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What to do for excessive gas: Home Remedies to Relieve Gas and Reduce Bloating


Home Remedies to Relieve Gas and Reduce Bloating

Other herbs and spices that may provide gas relief include:

  • Chamomile
  • Dill
  • Fennel
  • Basil
  • Caraway
  • Cumin
  • Parsley
  • Peppermint
  • Spearmint

A combination of caraway and peppermint oils is the active ingredient in FDgard, a nonprescription formulation designed to help manage functional dyspepsia; some doctors recommend it for gas and bloating.

Lemond notes that you should always get approval from your doctor before taking an herbal supplement. She suggests trying to gain the benefit of carminatives from the food you eat rather than by taking supplements, which she says should be taken with caution. “Some people think of herbal supplements as natural or straight from the earth, so they may be taken at will, but a lot of them have pharmaceutical effects and could interact with medication.”

Probiotics for Gas and Bloating

Probiotics may also help aid digestion and reduce excessive gas. Probiotics are live microorganisms, mostly “good” bacteria, similar to the bacteria found in the human gut. They’re available as dietary supplements, but Lemond notes that a number of foods also have natural probiotics, including:

  • Yogurt
  • Kefir
  • Tempeh
  • Kimchi
  • Sauerkraut

Research published in December 2016 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology found that the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus decreased abdominal pain among participants with irritable bowel syndrome after 12 weeks.

And according to a review published in March 2015 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology, patients with irritable bowel syndrome have experienced improvement in bloating and flatulence when taking probiotics.

The Link Between Gas, Stress, and Probiotics

Gas can be worsened by stress. “There are nerves up and down the GI tract,” Lemond says. “People who have a tendency to be nervous can develop gas, diarrhea, or constipation. ” When dietary changes aren’t effective, other treatments, such as relaxation therapy, may help.

Life stress can cause spasms in the colon and abdominal discomfort, according to a review published in the journal Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Reviewers noted that progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, yoga, counseling, or changes to daily stressful situations can help reduce stress and have a positive effect on digestive health.

Researchers are devoting more and more time to exploring the direct connections between the gut, brain, and probiotics, what’s called the gut-brain axis. For instance, a report published in April 2015 in the journal Annals of Gastroenterology looked at the way that microbiota, the bacteria in the gut, interact with the central nervous system, by “regulating brain chemistry and influencing neuroendocrine systems associated with stress response, anxiety, and memory function.”

More studies are beginning to explore the role of stress and psychological factors, and their impact on irritable bowel syndrome, according to a review of studies published in January 2015 in the journal Gastroenterology Research and Practices. Reviewers noted that hypnotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and mind-body therapy may improve IBS symptoms. They added these therapies could provide a more cost-effective alternative with fewer side effects than pharmaceuticals.

Over-the-Counter Gas Remedies That May Help

If gas doesn’t move quickly enough through the digestive system, it can cause bloating and discomfort. A few changes to your daily routine and habits can bring relief from gas and bloating. The Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston suggests these behaviors to help decrease bloating:

  • Eating slowly, and chewing your food thoroughly
  • Eating smaller meals, more frequently
  • Sitting up straight after a meal
  • Walking after a meal
  • Drinking room temperature beverages

Products you can buy at your local pharmacy to reduce gas and bloating generally contain simethicone, activated charcoal, or a food enzyme known as alpha-galactosidase (the active ingredient in Beano) to help break down hard-to-digest foods, like beans and certain vegetables. Although some people find these drugs to be effective, others don’t.

Alpha-galactosidase contains the enzyme that the body lacks to digest certain carbohydrates in beans and certain vegetables, but the enzyme has no effect on gas caused by fiber or lactose. But lactase tablets or drops may provide gas relief for those with lactose intolerance. The tablets are taken right before consuming milk or milk products.

“Occasional excessive gas is normal,” Lemond says. But when gas continues to be a problem despite dietary adjustments and home or over-the-counter gas remedies, it’s a good idea to see your doctor.

Gas: How Much Is Too Much?

Chewing, drinking, laughing, swallowing — these are everyday activities, yet they can all contribute to an uncomfortable problem: gas and bloating.

Gas is normal. It builds up in your digestive tract as part of the process of breaking down the foods you eat. You also swallow air all day long, which only adds to the gas buildup. Your body has to release that gas to ease discomfort, which occurs through belching and flatulence.

“The average person passes 500 to 1,500 milliliters of gas per day, but we only contain 200 milliliters of intestinal gas at any time,” says Svetang Desai, MD, a gastroenterologist at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C. That breaks down to producing between 1 and 4 pints of gas a day and passing gas about 14 times each day.

Causes of Gas

Gas can build up in both the lower and upper digestive tracts, and there are a number of causes for both.

Upper digestive tract. “Swallowing air is the main culprit for gas in the upper digestive tract,” says Stephen Goldfinger, MD, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and a gastroenterologist at Massachusetts General Hospital, both in Boston.

When you swallow air, it goes into your stomach, and this can lead to feelings of pressure and bloating. To get rid of it, you belch and release most of the gas through your mouth. Your small intestine absorbs any of the remaining gas, and some of that is passed into your large intestine, and finally released through your rectum as flatulence.

Swallowing air happens all the time, but certain habits can increase the air you take in. “We swallow a few milliliters of air with each swallow,” Dr. Desai says. “This can increase with gum chewing and smoking.” Other causes of excess air include eating too fast, talking while eating, and drinking through a straw.

“Upper digestive tract gas can also occur as a consequence of anxiety,” Desai says.

Lower digestive tract. Gas in your lower digestive tract has more to do with the foods you eat. “Fermentation of undigested food by bacteria in the colon is a cause of lower digestive tract gas,” Dr. Goldfinger says. This is often a result of eating foods that are high in fiber and complex carbohydrates, which aren’t fully digested by the digestive system.

Foods like whole grains, beans, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, cabbage, and other vegetables — as healthy as they are for you in other ways — contain a complex sugar called raffinose, which can trigger gas. These foods are also high in fiber. Starches, like potatoes and pasta can also contribute to gas.

Some fruits contain the sugars sorbitol or fructose, natural sugars that are also used in sugar-free foods, and they can worsen gas.

Dairy products contain the sugar lactose, which may be difficult for some people to digest and can cause gas. In particular, people with lactose intolerance may experience gas from eating milk, cheese, and other dairy products.

Excessive gas in the lower digestive tract is also common in people with malabsorption disorders, such as celiac disease (a reaction to eating gluten), where difficulty with absorbing certain nutrients from food occurs.

Understanding Gas and Bloating

Gas can cause a number of uncomfortable side effects, and it can be an embarrassing problem if you have excessive gas. Symptoms may include frequent belching, flatulence, bloating, and abdominal pain.

Bloating is a particularly common symptom in people with functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and diverticulosis. However, excessive gas might not always be to blame for this bloating. A study published in the Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility in 2012 found that people with functional gastrointestinal disorders who suffered from bloating had no more gas in their digestive tracts than those with other nonfunctional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In other words, greater bloating symptoms didn’t necessarily indicate more gas.

