What to do if someone is dehydrated: Dehydration Treatment – Oral Rehydration Therapy and Fluid Replacement
Dehydration Treatment – Oral Rehydration Therapy and Fluid Replacement
You can become dehydrated for many different reasons. It could be from sweating too much. Vomiting or diarrhea can quickly remove fluids from your body, too. So can medicines that make you pee a lot.
All of these things can cause you to lose more water and electrolytes (essential minerals in your blood and body fluids) than are good for you. If you don’t have enough, your body has trouble doing the things it’s supposed to do.
There’s really only one way to treat dehydration — replace the fluids and electrolytes your body has lost.
Is Drinking Water Enough?
For a mild case, it should be enough just to drink plenty of fluids. Water is your first choice, but there are lots of special drinks on the market that will help you replace your body’s lost water and electrolytes.
If you can’t get a pre-mixed rehydration solution, don’t try to make one yourself. Instead, replace lost fluids naturally with sips of water, fruit juice, crushed fruit mixed with water, or salty soups or broths.
Fruit juices may upset your stomach, so it’s best to dilute them with water. Avoid coffee, tea, soda, and alcoholic drinks. They’re diuretics, which means they can dehydrate you more because they all pull water from your body.
If your dehydration is serious, you may need to see a doctor to get treated with intravenous (IV) fluids. Severe dehydration may require you to go to the hospital. You should get medical attention immediately if you:
- Haven’t peed in 8 hours
- Have had a seizure
- Are disoriented or confused
- Have a weak or rapid pulse
- Feel very tired
- Feel dizzy when you stand
- Are too sick (nauseated or vomiting) to take in fluids
What to Do for a Dehydrated Child
If your baby or child becomes dehydrated (usually because of a fever, vomiting or diarrhea), treatment with an oral rehydration solution is your best bet. There are several over-the-counter options (Pedialyte and Hydralyte), which will give your child the right balance of electrolytes and salts.
Try giving small sips or by the teaspoon to begin with. You may even need to use a syringe if they’re having trouble drinking. For an older child, sports drinks diluted with water are the best treatment. Again, start with small sips and give them more as they show they can tolerate it.
For an infant, give plenty of breast milk and formula, but don’t give fruit juices if they are vomiting or have diarrhea. They can make it worse.
Dehydration can be serious in a baby or young child. If you notice these signs, see a doctor right away:
- Extreme sleepiness
- Less responsive than usual
- Few wet diapers
- Cold and blotchy hands and feet
- No tears when crying
- Dark yellow pee
- Very dry mouth
Usually, dehydration is easy to treat at home if you get out of the heat and drink plenty of liquids. But once you’re thirsty, you’re probably already dehydrated, so it’s best to drink plenty of fluids regularly.
Dehydration – Diagnosis and treatment
Your doctor can often diagnose dehydration on the basis of physical signs and symptoms. If you’re dehydrated, you’re also likely to have low blood pressure, especially when moving from a lying to a standing position, a faster than normal heart rate and reduced blood flow to your extremities.
To help confirm the diagnosis and pinpoint the degree of dehydration, you may have other tests, such as:
- Blood tests. Blood samples may be used to check for a number of factors, such as the levels of your electrolytes — especially sodium and potassium — and how well your kidneys are working.
- Urinalysis. Tests done on your urine can help show whether you’re dehydrated and to what degree. They also can check for signs of a bladder infection.
The only effective treatment for dehydration is to replace lost fluids and lost electrolytes. The best approach to dehydration treatment depends on age, the severity of dehydration and its cause.
For infants and children who have become dehydrated from diarrhea, vomiting or fever, use an over-the-counter oral rehydration solution. These solutions contain water and salts in specific proportions to replenish both fluids and electrolytes.
Start with about a teaspoon (5 milliliters) every one to five minutes and increase as tolerated. It may be easier to use a syringe for very young children. Older children can be given diluted sports drinks. Use 1 part sports drink to 1 part water.
Most adults with mild to moderate dehydration from diarrhea, vomiting or fever can improve their condition by drinking more water or other liquids. Diarrhea may be worsened by full-strength fruit juice and soft drinks.
If you work or exercise outdoors during hot or humid weather, cool water is your best bet. Sports drinks containing electrolytes and a carbohydrate solution also may be helpful.
Children and adults who are severely dehydrated should be treated by emergency personnel arriving in an ambulance or in a hospital emergency room. Salts and fluids delivered through a vein (intravenously) are absorbed quickly and speed recovery.
Preparing for your appointment
You’re likely to start by seeing your or your child’s doctor. However, in some cases when you call to set up an appointment, the doctor may recommend urgent medical care. If you, your child or an adult who you care for is showing signs of severe dehydration, such as lethargy or reduced responsiveness, seek immediate care at a hospital.
If you have time to prepare for your appointment, here’s some information to help you get ready, and what to expect from the doctor.
What you can do
- Write down any symptoms you or the person you’re caring for is experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment. If you or the person you’re caring for has been vomiting or has had diarrhea, the doctor will want to know when it began and how frequently it’s been occurring.
- Write down key personal information, including any recent trips taken or foods recently eaten that might have caused illness. In addition, your doctor will want to know if you or the person you’re caring for has recently been exposed to anyone with diarrhea.
- Make a list of key medical information, including other conditions you or the person you’re caring for is being treated for and the names of the medications being taken. Include on your list prescription and over-the-counter drugs, as well as any vitamins and supplements.
- Write down questions to ask your doctor.
For dehydration, some basic questions to ask the doctor include:
- What’s causing these symptoms?
- What kinds of tests are needed?
- What treatment do you recommend?
- How soon after treatment will there be improvement?
- Are there any activity or dietary restrictions?
- Is there anything I can do to prevent a recurrence of dehydration?
- I have other health conditions. Do I need to change the treatments I’ve been using for them?
- What steps can I take to prevent dehydration from happening again?
What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:
- When did the symptoms begin? What were you doing?
- Are you able to keep down any food or drink?
- How recently have you urinated? Are you experiencing any pain or urgency with urination?
- Do you also have other signs or symptoms, such as abdominal cramping, fever, headache or muscle aches? How severe are these signs and symptoms?
- Has there been blood in your stools?
- Have you recently eaten any food that you suspect was spoiled?
- Has anyone gotten sick after eating the same food that you did?
- Have you recently been exposed to someone who you know was experiencing diarrhea?
- Have you been coughing or had a runny nose?
- What medications are you currently taking?
- Have you recently traveled to another country?
- Do you know what your or your child’s weight was before symptoms started?
Sept. 19, 2019
What to Do if You’re Severely Dehydrated
You’ve probably heard the old adage that most of your body is made up of water. But what happens when it’s not? When you lose too much water from your system due to heat exposure, fever, diarrhea, vomiting or other illnesses and conditions, it can cause further serious problems.
Dehydration can present symptoms like:
- Decreased urine output
- Dry mouth
- Dry skin
- Few or no tears
- Increased thirst
- Low volume of urine and darker color than normal
- Tiredness or sleepiness
For mild dehydration, you can often treat the condition at home.
If the dehydration is due to vomiting, start by sipping small amounts of water. Drinking too fast can cause you to bring it all back up again, so go slowly to avoid another trip to the bathroom. You can also try sucking on ice chips or popsicles.
In addition to losing water, dehydration depletes the body of electrolytes. For this reason, it’s a good idea to drink something with carbohydrates and electrolytes rather than just plain water, as long as it is well tolerated. Most sports drinks are a good choice, as well as options like Pedialyte, which are made specifically for dehydration. We also have a recipe for a homemade electrolyte drink made from items you may already have in your pantry. Many sports drinks contain a large amount of sugar; mix your sports drink with water in a 50/50 mix.
If the dehydration is due to heat exposure, you’ll want to do everything you can to help yourself (or your patient) cool down. This includes removing any unnecessary layers of clothing, getting to an air conditioned area, or if no air conditioning is available, try luke warm mist from a spray bottle or using a wet towel to induce evaporation cooling. Avoid cooling down too quickly with methods like ice packs or ice cold water as these can actually cause further dehydration.
For infants or babies, do not administer electrolyte drinks or fruit juices unless recommended to do so by a qualified medical practitioner. Stick to breast milk or formula, and seek medical help if you don’t see improvement.
