What number is good for blood sugar: How to lower blood sugar naturally
How to lower blood sugar naturally
If you are at risk for diabetes—or already have it—there are steps you can take to lower your blood sugar levels
Blood sugar, also known as glucose, is the main sugar in your blood and your body’s main source of energy. Blood sugars vary all day. A normal fasting blood sugar (before you eat or drink in the morning) is less than 100 mg/dl. Blood sugars anytime of day regardless of when or what the last meal was should always be under 200 mg/dl. Blood sugars exceeding these two levels could signal prediabetes or Type 1 diabetes or Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is a condition where the body cannot produce enough insulin or use insulin properly to correct blood sugars to safe levels.
How do you feel when your blood sugar is too high?
Whether you are at risk for diabetes mellitus or already have it, it’s essential to listen to your body for signs of high blood sugar. The following symptoms can indicate that your blood sugar is higher than normal, a condition called hyperglycemia:
- Blurred vision
- Trouble thinking or concentrating
It’s important to monitor your blood sugar because severely elevated blood sugar levels can lead to a life-threatening medical emergency and result in coma or other dangerous conditions. Elevated blood sugars over years can cause long-term effects such as poor wound healing, nerve, blood cell, and kidney damage, heart disease, stroke, and vision problems.
Keep in mind that, “in many cases, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) follows an episode of high blood sugar,” says M. Kara, MD, the founder of KaraMD. “Repeat episodes are sometimes considered a precursor to diabetes.”
Those with prediabetes may be prescribed medication to keep blood sugar levels in check. There are also ways to lower your blood sugar naturally. Keeping your blood glucose levels in the healthy range decreases your risk of diabetes complications. Those with Type 1 diabetes will need insulin regardless of their good habits.
11 natural ways to lower blood sugar
Whether you have symptoms of high blood sugar or you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes, you may be wondering how to lower blood sugar naturally. While blood sugar may be improved with home remedies, people with diabetes should not stop taking their medication or change their dosage without talking to their healthcare provider. But in addition to medication, you can try these natural remedies for lowering your blood sugar. Also consider the opposite, if you do not follow these healthful ways to lower blood sugar, the medication that your physician prescribes may never effectively control your blood sugars.
1. Monitor your carbohydrate intake
What and how you eat is a very important factor in keeping your blood sugar levels in the healthy range. Choosing foods that stabilize your blood sugar and keep high blood sugar spikes to a minimum will help you stave off a diabetes diagnosis or help control existing diabetes. Some diets oversimplify a comprehensive food intake, and simply tell you to limit carbs or focus on low-carb foods. It’s more complicated than that.
However, tracking your intake of foods that contribute to high blood sugar levels—such as baked goods, processed foods, fried foods, and sweeteners (even natural sweeteners like honey, agave, and maple syrup)—can be a good place to start modifying your diet to balance your blood sugar.
2. Eat foods with a low to medium GI score
Look for foods with a low to medium glycemic index (GI) score. These are foods that your body absorbs slowly and decrease spikes in blood sugar. Some people pair low and high GI foods in order to balance their blood sugar. Another way to think about foods that lower blood glucose are ones that do not provide “fast energy” but give you more energy over a longer period of time. Foods with a low glycemic index have many health benefits besides their effects on blood sugar, so eating a diet high in protein, fatty acids, and fiber will benefit your whole family, not just those actively trying to achieve glycemic control.
3. Increase your fiber intake
High fiber is key to the foods that lower blood sugar, so increasing your soluble fiber intake will help you lower your blood sugar. Focus on eating foods that stabilize blood sugar such as unrefined carbohydrates like whole grain bread or pasta, sweet potatoes, legumes, lentils, nuts, and non-starchy vegetables.
Another perk? High fiber foods can help you feel fuller. That can help you avoid overeating or craving foods that can negatively affect your blood sugar. Men should aim for 30 to 38 grams daily, and women 21 to 25 grams daily, according to the Mayo Clinic.
4. Stick to an eating schedule
Dr. Kara warns against “skipping meals frequently” to avoid the rollercoaster of high to low blood sugar surges and dips. Spreading your meals out throughout the day, rather than eating a large breakfast or large dinner can help to regulate blood sugar. Eating regularly from morning through evening is the best strategy.
5. Don’t rely on supplements or vitamins
There’s no shortcut to maintaining good blood sugars. A supplement or vitamin alone will not give you healthy blood sugar levels and they can interact negatively with other medications. Speak to your healthcare provider and perhaps ask for a referral for a dietitian who specializes in blood sugar control before incorporating dietary supplements, shakes, or vitamins to achieve blood sugar control.
RELATED: What is the best diabetes diet?
6. Drink more water
Perhaps it is no surprise that the best beverage to keep blood sugar in check is water. High blood sugar causes dehydration, which can be dangerous if not treated. Drinking water, especially when your blood sugar is high, helps you pass excess glucose through your urine. One study showed that people with normal blood sugar levels who drank 34 ounces of water per day were 21% less likely to develop hyperglycemia over the next nine years than those who drank 16 ounces or less.
There are other drinks that can help you lower your blood sugar naturally such as unsweetened tea. “Hibiscus tea helps to lower blood sugar level and reduce cholesterol, which keeps your heart healthy and prevents heart conditions,” says Jay Woody, MD, the chief medical officer of Intuitive Health and a co-founder of Legacy ER & Urgent Care.
Drinks you should avoid, or drink sparingly, include:
- Fruit juice
- Sports drinks
- Highly sugared coffee and tea
Get regular exercise
Even exercise like walking can help control blood sugar levels. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) says one of the best ways to manage diabetes is to have 150 minutes of moderate physical exercise a week. If you live a sedentary lifestyle or have to sit for long periods of time for work, try to get up every 30 minutes and get active. Good options are stretching, yoga, or taking a walk around the block. Exercise increases insulin sensitivity, lowers blood sugar for up to a day, and aids in weight loss.
8. Manage your weight
Aiming for a healthy body weight is important for blood sugar management. Weight gain contributes to insulin resistance, increasing insulin levels in your body. Weight loss has the opposite effect. Dropping just 7% of your body weight can help to improve your insulin sensitivity again, and promote healthy blood sugar levels.
9. Maintain regular checkups
See your healthcare provider for regular checkups. Be proactive about preventive care. Make sure you have your blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure checked—this is especially important if you have a family history or risk factors for diabetes.
10. Reduce stress
Reducing stress is easier said than done, but it is important in order to help decrease insulin resistance. Being less stressed makes it easier to make and stick to healthy lifestyle changes for proper blood sugar management. Inversely, keeping your blood sugar healthy will help your mood as high and low blood sugar symptoms include mood disturbances. If your mood is disrupted due to stress or mental illness, speak to your healthcare provider for resources and guidance.
11. Get more sleep
Work hard to maintain a consistent sleep schedule. Cortisol, the stress hormone, is increased with lack of sleep. Getting enough sleep helps you feel better during the day and will help you have more energy to cook healthy meals and exercise, two actions that will help you keep your blood sugar stable.
How long will it take to lower my blood sugar?
If you have high blood sugar—in a non-emergency situation—there are several things you can do to lower your blood sugar right away. Follow these steps in order:
- Take medications as prescribed. This may be metformin or insulin.
- Insulin can cause low blood sugars, so be sure to check your blood sugar after administering insulin to make sure it doesn’t get too low.
- If you are a type 1 diabetic, check your urine for ketones. If there are ketones present, do not exercise as ketones raise blood sugar. Go to the emergency room or contact your healthcare provider immediately. Otherwise, heart-pumping exercise can lower blood sugar immediately.
- Drink plenty of water.
Sometimes people with diabetes can go into diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome, a medical emergency requiring immediate medical care. The symptoms are subtle but look out for:
- Shortness of breath
- Fruity smelling breath
- Extreme dry mouth
- Nausea and vomiting
- Excessive thirst
- Excessive urination
- Abdominal pain
If you experience these symptoms, call your healthcare provider immediately and follow their guidelines. If you cannot reach a physician emergently, call 911.
