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What is the first sign of glaucoma: What is the First Sign of Glaucoma? – Eye Associates of Tucson


What is the First Sign of Glaucoma? – Eye Associates of Tucson

Glaucoma is a group of diseases that affect the optic nerve of the eye and can lead to permanent vision loss due to a build-up of pressure in the eye. Glaucoma is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness. It is important to know the early signs of glaucoma so that it may be diagnosed and treated before significant vision loss has occurred. Our Doctors in Tucson recommend yearly eye exams to check for vision changes and diseases such as glaucoma.

Glaucoma affects millions of people in the U.S., but many of
those are unaware they have the disease. There is currently no cure for
glaucoma, but there are treatment options if it’s detected early enough. Different
types of glaucoma present alternate warning signs — and sometimes there are no
symptoms, particularly in open-angle glaucoma, the most common form of the

However, if you experience any of the following symptoms,
you should seek immediate help:

Loss of peripheral or
side vision:
This is usually the first sign of glaucoma.

Seeing halos around
If you see rainbow-colored circles around lights or are unusually
sensitive to light, it could be a sign of glaucoma.

Vision loss: Especially
if it happens suddenly.

Redness in the eye:
Sometimes accompanied by pain, which may be a sign of injury, infection or
acute glaucoma.

Eye that looks hazy:
A cloudy-looking cornea is the most common early sign of childhood glaucoma.

Nausea or vomiting:
Especially when it accompanies severe eye pain.

Pain in the eye and
in the head:
This often occurs in angle-closure glaucoma, a type of
glaucoma which can develop quickly.

Tunnel vision: You
may start to lose vision around the edges of your visual field.

Though most types of glaucoma cannot be prevented, early detection and ongoing monitoring of eye health can limit the vision loss caused by the disease. If you suspect that you may have glaucoma or if you are due for an eye examination, contact Eye Associates of Tucson to schedule an appointment.

Glaucoma – Diagnosis and treatment


Your doctor will review your medical history and conduct a comprehensive eye examination. He or she may perform several tests, including:

  • Measuring intraocular pressure (tonometry)
  • Testing for optic nerve damage with a dilated eye examination and imaging tests
  • Checking for areas of vision loss (visual field test)
  • Measuring corneal thickness (pachymetry)
  • Inspecting the drainage angle (gonioscopy)


The damage caused by glaucoma can’t be reversed. But treatment and regular checkups can help slow or prevent vision loss, especially if you catch the disease in its early stages.

Glaucoma is treated by lowering your eye pressure (intraocular pressure). Depending on your situation, your options may include prescription eyedrops, oral medications, laser treatment, surgery or a combination of any of these.


Glaucoma treatment often starts with prescription eyedrops. These can help decrease eye pressure by improving how fluid drains from your eye or by decreasing the amount of fluid your eye makes. Depending on how low your eye pressure needs to be, more than one of the eyedrops below may need to be prescribed.

Prescription eyedrop medications include:

  • Prostaglandins. These increase the outflow of the fluid in your eye (aqueous humor), thereby reducing your eye pressure. Medicines in this category include latanoprost (Xalatan), travoprost (Travatan Z), tafluprost (Zioptan), bimatoprost (Lumigan) and latanoprostene bunod (Vyzulta).

    Possible side effects include mild reddening and stinging of the eyes, darkening of the iris, darkening of the pigment of the eyelashes or eyelid skin, and blurred vision. This class of drug is prescribed for once-a-day use.

  • Beta blockers. These reduce the production of fluid in your eye, thereby lowering the pressure in your eye (intraocular pressure). Examples include timolol (Betimol, Istalol, Timoptic) and betaxolol (Betoptic).

    Possible side effects include difficulty breathing, slowed heart rate, lower blood pressure, impotence and fatigue. This class of drug can be prescribed for once- or twice-daily use depending on your condition.

  • Alpha-adrenergic agonists. These reduce the production of aqueous humor and increase outflow of the fluid in your eye. Examples include apraclonidine (Iopidine) and brimonidine (Alphagan P, Qoliana).

    Possible side effects include an irregular heart rate, high blood pressure, fatigue, red, itchy or swollen eyes, and dry mouth. This class of drug is usually prescribed for twice-daily use but sometimes can be prescribed for use three times a day.

  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. These medicines reduce the production of fluid in your eye. Examples include dorzolamide (Trusopt) and brinzolamide (Azopt). Possible side effects include a metallic taste, frequent urination, and tingling in the fingers and toes. This class of drug is usually prescribed for twice-daily use but sometimes can be prescribed for use three times a day.
  • Rho kinase inhibitor. This medicine lowers eye pressure by suppressing the rho kinase enzymes responsible for fluid increase. It is available as netarsudil (Rhopressa) and is prescribed for once-a-day use. Possible side effects include eye redness, eye discomfort and deposits forming on the cornea.
  • Miotic or cholinergic agents. These increase the outflow of fluid from your eye. An example is pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine). Side effects include headache, eye ache, smaller pupils, possible blurred or dim vision, and nearsightedness. This class of medicine is usually prescribed to be used up to four times a day. Because of potential side effects and the need for frequent daily use, these medications are not prescribed very often anymore.

Because some of the eyedrop medicine is absorbed into your bloodstream, you may experience some side effects unrelated to your eyes. To minimize this absorption, close your eyes for one to two minutes after putting the drops in. You may also press lightly at the corner of your eyes near your nose to close the tear duct for one or two minutes. Wipe off any unused drops from your eyelid.

If you have been prescribed multiple eyedrops or you need to use artificial tears, space them out so that you are waiting at least five minutes in between types of drops.

Oral medications

If eyedrops alone don’t bring your eye pressure down to the desired level, your doctor may also prescribe an oral medication, usually a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Possible side effects include frequent urination, tingling in the fingers and toes, depression, stomach upset, and kidney stones.

Surgery and other therapies

Other treatment options include laser therapy and various surgical procedures. The following techniques are intended to improve the drainage of fluid within the eye, thereby lowering pressure:

  • Laser therapy. Laser trabeculoplasty (truh-BEK-u-low-plas-tee) is an option if you have open-angle glaucoma. It’s done in your doctor’s office. Your doctor uses a small laser beam to open clogged channels in the trabecular meshwork. It may take a few weeks before the full effect of this procedure becomes apparent.
  • Filtering surgery. With a surgical procedure called a trabeculectomy (truh-bek-u-LEK-tuh-me), your surgeon creates an opening in the white of the eye (sclera) and removes part of the trabecular meshwork.
  • Drainage tubes. In this procedure, your eye surgeon inserts a small tube shunt in your eye to drain away excess fluid to lower your eye pressure.
  • Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS). Your doctor may suggest a MIGS procedure to lower your eye pressure. These procedures generally require less immediate postoperative care and have less risk than trabeculectomy or installing a drainage device. They are often combined with cataract surgery. There are a number of MIGS techniques available, and your doctor will discuss which procedure may be right for you.

After your procedure, you’ll need to see your doctor for follow-up exams. And you may eventually need to undergo additional procedures if your eye pressure begins to rise or other changes occur in your eye.

Treating acute angle-closure glaucoma

Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a medical emergency. If you’re diagnosed with this condition, you’ll need urgent treatment to reduce the pressure in your eye. This generally will require both medication and laser or other surgical procedures.

You may have a procedure called a laser peripheral iridotomy in which the doctor creates a small opening in your iris using a laser. This allows fluid (aqueous humor) to flow through it, relieving eye pressure.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition.

Lifestyle and home remedies

These tips may help you control high eye pressure or promote eye health.

  • Eat a healthy diet. Eating a healthy diet can help you maintain your health, but it won’t prevent glaucoma from worsening. Several vitamins and nutrients are important to eye health, including zinc, copper, selenium, and antioxidant vitamins C, E, and A.
  • Exercise safely. Regular exercise may reduce eye pressure in open-angle glaucoma. Talk to your doctor about an appropriate exercise program.
  • Limit your caffeine. Drinking beverages with large amounts of caffeine may increase your eye pressure.
  • Sip fluids frequently. Drink only moderate amounts of fluids at any given time during the course of a day. Drinking a quart or more of any liquid within a short time may temporarily increase eye pressure.
  • Sleep with your head elevated. Using a wedge pillow that keeps your head slightly raised, about 20 degrees, has been shown to reduce intraocular pressure while you sleep.
  • Take prescribed medicine. Using your eyedrops or other medications as prescribed can help you get the best possible result from your treatment. Be sure to use the drops exactly as prescribed. Otherwise, your optic nerve damage could worsen.

