessels and block normal blood flow.
Factors that put you at higher risk of decompression sickness include:
- Heart muscle birth defects, including patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, and ventricular septal defect
- Being older than 30
- Being female
- Low cardiovascular fitness
- High percentage of body fat
- Use of alcohol or tobacco
- Fatigue, seasickness or lack of sleep
- Injuries (old or current)
- Diving in cold water
- Lung disease
Someone with an abnormal hole or opening in the heart from a birth defect is at especially high risk of developing serious symptoms from decompression illness. Because bubbles create high blood pressure in the lungs, blood and bubbles from your veins may flow more readily through the heart’s opening. This means your blood can re-circulate into arteries without first getting oxygen. An opening in the heart can also allow a relatively large air bubble (called an air embolism) to circulate into your arteries. An air embolism can cause a stroke.
People with asthma or another lung disease may have thin-walled air pockets in their lungs called bullae. These pockets do not empty quickly when the persons exhales. As they return to the surface after a deep dive, air in the bullae may expand. If a bulla ruptures, it could cause a collapsed lung or allow a large air bubble (air embolism) to enter the arteries.
Symptoms of decompression sickness include:
- Joint pain
- Difficulty thinking clearly
- Extreme fatigue
- Tingling or numbness
- Weakness in arms or legs
- A skin rash
Your diving history and symptoms are key factors in diagnosing decompression sickness. Blood tests and joint X-rays usually do not show any signs of the problem.
Joint pain, the most common symptom from decompression sickness, can last for days or weeks.
To minimize the risk of decompression sickness while diving:
- Dive and rise slowly in the water, and don’t stay at your deepest depth longer than recommended. Scuba divers typically use dive tables that show how long you can remain at a given depth.
- Do not fly within 24 hours after diving.
- Don’t drink alcohol before diving.
- Avoid hot tubs, saunas or hot baths after diving.
- Make sure you are well hydrated, well rested and prepared before you scuba dive. If you recently had a serious illness, injury or surgery, talk to your doctor before diving.
Some people should avoid diving altogether, or should consider special risks. If you have a heart defect, it is not safe to dive. If you have asthma, a history of a ruptured lung at any time in your life or another lung disease, discuss diving safety with a doctor before deciding whether to dive. A person who requires insulin to treat diabetes may have wide swings in blood glucose levels during a dive, and caution is advised. Avoid diving if you have a groin hernia that has not been repaired, since expanding gas in the hernia can cause symptoms.
Emergency treatment for decompression sickness involves maintaining blood pressure and administering high-flow oxygen. Fluids also may be given. The person should be placed left side down and if possible the head of the bed tilted down.
The optimal treatment is the use of a hyperbaric oxygen chamber, which is a high-pressure chamber in which the patient receives 100% oxygen. This treatment reverses the pressure changes that allowed gas bubbles to form in the blood stream. The treatment drives nitrogen back into its liquid form so that it can be cleared more gradually from the body over a period of hours.
It is not recommended that divers with decompression sickness attempt to treat themselves with deep diving.
When to call a professional
If you experience symptoms of decompression sickness after scuba diving or flying, get to a doctor as soon as you can. Hyperbaric treatment is most successful if given within several hours after symptoms start.
Most cases of decompression sickness respond well to a single treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. Your doctor may suggest repeated treatments if you continue to experience symptoms, especially neurological symptoms.
Undersea & Hyperbaric Medical Society
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For nearly a century, Mercedes-Benz has made it our mission to move the world. Through our employees and their achievements, we’ve created a company we can all be proud of.
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Brand history: 130 years of Mercedes-Benz
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The Mercedes-Benz brand for motorists from all over the world is not only one of the most recognizable and significant car manufacturers in the world, but also directly associated with the very concept of “car”. And this is justified at least by the historical significance of the brand: exactly 130 years ago, the German engineer Karl Benz officially filed a patent for a “vehicle with a gasoline engine.”