Diabetes medications (for when natural remedies don’t work)
Many people ask how to lower blood sugar immediately. Natural remedies typically only help modestly and they take a few weeks to notice a significant difference in blood sugar. The fastest way to lower high blood sugar is prescription medication. People with diabetes often need medications in addition to lifestyle and diet changes.
Insulin is prescribed when blood sugars are very elevated at the time of diagnosis or the patient has failed to control blood sugars with other classes of medications. Insulin can be used with other diabetes medications. Rapid-acting insulin starts working within 30 minutes, long-acting insulin could take four hours, and other diabetes medications, like metformin, could take a couple of days.
High blood sugar can feel scary. High blood sugars can also be very dangerous. Fortunately there are many natural ways to keep your mildly elevated blood sugar better controlled. By eating a healthy diet, exercising, and taking care of your body and mind, you can live your best and fullest life and decrease your chance of diabetes.
4 Surprising Reasons for Blood Sugar Swings
Managing diabetes means being prepared for unexpected blood sugar changes. Certain foods and drinks are often to blame, but not always. Seemingly simple facts of everyday life can sometimes kick your sugar out of whack, too.
Stress. When you’re under stress, certain hormones send nutrients, including sugar, into the bloodstream to prepare your body for action. For people with diabetes, that stress response can equal a spike in blood sugar. It can also trigger poor eating habits, whether it’s eating too little or eating too much.
Do you suspect stress raises your blood sugar? Every time you check your sugar for the next 2 weeks, rate your stress on a scale from one to 10 and write down both your rating and your blood sugar. If you see a connection between the two, it’s time to manage your stress.
“Find some time that’s just yours. Take a walk, ride a bike, or take regular breaks to unwind,” says Linda M. Siminerio, RN, PhD, CDE. She’s the director of the University of Pittsburgh Diabetes Institute.
Tossing and Turning. “Sleep disorders, lack of sleep, and interrupted sleep can raise blood sugars,” says Pamela Allweiss, MD, MPH. She’s a medical officer in the division of diabetes translation at the CDC. People with diabetes who have trouble falling asleep or who wake up in the night several times a week have higher fasting blood sugar than those who get a better night’s sleep. If you have insomnia, get it treated.
Sick Days. Cold, flu, or any infection is a physical stress that can hike blood sugar just like mental stress. To top it off, the sugar and alcohol in some cold medicines can boost blood sugar, while the illness itself can kill your appetite and bring your levels down.
When you’re sick, check your blood sugar every 2 to 4 hours, and test your blood or urine for ketones (substances that are made when the body breaks down fat for energy). Stay hydrated with lots of clear fluids, and follow your usual meal plan and medications. If you can’t keep food down, drink plenty of fluids, get 15 grams of carbohydrates every hour, and call your doctor.
Take every chance to prevent illness in the first place, Allweiss says. “Get vaccines for as many vaccine-preventable conditions as possible — flu, pneumonia, hepatitis B, shingles.”
Medications for Other Conditions. Some medications for non-diabetes conditions can step up your sugar. For example, certain diuretics prescribed for high blood pressure cause you to lose potassium when you pee, which in turn can raise blood sugar. Antidepressants and antihistamines can cause weight gain and may spike blood sugar. Corticosteroids, such as prednisone and cortisone, treat inflammatory conditions including vasculitis, myositis, and rheumatoid arthritis — but they can also raise blood sugar. Discuss all your medications with your doctor to make sure they won’t affect your levels.
Download the iPad app for the current issue of “WebMD Magazine.”
Assessing How Well Diabetes is Controlled: Blood Sugars and Glycohemoglobin.
There are two common ways that physicians assess how well diabetes is controlled:
- Frequent measurements of blood glucose,
- Measurement of glycohemoglobin (A1c).
Each method has its good and bad points, but combined they give a fairly accurate picture of the state of glucose control in a diabetic. Most physicians will use both methods.
Why Tight Blood Glucose Is Important
Measurement of Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar)
When we speak about measuring blood glucose levels, it can be done 2 different ways. Blood glucose can be measured randomly from a sample taken at any time (called a “random blood sugar” or RBS).
Blood glucose can also be measured in the “fasting” state, meaning that the person has not eaten or taken in any calories in the past 8 hours (usually this is done overnight and it is referred to as an overnight fast and is called a “fasting blood sugar” or FBS).
In a person with normal insulin production and activity (a non-diabetic) blood sugar levels will return to “fasting” levels within 3 hours of eating. People with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) may not be able to get their blood glucose down this quickly after a meal or drinking a calorie-containing drink. More about this can be found on our Diagnosing Diabetes page.
Learn More about How to Manage Diabetes
Remember, the normal fasting blood glucose level is between 70 and 110 mg/dL.
Frequent Measurements of Blood Glucose. The goal in this part of diabetes management is to strive to keep fasting blood sugars under 140 mg/dL and preferably closer to the 70 to 120 mg/dL range.
Ideally, one could monitor blood sugars 4 times per day (or more) to follow how well the sugars are controlled. This information could be used to adjust your diet and medications to achieve this goal. Usually blood glucose measurements are done before each meal and at bedtime.
Occasionally a doctor may want a patient with diabetes to test their blood sugar at 2:00 am to assess what the blood sugar is doing overnight. Generally, it is desirable to have blood sugars at 2:00 am run greater than 65 mg/dL to avoid overnight hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
It is very desirable for patients to keep a diary of these blood sugar measurements since this information will be a great help to the treating physician as he/she makes decisions regarding how best to treat the diabetes.
Bring this diary with you when you go to your doctor as s/he will be quite pleased but don’t alter or fudge your results in an attempt to please your doctor; this will prevent the appropriate changes (if any) to be made in your management.
Measurement of Glycosylated Hemoglobin (Glycohemoglobin or Hemoglobin A1c)
Periodic Measurement of Glycated Hemoglobin. Another method to monitor the control of blood sugar in people with diabetes is through a blood test called hemoglobin A1c or glycohemoglobin (or glycosylated hemoglobin).
This test can be done through a local laboratory or can be drawn at a doctor’s office, but unlike simple measurement of blood glucose levels, this cannot be done at home. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin correlates very well with a person’s recent overall blood sugar levels.
Hemoglobin A1c will tell what the diabetic’s blood sugar levels have been running for the past 2 to 3 months. If the blood sugars have generally been running high during the previous few months, the level of hemoglobin A1c will be high. If blood glucose concentrations have been running close to normal during this time, the hemoglobin A1c level will be close to values seen in normal persons.
It is an important value to monitor periodically. Studies have shown that glycohemoglobin values in the “better ranges” correlate with less incidence of diabetic complications later in life. People with type 1 diabetes will typically have hemoglobin A1c levels determined every 3 to 4 months, while people with type 2 diabetes will often require measurements less often.
Values vary from lab to lab but below is a common value system for hemoglobin A1c:
Normal: Less than 6.5
Poor: Greater than 9.5
Why Is It Important to Have Good Control of Diabetes?
Studies have recently shown that overall good control of blood sugar in diabetes does correlate with decreased incidence of diabetic complications. So, the answer is yes, it is important to control glucose levels as best as possible. In people with type 1 diabetes who are on insulin and in some people with type 2 diabetes, efforts to have control too tight may result in too many episodes of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Therefore, the goal is to balance trying to have control as near normal as possible while trying to avoid hypoglycemic episodes.
Updated on: 10/07/19
Hemoglobin A1c Not Reliable in Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes
Treating Low Blood Sugar | Patient Education
You are at risk of having a low blood sugar reaction if you:
- Skip or delay a meal or snack
- Take too much insulin or eat too few carbohydrates
- Drink alcohol, especially without eating carbohydrates
Check your blood sugar if you have any of these symptoms:
- Weakness and/or fatigue
- Increased heartbeat
If your blood sugar is less than 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl):
- Eat 15 to 30 grams of carbohydrate (sample foods listed below)
- Wait 15 minutes and then recheck your blood sugar
- If your blood sugar is still less than 100 mg/dl, take another 15 grams of carbohydrate and retest your blood sugar in another 15 minutes. Repeat if necessary.