Managing Gas

If you find that you’re experiencing gas problems, such as pain or discomfort and passing gas significantly more than average, you might consider making some dietary and lifestyle changes. These tips may help cut down on gas and make you more comfortable:

  • Limiting your intake of gas-causing foods, particularly cabbage, onions, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, wheat, and potatoes.
  • Avoiding sodas and other carbonated beverages.
  • Skipping foods that contain sorbitol, such as artificially sweetened foods and sugar-free chewing gum.
  • Talking to your doctor about food intolerances if you find that lactose or fructose trigger gas.

You may also consider over-the-counter (OTC) products that can offer relief from excessive gas.

If making dietary and lifestyle changes aren’t helping to ease uncomfortable gas, talk to your doctor. Excessive gas that occurs along with constipation, diarrhea, or weight loss should always be discussed with your doctor, Desai says. Your doctor can check for other possible digestive concerns that may need to be addressed.

What Is Celiac Disease? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention | Everyday Health |

Can Taking Medication Help Manage Celiac Disease?

A small percentage of people with celiac disease find that their symptoms don’t improve, even with a strict gluten-free diet.

Symptoms may go away initially but then return, even in the absence of gluten. It’s unclear why this happens. Doctors call this refractory celiac disease. If you have refractory celiac disease, your doctor may prescribe a steroid medication, such as Deltasone (prednisone). (7)

Steroids are typically taken for a short period of time to suppress the immune system and stop the body’s harmful immune response.

How to Develop a Gluten-Free Diet to Control Celiac Disease

Gluten is found in many commonly loved foods, including traditional pizza crust, several types of sandwich breads, pasta, tortillas, cake, cookies, and even soy sauce. (1) But for people with celiac disease, knowing the foods and products gluten lurks in — and then avoiding them — is key for keeping symptoms controlled and preventing an attack.

Foods to Avoid if You Have Celiac Disease

Any foods made with wheat, barley, or rye contain some amount of gluten. That means that people with celiac disease shouldn’t eat most breakfast cereal, bread, pasta, and processed foods. (1)

Processed foods that may contain gluten include:

  • Bouillon cubes
  • Brown rice syrup
  • Candy
  • Chewing gum
  • Chips, including seasoned tortilla and potato chips
  • Cold cuts, hot dogs, salami, and sausage
  • Communion wafers
  • French fries
  • Gravy
  • Imitation fish
  • Rice mixes
  • Soy sauce
  • Beer and malt beverages (1,13)

Soups and sauces are common sources of hidden gluten, as wheat is often used as a thickener. Pay special attention to sauces or soups that are cream based.

Gluten-Free Foods

Cutting gluten out of your diet may seem like a difficult task, but many foods are naturally gluten-free.

In general, the following food groups are naturally gluten-free:

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Fresh cuts of meat and poultry
  • Fish and seafood
  • Dairy
  • Beans, legumes, and nuts

Beware, though, that prepared or processed versions of any of the above foods, such as sausage or ice cream, may contain gluten.

There are many gluten-free grains and starches that you can substitute for wheat, barley, or rye products:

  • Rice
  • Corn
  • Potato (but not potato chips)
  • Tapioca
  • Sorghum
  • Soy
  • Quinoa
  • Millet
  • Arrowroot
  • Amaranth
  • Teff
  • Flax
  • Chia
  • Gluten-free oats
  • Buckwheat
  • Nut flours
  • Bean flours

Tips for Dining Out on a Gluten-Free Diet

The following strategies may help you stick to your gluten-free diet when eating out:

  • Choose a restaurant with gluten-free options. This means picking a place that serves naturally gluten-free foods or has a special gluten-free menu.
  • Inform your waiter. Let them know you have celiac disease and may get sick if you eat anything containing gluten, including flour, bread crumbs, or soy sauce. Also ask them to inform the chef or cook. This way, you’ll have more confidence that nothing on your plate has touched gluten.
  • Ask questions. Don’t assume anything is gluten-free. Omelets, for instance, may have pancake batter added to the egg mixture to make them fluffier, and baked potatoes can be coated with flour to make the skins brown and crispy.

Nonfood Sources of Gluten

Some medicines and nutritional supplements, such as vitamins, contain gluten.

Ask your pharmacist if you aren’t sure whether a medication, supplement, or over-the-counter (OTC) drug contains gluten. Some varieties of lip gloss, lipstick, and lip balm also contain gluten. (11,14)

Learn More About How to Go Gluten-Free to Manage Celiac Disease

Prevention of Celiac Disease

At this time, there is no proven way to prevent celiac disease.

The best way to keep symptoms of celiac disease under control is to maintain a gluten-free diet.

Gas and gas pains – Diagnosis and treatment


Your doctor will likely determine what’s causing your gas and gas pains based on:

  • Your medical history
  • A review of your dietary habits
  • A physical exam

During the physical exam, your doctor may touch your abdomen to determine if there is any tenderness and if anything feels abnormal. Listening to the sound of your abdomen with a stethoscope can help your doctor determine how well your digestive tract is working.

Depending on your exam and presence of other signs and symptoms — such as weight loss, blood in your stool or diarrhea — your doctor may order additional diagnostic tests.


If your gas pains are caused by another health problem, treating the underlying condition may offer relief. Otherwise, bothersome gas is generally treated with dietary measures, lifestyle modifications or over-the-counter medications. Although the solution isn’t the same for everyone, with a little trial and error, most people are able to find some relief.


Dietary changes may help reduce the amount of gas your body produces or help gas move more quickly through your system. Keeping a diary of your diet and gas symptoms will help your doctor and you determine the best options for changes in your diet. You may need to eliminate some items or eat smaller portions of others.

Reducing or eliminating the following dietary factors may improve gas symptoms:

  • High-fiber foods. High-fiber foods that can cause gas include beans, onions, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, artichokes, asparagus, pears, apples, peaches, prunes, whole wheat and bran. You can experiment with which foods affect you most. You may avoid high-fiber foods for a couple of weeks and gradually add them back. Talk to your doctor to ensure you maintain a healthy intake of dietary fiber.
  • Dairy. Reducing dairy products from your diet can lessen symptoms. You also may try dairy products that are lactose-free or take milk products supplemented with lactase to help with digestion.
  • Sugar substitutes. Eliminate or reduce sugar substitutes, or try a different substitute.
  • Fried or fatty foods. Dietary fat delays the clearance of gas from the intestines. Cutting back on fried or fatty foods may reduce symptoms.
  • Carbonated beverages. Avoid or reduce your intake of carbonated beverages.
  • Fiber supplements. If you use a fiber supplement, talk to your doctor about the amount and type of supplement that is best for you.
  • Water. To help prevent constipation, drink water with your meals, throughout the day and with fiber supplements.

Over-the-counter remedies

The following products may reduce gas symptoms for some people:

  • Alpha-galactosidase (Beano, BeanAssist, others) helps break down carbohydrates in beans and other vegetables. You take the supplement just before eating a meal.
  • Lactase supplements (Lactaid, Digest Dairy Plus, others) help you digest the sugar in dairy products (lactose). These reduce gas symptoms if you’re lactose intolerant. Talk to your doctor before using lactase supplements if you’re pregnant or breast-feeding.
  • Simethicone (Gas-X, Mylanta Gas Minis, others) helps break up the bubbles in gas and may help gas pass through your digestive tract. There is little clinical evidence of its effectiveness in relieving gas symptoms.
  • Activated charcoal (Actidose-Aqua, CharcoCaps, others) taken before and after a meal may reduce symptoms, but research has not shown a clear benefit. Also, it may interfere with your body’s ability to absorb medications. Charcoal may stain the inside of your mouth and your clothing.