The event that marked the beginning of the history of not only the German brand, but the entire world automobile industry, occurred on January 29, 1886. It was on this day that a German engineer and innovator named Benz received patent No. 37435 for his creation – the world’s first car with a gasoline engine.
Of course, Benz’s invention was very different from the modern image of the car: in fact, he installed a four-stroke engine he developed from scratch on a tricycle.
In the same year, independently of Benz, design engineer Gottlieb Daimler created his own motorized carriage. Daimler assembled a single cylinder four-stroke internal combustion engine. It was supposed to be installed in carriages. Daimler was assisted in the development of the new technology by engineer Wilhelm Maybach. Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and
Both engineers founded private companies with the help of partners and investors. Benz founded Benz & Cie in Mannheim in October 1883, and Daimler founded the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG) brand in November 1890. From 1901, Daimler’s company began to produce cars under the Mercedes brand.
The legendary brand got its name from the nickname of the daughter of the Austrian businessman Emil Jellinek named Adriana (Mercedes is the girl’s nickname). Her father, Honorary Vice Consul in Monaco, was wealthy and interested in modern technology. At his request in 189In the year 7, Gottlieb Daimler installed a 6 horsepower two-cylinder engine on a vehicle. After the success of this project, he ordered 4 more copies and sold them at a profit.
The same Mercedes She had a four-cylinder engine with a volume of almost 6 liters. and a power of 35 hp. The car was characterized by a wide wheelbase, a low center of gravity and an inclined steering column.
A honeycomb-type cooler has also become a distinguishing feature of the brand. The car weighed 900 kg and had a top speed of 80 km/h. The model was designed by Wilhelm Maybach himself.
The first cars and engines of the Mercedes brand
The merger of the two most famous German manufacturers at that time took place in 1926. Thanks to the deal, the industrialists not only managed to survive in the difficult post-war period, but also significantly expanded their business.
The united concern was named “Daimler-Benz AG”, and another outstanding German designer Ferdinand Porsche became the first head, and later – the creator of another legendary Porsche brand.
All cars produced after the merger are named Mercedes-Benz, in honor of the company’s most successful car and its creator, Karl Benz.
The Daimler-Benz AG logo becomes a three-pointed star, which is framed by a wreath – the legacy of the Benz logo. In the future, this wreath will be turned into a regular circle, which is still used today. One of the simplest (and recognizable) logos in history has become a symbol of luxury and wealth.
The collaboration between Benz and Daimler turned out to be one of the longest in the history of the automotive industry, as both companies in this combination survived until 1998. Their first joint car was the K.
At the same time, the Mercedes CCK and SSKL, designed by Hans Niebel, appeared. In addition to the typical sports versions, the manufacturer also offers convertibles and production models with rally-adapted bodywork.
Daimler-Benz AG produces one legendary series after another. So, under the leadership of Ferdinand Porsche, the “S” series, a new generation of sports cars, appeared. The most famous car and the progenitor of the S-series was the car that was popularly nicknamed the “Death Trap”. Having received the name “Mercedes-Benz 24/100/140”, the car had a powerful six-cylinder engine and developed a high speed for those times – up to 140 km / h.
The 18/80 HP model, known as the Nürburg 460 (1928), also received fame, equipped with an eight-cylinder engine with a displacement of 4622 cc. cm and a maximum power of 80 liters. With. at 3400 rpm; the 500K and 540K roadsters (30s) and the 770 model called Grosser Mercedes, whose first generation was built from 1930 to 1938. The model had a luxurious salon in which Adolf Hitler moved.
The first model and mass production of the diesel Mercedes 260D was launched from 1936 to 1940. The 2.5 liter diesel engine had a power of 45 hp. With. Some of the cars of this brand were subsequently used by the German army.