Important: If you have frequent low blood sugars speak to your doctor. You may need changes in your medication and/or meal plan.
Quick Carbohydrate Guide for Treating Low Blood Sugars
If your blood sugar is less than 70 mg/dl, you need 15 to 30 grams of a quickly absorbed carbohydrate, like the ones listed below. Each of the following servings provides 15 grams of carbohydrate.
Candies and Other Sweets
- 5 small gum drops
- 12 gummy bears
- 6 large jelly beans
- 5 Life Savers
- 15 Skittles
- 1 Tablespoon honey, jam or jelly
- 1 Tablespoon sugar in water
- 4 Starburst
- 1/2 cup apple juice
- 1/2 cup orange or grapefruit juice
- 1/2 cup pineapple juice
- 1/2 cup regular soda (not diet)
- 1/3 cup grape juice
- 1/3 cup cranberry juice
- 1/3 cup prune juice
- 1 cup fat free milk
- 1/2 banana
- 1 small apple
- 1 small orange
- 1/2 cup applesauce
- 2 tablespoons of raisins
- 15 grapes
- 3 to 4 glucose tablets
- 1 tube glucose gel
Note: The foods listed above are easily absorbed and will raise blood sugar levels quickly. Foods that contain protein or fat – such as chocolate, candy bars, ice cream, cookies, crackers and bread – don’t raise blood sugar quickly enough.
The Big Picture: Checking Your Blood Sugar
Blood sugar (blood glucose) monitoring is the primary tool you have to find out if your blood glucose levels are within your target range. This tells you your blood glucose level at any one time.
It’s important for blood sugar levels to stay in a healthy range. If glucose levels get too low, we can lose the ability to think and function normally. If they get too high and stay high, it can cause damage or complications to the body over the course of many years.
The logging of your results is vital. When you bring your log to your healthcare provider, you’ll have a good picture of your body’s response to your diabetes care plan. To help keep track of your levels, we have a printable blood glucose log. We also have a blood glucose log available for purchase that is smaller so you can carry it with you.
Who should check?
Talk to your doctor about whether you should be checking your blood glucose. People who may benefit from checking blood glucose regularly include those:
- taking insulin.
- who are pregnant.
- having a hard time controlling blood sugar levels.
- having low blood sugar levels.
- having low blood sugar levels without the usual warning signs.
- have ketones from high blood sugar levels.
How do I check?
People with diabetes check their blood sugar levels by poking their fingertips and using a blood glucose meter or a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) to measure the blood glucose level at that moment. Read on to find out how to use a blood glucose meter. To find out more about CGMs, start by talking to your doctor.
How to use a blood glucose meter:
- After washing your hands, insert a test strip into your meter.
- Use your lancing device on the side of your fingertip to get a drop of blood.
- Touch and hold the edge of the test strip to the drop of blood and wait for the result.
- Your blood glucose level will appear on the meter’s display.
Note: All meters are slightly different, so always refer to your user’s manual for specific instructions.
Other tips for checking:
- With some meters, you can also use your forearm, thigh, or fleshy part of your hand.
- There are spring-loaded lancing devices that make sticking yourself less painful.
- If you use your fingertip, stick the side of your fingertip by your fingernail to avoid having sore spots on the frequently used part of your finger.
What are the target ranges?
Blood glucose targets are individualized based on:
- duration of diabetes
- age/life expectancy
- conditions a person may have
- cardiovascular disease or diabetes complications
- hypoglycemia unawareness
- individual patient considerations
The American Diabetes Association suggests the following targets for most nonpregnant adults with diabetes. A1C targets differ based on age and health. Also, more or less stringent glycemic goals may be appropriate for each individual.
- A1C: Less than 7%
A1C may also be reported as eAG: Less than 154 mg/dL
- Before a meal (preprandial plasma glucose): 80–130 mg/dL
- 1-2 hours after beginning of the meal (postprandial plasma glucose)*: Less than 180 mg/dL
What do my results mean?
When you finish the blood sugar check, write down your results and note what factors may have affected them, such as food, activity, and stress. Take a close look at your blood glucose record to see if your level is too high or too low several days in a row at about the same time. If the same thing keeps happening, it might be time to change your diabetes care plan. Work with your doctor or diabetes educator to learn what your results mean for you. It can take time to make adjustments and get things just right. And do ask your doctor if you should report results out of a certain range right away by phone.
Keep in mind that blood glucose results often trigger strong feelings. Blood sugar numbers can leave you upset, confused, frustrated, angry, or down. It’s easy to use the numbers to judge yourself. Remind yourself that tracking your blood sugar level is simply a way to know how well your diabetes care plan is working, and whether that plan may need to change.
What about urine checks for glucose?
Checking urine for ketones is important when your diabetes is out of control or when you are sick. Talk to your doctor to find out if or when you should check for ketones.
For more information
When Blood Sugar Is Too Low (for Teens)
Glucose is a sugar that comes from the foods we eat, and it’s also formed and stored inside the body. It’s the main source of energy for the cells of our body, and is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. Our brains depend on glucose to function, even when we’re sleeping.
blood glucose levelis the amount of glucose in the blood. When these levels (also called blood sugar levels) drop too low, it’s called hypoglycemia (pronounced: high-poe-gly-SEE-me-uh). Very low blood sugar levels can cause serious symptoms that need to be treated right away.
Low Blood Sugar Levels in Diabetes
People with diabetes can have low blood sugar levels because of the medicines they have to take to manage their diabetes. They may need a hormone called
insulinor diabetes pills (or both) to help their bodies use the sugar in their blood.
These medicines help take the sugar out of the blood and get it into the body’s cells, which makes the blood sugar level go down. But sometimes it’s a tricky balancing act and blood sugar levels can get too low.
People with diabetes need to keep their blood sugars from getting too high or too low. Keeping blood sugar levels in a healthy range means balancing when and what they eat, and when they exercise with when they take medicines.
What Can Cause Low Blood Sugar Levels?
Some things that can make low blood sugar levels more likely are:
- skipping meals and snacks
- not eating enough food during a meal or snack
- exercising longer or harder than usual without eating some extra food
- getting too much insulin
- not timing the insulin doses properly with meals, snacks, and exercise
Also, some things may increase how quickly insulin gets absorbed into the bloodstream and can make hypoglycemia more likely. These include:
- taking a hot shower or bath right after having an insulin injection increases blood flow through the blood vessels in the skin, which can make the insulin be absorbed more quickly than usual
- injecting the shot into a muscle instead of the fatty layer under the skin
- injecting the insulin into a part of the body used a lot in a particular sport (like injecting the leg right before soccer practice).
All of these situations increase the chances that a person may get hypoglycemia.
What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Low Blood Sugar?
Different people may feel low blood sugar levels differently. People with low blood sugar may:
- feel hungry or have “hunger pains” in their stomach
- feel shaky or like they’re trembling
- have a rapid heart rate
- feel sweaty or have cold, clammy skin
- have pale, gray skin color
- have a headache
- feel moody, cranky, or irritable
- feel drowsy, weak, or dizzy
- be unsteady or stagger when walking
- have blurred or double vision
- feel confused
- have seizures or convulsions
- lose consciousness (pass out)
If you have diabetes, try to remember how your body reacts when your blood sugar levels are low. It may help you figure out when you’re having a low blood sugar level more quickly the next time.
Checking for Low Blood Sugar Levels
The warning signs of hypoglycemia are the body’s natural response to low blood sugar levels. When blood sugar levels fall too low, the body releases the hormone adrenaline, which helps get stored glucose into the bloodstream quickly. This can make someone:
- start shaking
- have an increased heart rate
If the hypoglycemia isn’t treated, more serious symptoms may happen, such as drowsiness, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness.
The only way to know for sure if you’re having a low blood sugar level is to test. Blood sugar levels can be tested with a
blood glucose meter. This computerized device measures and displays the amount of glucose in a blood sample. But if you can’t quickly check your blood sugar level, it’s important to treat yourself for hypoglycemia immediately to prevent symptoms from getting worse.