Alternative medicine

Some alternative medicine approaches may help your overall health, but none is an effective glaucoma remedy. Talk with your doctor about their possible benefits and risks.

  • Herbal remedies. Some herbal supplements, such as bilberry extract, have been advertised as glaucoma remedies. But further study is needed to prove their effectiveness. Don’t use herbal supplements in place of proven therapies.
  • Relaxation techniques. Stress may trigger an attack of acute angle-closure glaucoma. If you’re at risk of this condition, find healthy ways to cope with stress. Meditation and other techniques may help.
  • Marijuana. Research shows that marijuana lowers eye pressure in people with glaucoma, but only for three to four hours. Other, standard treatments are more effective. The American Academy of Ophthalmology doesn’t recommend marijuana for treating glaucoma.

Coping and support

When you receive a diagnosis of glaucoma, you’re potentially facing lifelong treatment, regular checkups and the possibility of progressive vision loss.

Meeting and talking with other people with glaucoma can be very helpful, and many support groups exist. Check with hospitals and eye care centers in your area to find local groups and meeting times. Several online resources, including support groups, also are available.

Preparing for your appointment

Here’s some information to help you get ready for your appointment.

What you can do

Before your appointment make a list of:

  • Symptoms you’ve been having, and for how long
  • All medications, supplements and vitamins you take, including the doses
  • Any eye problems you’ve had in the past, such as vision changes or eye discomfort
  • Family members with glaucoma, what type of glaucoma they had and how severe the condition was for them
  • Previous, if any, glaucoma testing — for example, visual fields, imaging or eye exam records
  • Questions to ask your doctor

Some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • Do I have signs of glaucoma?
  • What tests do I need to confirm a diagnosis?
  • What treatment approach do you recommend?
  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you’re suggesting?
  • Do I need to follow any activity restrictions?
  • What other self-care measures might help me?
  • What is the long-term outlook in my case?
  • How often do I need to return for follow-up visits?
  • Do I need to see an additional specialist?
  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?

What to expect from your doctor

A doctor who sees you for possible glaucoma is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • Have you had any eye discomfort or vision problems?
  • Do you have any other signs or symptoms that concern you?
  • Do you have any family history of glaucoma or other eye problems?
  • What eye screening tests have you had and when?
  • Have you been diagnosed with any other medical conditions?
  • Are you using any eyedrops?
  • Are you using any vitamins or supplements?

Oct. 23, 2020

Eye vitamins: Can they prevent or treat glaucoma?

I have glaucoma. Can eye vitamins improve my vision or protect me from further vision loss?

Answer From Alaina L. Softing Hataye, O.D.

Probably not. Several dietary supplements are marketed as eye vitamins. But little evidence supports using these products for preventing glaucoma or reversing vision loss due to glaucoma.

Few clinical trials of eye vitamins or supplements for glaucoma have been conducted. Some evidence suggests that a high intake of vitamin B through dietary sources, including green leafy vegetables, may reduce the risk of some types of glaucoma. But B complex supplements, including folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, don’t appear to offer the same benefit.

Other studies have found that antioxidants as well as natural compounds such as Ginkgo biloba, tropical fruits and green tea, among others, may slow the progression of glaucoma, but the evidence so far is weak. And while some research has found that vitamin C supplements may decrease the risk of getting glaucoma, more research is needed.

If you’re interested in trying eye vitamins or supplements, discuss the benefits and risks with your eye doctor.


Alaina L. Softing Hataye, O.D.

Feb. 07, 2020

Show references

  1. Antón-López, et al. Lifestyles guide and glaucoma (II). Diet, supplements, drugs, sleep, pregnancy, and systemic hypertension. Archivos de la Sociedad Espanola de Oftalmología. 2018;93:76.
  2. Kang JH, et al. A prospective study of folate, vitamin B-6 and vitamin B-12 intake in relation to exfoliation glaucoma or suspected exfoliation glaucoma. JAMA Ophthalmology. 2014;132:549.
  3. Kang JH, et al. Association of dietary nitrate intake with primary open-angle glaucoma: A prospective analysis from the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. JAMA Ophthalmology. 2016;134:294.
  4. Rakel D, ed. Age-related macular degeneration. In: Integrative Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2018. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 26, 2018.
  5. Pinazo-Duran MD, et al. Strategies to reduce oxidative stress in glaucoma patients. Current Neuropharmacology. In press. Accessed Jan. 26, 2018.
  6. Softing Hataye AL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 9, 2018.

See more Expert Answers

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How to Spot the Early Signs of Glaucoma

Glaucoma is an eye disease that is the number one cause of blindness for adults over the age of 60, although it can impact people at any age.

There are very few early warning signs for glaucoma. The best way to know if you have it is to get regular eye exams. (Learn More)

Several factors, such as family history, can increase your risk for glaucoma. (Learn More) In order to prevent and minimize your risk for vision loss, you will need to keep the pressure in your eyes down.

Once glaucoma is diagnosed, there are many successful treatment methods for slowing and even stopping the progression of the disease. (Learn More)

Recognizing Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease that has very few early warning signs, but without treatment, it can lead to blindness.

The disease occurs when the pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure) gets too high and damages the optic nerve. As the pressure in the eye increases the damage to the optic nerve, this can lead to vision loss and eventually blindness.

The most common form of glaucoma, open-angle glaucoma, has no symptoms prior to peripheral vision loss most of the time. You may also experience patchy vision or blind spots. Generally, the early signs of glaucoma are not apparent until vision loss has taken place.

Vision loss caused by glaucoma is irreversible. Early detection is essential to minimizing possible damage.

Diagnosing Glaucoma

The best way to spot glaucoma early on, and therefore start treatment to stop or slow the progression of the disease, is through regular eye exams.

An eye doctor will dilate your pupils and measure your intraocular pressure (IOP) to make sure your levels are in the normal range. If your levels are too high, the doctor will assess whether you have glaucoma. The goal is to diagnose glaucoma before vision loss occurs.

A visual field test will check your peripheral vision to ensure that you are not losing any side vision, which can be a sign of glaucoma.

Spotting glaucoma early can help you to slow and even stop vision loss from occurring.

When Glaucoma Is a Medical Emergency

A less common form of glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, can involve acute attacks. Unlike open-angle glaucoma, this type of glaucoma comes with certain symptoms, such as:

  • Intense headache.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Eye pain.
  • Redness and eye irritation.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Rainbows and/or halos around lights.

An acute angle-closure glaucoma attack is a medical emergency. If you spot these signs, emergency medical attention is needed.

Glaucoma Risk Factors

You should be screened for glaucoma during routine eye exams. These eye exams should begin in adulthood, especially older adulthood.

An exam that tests the pressure of your eye will include pupil dilation and IOP measurements to screen for glaucoma.

There are certain risk factors for glaucoma. The following can increase your odds of developing glaucoma:

  • Genetics: This disease is considered to be hereditary, as it runs in families. If someone in your immediate family suffers from glaucoma, you have a four to nine times greater risk of also developing the disease.
  • Age: Glaucoma is most prevalent in adults over age 60.
  • Race: African Americans, people of African descent, Hispanics, and those of Asian descent are all at higher risk for glaucoma even early in life, as early as age 40.
  • Corticosteroid use: Long-term use of certain medications, such as corticosteroids, raises the risk for glaucoma.
  • Hypertension, extreme myopia (nearsightedness), thin corneas, and diabetes: Medical conditions and biological factors, including corneal thickness, chronic eye inflammation, and certain illnesses, can increase the pressure in your eye and therefore put you at a higher risk for glaucoma.
  • Eye trauma: Injury to the eye can increase your IOP and therefore lead to glaucoma.