If left unchecked, severe dehydration can cause the following:
- Cold and blotchy hands and feet
- Dizziness or lightheadedness that affects ability to stand or walk normally
- Drops in blood pressure drops when standing up after lying down
- Severely decreased urine output with deep yellow or amber color or no urine at all
- Lethargy, confusion, or coma
- Poor skin elasticity (skin slowly returns to its normal position when pinched)
- Rapid resting heart rate
At this point you’ll need to seek medical intervention. One of the best options is to call DispatchHealth to come to the rescue. Their emergency care providers are able to evaluate patients for dehydration and administer IV fluids to more rapidly hydrate patients in a safe and beneficial way. And best of all, there’s no rush to the emergency room, no waiting room and no hassle. The team will come to you, wherever you happen to be, so you can relax on the couch while you wait to be seen.
So the next time you experience dehydration, whether due to heat, illness or exhaustion, get a house call from a medical team with the knowledge and experience to treat you in the comfort of your own home.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]
DispatchHealth relies only on authoritative sources, including medical associations, research institutions, and peer-reviewed medical studies.
Sources referenced in this article:
- https://www. mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dehydration/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354092
What To Do If Someone Is Dehydrated – DripDropORS
Dehydration can become life-threatening if it’s not treated quickly. Find out more about the condition and what signs to look for right here. This handy guide will show you the best practices when it comes to first aid for dehydration.
Once you recognize dehydration symptoms, you can jump into action and remedy the situation with an oral rehydration solution like DripDrop ORS. Powerful enough to use in extreme circumstances but safe enough for everyday use, DripDrop ORS is a proven option for managing mild to moderate dehydration.
What Is Dehydration?
Dehydration is a condition where your body loses more fluids and electrolytes than it can replace. It’s a common side effect of heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke, but it can also occur in wintertime. Other common contributors to dehydration include illnesses that cause diarrhea, fever, and vomiting, as well as certain medications like diuretics.
You can also become dehydrated simply by not drinking enough fluids and electrolytes. In fact, you may be surprised how common dehydration actually is. Studies have shown that up to 75% of Americans are chronically dehydrated.
Our bodies need more than just plain drinking water. We need electrolytes — charged minerals including sodium and potassium — in order to function properly. These electrolytes play a key role in muscle function. They send signals between your brain and organs and maintain adequate blood volume. Without the proper balance of electrolytes, we may experience symptoms like headaches, fatigue, and muscle pain.
Understanding this vital connection between electrolytes and our bodies is key to providing proper first aid for dehydration. You can’t just give someone water when they’re suffering from dehydration. They need to replenish their electrolytes by using an electrolyte solution like DripDrop ORS to tackle the condition fast.
How To Tell If Someone Is Dehydrated
Before you can offer someone first aid for dehydration, you need to be able to recognize the signs of the condition. For cases of mild dehydration to moderate dehydration, you can manage the condition at home. Most cases of severe dehydration will require medical attention, so you’ll need to assess the severity of the situation and manage the patient while working to get them to a hospital as soon as possible.
Here are the most common symptoms of dehydration in mild to moderate cases:
- Extreme thirst
- Dry mouth or dry skin
- Decreased urination
- Elevated body temperature
- Low blood pressure
- Lightheadedness and fatigue
- Increased heart rate or heart palpitations
- Muscle cramps and heat cramps
People with severe dehydration may develop additional symptoms. These usually target the nervous system. Left untreated, dehydration can be life-threatening so it’s important to act fast if you recognize any of these symptoms.
Symptoms of severe dehydration include:
- Confusion and irritability
- Sunken soft spot on top of the head (in infants and young children)
- Sunken eyes
- No urination for several hours or very dark urine
- Fever and chills
First Aid for Dehydration
For cases of severe dehydration, first aid should be centered around stabilizing the patient and getting medical care quickly.
If you recognize the symptoms of severe dehydration, call 911 immediately. They will offer medical advice and help transport the patient to the hospital where they can receive appropriate care. Most treatment plans for severe dehydration involve the use of IV therapy to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
For mild to moderate dehydration, the condition can largely be treated without a hospital visit. However, it’s a good idea to follow up with your doctor after a dehydration episode. Read on to learn more about first aid for dehydration and how you can help someone in a serious situation.
Offer Reassurance and Get Help if Needed
One of the best things you can do in a crisis is to remain calm. Help the person sit down, and focus on offering reassurance. Saying things like, “It’s going to be ok,” and, “We’re going to get you help,” can keep the patient from panicking.
Severe dehydration is a medical emergency, and you may need help from healthcare professionals to save the patient. If the person shows signs of severe dehydration, call 911 immediately and follow the responder’s instructions.
If possible, take the person to a shaded area or somewhere cool where they can sit. This is particularly important if the patient’s dehydration is due to strenuous exercise or a heat-related illness. Look around for a bench or a grassy area where the person can sit and rest. If the person has muscle pain caused by dehydration, have them gently stretch. Focus on creating a calm and relaxing environment to aid recovery.
To tackle dehydration, you need to help the person start rehydrating immediately. Offer them small sips of an oral rehydration solution like DripDrop ORS to replenish fluids fast. If you don’t have an oral rehydration solution on hand, offer the patient water until you can get access to one. For small children, you can use clear broth, clear fluids, ice chips, or an oral rehydration solution. Do not give a dehydrated patient soda or juice as this can worsen the condition.
When you’re dehydrated, water alone is not enough. Your body needs a precise balance of sodium and glucose to fight dehydration fast. That’s why it’s vital to have a dehydration protocol on hand to help in serious situations.
Lower the Temperature
Whether the patient is suffering from dehydration in peak summertime heat or after strenuous exercise or work at a job site, look for ways to decrease their body temperature safely. Help the patient remove any excess articles of clothing. Take off any hats and tight clothing like long sleeve shirts as well as shoes and socks. You can also loosen articles of clothing to help promote heat loss.
If you have an ice pack on hand, use that to bring the patient’s core temperature down. For the fastest results, place ice packs around their neck, groin, and armpits. These areas have large blood vessels near the surface of the skin, helping to bring down their temperature rapidly.
Keep an eye on the person’s vital signs including heart rate, respiration rate, and body temperature. If the person is wearing a smartwatch, you may be able to track the exact metrics and relay this information to medical responders if needed. If not, you can check to see if their temperature decreases over time and monitor their pulse by counting the number of beats per minute.
How To Prevent Dehydration
While it’s good to know the basics of first aid for dehydration, it’s even better if you can avoid the condition in the first place. Fortunately, there are several easy steps you can take to protect yourself and your loved ones from dehydration.
Whether your job requires you to work outdoors in harsh conditions or you plan to enjoy the great outdoors even when it’s hot, preparation is key. It’s important to have an oral rehydration solution like DripDrop ORS to help with dehydration. Take sips throughout the day to stay hydrated, and make sure to increase your fluid intake when you’re participating in strenuous activities.
Medical-grade DripDrop ORS allows you to alleviate mild to moderate dehydration outside of a hospital setting and without the need for costly and painful IV therapy. Our patented formula is powerful enough to help patients suffering from dehydration caused by serious illnesses, including Ebola and cholera. But, it’s safe enough for everyday use. Plus, DripDrop ORS tastes amazing and comes in a variety of flavors you can enjoy hot or cold.
Besides focusing on hydration, you can make lifestyle choices to prevent dehydration. Try to limit strenuous activity when temperatures soar. Morning and evening hours tend to be cooler and are a great time to enjoy the outdoors without enduring oppressive midday heat. If you have to be outside, wear loose-fitting and lightweight clothing. Take breaks often to cool down whenever possible.
Dehydration doesn’t just hit in the summertime — it can also happen in winter. Try to wear layers in cool weather so you can remove excess clothing if you get too hot when exercising or working in cold temperatures. Look for breathable and wicking fabrics and make sure to drink fluids throughout the day.
Tackle Dehydration With DripDrop ORS
The best way to avoid dehydration is to stay on top of your hydration levels throughout the day. Make sure to drink plenty of water and electrolytes, especially if you’re working outdoors in hot weather or exerting a lot of energy. Having a high-quality dehydration protocol like DripDrop ORS on hand is the best way to avoid the condition.
