What vitamin helps with cramps: 12 Foods That May Help with Muscle Cramps
12 Foods That May Help with Muscle Cramps
Muscle cramps are painful, involuntary muscle contractions. Research suggests that replacing certain nutrients like potassium, sodium, and magnesium may help reduce them.
Muscle cramps are typically brief and usually over within a few seconds to a few minutes (1, 2).
Although the exact cause isn’t always known, intense exercise, neuromuscular abnormalities, medical conditions, an electrolyte imbalance, medication use, and dehydration are thought to be common contributors (2).
Some research shows that replacing certain nutrients may help counteract muscle cramps. Plus, deficiencies in nutrients like magnesium, vitamin D, and certain B vitamins may increase the chances of muscle cramps (3, 4, 5).
Here are 12 foods that may help with muscle cramps.
Avocados are creamy, delicious fruits that are packed with nutrients that may help prevent muscle cramps.
They’re particularly rich in potassium and magnesium, two minerals that act as electrolytes in the body and play roles in muscle health. Electrolytes are electrically charged substances that your body needs to perform critical functions, including muscle contraction (6, 7).
When electrolytes become imbalanced, such as after intense physical activity, symptoms like muscle cramping can arise (3).
Therefore, if you experience frequent muscle cramps, making sure you consume plenty of electrolyte-rich foods like avocados may help.
One possible cause of muscle cramps is dehydration. Proper muscle function requires adequate hydration, and a lack of water can hinder muscle cells’ ability to contract, which may cause or exacerbate cramping (8).
Watermelon is a fruit that has an exceptionally high water content. In fact, watermelon is nearly 92% water, making it an excellent choice for a hydrating snack (9).
What’s more, watermelon is a good source of magnesium and potassium, two minerals that are important for overall muscular function.
Coconut water is a go-to choice for athletes looking to rehydrate and replenish electrolytes naturally — and for good reason.
It’s an excellent source of electrolytes, providing calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and phosphorus — all of which may help decrease muscle cramping (10).
One study found that when 10 male athletes rehydrated with an electrolyte-containing beverage similar to coconut water after intense exercise, they were less susceptible to electrical-stimulation-induced muscle cramps, compared with when they hydrated with regular water (3).
This may indicate that staying hydrated with electrolyte-rich coconut water may help reduce your susceptibility to post-exercise muscle cramping, though more research is needed.
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Sweet potatoes are amongst the healthiest vegetables you can eat due to the powerful combination of vitamins, minerals, and plant compounds found within their flesh and skin.
They’re packed with potassium, calcium, and magnesium — minerals that are vital for muscle function.
In fact, 1 cup (200 grams) of mashed sweet potato delivers over 20% of the recommended intake for potassium and nearly 13% of the recommended intake for magnesium (11).
Greek yogurt is a healthy dairy product that’s high in many nutrients, particularly potassium, phosphorus, and calcium — all of which act as electrolytes in your body.
Muscles need calcium to function properly, which is why a lack of calcium in your blood can lead to muscle-related complications, including muscle cramps and irregular heartbeat (12).
Greek yogurt is also loaded with protein, which is needed for the growth and repair of muscle tissue.
Therefore, eating Greek yogurt after a strenuous workout can help replenish certain nutrients that may prevent exercise-related muscle cramps, as well as boost muscle recovery (13).
Bone broth is made by simmering animal bones in water for a long time, usually over 8 hours, to create a concentrated broth. Ingredients like apple cider vinegar, herbs, and spices are typically added to enhance the nutritional value and flavor.
Bone broth may help reduce muscle cramps for several reasons. Given that it’s a liquid, drinking it can help you stay hydrated, which may reduce muscle cramping.
Plus, bone broth is a good source of magnesium, calcium, and sodium — nutrients that may help prevent cramping.
When making bone broth, be sure to cook the broth for a long time and add an acidic component, such as apple cider vinegar, to your recipe.
Research shows that reducing bone broth pH by increasing the acidity and cooking broth for longer than 8 hours results in significantly higher concentrations of calcium and magnesium in the finished product (14).
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Papayas are tasty tropical fruits that are especially high in potassium and magnesium. In fact, one 11-ounce (310-gram) papaya delivers about 15% and 19% of the recommended intakes for potassium and magnesium, respectively (15).
One study in 230 women found that those who experienced muscle cramps consumed less dietary potassium than those who did not experience this symptom (16).
Therefore, consuming more potassium-rich foods like papayas may help reduce your risk of muscle cramps. However, more research in this area is needed.
Beet greens are the leafy, nutritious tops of the beet plant. They’re amongst the most nutritious greens you can eat and packed with a number of nutrients that support muscle health and may reduce your risk of muscle cramps.