Sometimes a person with diabetes may have symptoms of low blood sugar levels, but blood sugar levels are not actually low. This is a called a false reaction. The hormone adrenaline (mentioned above) is not just released when blood sugar drops too low — it’s also released when blood sugar levels fall quickly when they’re too high. If you’re having a false reaction, you might actually have blood sugar levels in a healthy range but feel as if you have low blood sugar. Testing blood sugar levels before treating yourself for hypoglycemia can help you figure out if you’re having a false reaction.
Some people with diabetes don’t actually notice the typical signs of low blood sugar levels. For them it’s even more important to check blood glucose levels often and take extra precautions to prevent low blood sugar (see our prevention tips below). If you’re having trouble feeling the symptoms of low blood sugar, let your diabetes health care team know.
How Are Low Blood Sugar Levels Treated?
Your diabetes health care team will give you guidelines for treating low blood sugar levels, depending on your symptoms. If you can, try to test your blood sugar levels to make sure that your symptoms are because of hypoglycemia. If you can’t test blood sugar immediately, don’t delay in treating your symptoms — you can always check your blood sugar after you’ve taken steps to get your blood sugar back up into the normal range.
When blood sugar levels are low, the goal is to get them back up quickly. To do that, you should take in sugar or sugary foods, which raise the blood sugar level quickly. Your health care team might suggest that you:
- Eat, drink, or take something that contains sugar that can get into the blood quickly. Your doctor may tell you to have really sugary foods or drinks (like regular soda, orange juice, or cake frosting) or might give you glucose tablets or gel to take — all of these can help to raise your blood sugar level fast, which is what you need to do when it’s low.
- Wait about 10 minutes to let the sugar work.
- Recheck your blood sugar level with a glucose meter to see if blood sugar levels are back to normal.
- Get a glucagon shot (see below), if your symptoms are severe or get worse after you eat, drink, or take glucose.
Sometimes, blood sugar levels can get so low that you may not be awake enough to eat or drink something to get them back up. When this happens, you may need a glucagon shot.
Glucagon (pronounced: GLOO-kuh-gon) is a hormone that helps raise blood sugar levels quickly. Your parents, teachers, and coaches should all know how to give
glucagonshots in case of a low blood sugar emergency or at least know to call 911. Your doctor can prescribe a glucagon kit, which should be kept in a place where the people who are close to you can easily find it.
Also, you should always wear a medical identification bracelet or necklace and/or carry an ID that says you have diabetes. That way, if you are not feeling well, whoever’s helping you — even if the person doesn’t know you — will know to call for medical help. This medical identification also can also include your doctor’s phone number or a parent’s phone number.
Preventing Low Blood Sugar Levels
By knowing what causes low blood sugar levels and being prepared, you can lessen the chance that you’ll have them. But no matter how well they take care of themselves, people with diabetes will sometimes have low blood sugar levels.
Here are some other tips to help you avoid low blood sugar levels:
- Eat all your meals and snacks on time and try not to skip any.
- Take the right amount of insulin.
- If you exercise longer or harder than usual, have an extra snack.
- Don’t take a hot bath or shower right after an insulin shot.
- Stick to your diabetes management plan.
- Check your blood sugar levels regularly, so you can tell if your blood sugars are running too low and your treatment plan needs adjustment.
- Carry something containing sugar with you at all times and take it right away if you have symptoms. Don’t wait to see if the symptoms will go away — they may get worse!
Alcohol and drugs can cause major problems with your blood sugar levels, so avoiding them is another way to prevent diabetes problems. Drinking can be particularly dangerous — even deadly — for people with diabetes because it messes up the body’s ability to keep blood glucose in a normal range. This can cause a very rapid drop in blood glucose in people with diabetes. Drug or alcohol use is also dangerous because it may affect someone’s ability to sense low blood sugar levels.
You should also check your blood sugar — and treat hypoglycemia, if needed — before you drive. Make sure you have some form of sugar handy in the car to use if you get low at any time while driving. If you do feel low, immediately pull over safely to the side of the road and treat your hypoglycemia — and don’t start to drive again until your symptoms are gone. You also should test your blood sugar before activities during which a low blood sugar reaction could be especially dangerous, such as skiing, swimming, or rock climbing.
Learning how to recognize the signs of low blood sugar levels and get them back to normal is an important part of caring for diabetes. Keeping track of your blood sugar levels and recording lows when they occur will help you and your diabetes health care team keep your blood sugar levels in a healthy range.
Best Foods for Low Blood Sugar – San Diego – Sharp Health News
Oct. 20, 2021
For patients with diabetes, monitoring blood sugar levels is a part of daily life.
Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can occur for many people with diabetes who are on certain medications, including insulin and sulfonylureas. It can occur for a variety of reasons including skipping a meal, exercising strenuously, taking too much insulin or consuming alcohol, especially on an empty stomach.
Low blood sugar can be as minor as a slight inconvenience or as serious as a life-threatening emergency. That’s why it is important to boost blood sugar before it becomes problematic.
Angela Norton, a diabetes educator at Sharp Chula Vista Medical Center, has diabetes herself, so she knows firsthand the tips and tricks of keeping blood sugar on track. Although blood glucose is considered normal if above 70 mg/dL, Norton says patients with diabetes should not wait until they reach below that threshold to take action.
“Treat when you feel the symptoms, even if your blood sugar is not below 70, because as long as it is less than 100, it may be dropping fast,” she says.
When it comes to treatment, Norton shares these five foods to help boost low blood sugar.
When hypoglycemia occurs, patients should follow the 15-15 rule. Consume 15 grams of carbohydrates to raise blood glucose and check your levels again after 15 minutes. When the numbers return to normal, eat a snack to stay on track.
Gummy candies contain carbohydrates, which have a large impact on blood sugar levels.
“Simple sugar-based foods absorb rapidly into the bloodstream after you eat them and can raise your blood sugar within five to 15 minutes,” says Norton.
She recommends eating between 15 and 30 grams of carbohydrates to help increase blood sugar. When it comes to candy, she suggests eating one of the following portions: 12 gummy bears, five ring-shaped candies, 15 hard-shelled fruit-flavored candies, four chewy fruit candies or six large jelly beans.
2. Fresh or dried fruit
Fruits that provide the appropriate amount of carbohydrates include half a banana, 15 grapes, two tablespoons of raisins or a small apple or orange.
3. Fruit juice
Fruit juice can also boost blood sugar levels. Norton suggests half a cup (4 ounces ) of your favorite fruit juice, such as apple, orange, pineapple or cranberry juice.
4. Fat-free milk
Milk contains vitamin D and carbohydrates, so Norton suggests drinking one cup of fat-free milk when your glucose levels start to drop.
“Having one tablespoon of honey or jam as a snack after your blood sugar dips is a good way to balance out blood glucose levels,” says Norton.
Norton says it’s important for patients to find the snacks that work best for them. “There are many other foods you can use, and each person finds their own favorite. Mine are little bags of organic fruity snacks that have 17 grams of fast-acting carbohydrates in each pouch,” she says.
Sharp HealthCare offers diabetes education classes that cover a wide range of topics — including nutrition, exercise and medications — that empower people with diabetes to improve their overall wellness.
90,000 If you have type 1 diabetes, you can and should prepare yourself for pregnancy.
Planning a pregnancy is, first of all, using a reliable method of preventing pregnancy until the necessary examination is carried out and preparation for pregnancy is completed.
The presence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in a future mother means that she has an increased risk of spontaneous miscarriage and the birth of a child with congenital abnormalities, growth and developmental abnormalities.The main reason is high blood glucose levels or sharp fluctuations during the day and night. Therefore, it is extremely important to maintain normal blood glucose levels even before conception and throughout pregnancy.
Glucose is the main source of energy for the growth and development of the fetus. He himself cannot synthesize it and receives it from his mother. And if the mother’s blood sugar level is elevated, an excess amount of glucose will be supplied to the child.
In the early stages of pregnancy, a high blood sugar level in the mother can lead to a pronounced metabolic disorder in the woman herself and in the developing baby, the formation of teratogenic substances, and a change in the structure of the placenta.As a result, fetal malformations and miscarriages in the first trimester of pregnancy are possible.