World War II almost destroyed the Daimler-Benz AG business. All production facilities of the company were practically destroyed. Factories in Stuttgart, Sindelfingen and Mannheim literally turned into a pile of rubble. In 1945, after the final meeting of the board of directors, a report was even issued, the result of which was the idea that the Daimler-Benz concern no longer exists.
However, despite all the difficulties, Daimler-Benz AG recovered quickly enough and in 1947 launched the 170 model, which had an engine capacity of 1767 m³, 4 cylinders and a power of 52 hp. With. A car that was completely different from previous models was the Mercedes 300 – a limousine formed on a frame with crossed beams. It was equipped with a three-liter six-cylinder engine with 115 hp. s., and its special version was created for the first
Among the cars produced by Mercedes-Benz after the Second World War, the 300 SL Coupe stands out with its characteristic “winged” doors that opened with part of the roof. It was the first sports car built after the war. The road version of this unusual vehicle was released in 1954.
Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Coupe
In February 1954, the 300 SL appeared. March 1957 years began to produce the model 300 SL Roadster, beloved by Elvis Presley.
Cars produced in the 70-90s became iconic for the brand.
In 1975-1986, the Mercedes W123, popularly known as the “barrel”, was formed. In the 80s, the 190 model debuted, which was produced in the years from 1982 to 1993 and replaced by the C class. At the same time, the popular Mercedes W124 appeared, which was produced until 1997. After that, the W210 appears on the market, since 2002 it has been replaced by the W211, W212 versions. It is these models that are called class E.
In 1998, Mercedes buys back shares of the American company Chrysler. As a result, Daimler-Benz has gained a chance to get wider access to the US market. This agreement changed the corporate name of the company to Daimler Chrysler, the cooperation continued for almost 10 years. The decision to break off cooperation was influenced by the results of the poor financial condition of Chrysler. After the sale of the shares of the American concern, the company returns the name Daimler AG.
Today, the company manufactures Mercedes A, B, C and E class models. The brand’s modern cars are renowned for their safety and are still considered the most prestigious in the world. Mercedes S Class even entered the Book of Records as “the most durable car that has ever been released. ”
Andrey Rodionov, Head of Corporate Communication at Mercedes-Benz RUS JSC
– When 130 years ago Karl Benz applied for a patent for “a vehicle powered by a gasoline engine” it meant the birth of the automobile. In the same year, Gottlieb Daimler created his own car. Thus began the 130-year success story of Mercedes-Benz, we entered the age of speed and the global automotive industry was born.
The patent became part of the UNESCO Memory of the World program, among such well-known works as the Gutenberg Bible, Magna Carta and Symphony No. 9 in D minor by J.S. Bach. And it is no accident: the inventions of Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, thanks to their ingenuity and entrepreneurial flair, revolutionized the field of transportation, opening up new opportunities for people.
Today’s innovations are based on the same values as 130 years ago: safety, comfort, efficiency and faith in success. Thanks to them, the brand demonstrates a dynamic growth in global sales, and in Russia in 2015 it is a confident leader in the premium segment. Mercedes-Benz delights its fans with the premieres expected in Russia – this is the new intelligent E-Class, the chic GLS, the sporty SL and SLC. And, of course, new special offers.
Mercedes-Benz ads have also always stood out for their trademark execution and creativity – the brand has never spared money on marketing.
Advertisement for the BlueEFFICIENCY system (the system is a technical solution for optimizing fuel consumption and emissions).
A billboard was placed at Johannesburg Airport, which was originally just a white surface and the Mercedes-Benz logo. After a while, air pollutants accumulated on the billboard, and the message was clearly visible on the white base: “If more cars had BlueEFFICIENCY, you would not be able to read this.”
Mercedes-Benz B-Class Prints Designed by Shanghai Berlin Agency
“Left Brain, Right Brain” advertising campaign , right hemisphere”)
Mercedes image ad for breast cancer
2014 Marilyn Monroe
PETROL decoding. What is BENZ.
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BENZ. decoding. What is BENZ.? Online values - Sokrascheniya.Ru
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