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Lifestyle and home remedies

Making lifestyle changes may help reduce or relieve excess gas and gas pain.

  • Try smaller portions. Many of the foods that can cause gas are part of a healthy diet. Try eating smaller portions of problem foods to see if your body can handle a smaller portion without creating excess gas.
  • Eat slowly, chew your food thoroughly and don’t gulp. If you have a hard time slowing down, put down your fork between each bite.
  • Avoid chewing gum, sucking on hard candies and drinking through a straw. These activities can cause you to swallow more air.
  • Check your dentures. Poorly fitting dentures can cause you to swallow excess air when you eat and drink. See your dentist if they aren’t fitting correctly.
  • Don’t smoke. Cigarette smoking can increase the amount of air you swallow. Talk to your doctor if you need help quitting.
  • Exercise. Regular exercise reduces the risk of constipation, which can prevent the release of gas from your colon.

If the odor from passing gas concerns you, limiting foods high in sulfur-containing compounds — such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, beer and foods high in protein — may reduce distinctive odors. Pads, underwear and cushions containing charcoal also may help absorb unpleasant odors from passing gas.

Preparing for your appointment

Before you see your doctor be prepared to answer the following questions:

  • How long have you noticed an increase in gas or gas pains?
  • Does the pain go away or get better when you belch or pass gas?
  • How many times do you pass gas each day?
  • Do certain foods seem to trigger your symptoms?
  • Have you added any new foods or drinks to your diet recently?
  • What medications or dietary supplements do you take?
  • Do you have nausea or vomiting with your gas pains?
  • Have you lost weight unintentionally?
  • Have you had a change in your bowel habits?
  • Do you drink sodas or other carbonated beverages?
  • Do you eat food with sugar substitutes?
  • Do you frequently chew gum, suck on candies or drink through a straw?

What you can do in the meantime

Keep a journal of what you eat and drink, how many times a day you pass gas, and any other symptoms you experience. Bring the journal to your appointment. It can help your doctor determine whether there’s a connection between your gas or gas pains and your diet.

What to Do and When to See a Doctor

Gas is air that is trapped in the digestive tract. It is either passed by burping or flatulence. Gas occurs naturally as a result of swallowing and digestion. Passing gas several times a day is normal. There are two potential causes for discomfort with gas: passing excessive amounts of gas or not passing enough gas.

Excessive gas can be caused by diet. Eating the following can lead to experiencing excessive gas:

  • Beans
  • Lentils
  • Cruciferous vegetables
  • Dairy lactose products
  • Soft drinks
  • Sugar substitutes

It can also be caused by a lower intestine or digestive disorder like celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Passing gas is excessive when it occurs more than 20 times per day.

Gas discomfort can also occur when it does not move through your intestines. When you do not pass gas at a normal frequency, you may experience bloating and abdominal pain. Other intestinal obstructions could occur if you have colon or ovarian cancer. 

Remedies and Treatments for Gas

If you have gas pains that are disrupting your daily activities, there are some easy remedies that you can try at home to alleviate the pain. The two best ways to treat your gas pains are by changing your diet and taking over-the-counter medications.


You can change your diet and eat foods that reduce the amount of gas your body makes. This can alleviate gas pains quickly. It’s important to be mindful of what you’re eating by keeping a diary of your diet and gas symptoms. That will help you target what may be reacting with your digestive system.

Changes to your diet should include eating smaller portions, reducing the amount of air you are swallowing by taking slow and deliberate bites of your food, and avoiding chewing gum or hard candy to reduce the amount of air you swallow.

You might need to cut out certain fruits and vegetables that cause intestinal gas. Limiting your milk and whole grain consumption can also help. Try to avoid high-fat foods and beans or lentils that cause bloating and discomfort.

The amount and cause of gas can differ from person to person, so take note of what you’re eating and how your body is responding to it. You can experiment by taking out and gradually reintroducing foods to discover what element of your diet causes gas pains. 

Over-the-Counter Medication

These products are designed to reduce gas symptoms. You should take these if you have excessive or painful gas: 

  • Alpha-galactosidase: This is known as Beano or BeanAssist and helps break down the carbohydrates in beans and vegetables. Take it before your meal. 
  • Lactase supplements: Also known as Lactaid or Digest Dairy Plus. This supplement helps you digest sugar in dairy products. 
  • Simethicone: This is known as Gas-X or Mylanta and helps break up the bubbles in gas and helps move it along the digestive tract.  
  • Activated charcoal: Also known as CharcoCaps or Actidose-Aqua. Activated charcoal helps reduce gas pain if taken before your meal. Know the side effects of taking charcoal before you try it. 

When to See a Doctor

Gas is a common occurrence, but if yours is persistent and painful or associated with vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, weight loss, or blood in the stool you should consult your doctor as it may indicate a serious medical problem. 

Other signs of alarming gas symptoms include: 

  • Chronic or unusual abdominal pain
  • Severe heartburn
  • Persistent vomiting or nausea
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Bloody or black stool
  • Weight loss and loss of appetite
  • Severe bloating
  • Constipation or difficulty emptying your bowels

6 Tips to Relieve Flatulence – Cleveland Clinic

Whether you call it farting, passing wind, having gas, or flatulence (the official medical term), the release of excess air through the intestinal tract is both normal and natural.

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Why, then, are farts the butt of so many adolescent boys’ jokes? Perhaps, because of those awkward moments when the body’s internal horn section suddenly plays a little too loudly — becoming noticeable to all in the vicinity.

Truth be told, passing gas happens a lot, likely between 14 and 23 times throughout your day, often without attracting much notice. For most people, it’s not a major problem. But what if it’s a problem for you?

“If you have an amount of gas that makes you uncomfortable, you should consult your local GI physician for evaluation and recommendations,” says gastroenterologist Christine Lee, MD. “If you aren’t able to take care of it in a socially acceptable manner, and it’s bothering your lifestyle, you should have it checked out.”

If you’re so gassy it’s affecting your daily activities or causing you pain or embarrassment, you can take steps to minimize the problem, she says.

What causes excessive gas?


Gas can accumulate in your digestive tract simply because you swallow air while drinking, eating or even laughing. But some foods produce excess gas as well. This can make the need to control its passing more challenging.

If your intestines are sluggish, moving food through your gut too slowly (slow motility), excess gas can collect. The longer food sits in your system, the more gas-producing bacteria build up, causing abdominal discomfort.

You also produce more gas as you age due to slowing down of your metabolism and slowing down of the movement of food through the colon. Yes, even the intestinal tract naturally slows down over time.

Excess gas buildup is also likely more of a problem if you have medical conditions such as diabetes, scleroderma, thyroid dysfunction, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, irritable bowel syndrome, diverticulosis, or if you have a sedentary lifestyle, Dr. Lee says.

Can sleep apnea make flatulence worse?


In some cases, the way you sleep can contribute to excessive gas buildup in your system.

About 25% of men and nearly 10% of women have sleep apnea, causing them to snore with their mouths open.