Glaucoma Prevention

Preventative measures can help to minimize your risk for glaucoma.

  • Get routine eye exams.
  • Eat a well-rounded and nutritious diet.
  • Stay hydrated.
  • Exercise regularly to promote blood flow.
  • Don’t smoke, and regulate your caffeine intake.
  • Protect your eyes from injury, trauma, and the sun. Wear eye protection.

You may not be able to completely control the onset of glaucoma, but you can take steps to keep your eyes healthy and catch its development as early as possible.

Slowing the Progression of Glaucoma

Once glaucoma has been diagnosed, you can prevent vision loss and slow the progression of the disease by taking certain steps.

  • Continue to get regular eye exams to monitor your IOP.
  • Take measures to lower the pressure in your eye through treatments, such as medications, laser procedures, or surgeries. Daily prescription eye drops are often needed.
  • Follow all directions from your eye care provider and doctor.
  • Take any prescribed medications exactly as directed, and report any vision changes or possible side effects to your doctor immediately.
  • Sleep with your head elevated, such as on a wedge pillow, to keep your head above your heart. This can lower the pressure in your eyes.
  • Talk to your doctor about exercise to make sure that you are staying within a healthy range for your eyes.

Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease. Once you start losing vision, you can’t reverse the damage. You can slow or stop future vision loss, however.

Keeping your IOP under control can help to prevent blindness. With proper treatment, most people do not go blind from glaucoma.

While it can be tough to spot the early signs of glaucoma on your own, regular visits with an eye care provider can help you detect the disease early.



What Is Glaucoma? (August 2019). American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO).

Glaucoma. (2019). American Optometric Association (AOA).

Glaucoma. (July 2019). National Eye Institute.

Are You at Risk for Glaucoma? (October 2019). Glaucoma Research Foundation.

Understanding Your Glaucoma Diagnosis. (October 2017). Glaucoma Research Foundation.

4 Early Signs of Glaucoma

Glaucoma is not just one condition, but a group of similar eye diseases.

Glaucoma causes vision loss through of damage to the delicate optic nerve. Such damage is irreversible, so prevention and close monitoring are especially important.

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. However, unlike other disease processes, it can be difficult to detect in its infancy, showing no signs until damage to the optic nerve has begun.

Known to medicine for thousands of years, glaucoma is called the “silent thief of sight” because it most often progresses extremely gradually. Being vigilant about these four early warning signs may prevent vision loss:

  1. Changes to peripheral vision
  2. Severe and sudden eye pain and headaches
  3. Halos around light or sensitivity to light
  4. The unusual visual appearance of the eyes such as haziness, redness, and dilated pupils

Glaucoma affects peripheral vision, and in the most common form of the disease—open-angle glaucoma—this change in peripheral vision is the earliest symptom. Vision once lost due to glaucoma cannot be recovered. In this case, the damage has already been done. Loss of peripheral sight is sometimes described as tunnel vision. Less commonly, there can be patchy blind spots.

For this reason, it is critical to receive full eye exams yearly by a licensed optometrist or ophthalmologist. Part of their exam will be checking peripheral vision, eye pressure, and other early signs of glaucoma that can be too subtle to detect otherwise.

The importance of regular eye exams is even higher for those with risk factors for glaucoma—those with a family history; patients with diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure; and Latinos and African-Americans. Patients with high ocular hypertension can be monitored as “glaucoma suspect” before there is evidence of the disease.

While glaucoma is in most cases gradual, it can appear in sudden attacks, as well. Seek emergency room care immediately for this type of sudden onset of high pressure that can cause bursts of extreme pain in the eye or as a headache that seems to come out of nowhere. Acute angle-closure glaucoma, another common form of the disease, could be at work, according to the National Eye Institute. This type comes on suddenly and does its damage to the optic nerve in sudden and short episodes. Sometimes the pain causes nausea and vomiting as ocular pressure builds.

While glaucoma can come on suddenly in attacks like this, it can also be present in infants and children. There is a congenital type that babies are born with that is due to poor fluid drainage. This defect will result in excessive tearing and usually a degree of photophobia—or sensitivity to light. Photophobia can also be a warning sign of glaucoma in adults.

Another vision change that adults might notice is halos around light sources. This change can be less subtle as well, seeming like an overall haziness in visual acuity that necessitates updating a corrective lens prescription, while it is really the result of glaucoma.

And finally, there are some signs of glaucoma that are detectable more to other people than to the patients themselves. When looking into the eyes of a person whose glaucoma is progressing, and overall haziness or glazed look is often noticeable. The ancient Greeks thought glaucoma was the same condition as cataracts because of the cloudiness that results from both conditions.

In addition, glaucoma can make the sclera, or the white part of the eyes, very red. Even dilated pupils can be an indicator of developing glaucoma. Such changes to the appearance of the eye from the outside should be evaluated immediately by an eye care professional.

There is no cure for glaucoma. But close monitoring of eye health, vision changes, risk factors, and ocular pressure can detect many of the processes causing damage to the delicate optic nerve. Treating these processes may prevent much of the vision loss associated with glaucoma.

Glaucoma Signs & Symptoms: Early Clues

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although anyone can get glaucoma, older adults are at higher risk of developing it.

What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a group of diseases that cause increased pressure in the eye, resulting in damage to the optic nerve that can lead to permanent vision loss. There are at least 60 different types of glaucoma.

Glaucoma affects about 3 million people in the U.S., but only half of those are aware they have it, according to the Glaucoma Research Foundation. This is because early signs and symptoms of glaucoma often go unnoticed.

Early diagnosis and treatment are important to slow the progression of glaucoma, which can affect one or both eyes. Read on to learn about steps you can take to help your aging loved one detect glaucoma early and prevent irreversible vision loss.

What are the first signs and symptoms of glaucoma?

There are several different types of glaucoma, but the most common type — open-angle glaucoma — usually doesn’t cause any signs, symptoms, or pain. This is why glaucoma is commonly known as “the sneak thief of sight.”

It’s critical to get regular eye exams by an ophthalmologist, an eye doctor who specializes in treating diseases and performing surgeries. This is especially important if you or your loved one are in a high-risk group (see below).

Signs and symptoms of open-angle glaucoma

In open-angle glaucoma, the most common type of glaucoma, the eye doesn’t drain fluid properly. Over time, eye pressure increases and damages the optic nerve.

This type of glaucoma happens gradually, and it usually doesn’t cause pain or vision changes at first. Vision loss associated with open-angle glaucoma begins with peripheral — or side — vision loss, but those who have it may not notice it until the damage to the optic nerve is significant.

Signs and symptoms of acute angle-closure glaucoma

Acute angle-closure glaucoma, also called closed-angle glaucoma or narrow-angle glaucoma, occurs when the iris blocks the eye’s drainage angle, making the eye pressure rise very quickly. Acute-angle closure glaucoma is especially common in older adults, particularly those who have untreated cataracts.

Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a medical emergency that can damage the optic nerve and cause permanent vision loss if it’s not treated promptly.

Go to the emergency room or see an ophthalmologist right away if you or your loved one experience these signs and symptoms:

  • Blurred vision that happens suddenly
  • Severe eye pain, often described as an intense, throbbing pain, along with reddening of the eye
  • Headache around the eyes or the forehead
  • Nausea and vomiting accompanied by severe eye pain
  • Seeing halos around lights, such as rainbow-colored circles around lights or unusual sensitivity to lights

Angle-closure glaucoma can also progress gradually. This type of glaucoma, called chronic angle-closure glaucoma, usually doesn’t cause symptoms until the damage to the optic nerve is severe or until an acute event occurs.

Are older adults at risk for glaucoma?