DripDrop ORS was developed by a doctor on a mission to defeat life-threatening dehydration. The patented formula provides medically relevant electrolyte levels, improving on the World Health Organization’s Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) standards with its delicious taste — giving you a medically viable ORS that also tastes great. By comparison, sports drinks contain about one-third the electrolytes of DripDrop ORS and twice as much sugar.
For cases of mild to moderate dehydration, DripDrop ORS is a fast, effective, and great-tasting remedy. The convenient packaging allows you to have DripDrop ORS when you need it, where you need it.
Get started with a trial of our most popular multi-flavor pouch for dehydration relief fast. Or, if you’re ready to make a purchase and are a first-time buyer, enjoy 15% off your first order with code: FIRST15.
Dehydration: Causes & Symptoms
What is dehydration?
Warm weather brings with it thoughts of cool ocean breezes, napping in a hammock and sipping a tall glass of lemonade. Now hold on to the mental image of that lemonade because summer is also a time to be wary of dehydration: the lack of sufficient water in your body, specifically in your cells and blood vessels. Even losing a little bit, as little as 1.5% of your body’s water, can cause symptoms. Those symptoms can be as simple as a slight headache, or the dehydration could contribute to a life-threatening illness like heatstroke (hyperthermia).
Your body’s natural response to inadequate hydration is thirst. You should respond to thirst right away by drinking fluids – preferably water. Drink enough water to prevent yourself from feeling thirsty! Water has zero calories!
What does water do for your body?
Between about 55% to about 78% of your body is made of water. Newborn babies are about 78% water, a year-old baby is 65%, adult men are about 60% and adult women are about 55%. Your brain is made up of 73% water, and so is your heart. Your bones are 31% water, muscles and kidneys are 79% and your skin is 64%. A whopping 83% of water makes up your lungs.
- Aid digestion and get rid of waste.
- Work your joints. Water lubricates them.
- Make saliva (which you need to eat).
- Balance your body’s chemicals. Your brain needs it to create hormones and neurotransmitters.
- Deliver oxygen all over your body.
- Cushion your bones.
- Regulate your body temperature.
Act as a shock absorber for your brain, your spinal cord and, if you’re pregnant, your fetus.
Water is important to your body, especially in warm weather. It keeps your body from overheating. When you exercise, your muscles generate heat. To keep from burning up, your body needs to get rid of that heat. The main way the body discards heat in warm weather is through sweat. As sweat evaporates, it cools the tissues beneath. Lots of sweating reduces the body’s water level, and this loss of fluid affects normal bodily functions. Drink water!
Are hypovolemia and dehydration the same?
No, these terms do not mean the same thing. Hypovolemia defines many conditions where extracellular fluid volume is reduced. Dehydration can be one of several causes of hypovolemia, but it is not the same thing as it.
Are dehydration and hypernatremia the same?
No. Again, dehydration can be a cause of hypernatremia, but it is not the same thing.
What causes dehydration?
Dehydration happens when you don’t drink enough water, or when you lose water quickly through, for example, sweating, vomiting and/or diarrhea. Certain medications such as diuretics (water pills) can result in increased urination and dehydration.
Who’s at risk of becoming dehydrated?
Anyone can become dehydrated if they don’t take care of themselves and drink water. However, infants and children, especially when they’re sick, are at a higher risk because they may be unable to communicate that they’re thirsty. Monitor the amount of fluids your kids take in.
Older adults are also at a higher risk. Their body’s fluid reserves shrink and their body’s ability to tell them they’re thirsty doesn’t work as effectively. This means they don’t carry as much water in their bodies and they can’t tell as easily when they’re thirsty. If you’re a caretaker of an elderly individual, especially one who may have memory problems, offer them drinks frequently. Even if they’re enduring an uncomfortable infection like a UTI (urinary tract infection), they still need to consume liquids.
What are the signs of dehydration? What does dehydration feel like?
If you suspect that you or someone else is severely dehydrated, seek immediate medical attention.
Signs of dehydration include:
- Headache, delirium, confusion.
- Tiredness (fatigue).
- Dizziness, weakness, light-headedness.
- Dry mouth and/or a dry cough.
- High heart rate but low blood pressure.
- Loss of appetite but maybe craving sugar.
- Flushed (red) skin. Swollen feet. Muscle cramps.
- Heat intolerance, or chills.
- Dark-colored pee (urine). Your pee should be a pale clear color.
The best way to beat dehydration is to drink before you get thirsty. If you wait until after you’re thirsty, you’re already dehydrated.
In what other ways does dehydration affect me?
Dehydration does more than you might expect. If affects you not only physically (note the signs stated above), but mentally and emotionally as well. If you’re dehydrated, you may feel:
- Like you can’t remember.
Note that these symptoms may be worse in someone who has dementia.
How does dehydration affect the brain?
Severe hydration shrinks the blood vessels in the brain. When there aren’t high enough fluid levels in your brain, that affects your memory and coordination.
How does dehydration affect the heart? Can dehydration cause high blood pressure?
Your heart has to work harder when there’s less water in your blood.
How does dehydration affect the kidneys?
The average person urinates (pees) about six or seven times a day. If you’re dehydrated, you may urinate less. This is because less water in your blood causes your kidneys to hold on to the urine.
Does dehydration cause cramping?
Loss of electrolytes, like sodium and potassium, can cause cramping. They’re expelled through perspiration (sweating). Drink water, but also a sports drink to replenish your electrolytes if your fluid losses are extensive from sweating, vomiting or diarrhea.
Can medications cause dehydration?
Diuretic medications, which are prescribed to treat heart failure and high blood pressure, can increase your risk of dehydration.
Can dehydration cause shortness of breath?
Shortness of breath is not a symptom of dehydration. However, it may go alongside dehydration. For example, you might be playing a sport outside in the hot sun and get dehydrated from lack of water and also feel short of breath from all the activity.
Care and Treatment
How is dehydration diagnosed?
Don’t forget that if you feel thirsty, you’re already dehydrated. That’s the easiest way to tell that you need more fluids.
Laboratory tests can also diagnose dehydration. Tests include:
- Low urine sodium concentration.
- Elevated plasma serum osmolality. This measures how concentrated some particles are in your blood plasma.
- Elevated creatinine. This tests kidney function.
- Elevated blood urea nitrogen. This also relates to kidney function.
What are the levels of dehydration?
Dehydration may be categorized as:
- Mild. You just have to take in more fluids orally (by mouth). Drink water, but replace fluids with a drink that contains electrolytes if you experience significant sweating or fluid losses from vomiting and diarrhea. You should feel better after five or 10 minutes.
- Moderate. Moderate dehydration requires an IV (intravenous hydration). You’ll get this in an urgent care, emergency room, or hospital.
- Severe. See a healthcare provider if your symptoms of dehydration are severe. Call 911 or go to an emergency room.
If you’re seeing a healthcare provider, they’ll figure out what level you’re at in order to assign you treatment.
How is dehydration treated?
Drink water. You could also try increasing your hydration with oral rehydration sachets – powders you mix in with your water.
How long does it take for the symptoms to stop after water is ingested?
You may see the symptoms of dehydration improve in as little as five to 10 minutes.
How do I prevent dehydration?
Exactly how much water do you need? That depends on your weight, age, level of activity, age, the climate of your environment and other factors. Those with diabetes, heart disease, cystic fibrosis and other conditions may need to be cautious. The amount of water you need can also depend on the climate and what clothes you’re wearing. Although the standard advice is eight glasses of water per day (about 2.2 liters or 2.3 quarts per day for an adult female and about 3 liters or 3.2 quarts per day for an adult male), talk to your healthcare provider to confirm the right amount for you.
Keep track of how much fluid you drink. Drink water throughout the day, including at meals. Avoid soda, alcohol and caffeinated drinks. One way to make sure you are properly hydrated is to check your urine. If it’s clear, pale or straw-colored, it’s OK. If it’s darker than that, keep drinking!
To avoid dehydration, active people – people playing a sport or exercising – should drink at least 16 to 20 ounces of fluids one to two hours before an outdoor activity. After that, you should consume six to 12 ounces of fluid every 10 to 15 minutes when you’re outside. When you are finished with the activity, you should drink more. How much more? To replace what you have lost: at least another 16 to 24 ounces.
Which beverages hydrate the body, and which dehydrate?