Pregnancy against the background of type 1 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by a risk to the health of the mother. This is the progression of vascular complications of diabetes, especially from the eyes and kidneys, the frequent development of hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis against the background of hormonal changes, frequent complications of pregnancy: increased blood pressure, the appearance of protein in the urine, preeclampsia, infection, polyhydramnios, premature birth, birth trauma, etc. d.
To give birth to a healthy baby and to avoid the progression of existing and the emergence of new complications of diabetes in the expectant mother, the blood glucose level in women with diabetes before the onset and throughout pregnancy should be the same as in healthy pregnant women. Be sure to visit an endocrinologist who has experience working with pregnant women, even at the stage of planning a pregnancy. The doctor will help you determine how well your diabetes is controlled.
Planning of pregnancy in diabetes mellitus should be carried out in such a way that 3-4 months before the first attempts to conceive, the fasting blood glucose level was up to 6.1 mmol / l, and 2 hours after a meal – up to 7.8 mmol / l, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) – not more than 6.0%.If HbA1c is above 7%, planning a pregnancy is undesirable!
In addition to reaching the recommended blood glucose level before pregnancy, it is necessary to conduct a full examination of the body, pass all tests. In addition to an endocrinologist and a gynecologist, be sure to visit an ophthalmologist and nephrologist.
Most of the contraindications to pregnancy arising from diabetes mellitus can be eliminated if you seriously tackle it. Please consult with experts in advance. Remember that it will take you time to get ready for your pregnancy.
The Scientific Research Institute for the Protection of Mothers and Infants (SRI OMM,) consults an endocrinologist and obstetrician-gynecologist as part of the institute’s scientific and practical work to study the characteristics of the treatment of type 1 diabetes in pregnant women to improve pregnancy outcomes for the mother and child.
Patients over 18 years of age with type 1 diabetes for more than 1 year and planning a pregnancy during the current year are welcome.
90,000 obstetrician-gynecologist Nazyrova Elmira Sagitovna.
In recent decades, there has been
a sharp increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus, especially in industrialized
areas.Every 10-15 years the number of patients
diabetes doubles. In all
countries of the world, there are about 35 million
patients with diabetes mellitus and about
the same number of diabetic patients has not been identified.
Examination of the prevalence of sugar
diabetes in our country showed that the number of patients with diabetes mellitus is
1.5-3.5% of the total population.
Diabetes mellitus increases mortality by 2-3 times, the risk of developing coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction
increases 2 times, kidney pathology – in
17 times, gangrene of the lower extremities 20
times, hypertension more than
3 times.Most common in diabetes mellitus
myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident develops. The main causes of death of patients are
cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, atherosclerosis (67%), chronic renal failure (6.7%),
Until recently, doctors advised women with diabetes to avoid pregnancy, since pregnancy is often
with such a disease ended in spontaneous abortion, intrauterine
death of the fetus, the birth of an unviable child or baby with diabetic
fetopathy (various deviations in
growth, development and functional state of the fetus).All this was associated with the decompensation of diabetes mellitus both “before” and
“During pregnancy”, lack of awareness among women about their disease.
Due to lack of means of self-control and
necessary medical equipment
pregnant women with diabetes did not receive timely medical care, and their pregnancies often ended unsuccessfully, significantly reducing the
this is the life expectancy of the mother.
But don’t be discouraged. It was a long time ago. Today’s picture is more cheerful.World Health Organization
claims to achieve a prosperous
the outcome of pregnancy in diabetes mellitus is possible. Research has proven that
it is high blood sugar that prevents the birth of a healthy child, and not the presence
diabetes in the mother. Therefore, to
to achieve a successful pregnancy outcome, women with diabetes need to bring the level as close as possible
blood sugar to normal. Modern means of self-control and insulin administration, almost widespread development
patient schools allow you to do this.And the latest devices for monitoring
fetus throughout pregnancy
make it possible to track all changes in the fetus, and therefore
today a woman with diabetes can give birth
a practically healthy child, risking not
more than any other woman without carbohydrate metabolism disorders.
- PREGNANCY IS POSSIBLE WITH
However, no one says that everything will be easy and simple, without obvious barriers and
pitfalls.Let’s start with the fact that
spontaneous pregnancy is excluded for women with diabetes,
especially if you did not regularly
self-control and / or did not examine glycosylated hemoglobin once every 3 months
(normal HbA1C <6. 4%). 6-7 may pass
weeks before a woman finds out that she
pregnant; during this time, the little man is almost completely formed:
he has a brain, spine, intestines,
lungs, the heart beats, which pumps blood mixed with the mother’s.If
mom has decompensation of diabetes mellitus,
then the sugar is increased in the child. Hyperglycemia causes metabolic disturbances in the fetus.
processes that can affect the laying of its organs. Therefore, such a formidable
complication like congenital malformations of the fetus
may develop even before the fact is established
Pregnancy, which occurs against the background of high blood sugar, provokes a rapid
development and progression of diabetic complications in the mother. Thus,
unplanned pregnancy is dangerous
both for the mother and for the unborn baby.
- PREGNANCY WITH DIABETES MELLITUS SHOULD BE
Not only women with diabetes need to keep this in mind; It is important to
girls by the time of puberty
already had an idea of this problem,
knew about the consequences of an unplanned
pregnancy and modern remedies
contraception. Here awareness works better than prohibitions.
Pregnancy planning for diabetes begins with the selection of the optimal
method of contraception (which, in fact,
must be done from the very beginning of sexual activity).It can be like barrier methods
(condom, cap, diaphragm), spermicidal (gels or suppositories), micro-dose contraceptive hormonal
tablets and intrauterine devices,
but only those that have anti-inflammatory and bactericidal properties. Consult your gynecologist. Method
contraception should be selected individually, be as reliable as possible and
do not affect carbohydrate metabolism.
Start preparing for pregnancy
you need at least 3-6 months before conception, although you need to take care of your health and
the health of future offspring is necessary
always, regardless of whether you plan
pregnancy soon or after 10 years.Start measuring your blood sugar
at least before eating now! That is, for
this time it is necessary to achieve almost perfect compensation by measuring sugar
7-8 or more times a day.
The glycemic indicators should be as follows:
Fasting <5.3 mmol / L Before meals <6.8 mmol / L 1 hour after eating <7.8 mmol / L 2 hours after eating <6.7 mmol / L HbA1C <6.4% No severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) Lack of ketonuria (acetone in the urine) Remember that the longer and better you have there was compensation before pregnancy, so more hopes for a successful outcome.Additional blood sugar measurements are expensive for the family. Therefore, planning a pregnancy also implies a redistribution of family budget, since significant expenses will be required to acquire sufficient the number of means of self-control. If you have type 2 diabetes mellitus, and you conduct self-control only for glucosuria (determination of sugar in urine), then you will have to abandon this method, since it not informative enough, because the criteria for normoglycemia have become stricter, from 4 to 6.7 mmol / L! If you are taking hypoglycemic pills, a few months before conception, your doctor will help you to switch on insulin injections. Don’t worry, this
not forever, but only until the birth of the child and
during breastfeeding, as the tablets are detrimental to the fetus.
Pregnancy is a big burden on the body, so it is imperative
consult with a number of specialists to make sure that it will not harm your health. For this
You will need:
• Consultation of an endocrinologist.
• Comprehensive examination by a gynecologist,
careful treatment of genitourinary infections.
• Consultation with an ophthalmologist with examination
fundus.If necessary, laser photocoagulation (cauterization of pathologically altered vessels of the eye
bottom to avoid rupture and hemorrhage).
• Thorough examination of kidney function.
• Consultation of a neurologist, cardiologist,
All this is necessary to stabilize
existing complications of diabetes
and other diseases.
If you are constantly taking medication for other diseases or diabetes complications, ask your doctor in advance how
they act on the fetus and with what, if necessary, they can be replaced. There are relative contraindications
pregnancy that you can overcome:
• Decompensation of diabetes mellitus, HbA1C> 6.3%.
• Inability to exercise self-control
• Genitourinary infection.
Pregnancy is absolutely contraindicated if there are:
• Cardiac ischemia.