Anyone can get glaucoma, but seniors are at higher risk. Other risk factors for glaucoma include:

  • Being older than 60, which increases your risk of glaucoma by six times
  • Being African American and older than 40.
    African Americans are six to eight times more likely to have glaucoma than Caucasians.
  • Being Hispanic and older than age 60
  • Being of Asian descent, which increases your risk of angle-closure glaucoma
  • Having a family history of glaucoma
    Open-angle glaucoma, the most common type of glaucoma, is hereditary.
  • Having diabetes, which doubles your risk of having glaucoma.
  • Having high blood pressure
  • Using steroids
    Studies show that people who use high dosages of steroid inhalers to control severe asthma are at increased risk of glaucoma.
  • Having previous eye surgeries or injuries, especially blunt trauma that bruise the eye
  • Being severely near-sighted

How to prevent glaucoma-related vision loss in seniors

Early detection and ongoing monitoring of eye health can help your aging loved one lower their risk of glaucoma-related vision loss.

Understand the risk factors for glaucoma

Do you have a family history of glaucoma? Does your elderly parent have diabetes or high blood pressure? Are they African American, Hispanic, or of Asian descent? If your loved one is at increased risk of glaucoma, they should have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Talk to your ophthalmologist about how often your parent’s eyes should be checked.

Even if you or your loved one are not in a high-risk group, it’s still important to have a dilated eye screening by age 40. Early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma can prevent the progression of the disease and prevent permanent vision loss.

Manage diabetes and blood pressure

Talk to your aging parent about managing their diabetes, which includes monitoring blood pressure and keeping it under control. Don’t skip doctor’s appointments, and be sure to take medications as prescribed. Eating a healthy diet, staying physically active, and not smoking can help.

Manage and treat glaucoma

If your loved one has been diagnosed with glaucoma, it’s important to slow the progression of the disease by taking medications as prescribed by the doctor. Remind your parent to keep follow-up appointments and exams to help prevent any additional vision loss.

Glaucoma-related vision loss can affect quality of life and the ability to perform important, everyday tasks such as walking, reading, or driving. If your aging parent has glaucoma and needs help, consider whether moving to an assisted living community can allow them keep a certain level of independence while getting the help they need.


American Academy of Ophthalmology: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-glaucoma

Glaucoma Research Foundation: https://www.glaucoma.org/gleams/what-are-the-symptoms-of-glaucoma.php

CDC: https://www.cdc.gov/features/glaucoma-awareness/index.html

What Is The First Sign Of Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is caused by pressure buildup in the internal
eye. Over time, it can cause sight loss. You might be asking yourself, “What is
the first sign of glaucoma?” Unfortunately, this disease often has no early
signs or symptoms, so an annual thorough eye exam is truly the only way to recognize
glaucoma’s early warning signs. Fortunately, the trained staff at Eye
Consultants of Pennsylvania has a Glaucoma Eye Center
of Excellence for this very purpose.

Forms of the Disease

There are two forms of glaucoma:
open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma is certainly the
most common; it affects around three million Americans and many millions more
worldwide. This form of glaucoma progresses very slowly and typically has no
warning signs or symptoms, explaining why it is called the silent thief of
sight. Most people can have open-angle glaucoma for several years before any
symptoms or noticeable vision loss occur.

Over time, the eye’s natural
drainage canals become clogged and internal pressure builds and damages the
optic nerve. An eye exam
is the only way to detect the optic nerve damage caused by the fluid and
pressure buildup.

If you do start
experiencing vision loss, it will usually first occur in your peripheral vision
or in your side vision, both of which are harder for patients to really notice.
As glaucoma worsens, your visual sharpness (called visual acuity) does not
change, so you can see why most people do not notice any symptoms. By the time
most patients do notice significant vision loss, the glaucoma is quite
advanced. Unfortunately, we cannot reverse any vision loss that has already

other form of glaucoma is called angle-closure glaucoma. It is a much rarer
condition that develops very rapidly and typically only affects one eye. This
form of glaucoma does have quite a few noticeable signs that appear quickly and
worsen in just a matter of a few hours. Symptoms of angle-closure glaucoma

  • Severe, sudden eye
  • Blurred vision
  • Halo or rainbow
    appearance around lights
  • Sudden loss of vision
    in one eye
  • Eye redness
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea and vomiting

You can
certainly have single symptoms that can indicate something else, but one or
more of these symptoms with a sudden onset requires immediate medical treatment
at your nearest emergency room.


You may be wondering if
you are at increased risk of developing glaucoma. There are certain indicators,
such as a family history. If your parents or siblings have glaucoma, you have
an increased genetic risk. Furthermore, individuals of either Hispanic or
African-American descent are also at higher risk. Age is also a risk factor.

Other chronic diseases
like diabetes or heart disease also put you at greater risk for glaucoma.

See Us

What is the first sign of glaucoma? There often is
not a first sign, so eye exams are extremely important. Don’t wait to get an
eye exam, even if you don’t have symptoms. Come visit our Glaucoma Eye Center at Eye Consultants of
Pennsylvania for a thorough eye exam so that our expert staff can ensure an early
diagnosis and treatment to minimize your vision loss.

90,000 The first signs of glaucoma appear … in the brain

Researchers from the V. I. Vanderbilt came closer to understanding the causes and primary mechanisms of glaucoma development. In the course of the study, scientists found that the first signs indicating the appearance of this eye disease are found in changes in the brain.

Glaucoma is a large group of eye diseases characterized by a constant or periodic increase in intraocular pressure with the subsequent development of typical visual field defects, decreased vision and atrophy of the optic nerve.The damage begins in the peripheral part of the visual field and progresses towards the center to complete blindness. Due to this feature of the development of the disease, glaucoma is often difficult to diagnose in the early stages of development.

According to the authors of the study, glaucoma is not much different from other diseases of the central nervous system. These data open up completely new possibilities for the treatment of some neuro diseases.

Traditionally, glaucoma treatments have focused on lowering eye pressure. But this study demonstrates that pathological changes initially occur at the site where the optic nerve makes contact with the brain. It is possible that this particular area of ​​the brain should become an object for therapy.

According to the authors of the study, if the nature of the occurrence of glaucoma is similar to such neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, then the main factor in its development, of course, is age.

In the case of glaucoma, the axons of the optic nerve lose their ability to interact with the corresponding sites of the midbrain.It is this contact that degrades first with the development of the disease. And only then, with long-term observation, signs of retinal degeneration are revealed, which was confirmed during experiments on model animals with artificially induced glaucoma. This statement, exactly the opposite, reflects the currently accepted traditional scheme of the development of glaucoma “retina-nerve-brain”.

Currently, work is underway to find a drug that can improve or restore the connection between the optic nerve and the corresponding area of ​​the midbrain.

A possible solution for the treatment of glaucoma may be the simultaneous use of synthetic compounds and drugs based on brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

According to the forecasts of the US National Eye Institute, by 2020 glaucoma could be diagnosed in 80 million people worldwide. The risk of vision loss in glaucoma increases sevenfold over the age of 55.

Results published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

based on ScienceDaily

Publication link:
STRF.ru ​​

90,000 Stages of Glaucoma – Eye Surgery Center

Glaucoma is a chronic disease in which an increase in intraocular pressure causes pathological changes in the structures of the fundus (retina and optic nerve). The growth of changes occurs gradually (sometimes – over tens of years).

In accordance with the morphological changes in the fundus, which the ophthalmologist sees during ophthalmoscopy, 4 stages of the disease are distinguished.

Symptoms and changes in the fundus

Initial. At stage I of glaucoma, a slight excavation of the optic nerve head (optic nerve disc) is detected, small paracentral scotomas are formed, and the blind spot expands.Clinically, initial glaucoma does not have pronounced subjective signs. Central vision does not fall.

Developed. At stage II, the doctor discovers an increase in the excavation of the optic nerve disc. The narrowing of the peripheral visual fields is observed mainly from the nasal side, or is concentric (circular) in nature.

Far gone. Stage III glaucoma is accompanied by the fact that the doctor discovers marginal excavation of the optic disc, as well as significant deviations in the study of peripheral vision (the fields are narrowed concentrically). But visual acuity does not fall.

Terminal. Stage IV glaucoma: irreversible changes in the fundus develop. Atrophy of the optic nerve becomes the cause of the development of blindness (light perception may persist). Sometimes residual vision is retained in the temporal areas. Terminal glaucoma is often accompanied by severe pain syndrome, which requires surgical intervention, often removal (enucleation) of the eye.