“People with sleep apnea are mostly mouth-breathers, and they inhale a lot of air when they’re snoring and swallowing,” Dr. Lee says. “So, they wake up with gas pain because they’ve been swallowing air all night.”

Talk to your doctor if you suspect you have sleep apnea.

How to limit gas buildup

Dr. Lee suggests these tips to help lessen the impact of excess gas in your system:

  1. Exercise. The more active you are, the more frequently and discreetly you’ll eliminate gas from your intestinal tract. Focus on abdominal-strengthening exercises to help keep the digestive tract moving. Aim to work out for at least 30 minutes three or four days each week.
  2. Limit cruciferous vegetables. Cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and asparagus produce more gas than other vegetables. (But they’re also nutritious, so don’t avoid them altogether!)
  3. Avoid dairy products if you’re lactose intolerant. If you do eat milk, cheese or yogurt, consider taking Lactaid® beforehand to help ease your digestion, Dr. Lee says.
  4. Avoid constipation. Having a bowel movement anywhere from three times daily to once every other day is normal. This helps limit a buildup from gas-producing bacteria. Hydration and exercise can help keep things moving in this department.
  5. Review your medications. Narcotics, decongestants, allergy medications, and some blood pressure drugs can slow your intestinal processes. Talk to your doctor if you think you need to make a change.
  6. Limit carbonated beverages, fermented foods and drinks containing high fructose corn syrup. These products just add more gas or feed the bacteria in your digestive tract.

Ultimately, Dr. Lee’s tips should help relieve your gas problem — and perhaps make you less anxious in social situations.

It’s also important to talk to your doctor about any changes in your health. “Consult your physician if you’ve had a change in bowel movements (especially if they are sudden) or if you feel that something isn’t right,” she says.

Gas in the Digestive Tract

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, most foods that contain carbohydrates can cause gas, however, fats and proteins cause little gas. Foods that cause gas include the following:

  • Raffinose. A complex sugar found in beans, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, asparagus, other vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Lactose. A natural sugar found in milk and milk products, such as cheese, ice cream, and processed foods, such as bread, cereal, and salad dressing. Gas after eating these foods may mean you have lactose intolerance.
  • Fructose. A sugar found in onions, artichokes, pears, and wheat. Fructose is also used as a sweetener in some soft drinks and fruit drinks.
  • Sorbitol. A sugar found naturally in fruits, including apples, pears, peaches, and prunes. Sorbitol is also used as an artificial sweetener in many dietetic foods and sugar-free candies and gums.
  • Starches. Most starches, including potatoes, corn, noodles, and wheat produce gas as they are broken down in the large intestine. (Rice is the only starch that does not cause gas.)
  • Soluble fiber. Fiber that dissolves easily in water and takes on a soft, gel-like texture in the intestines; is found in oat bran, beans, peas, and most fruits.
  • Insoluble fiber. Fiber, such as that found in wheat bran and some vegetables, which passes essentially unchanged through the intestines and produces little gas.

90,000 Gas deficit in Europe: when will the Germans start to freeze and how much will they overpay? | Economy in Germany and the World: News and Analytics | DW

Will Europeans freeze this winter? And how much will they have to pay for heat and light? In Russia, in the homeland of Gazprom, the media have been covering the natural gas shortage in Europe for several days, and the image of “freezing Germany” is very popular on Russian-language social networks.

Now in the German media, which for a long time did not notice the problem of the record surge in prices for natural gas and an unusually low level of filling of underground gas storage facilities (UGS), the number of messages and articles on this topic is literally growing like an avalanche. At the same time, more and more figures and facts are being published, which make it possible to judge the real scale of the shortage of fuel and the possible consequences. So what is actually threatening – or not threatening – households in the European Union and, in particular, in Germany in the coming winter?

UGS facilities in Europe: Are several gas storage facilities empty on the eve of winter?

Let’s start with UGS: with what reserves is the EU approaching the heating season 2021/2022? EU gas storage facilities are about 71% full, French news agency AFP reported on September 20, citing the Gas Infrastructure Europe (GIE) association of European gas infrastructure operators in Brussels.This is significantly less than in previous years, when the filling level usually reached or exceeded 90%, but it shows that the publicistic formulations in some media about “half-empty” and especially “empty gas storage facilities” are generally quite far from reality.

In Germany, which consumes, imports and stores the largest volumes of natural gas in the EU, UGS facilities are filled on average by 64% (with a total capacity of 24 billion cubic meters). At the same time, the figure for Uniper is 88%, the German news agency dpa reported on September 21.

The largest in the EU gas storage facility Rheden in the north-west of Germany has been owned by Gazprom since 2014

But in the largest gas storage facility in Germany and the entire EU, Rehden, less than 5% remained, Sebastian Bleschke told the NDR TV and radio company on the same day. ), Executive Director of the German UGS Operators Association Initiative Erdgasspeicher (INES). Exactly a year ago, he pointed out, this store was 87% full.

The Rehden gas storage facility belongs to Gazprom and is connected to the receiving terminal of the first Nord Stream in German Lubmin by the NEL gas pipeline, also controlled by the Russian company.So this UGS facility is almost directly supplied with gas from Russia. Nevertheless, by the beginning of the heating season, it turned out to be, in fact, empty. And the rate of its filling, according to AFP, is now only 0.06% per day.

All this reinforces the suspicion that Gazprom, in order to fulfill its contractual obligations to European clients, was purposefully selling its reserves in the EU all summer long, in order to create an artificial shortage of fuel by autumn, provoke a rise in prices and, in such an environment, be able to exert pressure on Berlin and Brussels in order to obtain the earliest and unconditional permission to start operation of two strings of Nord Stream 2 at once, contrary to the requirements of the EU’s Third Energy Package.However, this article is devoted not to the reasons, but to the consequences of the current situation.

Germany may experience gas shortages in January-February 2022

For European households, the worst effect would be a noticeable shortage of gas for heating their homes. The head of the industry association INES Sebastian Bleschke is sure that in the first half of winter the energy security of Germany is ensured, but does not exclude that in the second half “problems may arise” at times of peak loads. Thus, if the Germans “begin to freeze”, as they predict – or anticipate – in the Russian media and social networks, then in January-February 2022.

But theoretically, reserves in European UGS facilities at the level of 70% may be sufficient until the end of winter, if the frosts are not very strong and prolonged.

After all, Gazprom, even if it does not continue to book additional transit capacities through Ukraine and Poland, will continue to fulfill its contractual obligations at least to a minimum.Norway, after lengthy maintenance and repairs to its pipeline system, may increase supplies. The TAP pipeline with Azerbaijani gas will help meet the demand in Italy, Greece and Bulgaria. Algeria will continue to supply pipeline gas to Italy and Spain.

In addition, supplies of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the USA, Qatar and a number of African countries, which went mainly to Asia in the summer, may significantly increase, but at the current very high prices in Europe, they can be redirected to the EU. LNG supply will also increase thanks to the Russian company Novatek, which, due to the freezing of the Northern Sea Route, will have to send its tankers from the Yamal Peninsula mainly to Europe, and not to Asia.

In the second half of winter, certification of Nord Stream 2, calculated for several months, may also be completed, after which Gazprom will presumably receive permission to start operating one of its lines. Unless, of course, the European Union and the new German government, under the impression of the current gas crisis, do not tighten their attitude to this project, considering that Russia has abused the EU’s high dependence on Russian gas.