• Renal failure: proteinuria
(protein in urine)> 2 g / day, increased
the level of creatinine in the blood.
• Severe gastroenteropathy: gastroparesis,
So, you have stocked up with patience, support of your partner and loved ones, passed
medical examination and achieved the ideal
compensation.Then you can talk to your doctor about canceling contraception.
Now buy home tests for
determination of pregnancy and at the first
if you suspect, go to your gynecologist to establish the fact of pregnancy in a laboratory (blood or urine test
on chorionic gonadotropin).
From the first days of pregnancy, you must
be under the supervision of doctors: endocrinologist, obstetrician-gynecologist. Please select
reliable and knowledgeable specialists, since
the course of pregnancy with diabetes mellitus has its own characteristics. I trimester of pregnancy (1-12 weeks)
can be called the most important. Of the two
tiny cells (mother’s eggs
and the sperm of the father) the unborn child begins to form. It is in this
time takes place the laying of all vital
important organs, the placenta is formed,
a connecting organ between mom and child.
Through it, the baby will receive oxygen
and the nutrients needed for
its growth and development. Hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis in the mother in the 1st trimester will instantly affect the laying of the fetal organs.Therefore, careful self-control in this
period is especially important. Remember that your
the body begins to work in a few
a different mode. You become more sensitive to insulin early in your pregnancy and may need lower doses of insulin. However, acetone
may appear at lower sugars,
already at 9-12 mmol / l. be careful
to yourself, do not neglect unnecessary blood sugar measurements. Hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis are dangerous for you and your baby.In the first trimester, many women
there is toxicosis. Perhaps you will have
nausea and even vomiting. It almost happens with
all pregnant women. Just in case, do a urine test for acetone. Try to avoid hypoglycemia after
vomiting. If you have already taken insulin but cannot eat, take light carbohydrates (juice,
Consultation with a doctor in the first trimester
should be every 2-4 weeks – as planned,
and is mandatory in any emergency.
II trimester (from 13 to 27 weeks) many
considered the most enjoyable.The symptoms of toxicosis pass, the woman “gets used” to her new state. From about 13 weeks, the baby begins to function
own pancreas. If
the expectant mother has high sugar
blood, the child secretes excess
the amount of insulin (hyperinsulinemia develops). Hyperinsulinemia is
cause of diabetic fetopathy and the development of hypoglycemia in a child immediately after
birth, since the flow of maternal blood through the placenta stops.An ultrasound scan is required at week 20
fetus. If signs are found
congenital pathology may be
amniocentesis – examination of the amniotic fluid
liquids. It is also necessary to visit the optometrist again in this trimester.
By the 26th week, your baby can already hear your
voice. You can start chatting!
In the III trimester (from week 28) visit
a physician follows weekly. Follow
your diet – it must be balanced. Consult with your endocrinologist how much XE you need
(bread units), since the growing fruit
requires an increase in calorie intake
mother.At 35-36 weeks you will be hospitalized in
department of pathology of pregnant women of the maternity hospital (not because you have something wrong
ok, it’s just that there are more funds for
providing you with specialized care and preventing possible complications). Closer sugar monitoring is required several weeks before delivery
in the blood and the condition of the fetus. It’s time to choose the method of delivery. With normal size and position of the fetus
prefer physiological childbirth. Caesarean section is performed only for obstetric indications: fetal hypoxia, large
fetus, complications of pregnancy in the mother, and
also if there are vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. With the right level of compensation, childbirth
women with diabetes are no more dangerous
than any other woman.
The postpartum period begins after
birth of the placenta. Her hormones are no longer
act on you. Associated with this is a return to
the doses of insulin that you had before
pregnancy. Self-control should be
no less careful, as it increases
danger of severe hypoglycemia during
Diabetes mellitus is not a contraindication
for breastfeeding.And it will be very good if you start to do this, because breast milk is the most adapted
to the needs of your baby. Production
milk requires a lot of energy,
therefore hypoglycemia is possible. Do not delay your meals because of feeding, work your
mode. While you are breastfeeding, in urine
lactose is present, so the measurement
sugar in the urine will give a false positive result. Control the level
After a successful delivery, you will be brilliant in self-control techniques.Don’t give up this habit. it
will help you live a long and interesting life and raise wonderful, healthy children.
Glucose – the main source of energy
Glucose is the main source of energy for cells, it is the fuel for the normal functioning of all organs and systems of the human body. The blood glucose content is a rather labile indicator, however, in the body of healthy people, this indicator is maintained in a rather narrow range and rarely decreases below 2.5 mmol / l and rises above 8 mmol / l (even immediately after a meal).A special hormonal mechanism maintains the required level of glucose in the blood.
Glucose enters the body through food. Food is broken down in the gastrointestinal tract, after which glucose is absorbed into the blood. In order for glucose to enter the cell, insulin is needed. This hormone is produced in special cells of the pancreas and increases the permeability of cell membranes for glucose. If the cells in the pancreas do not produce enough insulin or the cells in the body stop accepting insulin, then glucose remains in the blood.In this case, the cells of organs and tissues do not receive energy and “starve”.
If glucose enters the body in excess, it is converted into energy stores. Glucose is converted into glycogen, the body’s mobile store of carbohydrates, which is found in the liver and muscles. Adult liver contains
a supply of glucose in the form of glycogen sufficient to maintain normal blood glucose levels for 24 hours after the last meal. In preschool children, glycogen is enough for 12 hours or less.If the stores of glycogen are already large enough, then glucose begins to turn into fat.
In the complete absence of carbohydrates in food (during fasting or carbohydrate-free diets) glucose is formed in the body from fats, proteins and during the breakdown of glycogen. An increase in blood glucose occurs under the influence of several hormones: glucagon, produced by cells of the pancreas; adrenal hormones; pituitary growth hormones; and thyroid hormones.
Fluctuations in the concentration of glucose in the blood, other than normal values, are perceived by the receptors of the hypothalamus (the area of the brain that regulates the constancy of the internal environment of the body).Due to the influence of the hypothalamus on the autonomic nervous system, there is an urgent increase or decrease in the production of insulin, glucagon and other hormones.
5 Tips for Proper Glucose Assimilation
- Take food 4-6 times a day. If you don’t have time for a full meal, grab a snack. You can have a snack “on the go” with fruits, liquid fermented milk products, peeled seeds, nuts, bread, etc.
- Eat at least 400-500 g of fresh vegetables and fruits per day.
- If you have a sweet tooth, give preference to sweets with a low glycemic index: dark chocolate ≥75% cocoa, carob, sugar-free urbech.
- Switch to natural herbal sweeteners: stevia, Jerusalem artichoke and agave syrups, carob.
- Walk outdoors and exercise regularly.
Information for you was prepared by:
Grechkina Alla Pavlovna, endocrinologist. Conducts a reception in the building of the clinic on Ozerkovskaya.
90,051 90,000 Doctors reported an increase in the number of patients diagnosed with diabetes after coronavirus
Diabetes can become one of the most serious complications after coronavirus – doctors around the world record cases of the disease even in those who have not previously complained of health problems. Gazeta.Ru talked with leading endocrinologists about how the two diseases are interconnected, who is at risk and how to protect oneself from the development of diabetes.
Specialists in US hospitals complain of a significantly increased workload due to the increase in the number of patients with diabetes. In their opinion, this disease is one of the many complications of COVID-19, according to The Washington Post.
“We are seeing a surge in the number of patients recently diagnosed with diabetes. Whereas previously we had to take care of 18 patients a day, now their number reaches 30 per doctor, ”said Mikhail Zilbermint, head of a medical team that treats patients with metabolic disorders at a suburban hospital in Bethesda, Maryland.
According to the doctor’s observations, patients can develop both the first type of diabetes, in which the required amount of insulin is not produced, and the second, the carriers of which do not perceive the insulin produced by the body. For many, this disease overtakes only months after the transferred coronavirus.
One of these patients was 47-year-old American John Kunkel, who was hospitalized with coronavirus in early July. During a follow-up visit to the doctor, he learned of a new diagnosis – type 2 diabetes.“I didn’t have any health problems. I was shocked. Where did he come from? ” – the patient was indignant.