Can the first signs of a disease be recognized?

Early signs of glaucoma are nonspecific and often remain unattended by the patient.Often, only severe pains with nausea and vomiting, which are characteristic of an acute attack of the disease, or progressive deterioration of vision, force the patient to see a doctor. The early stage of glaucoma is diagnosed much less frequently.

The listed symptoms may indicate initial glaucoma:

  • Pain in the area of ​​the eyebrow or eyeball;
  • sensation of unusual hardness of the eyeball on palpation through the closed eyelid;
  • deterioration of visual acuity;
  • The appearance of “blind spots” before the eyes.

For persons whose close relatives suffer from an increase in IOP, it is important to undergo preventive examinations with an ophthalmologist at least once every six months. This disease (especially some of its forms, such as juvenile) is associated with genetic inheritance mechanisms.

Degree of disease

There is a classification of the degrees of glaucoma, which is based on IOP indicators.

  • A. These are normal IOP values ​​that do not exceed 27 mm.rt. Art.
  • V. This is an increase in IOP figures from 28 to 32 mm. rt. Art.
  • C. These are IOP numbers that exceed 32 mm. rt. Art.

IOP indicators are not always directly related to the severity of changes in the fundus. There are normotensive forms of the disease in which the patient is adapted to IOP below normal values, and the gradation according to the degrees of glaucoma is irrelevant. Therefore, an increase in IOP to “normal” values ​​in this case can have a negative effect on the structure of the eye and is regarded as a disease.


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Eye disease GLAUKOMA: signs, symptoms, treatment

According to the latest statistics, glaucoma is by far the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. That is why it is very important to know the first symptoms of the disease in order to take care of your vision in advance. In view of the fact that glaucoma is today the leader in terms of irreversible blindness, it is very important to know how to recognize the first signs of the disease and take care of your vision in advance.

In this eye disease, as a result of fluctuations in intraocular pressure (IOP), the optic nerve is affected and subsequently the field of vision is narrowed. Often people with this disease complain of a feeling of “fog”, pain in the eye area and the corresponding half of the head, and sometimes there are small hemorrhages on the whites of the eyes. Note that this disease, affecting the optic nerve, involves narrowing of the fields because of this. vision. In addition to this symptom, glaucoma is also characterized by increased IOP.Often in people with elevated IOP, red eyes can be seen due to blood vessels bursting on proteins. They are also characterized by superciliary pain, as if blurred vision and pain when raising the eyelids.

Glaucoma of the eye can develop from various factors, but it is the increased intraocular pressure that is considered the main one. It, in turn, is formed due to an imbalance in the outflow and production of water moisture, taking hormonal drugs for a long time, etc. But some (about 20% of patients) are diagnosed with glaucoma without increased IOP, since excessive physical exertion can provoke the disease , diabetes mellitus, vasospasm, complicated cataract, high hyperopia, high myopia, hereditary predisposition, diseases of the thyroid gland and cardiovascular system, hypertension and even bad habits, as well as caffeine.

Most often, however, glaucoma occurs due to IOP, heredity, as well as age-related changes. Due to the fact that myopia, like glaucoma, has a pallor of the optic disc, they are often confused, diagnosing the wrong disease. In addition, glaucoma is the cause of about 40% of blindness cases. And by 2020, according to the WHO, it is predicted that about 110 million people will be affected by glaucoma.

Signs of glaucoma at an early stage

Despite the fact that there are general symptoms that signal the possible development of this disease, it is necessary to know the first signs of glaucoma , in order to consult a competent ophthalmologist in a timely manner.

So, signs of glaucoma at an early stage:

  • “fog” before the eyes;
  • pain in the eyes;
  • blurred vision;
  • pain in the eye and the corresponding half of the head;
  • tension and heaviness in the eyes.

Glaucoma: causes, symptoms, prevention
Published: Thursday, 06 March 2020 18:29

Glaucoma: causes, symptoms, prevention

Glaucoma is a chronic eye disease in which intraocular pressure (IOP) rises and the optic nerve is affected.Translated from the Greek language means – “blue clouding of the eye”, “the color of sea water.” Other names for the disease are “green water”, “green cataract”. In this case, vision decreases, up to the onset of blindness. One of the main external signs is a change in the color of the pupil – its repainting in a greenish or azure shade. According to statistics, about 70 million people worldwide suffer from glaucoma. According to experts, in 2020, 80 million people will be affected by this disease.

Causes of occurrence

The main cause of glaucoma is high intraocular pressure. It increases due to an imbalance between the production and outflow of aqueous humor – a special liquid substance necessary for the normal functioning of the eye.

The most common primary glaucoma, the symptoms of which are mild. The factors provoking its development include age, myopia, heredity, diseases of the nervous system, thyroid gland, diabetes mellitus, hypotension.

Secondary glaucoma develops as a result of a previous eye disease. Its causes are: lens shift; inflammatory processes of the eyes, such as scleritis, uveitis, keratitis; cataract; dystrophic eye diseases, for example, progressive iris atrophy; wounds, eye burns; swelling of the eye; surgical operations on the eyes.

Glaucoma symptoms

In the case of glaucoma, visual field defects are an important symptom. The field of view is the space that we see around us. At the initial stage of glaucoma, most often, there are subtle drops of small central areas of the visual field, which the patient may not notice at all or notices in the form of dark spots with uneven outlines (if he tries to look with one eye).

With the further development of symptoms of glaucoma, the patient notes a steady narrowing of the peripheral boundaries of the visual field (the patient clearly sees only the space located directly in front of him, but does not see what is happening on the sides of him).In the later stages of the disease, only tubular vision is preserved, in the form of a small picture (as if the patient was looking at the world through a long tube). In the terminal stage of glaucoma, vision disappears completely (complete blindness develops).

Characteristic signs of glaucoma:

  • · visual impairment: slight blurred vision, the appearance of a film in front of the eyes and the so-called running points at the moment of fatigue;
  • · pain in the eyes and in the area of ​​the temples;
  • · rapid eye fatigue when reading, working at a computer.


The disease may result in disability, but the prognosis is favorable, provided treatment is at an initial degree. Prevention of glaucoma should consist in regular examination by an ophthalmologist, if a person has a bad heredity, there are somatic factors. Patients suffering from glaucoma should be registered with an ophthalmologist, visit a specialist regularly every 2-3 months, and receive the recommended treatment for life.

Methods of prevention:

  • · Watch TV in good lighting;
  • · Take breaks when reading after 15 minutes;
  • · Eat according to age characteristics with restriction of sugar, animal fats. Eat natural vegetables and fruits;
  • · Test before drinking coffee. Measure the intraocular pressure 1 hour after drinking coffee. If it does not rise, you can drink a drink;
  • · Nicotine is harmful to the eyes, so you should get rid of the habit to cure the disease;
  • · Good sleep, taking 2-3 teaspoons of honey at night, warm foot baths – relieve pressure inside the eyes;
  • · Physical activity is essential to prevent glaucoma and simply to maintain good or adequate vision.

The only way to preserve vision in glaucoma is to identify it very quickly, monitor it regularly and treat it correctly.

90,000 Glaucoma: Symptoms and Treatment

Glaucoma is a dangerous disease that can have dire consequences up to complete loss of vision. If you do not start the fight against glaucoma in time, then the loss of vision can become irreversible. In no case should the symptoms be ignored and the treatment of glaucoma should be started as soon as possible.The sooner the patient turns to specialists for help, the better for himself.

Using folk remedies for glaucoma treatment is not only useless, but can be very dangerous!

Unfortunately, blindness is a frequent consequence of an unfair attitude towards the health of the eyes and the body as a whole. This is a very frightening fact for many people, because the loss of the ability to see the world around us is directly proportional to the loss of the usual and possible joys of life.