How much have retail gas prices already grown in Germany?

If the prospect of the “freezing” of the Europeans is still hypothetical, then another direct consequence of the unprecedented rise in the price of blue fuel – the increase in gas and electricity tariffs for households – has already become a reality. However, what, in fact, are the amounts in question specifically in Germany?

In Germany, almost all heating radiators are equipped with thermostats

According to the calculations of the price comparison site Check24, 50 regional and local companies (there are about 900 of them in Germany), supplying gas to end consumers under medium-term contracts (a year, two or more), have already raised prices or announced their upcoming increase. The increase averages 11.5%, so for the average household with an annual consumption of 20,000 kilowatt-hours, which so far pays 1,516 euros per year, this means an additional financial burden of 172 euros per year.

Somewhat different, but similar numbers, at the price comparison site Verivox. He counted 38 energy companies announcing an average 13% increase in gas prices for September, October and November. For the same average household, this means an increase in expenses of 191 euros per year.Or 16 euros per month. Thus, we are talking about a sensitive, but still not ruinous rise in heating prices. Moreover, many Germans are ready to economize on fuel for the sake of climate protection in winter.

The German government may reduce taxes on electricity

True, the rise in gas prices may also be superimposed on the rise in prices for (already very expensive by EU standards) electricity, although the share of natural gas in the German electric power industry is relatively small (now about 15%) . ..However, gas prices will inevitably go up (and have already gone) for other energy sources – coal and oil products.

According to Verivox data at the beginning of September, electricity prices in Germany have risen by an average of 5.7% over the past 12 months, so that household expenses with an annual consumption of 4,000 kilowatt-hours have increased from 1150 euros to 1216 euros.

Electricity in Germany is expensive, but households have the ability to change suppliers

It should be borne in mind, however, that in Germany households are free to change their electricity and gas supplier, so intense competition between companies will restrain excessive price increases in this area.

In addition, more than 50% of the retail price of electricity for households in Germany consists of all kinds of taxes and deductions. So in an emergency situation, the German government will always be able to quickly sharply reduce the cost of electricity, refusing, even temporarily, from certain taxes, as has already been done, for example, by the Spanish government. During the coronavirus pandemic, Berlin resorted to such an anti-crisis measure, reducing the VAT on all goods and services by six months.

See also:

  • European gas market 2021: Gazprom and its competitors

    Nord Stream 2 attracts Fortuna 2 “? In 2021, the fate of the project of Gazprom and five European financial firms should be finally decided.In an atmosphere of sharply escalated political discussions in the EU, the pipe-laying ship Fortuna in early February resumed the laying of pipes in the Baltic waters of Denmark, interrupted for more than a year due to US sanctions.

  • European gas market 2021: Gazprom and its competitors

    Akademik Chersky prepared for a whole year

    At the beginning of April, the Akademik Chersky began work in deeper waters of Denmark. This pipelayer left the Far East port of Nakhodka towards the Baltic in February 2020.But it took him almost a year to, while cruising between Germany and Russia, undergo modernization in German ports and test new equipment several times off the coast of the Kaliningrad region (pictured).

  • European gas market 2021: Gazprom and its competitors

    Lyubmin expects a doubling of supplies from Russia

    Terminal for receiving 55 billion cubic meters per year along two lines of Nord Stream 2 (in the center of the picture near the coast) in German Lubmin near Greifswald was generally ready by the end of 2019.On the left, on the other side of the water area of ​​a small port, is the receiving terminal of the first Nord Stream, operating since 2011, with the same capacity. Behind, they dismantle a closed GDR-era nuclear power plant and store nuclear waste.

  • European gas market 2021: Gazprom and its competitors

    Ukrainian transit: download or pay

    Regardless of the possible completion of Nord Stream 2, Gazprom pledged to export 40 billion cubic meters annually through Ukraine by the end of 2024 or pay for this booked volume.But in 2021, demand in Europe may be higher due to the cold winter and empty gas storage facilities. However, for pumping additional volumes, Gazprom will have to pay at especially high transit tariffs.

  • European gas market 2021: Gazprom and its competitors

    Eugal: gas will not stay in Germany

    The task of Nord Stream 2 is to provide gas not so much to Germany as to those countries in the center and south of Europe, including Italy, which were previously supplied through Ukraine.This is evidenced by its continuation from Lubmin to the Czech Republic – Eugal. This gas pipeline with a capacity of 55 billion cubic meters per year is also being laid across the Elbe. The end of the construction of the second line was postponed from January to April 2021.

  • European gas market 2021: Gazprom and its competitors

    TAP: Azerbaijan supplies southern Europe

    In three important countries for Gazprom in southern Europe – Greece, Bulgaria and especially Italy – Azerbaijani gas will continue to compete with Russian gas: in 2021, the TAP Trans-Adriatic gas pipeline was launched. Together with TANAP, it forms the Southern Gas Corridor for deliveries to the EU, bypassing Russia, 10 billion cubic meters from the shores of the Caspian Sea. The picture shows a compressor station near the Greek village of Kipoy.

  • European gas market 2021: Gazprom and its competitors

    Baltic Pipe: Poland will change supplier

    By the end of 2022, another large gas pipeline is to be commissioned in the Baltic Sea: the Baltic Pipe with a capacity of 10 billion cubic meters per year. It is being built with EU support and will supply Norwegian gas via Denmark to Poland, which intends to completely stop purchasing from Gazprom by then.The picture shows the laying of pipes between the mainland of Denmark and the island of Funen.

  • European gas market 2021: Gazprom and its competitors

    Yamal LNG clearly prefers Europe

    Along with pipeline gas, Russia is increasingly exporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) to the European market. As a result, Novatek became another actual competitor of Gazprom in Europe. Its Yamal LNG facility, which houses these ingeniously designed tanks, chose to ship roughly 90% of its production to European terminals in 2020 rather than Asia.

    Author: Andrey Gurkov

90,000 Russian confectioners lost $ 9 million due to a dispute with Belarus over syrup in sweets

Exporters of Russian confectionery products from October 2020 to August 2021, due to the dropped volumes of supplies, lost about $ 9 million in revenue, the Association of Confectionery Industry Enterprises (“Askond”) reported. The reason was the restrictions on the sale of sweets with sorbitol syrup in Belarus. According to the association, it may take 1.5 years to restore lost positions in the Belarusian market.

Sorbitol (E420i) and sorbitol syrup (E420ii) are used in the confectionery industry as sweeteners and humectants, as well as emulsifiers.

In the fall of last year, the Belarusian authorities demanded to label confectionery products with sorbitol syrup on the content of the sweetener, indicating that it “can have a laxative effect if consumed excessively. ” Products without such marking in Belarus were withdrawn from circulation. The ban included the products of the Russian confectioner marmalade manufacturer, the Azov confectionery factory (Toffee sweets, kozinaki, sherbets), the Belogorye confectionery factory (waffles and biscuits), AKKOND (Divnaya Bird soufflé).The confectioners were able to restore supplies to Belarus only at the end of August this year, RBC reports.