According to the journal Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, diabetes developed in 14. 4% of those hospitalized with a severe course of coronavirus. In total, scientists have recorded uncontrolled hyperglycemia – an increase in blood glucose – in nearly 4,000 patients in eight studies.
Similar data was shared with the media by the professor of metabolic surgery at King’s College London, Francesco Rubino, who in the summer of 2020 launched a global registry of patients with diabetes arising after suffering a coronavirus.Since then, more than 350 institutions from around the world have responded to his idea – more than 150 cases have been recorded.
“We have to dig deeper. However, it is already clear that there is a relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes, ”Rubino said.
Russian doctors fully agree with the opinion of their foreign colleagues. “This is a well-known fact, I don’t see any discovery here,” Alexander Dreval, chief endocrinologist of the Moscow region, told Gazeta.Ru.
Endocrinologist, Candidate of Medical Sciences Yuri Poteshkin confirmed that the relationship between the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus and various infectious diseases has already been noted many times.
“The coronavirus is no exception. Any infection causes insulin resistance as it spreads throughout the body. The stronger the infection – and the coronavirus is very strong and quickly takes over the entire body – the more insulin is needed. This all increases the load on the beta cells in the pancreas. And if these cells are already damaged or even genetically predisposed to the development of diabetes mellitus in the body, they simply succumb to pressure faster and provoke the development of an autoimmune disease, ”the specialist explained.
The situation can be aggravated by excess weight, problems with the pancreas, as well as a genetic predisposition to diabetes, warned Yuri Poteshkin: “The coronavirus aggravates many processes in the body, it just finishes.”
The systemic nature of organ damage in COVID-19 was also identified by endocrinologist Nadezhda Lebedeva as one of the main causes of diabetes. “The coronavirus does not proceed like an ordinary influenza virus, it affects many organs at once. It is compared with systemic vasculitis (inflammation of the vascular wall, causing damage to other organs and tissues, – “Newspaper.Ru “), which contributes to the disruption of carbohydrate metabolism, which in turn causes diabetes,” she told Gazeta.Ru.
In some patients, diabetes may also be in the initial, asymptomatic stage, while the coronavirus only exacerbates the situation due to the load on the patient’s immunity, said therapist Yekaterina Yashina.
“Coronavirus pathogens destroy the islets of Langerhans, the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. This induces a chronic autoimmune response and leads to the development of diabetes.In addition, in the treatment of covid in severe cases, drugs such as glucocorticoids – steroid hormones are used. They can also affect the rise in blood sugar and the formation of diabetes. It is still impossible to say whether the process of organ dysfunction can be reversed, ”the doctor emphasized.
In case of infection with COVID-19, you can protect yourself from the development of diabetes by regular monitoring of blood sugar. “If a person is being treated in a hospital, then they will have their glucose checked, but at home it is better to buy a glucometer,” advised Nadezhda Lebedeva.
The endocrinologist added that for already diabetic patients, complications can be prevented by increasing the dose of insulin. “Plus, of course, for the prevention of diabetes, it is important to follow a diet with limited carbohydrates,” the endocrinologist said in a conversation with Gazeta.Ru.
90,000 Type 2 diabetes mellitus – non-infectious epidemic XXI
Every 10th inhabitant of the Earth today is sick with diabetes, but half of the patients do not yet know about their illness. Every minute another case of diabetes is revealed on earth, and every minute two people die from its complications.
The rapid spread of the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the world has acquired the character of a “non-infectious epidemic”: for example, according to WHO experts, in 2025 about 500 million patients with diabetes will be registered. However, already in 2011, the number of cases approached this value, reaching 366 million people, and about 90% of them suffer from type 2 diabetes. In Russia, there are about 3.376 million people with type 2 diabetes, in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug there are 43.2 thousand people, in the city of Nyagan this figure is 2340 people.From year to year, the increase in incidence is 5-7%.
All forms of diabetes are caused by an inability to adequately utilize glucose, the body’s main source of energy. This is due to a disruption in the production or use of insulin in the body, a hormone that is produced in the cells of the pancreas and which is necessary for the conversion of sugar, starches and other food components into energy.
In people with type 2 diabetes, the pancreas may not produce enough insulin or the body may not be able to use it adequately.As a result, blood glucose rises, causing damage to blood vessels and other organs.
This form of diabetes occurs in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed based on high blood glucose and urinary glucose levels.
It is believed that when type 2 diabetes occurs, genetic predisposition to the disease plays a role. Poor ecology, a sedentary lifestyle, fast food, frequent stress and a combination of risk factors such as age and overweight also affect the development of the disease.The most important predisposing factor, however, was obesity. It has been found that over 80% of those with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Excess fat is believed to interfere with the body’s ability to utilize insulin.
SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2
Intense thirst, dry mouth, frequent urination, increased hunger, rapid weight loss, weakness and fatigue, irritability.
In the case of insufficient control of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, kidney disease, neurological disorders, impotence, visual impairment (including blindness), gangrene increases. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a dangerous disease. In the absence of effective therapy, a lethal outcome is possible, which is associated with complications due to high blood glucose or pathological changes in organs and systems.
WHAT CAN YOU DO
For any symptoms of diabetes mellitus, you should immediately undergo a medical examination. Even if there are no symptoms of diabetes mellitus, blood sugar and urine should be monitored, especially for people with a family history of diabetes mellitus, over 40 years old and / or overweight.
Once a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is made, regular medical supervision and monitoring of blood glucose levels are necessary to avoid the development of complications.
For effective treatment of diabetes mellitus, you should carefully monitor your condition.
People with type 2 diabetes should:
– control the content of glucose and cholesterol, as well as body weight, by including in your diet low-calorie foods low in sugar, fat and high in complex carbohydrates and plant fibers;
– exercise regularly to reduce the need for insulin and increase body weight loss;
– to determine blood glucose at home using a glucometer, which helps a person adjust their diet and exercise regime and prevent the development of complications of diabetes. Self-monitoring of glucose also allows you to observe how the blood glucose level decreases as you lose weight.
People with diabetes should take preventive measures to avoid colds, it is recommended to practice foot hygiene.
The course of type 2 diabetes is highly dependent on self-control. In most cases, type 2 diabetes mellitus can be controlled through diet and exercise, taking hypoglycemic drugs.
WHAT YOUR DOCTOR CAN DO
If you suspect diabetes mellitus, your doctor should order appropriate blood tests to diagnose the disease. If the diagnosis is made, the doctor should prescribe a special diet or refer the patient to a dietitian consultation. Diet and exercise are the mainstays of type 2 diabetes treatment. Several studies have found that 80% or more of type 2 diabetes can be controlled through weight loss and exercise.If these methods are not effective and the blood glucose level does not normalize, then the doctor should prescribe oral hypoglycemic drugs. Depending on your blood sugar and your response to diet therapy, your doctor may prescribe medications that increase the body’s ability to use its own insulin effectively or increase its production.
Subsequently, the doctor determines the frequency of visits, depending on the need for various tests, the general condition of the patient and the risk of complications that require special additional treatment.
In some cases, insulin injections may be required.
To avoid type 2 diabetes mellitus, you should eat a balanced diet high in plant fiber; exercise regularly; avoid excess body weight and a sharp decrease in it; regularly monitor blood glucose, especially if you have a family history of diabetes mellitus or if you are overweight.
90,000 Chief endocrinologist of Moscow about diabetes myths
World Diabetes Day is celebrated on 14 November. Mikhail Antsiferov, chief endocrinologist of the Moscow Department of Health, has debunked the most popular myths about diabetes.
“Over the past 10 years, the number of patients with diabetes mellitus in the world has more than doubled. In Russia, according to the federal diabetes register, about 4.5 million patients are registered. According to the results of the NATION study, 24% of the adult population of Russia has prediabetes, 5.4% have type 2 diabetes mellitus, and half of them (54%) do not know about the presence of the disease.Thus, the real number of patients with diabetes mellitus in our country may be about 8-9 million people, ”said Mikhail Antsiferov, chief endocrinologist of the Moscow Department of Health. Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease characterized by impaired glucose metabolism against a background of insulin deficiency. As a result, hyperglycemia develops – a persistent increase in blood glucose. The disease is characterized by a chronic course and a violation of all types of metabolism.