The most commonly diagnosed is open-angle glaucoma, a disease that develops due to blockage of the drainage channel of the eye.With glaucoma, the intraocular pressure of the eye (IOP) increases, which leads to damage to the optic nerve. At the same time, vision is rapidly deteriorating. In order not to become blind, it is important not to postpone glaucoma treatment for a day. In addition, you do not need to try to draw up a course of dealing with the disease yourself. Chances to slow down the process of nerve dying are given only by correctly selected treatment, adherence to all recommendations of the attending physician and, if necessary, surgical intervention. It is alarming that recently glaucoma is getting younger, more and more often taking away vision from people in their prime.Patients over the age of forty are increasingly turning to clinics for an ophthalmologist’s consultation about developing glaucoma. In addition, this disease has congenital and adolescent forms.


Angle-closure glaucoma

Causes of glaucoma

A healthy eye normally produces a special fluid every day that fills it. About 4 milliliters of fluid are produced per day. In the corner of the anterior chamber (between the cornea and the iris) of the eye, there is a drainage system through which fluid flows out of the eye.Normally, the eye pressure is 16 to 25 mm. mercury column. Increased pressure leads to intense compression of the fibers of the optic nerve and blood vessels, followed by the gradual death of the nerve and blindness.

Glaucoma symptoms

The disease is terrible because it can be asymptomatic and cause irreversible deterioration of vision. The most common symptoms of glaucoma are blurred vision, iridescent circles when looking at bright light, redness, pain in the area of ​​the eye and the corresponding half of the head.

Open-angle glaucoma : gradual loss of peripheral vision. Symptoms begin to appear only in the later stages of the disease. To identify it, you should use mass surveys.

Angle-closure glaucoma : severe bouts of pain in the eye, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision and the appearance of a rainbow halo around the light source, the cyclical course of the disease is also very characteristic – when periods of exacerbations alternate with intervals of imaginary well-being.

Symptoms that should alert

There are three groups of symptoms:

  1. common to all eye diseases,
  2. more characteristic of glaucoma,
  3. reliable early symptoms of glaucoma development.

The first group includes the “flashing of flies” before the eyes and excessively rapid eye fatigue during visual stress (primarily reading). These manifestations indicate that your eyes are in danger.

The second group includes the following symptoms.

  1. Periodic blurred vision. The surrounding objects at such moments are visible as through some kind of veil: from light haze to dense fog. This condition can last from several minutes to several hours and occurs intermittently, for no apparent reason. This is explained by corneal edema at moments of increased intraocular pressure.
  2. Rainbow circles. When you look at a light source, you suddenly see a dark space around it, which is limited by a “rainbow” circle: the closest to the light source is violet, the farthest is red, and in the gap all other colors of the spectrum are visible. True, the same iridescent circles are observed with conjunctivitis and initial clouding of the lens, but there are signs by which they can be distinguished. In conjunctivitis, the iridescent circles disappear immediately after the mucus is removed from the eye; with changes in the lens, on the contrary, the circles are constant. Circles caused by incipient glaucoma are transient and have nothing to do with the formation of mucus in the eye.
  3. Headache. With glaucoma, headaches most often resemble a migraine attack.With glaucoma of one eye in the initial stage of development, pain is quite typical: it appears in the temple area (on the side of the affected eye) and is spasmodic, often pulsating.

Two symptoms of the third group make it possible to suspect the initial stage of glaucoma with relatively high confidence.

  1. Lacrimation. This is one of the relatively reliable early symptoms of latent glaucoma.
  2. Apparent hydration of the eye. The symptom is manifested by the fact that the eye seems to be filled with a tear; you take a handkerchief, wipe your eyes – but the handkerchief remains completely dry. There is no tear, and the feeling of hydration is associated with increased intraocular pressure. This is a very characteristic symptom of glaucoma – often it is its appearance that gives the patient himself the opportunity to suspect that he is developing glaucoma.

The most common manifestations of glaucoma at the earliest stage of its development are:

  • intermittent blurred vision
  • seeing rainbow circles around a light source
  • eye pain
  • headaches
  • flashing “flies” and rapid eye fatigability

Fragment of the program Live well 09.09.2015 (simple test for glaucoma)

Diagnostics and methods of treatment of glaucoma

Special tests and actions will help doctors determine glaucoma:

  • Tonometry – measurement of intraocular pressure.
  • Perimetry is a study by which the patient’s visual field is checked, for which the optic nerve is responsible.
  • Ophthalmoscopy is a method aimed at examining the fundus and determining the state of the optic nerve.
  • Optical coherence tomography – an objective way to determine the state of the optic nerve.

Based on the results of procedures and analyzes, the attending physician will prescribe the most appropriate and necessary treatment.
Today, there are 3 treatment options to prevent further development of glaucoma:

  • drug therapy
  • laser treatment
  • surgical treatment

Treatment of open-angle glaucoma by surgery helps to reduce intraocular pressure, which prevents further destruction of the optic nerve.

During the operation, doctors create a new pathway for the outflow of intraocular fluid. The most recent innovation in this type of treatment is called “non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NHD)”. This type of surgery has significant advantages in comparison with earlier methods, and the most important of them, of course, is that during the operation, the membranes of the eye are not opened. Thus, the possibility of complications is almost completely excluded. NGSE is performed only under local anesthesia, therefore, it is cheaper, and the patient does not need a long period to recover from anesthesia.During a short-term operation (up to 20 minutes), an operating microscope, various microsurgical instruments with diamond or sapphire blades are used.

If, some time after the surgical intervention, the intraocular pressure exceeds 22 mm Hg, an additional laser procedure, Descemethogonipuncture, is necessary, which enhances the outflow of intraocular fluid.

Laser treatment for glaucoma is safe and effective.Depending on the type and stage of glaucoma, it may be recommended to carry out other types of antiglaucomatous operations: implantation of the Ahmed valve, drainage of the posterior chamber, deep sclerectomy, or the appointment of a combined treatment that combines surgery and medication.

Video from the program “Health with Elena Malysheva” about laser treatment of glaucoma.

Selective laser trabeculoplasty

Using folk remedies for glaucoma treatment is not only useless, but can be very dangerous!

Patients often ask if there are folk remedies for glaucoma.Yes, among the people there are recipes for drugs that supposedly help in the treatment of this disease. However, the use of folk remedies for glaucoma treatment is not only useless, but can be very dangerous! The fact is that, being carried away by the so-called traditional medicine, patients often neglect the treatment that they really need, namely, medications prescribed by a doctor or recommended surgical interventions. And glaucoma does not forgive this! In the absence of the necessary treatment and qualified medical supervision, it can lead to irreversible blindness.Therefore, the only way to preserve vision in glaucoma is to regularly monitor the condition of the eye and intraocular pressure and take a set of measures aimed at its normalization in a timely manner.

If you are diagnosed with glaucoma or have a hereditary predisposition to this disease, do not hesitate and do not rely on traditional medicine! See your doctor urgently!


What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive eye disease in which fluid outflow from the eye is difficult, the obstructed outflow often leads to an increase in intraocular pressure, which manifests itself as a deterioration in visual fields, damage to the optic nerve and ultimately, irreversible loss of vision.Glaucoma is the leading cause of permanent blindness and disability worldwide.

Glaucoma is one of the main causes of low vision and blindness. The likelihood of blindness from glaucoma can be reduced by providing early diagnosis and treatment of this disease, since drug and, especially, surgical treatment is most effective in the early stages of glaucoma.

In glaucoma, the process begins with a narrowing of the visual field and, with progression, leads to blindness.

A number of factors have been identified that increase the likelihood of glaucoma.

Risk factors for the development of glaucoma

  • The presence of glaucoma in the next of kin (the so-called burdened heredity).
  • Age. Glaucoma is more common in people over 40, and the older the person, the higher the risk of developing glaucoma.
  • It is believed that the development of glaucoma is promoted by diabetes mellitus, concomitant diseases of the vascular system: arterial hyper- and hypotension, vegetative-vascular dystonia, migraine, etc.etc., injuries.
  • Glaucoma symptoms

    It is still not known exactly why a person develops glaucoma. How does glaucoma manifest?