According to Askond, sorbitol syrup is found in about a third of the confectionery products that Russia imports to Belarus. In 2020, about 105.5 thousand tons of confectionery products for $ 200 million were supplied to Belarus.

Belarus stated that the marking should be on all products with sorbitol syrup, Russian manufacturers assured that the marking was not needed, since the syrup is used to retain moisture.According to the Belarusian side, the technical regulations of the Customs Union do not indicate at what content sorbitol syrup is considered a component for retaining moisture, so manufacturers could use it instead of sugar. When sorbitol syrup is substituted for sugar, the percentage of sugar in the product is high, which can lead to digestive upset. If sorbitol syrup only retains moisture, then its share in the product is small, and it cannot affect the well-being of the consumer.

In March, the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC) confirmed that no special labeling is required when sorbitol is used other than as a sweetener.After that, Belarus began to lift restrictions “very selectively and following the results of meetings with company representatives,” noted in Askond. After the association turned to the EEC, Belarus resumed the turnover of Russian products.

90,000 how the EU wanted to hit gas contracts

Russia fully fulfills its contractual obligations for gas supplies to Europe. This was reported by the Ministry of Economy of Germany, commenting on the latest scandalous statements by the candidate for Chancellor from the Greens, Annalena Berbock. Against the background of a sharp jump in the cost of natural gas, the politician decided that Russia was behind the situation, which allegedly was manipulating prices.

The leader of the Greens, Annalena Berbock, held back for a long time. Criticism of Nord Stream 2 at the beginning of the election campaign did not bring the party and personally points to it as a candidate for chancellor, and she fell silent. In her public speeches, she even stopped mentioning gas as one of the factors of global warming – she focused on coal. But it finally burst through: now it is not enough gas: “The Putin regime wants to increase political pressure in order to get the missing permits for Nord Stream 2 faster and thus launch the pipeline.The German government must send a signal to Russia that Russia must keep its promises and, as in the past, supply sufficient gas through the existing pipelines. “

Berbock means the Ukrainian GTS and the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline running through Poland, which, with the expiration of the contract in early 2022, has a chance to turn into a monument to the Soviet era. Ms. Berbock used a strong definition: they say that Russia is blackmailing Europe, provoking a rise in fuel prices by refusing to increase supplies.It is interesting that exactly the same claims the leader of the Greens could address to American suppliers who redirected their liquefied gas to Asia – where they pay more. At the same time, Berbock kept silent that the current price on the European spot market is about $ 850 per thousand cubic meters, this is an absolutely market story: gas reserves in German UGS facilities are at a historic low of 64%. But the EU wanted to strike at Gazprom’s long-term contracts through the organization of exchange trading. For that fought for it and ran.The claims are pointless, even the German government admits that Gazprom is 100% fulfilling its contact obligations.

“According to our information, Russia is fulfilling its contractual obligations for gas supplies. There are several reasons for the rise in prices: for example, a difficult winter, economic changes, increased demand for gas, the situation in Asia and fires in Siberia. We do not deliberately neglect the existing contracts. It is known. “Gazprom” fulfills its obligations under the current Russian-Ukrainian agreement on gas transit, “- said the representative of the Ministry of Energy of the Federal Republic of Germany Suzanne Ungrad.

Another thing that has provoked the current gas crisis: the excessive enthusiasm for renewable energy sources, by the way, at the suggestion of the European Berbock. Tens of billions of euros were pumped into solar panels and wind turbines according to the “faster, faster” principle. But a few weeks of calm and clouds – and again there is no substitute for gas. The irritation of the Greens leader can be understood, it also hits the key points of their election program, turns it into pure voluntarism and a set of dangerous projections.Realizing that the transition to climate-neutral energy is inevitable in the future, it is dangerous to carry out it at an accelerated pace even for Germany, not to mention a second-speed Europe. It is unclear where this plan to reduce emissions by 55% by 2030 will ultimately result for it.

“The plan proposed by the European Commission has not been carefully thought out. We are talking about the measures that the EU climate elite is promoting. I think that the European Commission is misinforming the people of Europe.Your wonderful future that you are painting is just false news. The truth is that everything will become much more expensive. We will lose hundreds of millions of jobs. Manufacturing will be relocated to Asia. The economic foundations will be undermined. And it will all be wasted. You will not achieve any climate change. Ursula von der Leyen’s European Commission will go down in history as an example of how the most environmentally friendly industry can be destroyed, “said Austrian politician Roman Haider.

“The European Commission does not seem to trust the market anymore.What we see is a recipe for disaster. The economy will be in danger of collapse. I think we need to be very careful in this matter. We are trying to invest in a better future. And we must continue to work in this direction, but without idealism. We need economists to deal with this issue, “said Dutch MP Rob Roos.

And they will most likely say that gas-fueled economies will outperform green ones until breakthrough technologies for cheap and clean generation appear, or everyone stops using gas.But at this particular moment you have to take a step back – to coal. Two weeks ago, the British had to reactivate the old West Burton station. If there were Nord Stream 2, there would be no need, and gas would be cheaper for the islanders.

“We have always been aware of the EU’s energy interest in SP-2. And I have always supported the project. But I want to emphasize the following, we do not depend on supplies in Russia as much as some European countries,” says the Minister of Economy and UK Energy Quasi Quarteng.

But at least Britain doesn’t have to pay like Poland: 500 thousand euros every day. For the development of the Turov coal deposit, located on the border with the Czech Republic, neighbors choking on the dust brought the Poles to the European court. Prime Minister Morawiecki was so offended that he canceled his trip to the demographic summit in Budapest so as not to interfere with his Czech counterpart.

“The decision of the European Commission will lead to devastating consequences for relations between Poland and the Czech Republic.I want to repeat once again: we are not going to stop working at the field, “said Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki.

From the commercial and environmental point of view, since there is so much talk about this, Nord Streams are the most profitable routes for gas supplies to Europe, since they are cheaper for Gazprom and, therefore, for the Europeans. Better yet, gas is supplied under long-term, fixed-price contracts. This would allow the same Poland to pass the winter normally, but with a tenacity worthy of better use, Warsaw is still trying to put spokes in the wheels of the SP-2.The state gas company PGniG has pushed through the German Federal Network Agency to participate in the certification of the pipeline. And with only one purpose: to generate clean energy for Europe, Poland cannot, therefore, it will generate problems for it.

Now the breeze seems to have blown, the windmills are spinning. However, this does not mean that spot gas prices will go down sharply. After all, we are on the eve of the heating season, and now intensive gas extraction from the storage facilities will begin.And here it is important to fix two things: Gazprom owes nothing to anyone in Europe, and nothing can prevent Mrs. Berbock from freezing her ears in spite of Russia.

90,000 causes and treatment of the disease in children

Bloating is common in infants and older children. There are several reasons for this unpleasant phenomenon: indigestion, imbalance of intestinal microflora, weakening of the immune system. How to determine the source of the ailment and relieve the painful condition?

Symptoms of flatulence

Bloating is a problem that causes real suffering for babies.The accumulated gases swell the tummy, stretch the intestines, cause discomfort and often severe pain. At the same time, the child worries, cries, often wakes up.