For example, 1 cup (144 grams) of cooked beet greens contains over 20% of the recommended intake for both potassium and magnesium. They’re also rich in calcium, phosphorus, and B vitamins, which are important for muscle function as well (17).
What’s more, beet greens are loaded with nitrates, which are compounds that help improve blood vessel function, ensuring proper blood flow to your muscles. Optimizing blood flow may help reduce muscle cramps (18).
Fermented foods, such as pickles and kimchi, are typically high in sodium and other nutrients that may help reduce muscle cramps. Interestingly, some research has shown that consuming pickle juice may help inhibit electrically induced muscle cramps in athletes.
A study in male athletes demonstrated that drinking small amounts of pickle juice strained from whole pickles reduced electrically-induced muscle cramp duration by 49.1 seconds, compared with drinking plain water or no fluids at all (19).
Pickles, along with other fermented foods including kimchi and sauerkraut, are rich in electrolytes like sodium and may be a good choice for those who experience frequent muscle cramps.
However, keep in mind that more research is needed before fermented foods and beverages can be recommended as a treatment for muscle cramps.
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Salmon is an incredibly rich source of protein, healthy anti-inflammatory fats, and other nutrients that may help prevent muscle cramps, including B vitamins, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus (20).
Salmon is also high in iron, a mineral that’s essential for healthy blood cell production, the oxygenation of muscle tissue, and blood flow, which are important for muscle cramp prevention (21).
Additionally, salmon is a good source of vitamin D. Having healthy blood levels of vitamin D is vital for muscle function, and being deficient in this nutrient may lead to muscular symptoms, such as muscle pain, spasms, and weakness (22).
Wild-caught salmon is a rich source of vitamin D and has been shown to contain between 8–55 mcg per 3.5 ounces (100 grams).
The current daily intake recommendation for vitamin D is 15 mcg per day for adults, making wild-caught salmon a smart choice for people looking to increase their intake of this important vitamin (23, 24).
Smoothies are an excellent choice for people who experience muscle cramps. They’re not only hydrating but also can be customized to contain a hearty dose of muscle-supporting nutrients.
For example, combining frozen berries, spinach, almond butter, and Greek yogurt in an easy-to-drink smoothie can help deliver the vitamins and minerals that your muscles need to function at an optimal level.
Plus, sipping on nutrient-rich smoothies may prevent muscle cramps by ensuring your body is properly hydrated and fueled.
Sardines may be tiny, but they pack a punch when it comes to nutrition.
These small fish are especially high in nutrients that may help prevent and relieve muscle cramps, including calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, vitamin D, and magnesium (25).
They’re also high in selenium, a mineral that plays an essential role in muscle function. Low selenium levels may lead to muscle weakness or other muscular problems, making it important to include enough selenium-rich foods like sardines in your diet (26).
Muscle cramps are a painful symptom experienced by many people.
Fortunately, eating nutrient-dense foods rich in certain vitamins and minerals may help prevent and treat muscle cramps.
If you frequently experience muscle cramps, try adding a few of the foods and beverages on this list into your diet for natural relief.
If your symptoms don’t improve or worsen, be sure to speak with your healthcare provider about possible causes and treatment options.
3 best supplements for muscle cramps
Approximately 60 percent of adults experience these oftentimes painful involuntary contractions, according to the Medical University of South Carolina. Additionally, the rate of cramping tends to increase with age.
Medline adds that the muscles that cramp the most are typically located in the thighs and feet, hands and arms, abdomen, and along the ribcage. The majority of the time these cramps are brought on by overuse.
However, nerve compression, dehydration, low electrolyte levels, reduced blood supply to the muscle, pregnancy, certain medications, and dialysis can all cause muscles to tense as well.
Though muscle cramps are typically harmless and usually go away on their own, Medline indicates that stretching, massage, heat, and increasing fluids can sometimes help. So too can supplements. Here are three to consider based on scientific research.
1.Vitamin B complex
The human body needs a variety of B vitamins for maximum cellular health, proper brain and nerve function, enhanced cardiovascular wellbeing, and normal hormone production according to Healthline. B vitamins also aid in increasing energy levels, improving eyesight, and healthier digestion.
vitamin B complex — a supplement containing B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3
(niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid),
and B12 (cobalamin) — can help with all of these functions. But research has
also found that it can potentially help with muscle cramps.
In a 2010 assessment published in the journal Neurology, researchers reviewed 24 trials involving muscle cramp treatments. They noted that, in at least one Class II study — which the Evidence-Based Spine-Care Journal explains means that the study has a moderately low risk of bias — vitamin B complex was found to help treat these cramps.