    Unfortunately, in most cases, glaucoma is asymptomatic. The patient is not worried about anything. At this stage, only an ophthalmologist can identify the initial signs of glaucoma through a comprehensive examination of visual functions and examination of the structures of the eye. Over time, symptoms appear that bother the patient.The most important is the occurrence of visual field defects and an increase in intraocular pressure. But in isolation, an increase in intraocular pressure does not indicate the occurrence of glaucoma, if there are no other signs.

    In most cases, there are several signs of glaucoma in the early stages:

    • slow loss of peripheral visual field;
    • rainbow circles around light sources;
    • difficulty focusing at close distances;
    • eyes cannot adapt in the dark;
    • blurred vision, the appearance of a mesh before the eyes;
    • pain in the eye or brow region may appear.

    Types and forms of glaucoma

    Glaucoma is classified according to the following characteristics: etiology, course, form of lesion, age, duration, nature, severity.

    • Congenital glaucoma. At the same time, newborns have increased intraocular pressure, and in some cases, an increase in the size of the eyeball. The cause of this form of glaucoma is congenital defects in the structure of the drainage apparatus of the eye.If they are insignificant, then the disease may not be detected immediately, but in childhood or adolescence.

    There are two main types of primary glaucoma:

    • Open-angle glaucoma – the flow of intraocular fluid is disturbed, while the angle formed by the iris and cornea is wide. The most common form does not have pronounced symptoms, the patient, as a rule, does not feel a moderate increase in intraocular pressure, which already destroys the optic nerve, leading to loss of vision.That is why it is important to regularly carry out high-quality eye diagnostics.
    • Angle-closure glaucoma – the iris shifts to the cornea, closes the structures of the anterior chamber angle of the eye and interferes with the normal flow of intraocular fluid. It often proceeds in the form of seizures. An acute attack of this glaucoma leads to a strong increase in intraocular pressure (up to 60-80 mm Hg), severe pain in the eye, headache. During an attack, nausea, vomiting, and general weakness may appear. Vision in the sore eye drops sharply.

    Secondary glaucoma occurs as a result of such eye diseases as inflammatory, vascular, dystrophic, associated with diseases of the lens, trauma. The reason for the increase in intraocular pressure is a violation of the outflow of intraocular fluid. In this case, there is a decrease in visual acuity, narrowing of the boundaries of the visual field, the development of optic nerve atrophy against the background of normal intraocular pressure.

    Glaucoma treatment

    1. Medication (conservative) – prescribe drugs that reduce intraocular pressure.The peculiarity lies in the fact that it is necessary to drip the medication exactly on schedule and in exact doses, otherwise there will be no effect. Over time, there is an addiction to drugs and they cease to reduce intraocular pressure; side effects are possible, for example, the progression of an existing cataract, pupil constriction, a stable decrease in the production of intraocular fluid, which negatively affects the metabolism of the eye; many drugs are contraindicated in patients with diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory system.
    2. Laser treatment and surgical treatment – the most effective, preserves vision in patients with glaucoma! If, under the influence of active drug treatment of glaucoma, intraocular pressure does not decrease to a normal level, it is necessary to resort to surgical intervention. The earlier the operation is performed, the better its outcome.

    Operations performed by microsurgeon Makarovskaya O.V. with glaucoma:

    • Sclerectomy with trabeculotomy
    • Sinustrabeculectomy
    • Sinustrabeculotomy
    • Deep sclerectomy
    • NGSE
    • Cyclokryopexy
    • Cyclokryopexy
    • With int.chlorpromazine
    • Multiple posterior sclerectomy
    • Plast. f / pillows
    • Inspection of the scleral valve
    • Vasoreconst. PVA

    Commentary by OV Makarovskaya: “Analyzing the structure of operations, it should be noted that the dominant technique of surgical intervention is sclerectomy with trabeculotomy, which is aimed at all links of pathogenesis in this nosology.

    Non-perforating surgeries have appeared on a large scale, which is associated with the emerging opportunity to direct patients to the second stage of laser goniopuncture treatment.

    Cyclocryopexy is used to reduce intraocular pressure in eyes with terminal glaucoma, relieve pain syndrome, in patients for whom abdominal surgery is contraindicated due to the general condition.

    Vasoreconstruction of the superficial temporal arteries is performed in patients with advanced unstabilized stages of glaucoma to improve blood circulation in the eye.

    In all cases of surgical treatment of glaucoma in me, upon discharge, the intraocular pressure was restored within normal limits. “

    Prevention of glaucoma

    • A rational daily routine based on a reasonable alternation of work and rest. The lifestyle should be as calm as possible, since the excitement worsens the course of the disease.
    • You need to sleep at least 8 hours a day. It is not recommended to eat before going to bed to keep the sleep calm and deep; it is useful to take a short walk in the fresh air.
    • It is recommended to sleep on high pillows. If sleep is insufficient or restless, medications that calm the nervous system can be taken.However, sleeping pills should only be used as directed by a physician.
    • It is undesirable to take preparations of belladonna, atropine, caffeine and other drugs that increase intraocular pressure.
    • Four meals a day are recommended; should not be allowed between meals at large intervals. The last meal is 2 hours before bedtime. Food should be predominantly dairy and vegetable. The meat should be limited to 3-4 times a week and it is better to use it boiled.Meat broths are not recommended. It is necessary to exclude pickles, smoked meats and other foods that cause thirst from the diet – drinking a lot of liquid is harmful! The amount of liquid should not exceed 1 – 1.5 liters per day, including soups, tea, milk. It is not recommended to drink strong tea and coffee.
    • It is important to monitor the activity of the intestines, to take measures against constipation.
    • The use of alcoholic beverages (including beer) is absolutely contraindicated in a patient with glaucoma. Smoking is strictly prohibited.
    • Moderate, non-fatiguing physical work is beneficial – it helps to reduce intraocular pressure. Useful (if it does not cause fatigue) vision work at close range: reading, writing, embroidery, etc.
    • Work associated with excessive physical exertion, with prolonged bending of the torso (washing clothes, washing and polishing floors, weeding ridges, chopping wood) and straining is harmful.
    • When visiting a bath, you should not stay there for a long time, you should not wash your hair with hot water – all this contributes to the rush of blood to the head.
    • In the dark, the pupils dilate and, from this, intraocular pressure may increase, therefore, it is not recommended for a patient with glaucoma to visit cinemas; it is not recommended to watch TV in a darkened room.
    • Do not sunbathe, or be uncovered in the sun.
    • Swimming in the river and the sea is possible only when the water temperature is above 18 degrees. Cold water causes vasospasm and can increase intraocular pressure.
    • Hot baths (over 30 degrees), mud treatments with applications of more than 1/3 of the body surface, Charcot douches, as well as other procedures associated with sudden changes in temperature and increasing the load on the cardiovascular system are contraindicated in spa treatment.

    Remember !!!

    – Glaucoma can lead to blindness, but early detection and timely treatment can prevent loss of your vision;

    – Glaucoma ranks second among eye diseases leading to blindness;

    – Glaucoma affects 70 to 105 million people worldwide;

    – Between 2% and 3% of the population aged 35 and over have glaucoma;

    – More than 13% of the population over 60 years old suffer from glaucoma;

    – Glaucoma can develop in a person at any age, including newborns;

    -A comprehensive vision examination is necessary to determine if you have glaucoma or the risk of its occurrence;

    -It is necessary to undergo an examination by an ophthalmologist regularly, then you can assess the quality and effectiveness of the treatment and, in case of insufficient effectiveness, correct the prescriptions in time or send them for surgical treatment.

    – Glaucoma is not a contagious disease. It usually occurs in both eyes, but not at the same time. In the second eye, it may appear after a few months or years.

    Only a specialist can determine if you have glaucoma and in what form.

    Sitting in front of a computer screen for many hours increases the risk of glaucoma in people already suffering from myopia, Japanese scientists say.

    90,000 Glaucoma: description of the disease, causes, symptoms, cost of treatment in Moscow

    A disease that affects the visual organs is called glaucoma.The main reason for the development of glaucoma is increased intraocular pressure, as a result of which intraocular fluid circulates poorly. Necrosis of the optic nerve begins, a person’s visual function worsens, and complete blindness may occur. To prevent such consequences, it is necessary to contact an ophthalmologist in a timely manner, who will prescribe treatment for glaucoma. To do this, you should recognize the symptoms in time. Depending on the type of disease, the symptoms will be slightly different.