Some beverages are better than others at preventing dehydration. Water is all you need if you’re planning to be active in a low or moderate intensity activity, such as walking for only an hour or less. If you plan to exercise longer than that, or if you anticipate being out in the sun for more than a few hours, you may want to hydrate with some kind of sports drink. These replace not only fluid, but also electrolytes like sodium and potassium, which are lost through sweating. Too much or too little sodium and potassium in the body can cause trouble. Muscle cramping may be due to a deficiency of electrolytes.
Alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, such as coffee, teas and colas, are not recommended for optimal hydration. These fluids tend to pull water from the body and promote dehydration. Fruit juice and fruit drinks may have too many carbohydrates, too little sodium and they may upset your stomach.
Adequate hydration will keep your summer activities safer and much more enjoyable. Keep an extra pitcher of water in the refrigerator and add fresh lemons, limes, cucumber or mint for a dash of flavor.
How do I get myself and my loved ones to drink more water?
- Carry a water bottle with you. Keep it filled!
- Choose water instead of sugary drinks, including at meals.
- Add flavor. A wedge of lime or lemon might make it tastier, and more fun! You can also try some flavored drink mixes, but watch out for the sugar!
- Eat foods that are high in water content. Many soups, fruits and vegetables meet this description.
- If you don’t like drinking a lot of water at once, try smaller doses spread out throughout the day.
When to Call the Doctor
When should I contact a healthcare provider about dehydration? At what point is dehydration dangerous?
The amount of water needed on a daily basis depends on many factors, so it’s best to check in with your healthcare provider to determine exactly how much will keep you healthy.
Always drink water immediately if you feel thirsty. Remember – if you feel thirsty, you’re already dehydrated. You may see the symptoms of dehydration improve in as little as five to 10 minutes.
If you think your symptoms of dehydration are severe, don’t hesitate to seek help! Dehydration can contribute to kidney stones, kidney failure and heatstroke, all life-threatening illnesses. Call 911 or go to the emergency room right away if you have symptoms of severe dehydration, or (see below) heatstroke:
- A temperature of 103 degrees Fahrenheit or higher.
- Muscle twitching.
- Red, hot, dry skin.
- Rapid pulse.
- Lack of sweating.
- Confusion, altered mental state, slurred speech.
- Fainting, loss of consciousness.
Dehydration – familydoctor.org
Path to improved health
Your body is made up of 55%-60% water. You need to drink a lot so it can carry out its normal functions. The average adult needs about 3 quarts of water every day. When you don’t get enough water because of illness or for other reasons, you may start to experience dehydration.
Common causes of dehydration in healthy adults include:
- sweating too much (especially in hot weather)
Symptoms of dehydration depend on your age and how badly dehydrated you are.
Signs of dehydration in babies or young children include:
- dry mouth and tongue
- crying without tears
- no wet diapers for 3 hours or more
- high fever
- sunken eyes
- being unusually drowsy or sleepy
Signs of mild to moderate dehydration in adults include:
- feeling thirsty
- dry or sticky mouth
- dry skin
- not urinating much
- darker yellow urine
- muscle cramps
Signs of moderate to severe dehydration include:
- dizziness or light-headedness
- irritability or confusion
- rapid heartbeat
- rapid breathing
- fainting or unconsciousness
Mild to moderate dehydration can usually be treated at home. Here are things you can do to feel better.
- Sip water.
- Suck on ice cubes or ice pops.
- Slowly drink a sports drink that contains electrolytes.
- Don’t drink anything with Prevention
In general, adults can prevent dehydration just by drinking when they are thirsty. Eating foods high in water content, such as fruits and vegetables, also helps.
Know the causes of dehydration. Drink more fluids when you need to, including when:
- The weather is hot, especially if you’ll be outside.
- You are exercising or sweating a lot.
- You have a fever, diarrhea, or are vomiting.
Don’t wait for signs of dehydration to start drinking more. Plan ahead and always make sure you have access to plenty of water.
Dehydration Treatment | What to Do for Dehydration & How to Rehydrate
The treatment options for dehydration depend on how badly a person is dehydrated. Dehydration treatment can begin at home for mild and sometimes moderate cases. However, a medical professional needs to evaluate cases of severe dehydration right way because some complications of dehydration are life threatening. Here’s what to do for dehydration in babies, older children, and adults.
Recognize Dehydration: Know the Symptoms
Because you can typically treat mild and moderate dehydration at home, it’s important to recognize the symptoms of dehydration before the situation gets worse. It’s important to know that dehydration symptoms usually appear late, adding to the danger. If you or someone you’re with becomes dehydrated, you will notice these symptoms:
Dehydration symptoms in babies and young children include:
No tears when the child cries
No wet diapers in at least three hours
Sunken eyes or sunken soft spot on the top of the head
Mild to Moderate Dehydration Treatment: Rehydrate at Home
Adults can usually recover from mild dehydration simply by drinking plenty of water to replace lost fluids due to vomiting, diarrhea, hot weather or strenuous exercise. For moderate dehydration, the person will need to replace lost electrolytes as well. The right balance of sodium and potassium are particularly important electrolytes for dehydration recovery. Good fluids to drink that also help replace electrolytes include:
An oral rehydration solution, which contains the right balance of electrolytes and can be purchased over-the-counter
Diluted juice and clear soda. (Undiluted juice or soda can make diarrhea worse.)
Treating dehydrated babies and very young children may be a little more difficult, but mild and moderate cases can still be manageable at home. If vomiting caused the dehydration, give the child about a teaspoon of an oral rehydration solution every few minutes. If the child can keep the liquid down, start giving a higher amount of the solution less often. If diarrhea is the cause, more fluid can be given from the start of treatment. You can also call your pediatrician’s office or the nurse’s line for more guidance.
Severe Dehydration Treatment: Go to the Hospital
Adults and children who are severely dehydrated need immediate medical attention because this can quickly turn to a life-threatening situation. Fluids and electrolytes through an intravenous (IV) line may be necessary to effectively treat severe dehydration. Doctors may also prescribe treatment for severe vomiting or diarrhea if that is the cause of dehydration.
Prevent Dehydration: Know the Causes and Risk Factors
Adults typically need to drink between 2 and 3 liters (about half to three-quarters of a gallon, including the water in food) every day, and men need more water than women. In hot weather or when exercising, people need to drink even more fluids, such as plenty of water or sports drinks that contain electrolytes, to prevent dehydration. Keep in mind that sports drinks typically contain a large amount of sugar, so don’t use them as a replacement for water.
Knowing what causes dehydration can help you prevent the situation from happening in the first place. Some dehydration causes include:
People who are most at risk of becoming dehydrated are young children and older adults. People with uncontrolled diabetes also have a higher chance of becoming dehydrated. Anyone who is outside during hot, humid weather and not drinking additional fluids also runs the risk of dehydration.
90,000 Initial treatment for dehydration in acute malnutrition
Biological, behavioral and contextual rationale
Dehydration is a condition that occurs when excess fluid is excreted from the body 1 . In acute malnutrition, dehydration is caused by untreated diarrhea, which results in a loss of water and electrolytes 2 . Acute malnutrition and diarrhea form a vicious circle, exacerbating each other and increasing each other’s chances of developing.
Diarrhea is caused by poor hygiene and contact with contaminated food or water. Diarrhea is widespread in developing countries, where about one billion people lack access to clean water and 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation 2 . There are two billion cases of diarrhea worldwide each year, killing about 1.5 million children 2 .
Dehydration in acute malnutrition is difficult to detect because many of the typical signs such as skin elasticity are unconfirmed 3 .Applicable metrics include thirst, emaciation, cool and damp extremities, little or no radial pulsation, and decreased or no urine output 3 . In order to prescribe proper treatment, it is very important to distinguish dehydration from septic shock, with which it has several common symptoms. The presence of diarrhea indicates dehydration, which requires appropriate treatment 3 .
Establishing dehydration is similar for all forms of diarrhea.However, for treatment purposes, a distinction must be made between cholera and other forms of diarrhea as the cause of dehydration. Cholera is characterized by acute watery diarrhea and can kill a healthy person in a matter of hours 4 .
In regions where severe malnutrition is a problem, multi-stage programs are applied. Mild, moderate, and severe dehydration, which is the third phase of the initial treatment for acute malnutrition, is treated in a hospital.