Research published in BMC Family Practice reports that approximately one in three adults
over the age of 50 have nocturnal leg cramps lasting anywhere from a few
seconds to 10 minutes in length. These nighttime leg cramps often cause intense
pain, typically in the calf or foot, resulting in sleep issues and distress as
Some studies have found that magnesium can potentially ease these types of cramps. One such study was published in Medical Science Monitor. At some points during the study, participants were given 300 mg of magnesium for their nocturnal cramps; other times they received a control, keeping a diary to note their cramp durations and severities along the way.
weeks it was determined that, after receiving actual magnesium, 78 percent of
the study subjects reported an improvement in cramping. This compares to just 54
percent reporting some level of improvement after taking a placebo.
Research has also connected oral magnesium
with the relief of leg cramps occurring during pregnancy. Healthline adds that magnesium has other
benefits for expecting mothers as well, such as potentially reducing fetal
growth restriction and preterm birth.
Medical News Today explains that zinc benefits the body
in several ways. This includes supporting healthy immune system function,
improving learning and memory, maximizing wound healing processes, decreasing
age-related health conditions, and improving fertility. Research has also found
that this nutrient can possibly help ease specific types of muscle cramps.
instance, a 2000 study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition
involved 12 cirrhotic patients who experienced muscle cramps at least three
times per week, typically in their calves, feet, and hands. After receiving 220
mg BID of zinc sulfate for 12 weeks, 10 of the 12 patients reported improvement
with regard to their muscle cramps. Seven of these indicated that their cramps
went away completely.
also been found beneficial if the cramping is menstruation-related. An article in Medical Hypotheses
states that up to three 30 mg doses of zinc taken daily for one to four days
before menses can help prevent menstrual cramping. However, it is unclear if
this response is due to this nutrient’s impact on prostaglandins or if it is
because it acts an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory for the uterus.
Safe supplement use
taking any of these supplements in an attempt to ease muscle cramps, the National Center for Complementary and
Integrative Health (NCCIH)
warns that some dietary supplements can interact with prescription medication.
They can also increase risk of complications regarding certain medical
supplements contain ingredients that aren’t listed on the label according to
the NCCIH, while others make illegal claims, violating governmental standards
and putting consumers at risk of developing medical issues due to supplement
such as these, the NCCIH recommends that individuals speak with their healthcare
providers prior to taking supplements before surgery. It also suggests that if
supplements are taken, that they be taken as instructed on the product label.
because many supplements have not been adequately tested for pregnant women,
nursing mothers, and children, care should be taken when using them in these
Doctors told what vitamins the body needs for leg cramps
Vitamins play an extremely important role in the development of the body and maintaining its normal performance. They are part of enzymes and coenzymes that perform the function of maintaining the constancy of the internal environment of the body. The contractile function of the muscles is more affected by the deficiency of vitamins A, B, D and E. At the same time, the integrity of cell membranes suffers and, as a result, there is a decrease in the excitability threshold, leading to convulsions, reports FaceNews.ua.
Doctors say that leg cramps are often caused by hypocalcemia, hypovitaminosis D, lack of magnesium and vitamin B6. Treatment of leg cramps in this case, first of all, begins with the correction of nutritional errors, it is necessary to replenish your diet with foods containing magnesium and calcium, the deficiency of which is one of the common causes of leg cramps.
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Replenishment of these minerals valuable for health with food can be realized using nuts, cereals, bran, cheese, eggs, vegetables, dairy and sour-milk products, figs, prunes and blueberries in your diet. But, it is worth remembering that without vitamin D it is impossible to achieve the absorption of calcium by the body, as well as magnesium without vitamin B6, the deficiency of which in the body also provokes frequent convulsions, and a deficiency of vitamin B6 can lead to muscle degeneration.
With insufficient intake of vitamin B1 (thiamine), depression increases, fatigue increases, memory deteriorates, leg cramps occur. The cause of the deficiency is the abuse of diets, diabetes mellitus. Cereals, legumes, potatoes help to eliminate the lack of vitamin B1. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency causes leg cramps, loss of appetite, and muscular dystrophy. Contained in cereals, legumes, bran, wholemeal flour, milk, meat, fish, brewer’s yeast.
Vitamin E (tocopherol) can be taken to treat nighttime leg cramps. The recommended daily intake is 10-20 IU, for medicinal purposes it increases. Taking vitamin E eliminates circulatory disorders in the lower extremities – the cause of seizures, helps in the fight against fungal diseases, is good for the eyes, adds energy and attractiveness.
Useful foods for leg cramps
- Foods with a high content of missing elements of calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamin D.
- Products containing magnesium: dill, lettuce, green onions, parsley, seaweed, bran, buckwheat, oats, rye, millet, legumes, dried apricots, prunes, figs, dates.