    Varieties and signs

    With open-angle glaucoma, which is more common than other forms of the disease, excess fluid accumulates, resulting in increased eye pressure.The reason for this is the lack of outflow of the accumulated liquid. In most cases, the doctor prescribes a drug that works to lower intraocular pressure. There are situations when such a drug does not bring the desired result, so the patient may be prescribed surgery.

    Open-angle glaucoma, and especially the early stage, may not show any symptoms. There is no increase in intraocular pressure, but the structure of the eye is still affected.It is possible to suspect this form of glaucoma already when the last stage comes. The danger is that preventing vision loss is no longer possible.

    The first dangerous signal that an eye disease is developing is bright circles around objects. A feature of this border is the transfusion of different colors. In addition, a person may experience headache and eye pain. Glaucoma is characterized by blurred vision and blurred objects.

    A person may not assume that it is glaucoma that develops, and make himself a false diagnosis. In such a situation, precious time is wasted, since only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis. He examines the patient with a special device.

    With age, the risk of glaucoma increases, therefore, for preventive purposes, people over forty years old are recommended to come to an appointment with an ophthalmologist once a year.This is important even in the absence of any dangerous symptoms.

    With angle-closure glaucoma, when the anterior part of the eyeball is disturbed, a person complains of the occurrence of strong painful sensations in this place. In addition, the space between the cornea and the iris narrows, there is no possibility of the accumulated excess fluid outflow. As a result, there is an increase in intraocular pressure. Among the symptoms of this form of glaucoma, one can distinguish the appearance of nausea, vomiting, redness of the eye, rainbow circles in front of it.In an acute attack of glaucoma, which is an urgent condition, the patient needs immediate treatment. Otherwise, the person’s vision may disappear for a while.

    There are a number of difficulties that a person with this form of glaucoma will have to face. Namely:

    • Prohibition of tilting the head down. If you do not follow this rule, the risk of negative health effects increases.

    • Do not work in a very hot and unventilated area.

    • Stress of vision (darkness, twilight, poor lighting) can aggravate the course of the disease.

    • Strict control of the amount of liquid that a person drinks during the day.

    • Any drug that can cause dilated pupils or increased intraocular pressure is prohibited.

    The onset of angle-closure glaucoma is characterized by the following symptoms:

    1. Vision deteriorates, objects become blurry.

    2. Painful sensations, the localization of which is the eyebrows and eyes. Such pain is characterized by a certain frequency.

    3. A bright rainbow rim appears around any light source, as well as around an ordinary object.

    4. Acute periods of the disease are replaced by lulls. If there are no symptoms, this does not indicate that the progression of glaucoma has stopped. During such periods, visual function continues to deteriorate.

    5. The angle of the anterior chamber of the eye narrows and closes. If the intraocular pressure rises significantly, there is a strong reddening of the protein, corneal edema. Such a symptom is noticeable even to an ordinary person who does not have a medical education.

    With the development of mixed glaucoma, the outflow of the accumulated excessive amount of fluid becomes difficult, the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye is blocked.

    The occurrence of secondary glaucoma is associated with an inflammatory process, trauma, surgery, diabetes mellitus, malignant or benign formation, and the intake of certain medications.

    The presence of congenital glaucoma is a consequence of intrauterine malformation.In most cases, such a disease is diagnosed in a child. It is possible to eliminate this form of eye disease only with the help of an operation.

    Who is at risk

    There is a category of people who are at risk of developing the disease.

    • Active smokers, alcoholics. Due to excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, intracranial pressure will constantly increase.

    • Failure to comply with the correct power supply.

    • Self-medication prescribes self-medication.

    It is necessary to warn the doctor about concomitant diseases. It happens that blindness appears as a result of innuendo. For example, if a person has hypertension or bronchial asthma, and an attack occurs, the administration of aminophylline is necessary. Because of this drug, glaucoma will worsen, a person may lose sight. This means that to inform the doctor about a particular disease before starting treatment.

    How does the disease manifest

    If we talk about the first symptoms of glaucoma, the following can be distinguished:

    1. The appearance of rainbow circles. The appearance of such circles occurs when looking at the light. The subject in question is dark and the halo is rainbow-colored. According to doctors, this symptom occurs earlier than others. Rainbow circles are a consequence of increased intraocular pressure, which occurs due to corneal edema.Also, circles can signal that the lens is pathologically changed or conjunctivitis develops.

    2. Blurred vision. Sometimes glaucoma causes fog to appear before the eyes. As a result, a person is unable to see the details of surrounding objects. It will appear that there is a slight haze around the objects. In some cases, a person is unable to determine the border of the object in question and its color. This sign will be present for a long time (from 10 minutes to 5-6 hours).

    3. Headache and eye pain. The development of glaucoma is accompanied by a headache. The intensity of the pain increases if the disease affects both eyes. The localization of painful sensations is the temple on the side where the disease develops. The pain is pulsating.

    4. Excessive lacrimation. The presence of glaucoma of the eye provokes a violation of the outflow and inflow of fluid that is inside the eye. In addition, intraocular pressure rises.Lacrimal fluid is produced in large quantities. If such a symptom appears, you should not contact the ophthalmologist of the medical center.

    5. Falsely moisturizes the eye. With glaucoma, a person feels as if the eye is filled with tears. While trying to wipe away the tears, he realizes that the tears are missing. This phenomenon is directly related to increased intraocular pressure.

    If you find one or more warning signs of an eye disease, you should immediately visit a doctor.

    Features of treatment methods

    To get rid of intraocular pressure, eye drops are prescribed to the patient. They normalize the outflow of excess fluid from the eye. Glaucoma is treated with the following drops:

    1. Drops containing prostaglandins. Thanks to such drugs, intraocular pressure is reduced. After the first use, a person may notice that the mucous membranes of the eyes turn red, tingling appears, the iris has darkened, and vision has deteriorated.In some cases, the color of the eyelashes may change.

    2. Use of beta blockers. This medication prevents excessive fluid production in the eye. Before use, it is necessary to take into account all concomitant diseases, since the drug has side effects. This includes hypotension, slow heartbeat, decreased potency, increased fatigue.

    3. Use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Such drops are rarely prescribed to a person with glaucoma.The action of such a drug is aimed at reducing the production of intraocular fluid. However, there may be a metal taste in the mouth cavity, urination, and tingling in the extremities may become more frequent.

    4. Use of alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists. After applying such drops, the production of fluid in the eyes decreases, and its outflow improves.

    Surgical intervention is indicated for those patients who are diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma.Medicines are not able to eliminate such a pathology. Local anesthesia is administered before the operation. Linear trabeculoplasty is often used. To perform surgery, you will need a gonioline lens.

    In addition, deep and non-penetrating sclerectomy may be prescribed to treat angular glaucoma. Thanks to this procedure, it is possible to reduce intraocular pressure by thinning the area of ​​the peripheral cornea. Better permeation of eye fluid through the membrane will occur.Collagen drainage is required to prevent scarring.

    Surgery, which is necessary to get rid of glaucoma, is not as dangerous as it seems. The duration of the operation is approximately 20-30 minutes. The patient does not need to stay at the clinic. When the operation is over, you should be under the supervision of a specialist for some time. Then the person can go home. The next appointment is scheduled in three to four days. At home, drops should be instilled into the operated eye.Only a doctor chooses drops.

    Varieties of surgical intervention

    A patient who has an acute attack of glaucoma needs hospitalization. Treatment measures can be based on medication or surgery. During each attack, intraocular pressure rises significantly, and complete blindness can occur. Further restoration of vision after this is impossible.

    With timely assistance to the patient, it is possible to fully restore the function of the eye.There are several types of surgeries that are used to correct glaucoma:

    • Non-penetrating sclerectomy is used to treat open-angle disease. Intraocular pressure decreases after the operation. This is due to the fact that a limited area of ​​the peripheral cornea has become thinner.