Mild to moderate dehydration is characterized by thirst, anxiety or irritation, normal or slightly sunken eyes, and a sunken fontanelle in infants. Signs of acute dehydration include lethargy or unconsciousness, difficulty drinking or inability to drink, lack of urine output, cool, damp extremities, low or undetectable blood pressure, and fast and weak pulse 5 .
Patients with acute malnutrition with mild to moderate dehydration caused by cholera should be given immediate oral rehydration solutions (ORS) 4 .RPR is a liquid containing salt, sugar, potassium chloride and citric acid to replace the lost fluids and electrolytes that have led to dehydration 6 .
If dehydration due to acute malnutrition is caused by other forms of diarrhea, treatment is given with an alternative version of RRP called ReSoMal, which stands for Recommended Oral Rehydration Salt Solution for Acutely Malnourished Children 3 .This difference in treatment approach is attributed to a study that found sodium in relation to potassium in RND is too high for patients with acute malnutrition dehydration caused by forms of diarrhea other than cholera. Such a solution leads to overloading of the heart and heart failure 7 . Therefore, to solve this problem, the solution for the treatment of dehydration caused by all causes, except cholera, was replaced by the ReSoMal solution, which has more potassium and less sodium than in RPR 7 .
For either treatment, oral rehydration is the preferred method of rehydration for adults and children, however, if the child cannot drink, a nasogastric tube can be used. Acute cholera dehydration is treated with intravenous fluids 3 . It is also important not to interrupt infant feeding during rehydration, so mothers should continue breastfeeding 3 .
Signs of successful rehydration include urine output, lack of thirst and other signs of dehydration 3 .Fluids continue to be given to maintain hydration until diarrhea stops 3 .
1 Dorland. Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 2007.
2 Diarrhoeal disease fact sheet. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009.
3 Management of severe malnutrition: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999.
4 WHO position paper on oral rehydration salts to reduce mortality from cholera. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009.
5 The treatment of diarrhoea: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers (4th rev). Geneva, World Health Organization, 2005.
6 New formulation of oral rehydration salts (ORS) with reduced osmolarity. The United Nations Childrens’ Fund Supply Division, 2004 (Technical Bulletin, No. 9).
7 Golden MHN. Severe malnutrition. In: Weatherall DJ, Ledingham JGG, Warell DA eds. The Oxford textbook of medicine. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996: 1278-1296.
8 Severe malnutrition: report of a consultation to review current literature. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004.
Only the above authors are responsible for the opinions expressed in this document.
Conflict of Interest Statements
Conflict of interest statements have been received from all of the authors listed above and no conflicts of interest have been identified.
90,000 Dehydration in a cat – how to detect and cure in time
To quench its daily thirst, normally 30 ml of water per 1 kg of body weight is enough for a cat. These statistics apply only to healthy animals, whose life is not in danger.
When dehydration occurs in a cat’s body, it may not only be a matter of restoring water balance, but that help to a tailed friend will need as soon as possible is a fact.Because with an acute shortage of water, representatives of the feline family die in a few hours. The owner’s task is to determine in time that the animal needs help, and to provide appropriate treatment and proper care.
Causes and effects of dehydration in cats
About two-thirds of a cat’s body is water. If the body is more than 20% dehydrated, it leads to death within a few hours. Kittens are especially sensitive to water imbalance. For them, 10% dehydration is enough to become a serious threat to life.
Violation of the water balance in the pet’s body develops as a result of various factors:
- viral infections – panleukopenia (“cat plague”), calciviral infection, herpes and many other diseases occur against the background of severe dehydration;
- In case of poisoning and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, vomiting and diarrhea are often observed. These symptoms also lead to dehydration, the flushing of important minerals from the body, and weight loss;
- chronic diseases.Too much urination with diabetes or kidney failure may well lead to the development of a serious metabolic disorder;
- Overheating in hot weather under the influence of direct sunlight leads to an apathetic state in the animal. If the cat is so overheated in the heat that it is not able to drink on its own, urgently call the veterinarian;
- intoxication with signs of poisoning. The reasons may be different: the cat inhaled toxins, was poisoned with household chemicals or ate expired food;
- stressful condition as a result of a nervous shock.Cats, like humans, can get depressed. Moving or the appearance of a new pet in the house can lead to the development of pathology;
- consequences of surgical intervention. The postoperative period is characterized by a weakening of immunity and the likelihood of developing side effects, one of which may be dehydration;
- blood loss. If the cat has been in a fight or suffers from blood loss for another reason, she needs urgent hospitalization.
Signs of dehydration in a cat
The attentiveness of the owner is the key to the health of the pet.Be aware of unusual changes in the behavior and condition of the animal and you will not miss the signs of dehydration in the cat:
- high or low body temperature . Keep a thermometer handy: it will help you quickly identify a health problem in your pet. Better to choose an electronic thermometer. The temperature has to be measured rectally. Therefore, it is advisable to perform the procedure as quickly as possible so as not to disturb the pet;
- dry skin. This symptom can be determined at home.If after pulling the skin at the withers thickening remains for some time, the animal suffers from moisture loss for at least 5-8 hours. An urgent need to go to the hospital;
- saliva viscosity, light shade of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity . If, after pressing on the gums with your fingers, whitish marks are visible for a while, this is an alarming sign. This means that the capillaries fill up too slowly, which indicates a lack of moisture;
- dry eyes and eyelid irritation. The cat hardly opens its eyes, squints;
- apathetic state, lethargy, drowsiness. If a playful cat suddenly becomes sleepy and indifferent to food and drink, this is a sign of metabolic disorder;
- Stool disorders: diarrhea or constipation. The inability to go to the toilet indicates a metabolic disorder. Therefore, if the tray remains clean for too long, there is cause for concern.
If you have these symptoms, seek medical attention immediately. Most dangerous is slow dehydration, the symptoms of which may be noticed too late.
Before the doctor examines the cat, you can pour water into its mouth.If your pet is vomiting, you do not need to do this. In the hospital, the cat will be given a dropper with saline to fill up the deficiency of fluid and minerals and the necessary injections will be given. When the treatment requires regular medical manipulations, and you do not have the opportunity to travel to the clinic with a cat every day, leave your pet in the hospital. There he will be provided with full round-the-clock care and supervision.
If the veterinary clinic in Kaliningrad is too far away or it is inconvenient for you to go there with your cat, call the veterinarian at home.This service is available in our “Kaliningrad Regional Center for Veterinary Medicine”, where they are always ready to help your pet. We carry out diagnostics and treatment using modern equipment and certified medicines, identify the cause of the disease and help pets quickly return to a full and healthy life. Call and make an appointment with our veterinarians in Kaliningrad and Svetlogorsk.
Dehydration in children: how to prevent and recognize
Why are children at risk and more susceptible to dehydration?
Children, along with the elderly, are at risk and more than are prone to dehydration , due to a combination of several factors:
Firstly , because they are a group of people who are due to their of age are more likely to suffer from infections, which can cause fever and gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea, which lead to loss of body fluids.However, dehydration can occur not only with gastroenteritis, but with other infections such as respiratory (colds, sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis) or urinary tract infections.
Secondly , because in the child’s body has a higher percentage of water . In a newborn, for example, about 70% of its body weight is water. This percentage gradually decreases as the child grows up, until in adulthood it reaches 50-60%, depending on age and gender.
Thirdly , because with a smaller body volume, the ratio between body surface and weight is above . This means that in children, moisture loss through the skin and mucous membranes by evaporation is proportionally greater than in adults.
It should also be added that mechanisms of compensation, which the body starts when it starts to lose moisture, are still underdeveloped at an early age of life. The ability to concentrate urine and thereby reduce moisture loss in a newborn is less than that of a school-age child or adult, making young children more vulnerable in these situations.
Finally, in the case of young children, they have limited access to fluids because they are unable to drink on their own and are dependent on adults to give them water to drink in situations of dehydration due to illness or hot weather.
Thus, newborns and babies are at greatest risk of dehydration.
Dehydration and medication for chronic illness
Although it is not uncommon for children to take medication for chronic illness, it should be borne in mind that some of them can worsen the symptoms of dehydration .An obvious example of this type of medication is diuretics (furosemide, spironolactone …), which leads to an increase in water loss through urine to compensate for heart problems, kidney problems, etc.