The characteristic signs of infant colic are the loud crying of the baby, wheezing, and refusal to breastfeed. Attacks occur in the late afternoon, can last for several hours, and subside when the baby manages to release gas. Children do not react so sharply to the occurrence of bloating, they can also refuse to eat and be capricious, while complaining of pain, heaviness and distention in the abdomen.What to do in a similar situation?

Causes of flatulence in children

In fact, the formation of gas in the intestine is a natural state of the body. Air enters the stomach when babies suck on breast milk or when older children eat. Gas formation also occurs when the gastric juice is neutralized with alkaline secretions or when food is broken down by bacteria that inhabit the intestines. Usually, a healthy intestinal flora reduces the spread of gases that pass through the rectum.

Excessive gas formation occurs if the bacterial balance is disturbed for some reason. In this case, excessive amounts of gases fill the abdomen, they are difficult to expel and cause pain. This condition is called dysbiosis. The imbalance of the intestinal microflora, if improperly treated, provokes the activation of fermentation processes and causes upset stools.

Factors causing increased gas production in children may be: artificial feeding, excessive use of antibiotics, acute infections, cow’s milk intolerance, chronic gastrointestinal diseases.

In infants up to three months of age, the microflora balance is just being established. During this period, the occurrence of colic is frequent.

Prevention and treatment of bloating

Putting the baby on the tummy, applying a warm diaper to the painful area, using a gas tube will help to eliminate infant colic. After feeding, it is recommended to hold the baby in a “column” for several minutes, so that he regurgitates the swallowed air. Mom should stick to a diet: avoid smoked meats, fatty foods, legumes, peanuts.

During an attack, children of any age benefit from a gentle massage of the abdomen, which is a circular clockwise rotation. Warm cramps, fennel tea and dill water are also helpful.

Of the drugs in moderation, sorbents are prescribed that absorb gases or antifoam agents – polymers that destroy the foam formed in the intestines, eliminating gases. Probiotics are also an effective remedy for bloating. These are preparations that contain beneficial, live bacteria (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria).They help to quickly restore healthy intestinal flora.

Children’s flatulence is a serious problem. To understand its causes, it is better to consult a specialist: a pediatrician or a gastroenterologist. The Orinmed clinic is attended by experienced doctors who quickly and accurately diagnose the causes of colic. In complex cases, additional laboratory diagnostics may be required. All tests can be taken in one place and the results can be obtained. Competently prescribed treatment will help get rid of painful manifestations in a short time and return a good mood to the baby and his parents.

Recent publications

90,000 Gas in a Child: How to Identify and Overcome

Small children are very
often suffer from gas, but this problem can be solved. The main thing is to know what for
do it.

get rid of baby gas

Young parents are very
are often surprised when they find out that such a small child can be
so loud. Not only do newborn babies scream a lot, they also
and they often let gas.For babies, this is quite common and
a natural phenomenon. Although some children may not develop any
special problems, but other babies suffer from bloating for a long time and
gas formation.

recognize if your child has gas and help him overcome it. For what

Of course,
newborn babies cannot explain to their parents what is wrong with them. That’s why
in this case, you can only find a problem if you take a good look at
the behavior of the child.But before that, you need to pay attention to several
important things. First, gas is produced in any child. It’s natural
process. Ari Brown, PhD and Austin pediatrician, author of Baby 411 says, “Babies eat almost 24/7.
Therefore, their intestines are constantly moving, and gas is constantly being formed. “As a rule, this does not cause any unpleasant sensations, therefore
a child’s fussiness does not always mean that he has an increased education
gases. Unlike adults, children do not think about the ethical side,
therefore, the passage of gases can be quite loud.But they rarely
experience any discomfort from the process. But if you see that baby
continues to writhe, fuss and pull the legs under him, then it may well
be that gases cannot pass through him. To confirm your suspicions, you need
carry out some manipulations to eliminate this condition. “If after passing the gas the baby looks more cheerful and calm,
it means that the problem arose from this “, – says the doctor of medical sciences, a pediatrician from
city ​​of Atlanta, Jennifer Shue.

How to solve

If your baby is suffering
from increased gassing, there are several ways to
help. First, place your baby on a flat surface on your tummy. A little
lift it up and massage your belly with gentle movements. You can also put
back and do special leg exercises, as if he was riding on
bike. Very often, such movements help break the gas bubble inside, and
it comes out faster.You can also try taking a warm bath – this will allow
relieve discomfort. If the problem persists, you must
consult a pediatrician. Some babies respond well to
specially formulated drops containing simethicone. Also pediatrician
will consider what caused this gassing and recommend that
can be done to reduce it.


During feeding, many babies cry, swallowing air, which can
cause a lot of gas bubbles.To improve the condition
your baby, try to be more vigilant to monitor his condition during
feeding. Let the child burp not only after, but also during this.
process. This will keep the gases in check. If you are feeding your baby with
bottles, try to always give it to him at an angle so that the entire nipple
filled with milk. Otherwise, your baby will swallow air more often. The more
the amount of air you swallow, the more gases will be generated. If
you are using powdered formula for feeding, let the bottle cool and
only then start the process.During feeding, it is very important to ensure that
so that the baby’s head is higher than his belly. Then the liquid will be slow
go down to the bottom of the bottle, and the bubbles rise just as slowly. If
bubbles will constantly be on the surface, then the belching will become the most
the best way to get rid of them. Otherwise, gases will form.
Certain types of food can also cause excessive gassing.
The problem can be compounded when you decide to enter solid
products.Therefore, if you cannot get rid of gas in a child in any way, it is worth
consider him and your diet. If you are breastfeeding and eating
gas-forming food, then the child may have certain problems.

90,000 children: interesting facts about gas

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What is natural gas?

Natural gas is a mixture of gases that formed millions of years ago in the depths of the earth’s crust as a result of the transformation of organic matter in sedimentary rocks.

The main part of natural gas (up to 98%) is methane, the chemical formula of which is CH 4 . This means that one methane molecule contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. Natural gas can also contain other substances consisting of hydrogen and carbon atoms – ethane C 2 H 6 , propane C 3 H 8 and butane C 4 H 10 . In addition, it may contain hydrogen, sulfur, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium, water vapor, and minor amounts of other impurities.

Did you know …

  • Methane is the third most common gas in the Universe after hydrogen and helium

Who Came First – Natural Gas or Dinosaurs?

The processes by which natural gas was formed began about 300-400 million years ago. Then our planet looked completely different: its entire surface was covered by the world’s oceans, in which the first primitive living organisms lived – crustaceans, molluscs, plankton.Dying, they sank to the bottom of the ocean and over time, their remains were covered with sand and pressed into layers of rock. The tremendous pressure of water and the proximity of the hot earth’s core created special conditions for chemical processes, as a result of which various minerals were formed from these organic remains of animals and plants in the earth’s thickness – coal, oil and natural gas. It is believed that this happened about 50-100 million years ago. And the first dinosaurs appeared only about 240 million years ago! So, after all, dinosaurs appeared earlier.

What kind of transport does natural gas travel with?

From the place where natural gas is produced, it travels long distances through special pipes called gas pipelines in order to eventually arrive at your home. Gas pipelines run along the ground, underground, above the ground, along the bottom of lakes and rivers, and even in some places – along the bottom of the seas, but the pipeline cannot cross the ocean.

To transport gas across the seas and oceans, special ships called “tankers” are used.Natural gas travels by rail in cisterns.