MYTH 1. Diabetes mellitus develops from excessive consumption of sugar.
Excessive consumption of sugar is harmful to health and may contribute to obesity. This, in turn, is one of the risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes, but it is not a direct cause.
MYTH 2. Diabetes affects only overweight people.
Most cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus are diagnosed in overweight and obese people.But, it can also occur with normal body weight.
MYTH 3. Patients with diabetes cannot eat foods containing carbohydrates.
This myth is one of the most popular. In fact, people with diabetes should adhere to the principles of a healthy diet, when carbohydrates account for 50-55% of the daily calorie content of food. At the same time, an important feature is the restriction of foods containing easily digestible carbohydrates (sugar, honey, jam, jam, sugary drinks and juices).
MYTH 4. Having diabetes, the patient immediately feels bad.
The danger of this disease is that at first it does not manifest itself in any way. At risk are people over 40 years old, overweight or obese, as well as those who have this disease, parents, brothers and sisters. Such patients need to measure fasting blood sugar once a year.
Residents of the city will be able to undergo a free comprehensive examination for susceptibility to type 2 diabetes until November 16.The action takes place in all health centers on the basis of city polyclinics of the capital’s Department of Health. It is timed to coincide with World Diabetes Day, which is celebrated annually on November 14.
Doctors will screen for type 2 diabetes mellitus, which includes calculating body mass index, measuring blood pressure, and an express test to determine the level of glucose in the blood. After the examinations, the applicants are given a conclusion on the state of their health, as well as recommendations for the prevention of diabetes.If necessary, the doctor can refer the patient to an endocrinologist, ophthalmologist, cardiologist and other specialists.
MYTH 5. Patients with diabetes sooner or later lose sight and undergo amputation of limbs.
Loss of vision and amputation of the lower extremities are late complications caused by this disease. However, in non-smokers who maintain target blood sugar, lipids, and blood pressure, the risk of these severe complications is significantly reduced.Modern drugs and new approaches to diabetes therapy are helping to reduce the incidence of diabetes-related complications.
MYTH 6. Diabetes mellitus is contagious.
Infection with diabetes mellitus is impossible under any circumstances and contacts.
MYTH 7. Honey and sweeteners can be consumed in unlimited quantities.
Honey contains equal amounts of glucose and fructose. It raises blood glucose in much the same way as regular dietary sugar.Sugar substitutes in very large quantities are not always harmless, so they need to be consumed in reasonable, standard amounts. Sugar substitutes do not have any therapeutic effect on the body, are not part of diabetes treatment programs and are not required components of the diet.
MYTH 8. Women with diabetes cannot have children.
With planning pregnancy, high-quality preparation for it, very well-controlled diabetes during the entire period of gestation, a woman is able to give birth to a healthy baby without harm to her and her health.The danger is posed by cases of unplanned pregnancy against the background of high blood glucose levels in the first three weeks of pregnancy, when the organs of the unborn child are being formed. That is why it is very important for a woman with diabetes to use reliable methods of contraception and take a responsible approach to the issue of planning pregnancy.
MYTH 9. Sports are contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus.
People with this disease need regular physical activity and sports to improve their well-being. Of course, when choosing physical activity, one should take into account the presence of contraindications. There are no absolute contraindications to exercise in diabetic patients. However, it is best to consult your doctor before starting exercise. It is very important to avoid hypoglycemia!
MYTH 10. Diabetes mellitus can be completely cured.
At present, diabetes mellitus cannot be cured! But, it can and should be controlled in order to live a full life. If you learn about the risk of the disease in a timely manner, then you can try to prevent it.In many cases, lifestyle changes could stop or slow down the progression of type 2 diabetes.
MYTH 11. Insulin is harmful and addictive.
A categorical “no”! In type 1 diabetes mellitus, insulin must be given several times a day because it is very important for maintaining life and health. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, in the early stages of the disease, the pancreas is still able to cope with the production of insulin. Therefore, during this period of time, special drugs are prescribed to lower sugar (usually in tablets, but there are also in the form of injections).With the progression of the disease, it becomes more and more difficult for the body to produce insulin, the previous drugs no longer give the desired effect. That’s when you need to start taking insulin. For some reason, some people with diabetes are afraid of administering insulin, most often for unknown reasons. I repeat: when the pills no longer help to lower blood sugar, then it is necessary to add insulin injections. If this is not done in a timely manner, then blood sugar will remain significantly elevated for a long time. And this, in turn, will cause the development of severe complications.
90,000 Sugar for children: benefits and harms
Almost all children are delighted with sweets. It so happened historically that all kinds of candies, chocolates, ice cream become constant companions of childhood. Is it as harmless as it seems to many parents, and how harmful sugar is to the body, we understand in this article.
Currently, the world community of pediatricians is seriously concerned about the increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus and obesity among children.One of the reasons is the excessive content of sugar-rich foods in the children’s diet. Refined sugar does not contain useful elements – there are no vitamins, enzymes and minerals necessary for the body. It is a simple carbohydrate that is very quickly absorbed and has a high calorie content – about four kilocalories per gram.
Harm of excessive consumption of sugar
the risk of diabetes mellitus increases.The ingestion of sugar into the body causes a sharp increase in blood glucose levels, as a result of which the pancreas suffers from excessive stress in the process of insulin production. Such leaps are very harmful, and especially for a child;
the risk of obesity increases. Food with a high sugar content is very high in calories, therefore, its excess consumption, especially along with a sedentary lifestyle, causes excess weight, the development of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases. Which is very important in our time, when the child’s leisure is often associated with eating sweets while sitting at gadgets;
refined sugar interferes with the absorption of useful elements and removes them from the body. Because of sweet food, calcium is washed out, which is very necessary for the health of teeth, bone tissue, blood vessels, normal metabolism and hematopoiesis, as well as B vitamins. In addition, the use of sugar leads to a decrease in chromium reserves in the body, as a result of which metabolic problems;
sugary foods can cause tooth decay.In the mouth, the process of multiplication of bacteria begins due to the sweet environment, as a result of which tooth enamel is damaged, and especially the fragile, childish enamel on milk teeth;
excessive use of sugar leads to disruption of the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, problems with stools, gas formation, dysbiosis in a child, as well as allergic reactions, the appearance of candidiasis. Often there are malfunctions in carbohydrate and protein metabolic processes, immunity decreases;
the child’s eating behavior is disturbed.The expression “sugar needle” is actually very true – more and more sweets begin to want, ordinary unsweetened food seems bland and tasteless, the child refuses to drink plain water, which the body really needs;
an excess of sugar in the children’s diet causes hyperactivity, irritability, aggressive behavior, increased excitability, sleep problems, hysteria.
Does sugar have a benefit
Yes, but rather arbitrary.Sweet foods make the child happy, improve mood, raise strength and increase energy for physical activity, a number of processes are activated in the body. Sugar can also help the brain cope with mental stress – a chocolate eaten before the exam at school will have a positive effect. But if sweets are eaten in large quantities daily, the connection between brain cells, on the contrary, will deteriorate, and performance, memory and concentration will decrease.
Sugar norms for children
According to experts, it is preferable for a person without health problems to consume no more than ten grams of sugar per day.For children, it is recommended to reduce this amount by three times (earlier the norms were higher, but after modern research they have been revised). Sugar is found in a huge number of products, even in very healthy at first glance, so you should study the data on the package before buying to understand how much sugar you actually consume per day.
Doctors advise to delay as much as possible the beginning of the use of sucrose by a child. The best option is a diet rich in fruits, but not fruit juices, which do not carry any benefits and contain a large amount of sugar (including natural origin).You can also sometimes treat your child with marshmallows, marshmallows, marmalade with a natural composition, or make healthy sweets on your own at home with your baby. When choosing between white and brown sugar, give preference to brown cane sugar – it is not as “empty” as white, and due to the lesser degree of refining it contains some minerals and vitamins.