It should also be borne in mind that if a child is taking any medications for chronic diseases, their blood levels, as well as their therapeutic effects (both beneficial and side effects), may temporarily change when a situation of dehydration occurs. This does not mean that we should be alarmed, but we must take this into account, for example, in the case of children receiving antiepileptic drugs , because in a situation of dehydration, the drugs will stop working and the epilepsy may temporarily decompensate.
What are the symptoms of dehydration?
On the one hand, symptoms are associated with the loss of fluid and electrolytes (mineral salts), and on the other, with compensation mechanisms , which the body starts to restore the loss of moisture. Some of the symptoms of dehydration are:
- Deterioration in general well-being
- Dry mouth, lack of saliva, or whitish foamy saliva
- Sunken eyes
- Abnormal breathing
- Abnormal breathing
- Increased thirst
These symptoms, along with other clinical signs, are graded on various scales used to assess the degree of dehydration of a child (Gorelik scale, American Academy of Pediatrics scale, clinical dehydration scale…). If a child has one or more symptoms, it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible .
How can dehydration be prevented?
In situations where the symptoms of the disease described above (fever, vomiting, diarrhea) occur, it is very important to offer the child plenty of fluids to maintain a normal state of hydration. In addition to water, the liquid you offer your child should contain glucose (sugar) and mineral salts , because with vomiting and diarrhea, not only water is lost, but also sugar and minerals such as sodium, potassium and chlorine.These substances are vital for maintaining the functioning of the organs and systems of our body. Often their levels change in situations of dehydration (hyper or hyponatremia, hypoglycemia …), which can aggravate the symptoms of the disease. Therefore, is recommended to replace fluid loss with Oral Rehydration Serum available over the counter.
In other situations where the loss of moisture in the body increases due to perspiration, for example, in summer and with prolonged physical activity, it is recommended to use water as the main rehydrator , accompanied by foods that contain carbohydrates, minerals and water, such as like fruit. Isotonic sports drinks are not necessary for children and their habitual use can be detrimental to health.
What to do in case of dehydration (first aid)
As you all know, the adult human body is almost 65% water. Water is a part of tissues, without it normal functioning of the body, the implementation of the metabolic process, maintenance of heat balance, removal of metabolic products, etc. is impossible.Dehydration of the body by only a few percent leads to disruption of its vital functions. Lack of water during the day negatively affects the moral state of a person, reduces his fighting capacity, volitional qualities, and causes rapid fatigue. When a person is tormented by thirst, he is unable to think soundly.
The loss of a large amount of water by the body is dangerous to human life. In hot regions without water, a person can die in 5-7 days, and without food, in the presence of water, a person can live for a long time.Even in cold zones, to maintain normal performance, a person needs about 1.5-2.5 liters of water per day. This is not only about water, but in general about the liquid entering our body, including with food intake.
Here is an example of the fluid intake needed to maintain a healthy fluid balance in the body with moderate activity to avoid dehydration:
Ambient temperature 32 ° C 26 ° C 21 ° C 15 ° C 10 ° C 4 ° C Fluid consumption 2L 1.9L 1.5L 1.4L 1.3L 1.2L
When the body’s fluid loss is equal to 10% of body weight, performance is significantly reduced, the loss of 25% of body weight can lead to death.However, no matter how much the body is dehydrated, the intake of fluid into it and filling it to normal will quickly lead to the normal operation of all body functions. Only you do not need to pour water in buckets into a dehydrated person, the saturation process should take place in stages. The same bodybuilders before the competition carry out the so-called drying – first they get rid of fat, and then they expel excess water from the body so that the muscles are drier and better defined. There are cases of dehydration when the athlete does not correctly calculate the drying process.However, after the competition, the body is quickly filled with water and begins to function normally.
Signs Indicating Human Dehydration:
1-5% – Thirst, feeling unwell, slowing down of movements, drowsiness, redness in some places of the skin, fever, nausea, indigestion.
6-10% – Shortness of breath, headache, tingling in the legs and arms, lack of salivation, loss of ability to move and impaired speech logic.
11-20% – Delirium, muscle spasms, swelling of the tongue, dullness of hearing and vision, cooling of the body.
Since dehydration disrupts the body’s heat exchange, very often the consequence of dehydration is heatstroke – a painful condition that appears as a result of general overheating of the body. In this case, excessive sweating occurs, the body loses a large amount of fluid, the blood thickens, which leads to a loss of salt balance in the body. In humans, oxygen starvation of tissues, in particular the brain, is observed.
Signs of heatstroke as a result of dehydration:
fatigue, lethargy, headache, nausea, dizziness.
In the future, a person’s body temperature may rise to 38-40 degrees, vomiting and fainting may occur. To protect yourself, you should always dress for the weather, do not drink alcohol in hot weather, and drink liquid in a timely manner.
If heat stroke has occurred, first of all, you should calm down and lie in the shade or in a well-ventilated room, relax the collar of your clothes and belt.To the head, as well as to the area of large vessels: in the armpits, on the lateral surfaces of the neck, on the groin area – you can put ice or hot water bottles with cold water. Any item that is well below your temperature will do. It is very helpful to wrap yourself in a damp sheet. Drinking warm weak tea or kvass well restores and maintains water-salt balance. In addition, these drinks are excellent at retaining fluid in the body.
If you see that someone has fainted as a result of dehydration, then you should call an ambulance and try to help the victim yourself before the doctor arrives.The help is as follows. The victim must be positioned in such a way that his head is lowered, unbuttoned tight clothing and provide fresh air. If the victim is in the room, all windows and doors should be urgently opened. A towel soaked in cold water should be applied to the face and chest. It is also advisable to bring a cotton swab with ammonia to the nose. Legs need to be warmed with heating pads or rubbed with something hard. After the victim comes to his senses, he needs water.
However, you need to approach dehydration individually, some even with a loss of 5% of the liquid will become vegetables, and with a loss of 10% they will run, jump and take active actions, only the thought will be in my head that it is painfully thirsty.
It is necessary to understand that the higher the ambient temperature and the more active the action, the earlier the threshold of severe dehydration will come. For example, at 15 ° C, 20% dehydration will be tolerated more easily than at temperatures above 30 ° C and active actions with a 10% water loss.
In order to avoid dehydration and heatstroke, the following rules must be followed:
– dress for the weather;
– always wear a hat, try not to allow direct sunlight to hit the body and especially the head;
– drink more liquid. Excess fluid in the case of normal functioning of the kidneys, the body will remove from the body, lack of fluid will lead to dehydration.
– with a lack of fluid, try to move in the shady area, in very hot places it is better to move in the evening, night and morning.
Remember that a large loss of fluid washes out minerals from the body, therefore, if fluid is present, it is periodically necessary to add some salt to the fluid used. You can put salt under your tongue, but it is better to put a few crystals of coarse salt in your mouth and drink it.
Here are some more tips for quenching your thirst and staying hydrated:
If you do not have water at hand and you still need to get to the source, but you are thirsty and your mouth dries up, put a small pebble or button in your mouth.Rolling a small object in your mouth will activate salivation, which will relieve you of excruciating dry mouth and clear your mind of the urge to drink.
Well quenches thirst and retains water in the body water with lemon or lemon juice. But the use of drinks that are diuretics is extremely prohibited! These beverages include coffee and strong tea. Salt also promotes fluid retention, but the more salt you consume, the more thirsty you become.
90,000 Dehydrated Generation: Do We Really Need To Drink More Water
It seems like every week someone comes up with a new app or gadget that will keep track of how much water you drink and encourage you to drink more. Increasing the amount of water you drink is easy, but if you desperately focus on such little things, you distract from the significant improvements that could be in your life.
If tracking the amount of water you drink motivates you to make other changes, and does not take all your will – great, an extra glass of liquid will not hurt.But if every evening you reprimand yourself for not drinking as much as you need today, if you only think about drinking more water all day, you may overestimate the extent of its effect on the body. So, is water really that good.
Why do we need water
Philip James Corwin / Corbisimages.com
The worst argument for drinking plenty of water is that we are 75% water or maybe 45%, somewhere like that, the exact amount depends on body weight and other factors … Yes, water is needed for blood to run through the veins and arteries, it is needed to lubricate joints and for chemical reactions.At the molecular level, water keeps proteins and cell membranes in shape. We are water beings, no doubt about it.