To make the gas take up less space and be easier to transport, people have learned to liquefy it. It turns out that if you cool the gas to 160 degrees below zero Celsius, it turns into a liquid! In liquid form, it takes up 600 times less space than in gaseous form. It can then be returned to a gaseous state and transported through pipes.

In addition, compressed natural gas is used as fuel for cars – there are some cars that run on gas, not gasoline.

Did you know …

  • It is believed that the first large pipeline for transporting gas was built in 1859 in America, in the state of Pennsylvania. Former railroad conductor Edwin Drake drilled an oil well there 25 meters deep and discovered natural gas in addition to oil. Undaunted, he built a pipeline 5 cm in diameter and about 9 km long to the nearest town of Tyteswil, where the gas began to be used for lighting and cooking.
  • The world’s longest subsea gas pipeline runs between Norway and the UK along the bottom of the North Sea. It is called “Langeled”. Its length is 1200 km.
  • The world’s longest onshore gas pipeline is located in Russia. The length of the Urengoy – Pomary – Uzhgorod gas pipeline is 4451 km, it was built in 1983
  • The largest gas pipelines (they are called trunk pipelines) have a diameter of 1.42 meters – this corresponds to the average height of a fifth-grader.
  • The world’s largest LNG carrier is 345 meters long – three and a half times longer than a football field.

Who knows how to sniff out natural gas ?

It is very difficult to find gas, because it is underground and cannot be seen at all! Fortunately, researchers sometimes come across clues – it happens that the gas is not hidden very deeply and a small part of it seeps out.Unfortunately, neither dogs nor other animals can smell natural gas. But geologists – scientists who search for minerals, have special devices that “sniff” the air and the upper layers of the earth and can feel traces of natural gas. In addition, natural gas is often found during prospecting or oil production, only it is usually located somewhat deeper underground.

Indirect indications that natural gas is nearby are not enough.To extract it, you need to know exactly where to drill the well. Then seismic survey comes to the rescue. Scientists send sound waves deep into the earth and watch them come back. They seem to “listen” to the earth, because each layer of the earth’s crust differs from others in its properties and its “voice”. By the “voice” geologists can understand what minerals or minerals can be found in this place underground. If the result suggests that there may be natural gas here, an exploratory well is drilled for testing.If scientists did not miss and did find a deposit, they begin to develop it – they drill commercial wells there for regular production.

Did you know …

  • Natural gas is colorless, tasteless, and odorless. But the gas smells like rotten eggs, everyone knows that – you object! In fact, this happens because after extraction, a special substance is added to it – an odorant, the smell of which just resembles rotten eggs.An odorant is necessary to warn a person about a leak – after all, the gas is explosive and poisonous for people.

How does natural gas help protect the environment?

Natural gas is the most environmentally friendly mineral fuel. You probably know that every day humanity burns a lot of oil and coal for energy. These substances provide tremendous benefits, but unfortunately, when they are burned, large amounts of carbon dioxide CO2, also called a greenhouse gas, are released into the air.Due to the excessive accumulation of greenhouse gases, the temperature of the lower atmosphere is rising. This is similar to how the air in a greenhouse is heated – hence the name of the phenomenon – the greenhouse effect. If the temperature on our planet continues to rise, this could lead to catastrophic consequences. The climate will change, part of the Arctic ice will melt, and part of the land will be flooded under water, but severe drought will begin in other places. Most animals will not be able to adapt to new living conditions and will die.It will not be easy for humans either – due to climate change, tornadoes, hurricanes and tsunamis will constantly rage on the planet, and many cities will be destroyed.

Fortunately, people are aware of this problem and are looking for ways to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. One such way is to use natural gas instead of oil and coal. When natural gas is burned, much less CO2 is released into the air.

Did you know …

  • By itself, the greenhouse effect is necessary for normal life on Earth – it is the greenhouse gases that make it possible to “retain” the heat emanating from the Sun.Without the natural greenhouse effect, the average temperature on our planet would be about 18-20 degrees below zero, water would freeze and life in its usual forms could not exist. However, if too many greenhouse gases accumulate, it will lead to global warming and irreparable climate change.
  • Methane, which, as you know, is mainly made up of natural gas, is also a greenhouse gas. Therefore, we must take care that it does not just leak into the atmosphere.But the most harmful greenhouse gases are water vapor and CO2.

Five fatal mistakes when replacing spark plugs – Rossiyskaya Gazeta

Replacing spark plugs seems to be the simplest operation only at first glance. In fact, this procedure requires certain skills that either need to be mastered or left to replace specialists. Let us find out how and what, when replacing candles, can seriously harm the car.

First, let’s figure out why it is generally necessary to change the spark plugs, sometimes even much earlier than the prescribed time.The fact is that faulty spark plugs directly affect both fuel consumption and the “health” of the fuel system.

Alternatively, a detonation of the mixture in the combustion chamber can occur due to an interruption in the spark supply, and this shock wave will create excessive loads on the piston, connecting rod and crankshaft. In most cases, replacement of standard spark plugs should be carried out approximately every 30 thousand kilometers. Platinum and iridium candles cost at least double the price. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the state of the power unit, the quality of the fuel to be poured, the driving intensity and not to make the mistakes below.

Ingress of dirt into the engine

A fairly frequent and very unpleasant consequence of unprofessional replacement of spark plugs is the ingress of dirt into the combustion chamber. Therefore, you need to take it as a rule – before replacing the body of the power unit and, above all, the wells of the candles should be thoroughly rinsed and cleaned.

Alternatively with compressed air or special chemicals. Otherwise, dust, sand and dirt can penetrate into the channel formed after unscrewing the spark plug and scratch the inner surface of the piston and cylinder walls.

Under-tightening and overtightening

An equally common mistake when replacing spark plugs is incorrect tightening. If not enough, then at least heat transfer will be disrupted.

Due to insufficient heat dissipation, the candle will overheat, which is fraught with burnout of the electrodes and destruction of the insulator. Such a scenario is not excluded – the candle will loosen due to vibrations in the well, and over time it may even fly out of the landing hole, damaging the thread.

Overtightening can damage the ceramic insulator, leading to misfires, or worse, cracks in the ceramic.It is also possible to pull out the plug body, as a result of which the mechanical connection between the body and the insulator is broken. For this reason, the candle will dissipate heat worse, in the end it will overheat and fail. This means that the torque wrench is in your hands! In its absence, the candle should be tightened by hand, and then tightened by 1/3 of a turn.

Unsuitable tool

Often, when replacing candles somewhere in the garage or in the country, owners try to get by with an improvised tool.

Not everyone keeps an expensive torque wrench at their side, which makes a characteristic click when the plug is optimally tightened!

Meanwhile, many use primitive models of candle keys or, even worse, improvised means: WD-40 grease, hammers for tapping candles, all kinds of wrenches and cardan joints. You should also not try to unscrew a stuck candle, making titanic efforts (to help you – the already mentioned lubricants) and twist a new candle “by eye”.

Candle break

Usually candles break when they are unscrewed. Such an emergency is most often a consequence of the fact that the part was at one time screwed in with excessive effort.

As a result, as a rule, the hexagon and part of the insulator remain in the hand, and the threaded part in the cylinder head.