But bigger is not better. Gasoline is essential for driving the car. You might think that the more gasoline the better, and we must constantly top up to a full tank. This is not true. However, even without gasoline, the car will not go. The loss of a significant amount of water will lead to serious consequences, ranging from headaches and nausea to kidney failure and death. A slight loss of water will show up as bad breath and dry skin.But are you dehydrated now? Most probably not.
Fortunately, there is no epidemic of dehydration
Many of us drink more than eight glasses of water a day without noticing it. By the way, it is completely incomprehensible what the magic number 8 is, why exactly so many glasses should be drunk. It seems to you that you do not drink much, since you are counting only pure water. But when it comes to hydration, your body doesn’t care where it gets its water from.
Half of the daily amount of water we get from food: watermelon, for example, is 90% water, about the same contains soup.Even the cheeseburger contains 42% water. Water enters the body when you drink lemonade, coffee (even with caffeine!). Caffeine acts as a diuretic, but our bodies adapt to this effect after a while.
It’s normal that you are thirsty. And that doesn’t mean dehydration. Thirst appears when the body loses 2% of water. In a medical sense, dehydration occurs when you have lost about 5% of your water. A yellow to dark yellow urine color indicates that you need to drink water, but is not a sign of dehydration.
About the benefits and harms of water
The effect of water on many processes in the body is overestimated. Let’s figure out when excess water is beneficial and when not.
Ben Welsh / Corbisimages.com
There is no evidence that sipping water all day will somehow help you lose weight. Weight loss can only be facilitated by the fact that you replace all high-calorie drinks with water. In a Nutrition Reviews review of the effect of water on weight loss, such a replacement was called promising, but additional research requires the question of whether this technique will work in the long term – whether losing weight lost calories from drinks will not be supplemented by other foods.
Does water dull hunger? This issue has been extensively researched. In the latest post on Obesity, the answer was yes. Drinking water before meals helps to lose weight: water drinkers lost an average of about two kilograms in two months. However, in some cases, the weight, on the contrary, increased. So this is not a final conclusion.
If you pinch the skin on the hand of a dehydrated person with two fingers, it will not return to its previous state for a long time.Does this mean that the more you drink, the younger and healthier your skin will be?
Logic says yes, but a study published in Clinics in Dermatology failed to provide evidence for this hypothesis. Drinking an additional two liters of water a day will change the skin, which will be noticeable in the laboratory, but will not reduce wrinkles or smooth it.
Is your brain working worse due to lack of water? Answer: “Yes, but …” Yes, if a person is dehydrated, he has a bad mood and he thinks worse.But during the study, subjects ran or sweated in the sauna to lose water, so it is unclear whether the reason for the display of impaired mental ability was dehydration or mild heatstroke.
When the subjects were given water, some wrote the tests better, some, oddly enough, worse than when they were dehydrated. So again, there is no evidence that your brain will perform better if you have normal hydration levels and drink more water.
The work of internal organs
From all sides we hear that drinking water helps to remove toxins from the body.But there are not so many toxins in us to specifically remove them. And with those that are, the internal organs successfully cope if they work normally.
Prolonged dehydration can result in kidney and bladder stones. If you are prone to these diseases, yes, you need to drink more to prevent them.
The effectiveness of sports activities
Andrew Fox / Corbisimages.com
This is where the disagreement is very serious. Drinking or not drinking while playing sports – both options have a lot of pros and cons.
Let’s start with the basics: you need more water when you exercise than when you are at rest. You lose water in sweat, and the amount depends on the intensity of the activity and the ambient temperature. Surely you will spend more on a run in hot water than on a walk on a cool day. But exactly how much water do you need?
Mild dehydration – loss of only 2% of body weight – is believed to be detrimental to performance. You will run slower or feel disgusting during your workout.
At the same time, in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, it is said that in real-life situations, the performance of athletes does not decrease until dehydration reaches 4%, which is equivalent to a loss of 3 kg with a weight of 75 kg. In some cases, moderate dehydration even increases productivity. And no, it doesn’t cause seizures.
Most will prefer to avoid dehydration for safety reasons. Then another question arises: drink as much as possible, before, during and after training, or only when you feel thirsty?
And here there are also disagreements.The American College of Sports Medicine has released guidelines that give a rough estimate of the amount of water you will need and recommends weighing yourself before and after exercise to see if you are drinking enough. The developers of the manual believe that “thirst is not the most correct indicator of the body’s need for water.”
Earlier, the Institute of Medicine (a division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine) issued guidelines that stated that most healthy people can only be guided by their thirst to fully satisfy their need for water.This science and sports camp is concerned that the fear of dehydration leads people to another problem – excessive water intake, which threatens to deteriorate health, up to and including fatal complications.
The best option is to choose the golden mean: during sports, drink when you want. The exception is critical situations like a marathon on a hot day. In such cases, you may not even notice how dehydration will set in, so it is best to prevent it and drink it, even if you do not feel the need to do so.
Water is great, but don’t waste your willpower on it
You can only drink water if you drink liter by liter. It’s okay if you drink a few extra glasses a day. Or you won’t. In general, do not obsessively monitor how much you drink, and do not be afraid that you have dehydration. You would feel.
Intravenous rehydration therapy – ivtherapy
What is intravenous rehydration?
For the normal functioning of the body, a person needs a certain amount of fluid.But, there are a number of reasons why the body quickly loses it. Loss of fluid can be associated with both internal and external causes. This can be heavy sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, heatstroke, diabetes, and others. For moderate to severe dehydration (dehydration), the doctor will examine the patient and determine if intravenous rehydration is needed. Often, there is a need for an intravenous drip, which is used to treat children, and less often adults. Since dehydration is extremely dangerous for a child’s body and can lead to undesirable consequences.In addition, at risk are athletes who lose fluid during intense physical exertion, which leads to impaired thermoregulation and a decrease in muscle gain.
Intracellular fluid of our body should
contain a lot of potassium, magnesium and phosphorus. And cell membranes are obliged to constantly
maintain these minerals in equal proportions and constantly regulate them
The problem of dehydration is quite common among children, especially
small.Depending on the condition, different solutions can be used,
What is the purpose of IV rehydration?
If the baby’s body loses a lot of fluid
and his condition is rapidly deteriorating – encourage the child to drink
plenty of water or other drinks containing electrolytes. Need to drink
small sips and small portions, but often. It could be like
sports drinks and other pharmaceutical solutions. But if,
needs treatment for moderate to severe dehydration, oral rehydration
may not be enough.In this case, when dehydration has reached
critical point, a pediatrician or emergency doctor may recommend
intravenous rehydration. Because this condition is fraught with health risks, and
sometimes even a child’s life. In this case, the intravenous injection is absolutely
safe and able to quickly replenish fluid loss in the body.
Children’s dehydration, more common due to diarrhea, vomiting, high fever, overheating in the sun. The entire body of the child suffers from this, and severe dehydration can be life-threatening.And it is more likely that intravenous rehydration will be required to restore fluid balance.
It should also be noted that adults
also suffer from dehydration. This can happen during illness, with active
doing sports, drinking a little water or other drinks. But in
Unlike children, adults are less likely to require intravenous
rehydration as they do not need to be forced to drink more drinks.
How to understand how much a child’s body is
If you suspect that your
the child or yourself is dehydrated, immediately contact the clinic for
clarification of this assumption.Experienced specialists will tell you what degree
dehydration and what consequences they entail. If necessary, a doctor
diagnose and prescribe appropriate treatment. Signs of dehydration:
dryness of the mucous membranes of the eyes, tongue and lips, lethargy of the skin, rare
urination, rapid breathing, spots on the legs and arms.
What does IV rehydration include?
After assessing the degree of dehydration, specialists
in the field of medicine, intravenous rehydration is prescribed. Such a drip, easy
maintains fluid balance and normalizes the functioning of the whole body.
The pediatrician himself determines which
he needs a solution. This will depend on the age of the child, medical
indications and severity of dehydration. Doctor or nurse putting
dropper, monitor and adjust the amount of fluid, using
automatic pump or in manual mode. Duration of treatment and
the amount of liquid injected depends on the degree of dehydration. The same
the procedure is also used for adults. The main thing is not to bring your body to
such a state.
What risk may be associated with IV
For most people, the risk of complications from intravenous rehydration therapy is very low.
Possibly slight tingling or
redness in the area of the injection.
Such symptoms are quickly relieved and if
there is a need – they are easy to treat. … Nurses will constantly be
check the operation of the dropper.
Qualified health workers of our
center, will not tolerate a condition called infiltration.
Paramedics will provide first aid and
apply a warm compress to reduce swelling. To minimize
complications with instillation, stay with the child during the
procedures. This is especially important for young children who cannot sit on
Severe dehydration can lead to
life-threatening complications if you do not start to treat it on time. Remember!
The best treatment for dehydration is to prevent this
90,000 Five Tips for Fever Sufferers: What Helps and What Doesn’t?
- Claudia Hammond
- BBC Future
Photo author, Getty Images
Heat waves cover Europe quite regularly. And if you do not have an air conditioner at home or at work, then you inevitably ask yourself the question: how best to cool down and what does the experience of mankind say about this? Can you always rely on this experience?
Let’s take a look at five very common tips for heat sufferers from a scientific perspective.So, should you …
1) Drink cold drinks and refrain from hot drinks?
Drinking more in the heat is right. It is very important in such conditions to help your kidneys and prevent dehydration. But about what kind of liquid to drink – ice or hot, there has been debate for a long time.
The theory behind choosing hot is this: You heat yourself up from the inside, you start sweating more, which ultimately cools you.
The human body is capable of producing up to two liters of sweat per hour, and this is a very effective way to lower its temperature.
But if the lost amount of fluid is not compensated, then soon you will be dehydrated – and because of this, some experts recommend that you completely abandon hot drinks in the heat.
In addition, they emphasize that it is better to avoid tea or coffee, as these drinks contain caffeine, which increases dehydration. However, there is very little evidence that moderate amounts of caffeine act as a diuretic.
Indeed, some studies support the notion that cold drinks are better in hot weather.
In particular, experiments were carried out in which participants were subjected to severe physical activity, and then their body temperature was measured as they were given either hot or cold drinks. It has been found that the latter are more effective in cooling the body.
However, there is at least one possible problem with such studies – the method used to measure temperature.
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Hot drinks in hot weather will make your body sweat more
Valiant volunteers were given rectal thermometers.As noted by Ollie Jay, a graduate student of the Department of Physiology of Thermoregulation at the University of Ottawa (Canada), the cold liquid drunk fell straight into the stomach, which is not very far from the set thermometer. It is not surprising, therefore, that the temperature dropped rapidly.
When a team of researchers led by Ollie Jay took readings using eight thermometers placed in different places on the body, they found that hot drinks cool the body more, because, as already noted, they increase sweating.
So hot drinks in the heat help better. There is, however, a situation in which they are useless: if the humidity is very high or you are so dressed that the sweat has no way to evaporate. In this case, use cold drinks.
Verdict: This is a myth. Hot drinks will cool you down faster – unless the humidity is too high.
2) Turn on the fan as soon as possible?
The breeze from the rotating fan certainly brings relief.But we must take into account that the fan does not cool the air, it simply moves it, and the air flow created by it helps the normal heat exchange of our body – including the evaporation of sweat that appears on the skin from the heat.
Fans are used everywhere. There was even a case where three patients with heatstroke were cooled by a downdraft from the propeller of a light helicopter.
However, there are different opinions about the cooling efficiency of fans.
Most of the studies were observational, observational, without scientific intervention.Some of them found that fans helped, while others noted that if the air temperature is very high, then the situation only gets worse.
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The fan will not cool you if the air temperature is high
In general, it is believed that the fan can help if the air temperature is not higher than 35 degrees Celsius. If higher, then blowing the body with such air will only increase the heat load and can lead to thermal shock.
So if the room is too hot, then the use of fans even accelerates the dehydration of the body.
In addition, the fans are less efficient at high humidity. In this case, the air, although it moves, is filled with moisture, which makes it difficult for sweat to evaporate from human skin.
However, until we have conducted randomized controlled trials, we cannot know for sure what effect ventilators have.
And such studies are not easy to plan.Scientists will need to prepare everything for the moment when the next wave of heat comes – and the required temperatures may have to wait several years.
What we know for sure so far is that fans are not always a lifesaver. For example, during the 1999 heatwave in Cincinnati, 17 people died, and ten of them were using the fans that were turned on when these people were found dead.
Of course, we do not know – maybe they would die even faster without the fans.Or maybe they just bought fans because they lived in very hot buildings. Anyway …
Verdict: More data needed. But if the temperature has exceeded plus from 35, it is probably better to turn off the fan.
3) Is extreme heat only dangerous for the elderly?
The body temperature at which our body feels most comfortable and works normally is between 36 and 37.5 degrees Celsius.
Thermoreceptors on our skin, deep tissues and organs immediately detect an increase in temperature – even by one degree. If the ambient temperature is higher than the body temperature, we begin to sweat to cool down.
We also generate heat by sending more blood to our hands and feet (which is why they can be so hot at night).
Both of these methods of heat regulation require more active work from our heart. Therefore, older people sometimes have heart attacks or heart attacks.
In contrast to how a sharp cold snap affects health, most deaths from heat occur already in the first day of its arrival.
Photo author, Beata Zawrzel / NurPhoto via Getty Images
Children, like old people, are very sensitive to heat
Another problem with old people is that they cannot always understand in time that overheat and their body is dehydrated.
However, all this does not mean at all that the heat is dangerous only for the elderly.Children and people with chronic illnesses are also at risk – just like anyone with mobility difficulties, which prevents them from simply walking up to a window and opening it, fetching water or brewing hot tea to replace the loss of fluid from sweating.
When it is hot day and night, it is very difficult for our body to cool down. Heat in Europe in 2003, according to some estimates, caused the death of at least 30 thousand people, and some experts cite the figure as 70 thousand.Of the 15,000 deaths in France, 1,321 people were aged less than 64 years.
Verdict: False. Elderly people, of course, should be especially careful in the heat, but so should many others.
4) Do you need to open all windows?
Opening a window is the first thing most of us think of when it’s hot. But this can have the opposite effect.
Opening the windows is only necessary when the outside air is cooler than indoors (which is usually the case at night).
During the day, during intense heat, you must keep the windows closed. Less sunlight enters the room, so the temperature is not so high.
Even if you get some airflow through your home or office by creating a draft, it will only work if the air is not too hot – otherwise you will not be able to cool down.
Moreover, if the pollen content in the air is high, then such ventilation will only exacerbate allergies in those who suffer from it.
Verdict: This is not true if the air temperature outside the window is higher than in the room. But windows open at night will make life easier for you during the heat.
5) Need to drink beer?
In the 1958 film The Hard Way to Alexandria, the character played by John Mills dreams of an ice cold beer under the scorching sun of the African desert. At the end of the film, after all the adventures and difficulties endured, he sits in a bar, they bring him the coveted beer, he takes a sip and says the famous words: “Worth waiting for” (“it was worth waiting for”).
You don’t have to drive your truck through the North African desert to have a beer at sunset on a hot day. But will it help to cool? Not always.
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Beer (in small doses), like water, can restore your body’s moisture reserves.
If it’s just one glass, then beer is unlikely to hurt you. In various studies, scientists offered participants physical activity in order to get them sweaty, and then gave them beer – including non-alcoholic ones.
In a 1985 study, this experiment took place in an atmosphere of high humidity, and the “urinary peak” occurred after drinking beer. This is not good because it indicates that the body is losing rather than retaining fluid.
However, it is worth emphasizing that the difference in results between those who drank non-alcoholic beer and those who drank regular beer was extremely small.
Another, more recent study gave similar results. While regular water and restorative drinks for athletes were more effective at replenishing fluid loss, beer also performed surprisingly well.
Another study by Spanish scientists, in which participants spent 40 minutes on a treadmill, showed that both water and beer helped to replenish fluid loss to the same extent.
And this is strange – we know that people go to the toilet more often when they drink beer. Perhaps when the body becomes dehydrated and needs fluid, it leaves as much of the beer as it needs.
These are, however, small studies that did not pay attention to how the body temperature behaved, so we cannot say for sure if the beer cooled the body and, if so, how effectively.
But they have demonstrated that one or perhaps two glasses of beer will replace fluid loss rather than exacerbate it. So, probably, the hero of the movie “The Hard Way to Alexandria” was right, a pint of beer was worth the wait.
Verdict: This is n equal – at least if we are talking about one ohm or dw uh glasses .