- Products containing calcium: fermented milk products (cheese, cottage cheese, kefir, fermented baked milk, yogurt), sesame seeds, cabbage, nuts.
- Foods containing vitamin D: fish, egg yolks, dairy products, butter.
Vitamin D is also formed in the skin under the influence of UV radiation. When you sunbathe, you get vitamin D.
Foods rich in potassium: meat, fish, jacket potatoes (potato skins), bananas, avocados.
Also one of the causes of leg cramps is hemorrhoids. With a sedentary sedentary lifestyle, constipation, weight lifting, the veins of the rectum expand and pinch. The disease develops with a deficiency in the diet of magnesium, vitamins C, K, R.
If pain or bleeding occurs during defecation, leg cramps, bruises on the body, it is necessary to eliminate magnesium deficiency. Magnesium is found in wheat bran, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, nuts, soybeans, lentils. Vitamin C is rich in fresh vegetables and fruits, tomatoes, sweet peppers, dill, sorrel, lemons, oranges, black currants.
Vitamin K is found in green plants, liver, walnuts, cabbage. In addition, it is produced by the intestinal microflora. If enough dietary fiber is supplied with food, the walls are not contaminated and the balance is not disturbed, the body receives a sufficient amount of vitamin K. Vitamin P is part of the rose hips, red peppers, oranges, grapes, black currants.
The parathyroid (parathyroid) glands are located near the neck in close proximity to the thyroid gland. They regulate phosphorus-acid metabolism in the body. Sometimes a lack of function is caused by damage to them during thyroid surgery. Signs of hypoparathyroidism are manifested by muscle spasm, including respiratory, leg cramps, and fingers. The stomach hurts, the stool is liquid, sometimes an allergy appears. Everything around begins to annoy for no reason, nervous breakdowns occur, sleep worsens.
Cause of painful, repetitive spasms of the calf muscles is a lack of calcium caused by hypoparathyroidism. Calcium is found in milk powder, cheese, soy, nuts, cabbage, parsley, cream, yogurt, beans, cottage cheese. The daily requirement is 1000-1500 mcg. Deficiency is manifested by brittle nails, reduced resistance to disease, memory impairment, and blood clotting. Calcium is especially necessary for dieters, during pregnancy, during adolescence.
If the cause of seizures is associated with hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D is needed for treatment, which promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, which regulates the exchange of these elements. Vitamin D is rich in fish oil, cod liver, herring, tuna, cheese, cottage cheese.
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list of top 10 inexpensive and effective drugs for seizures for adults according to KP
Usually, seizures occur against the background of various diseases and with a deficiency of certain vitamins and minerals that regulate the functioning of muscle fibers. With a shortage of these substances, cramps are observed in the muscles of the legs, arms, back, neck. Most often, cramps reduce the calf muscles. Spasms are usually disturbing at night, lasting from a few seconds to several minutes. Vitamin and mineral complexes will help to cope with this problem.
List of top 10 inexpensive anticonvulsants for adults according to KP
We have selected vitamin-mineral complexes with an anticonvulsant effect. With the help of drugs and dietary supplements from the list, you can stop convulsions that have developed due to a deficiency of magnesium, calcium, potassium, vitamin D.
Our list includes inexpensive anticonvulsant drugs that are widely used in medical practice and are almost always available in pharmacies.
Important! All drugs have side effects and contraindications. Our material is an overview and does not serve as a guide to action. Before buying funds, consult your doctor.
The combination of magnesium and vitamin B6 helps improve metabolism and the nervous system. The drug is indicated for people with a deficiency of these trace elements, who regularly experience spasms, pain and tingling in the muscles. It also helps to cope with increased irritability, fatigue and sleep disturbances.
Contraindications : hypersensitivity to components, lactation, severe renal insufficiency, children under 6 years of age.
Composition; can be used during pregnancy with the permission of a doctor.
High price; daily you need to take a lot of tablets – 6-8 pieces.
Preparation based on organic salt – magnesium orotate. Both components of the salt – magnesium and orotic acid – are present in the human body and are actively involved in metabolic processes, including the regulation of neuromuscular conduction. The drug is indicated for magnesium deficiency, which is accompanied by pain and muscle spasms, tachycardia, sleep disturbances, fatigue and weakness.
Contraindications : age under 18, breastfeeding period, urolithiasis, impaired renal function, liver cirrhosis with ascites, atrioventricular block, lactase intolerance, lactose deficiency.
Both active ingredients are present in the human body.
High price, one package may not be enough for a course of treatment.
This anticonvulsant contains magnesium and vitamin B6, indicated for deficiency of these trace elements with associated symptoms: muscle cramps, anxiety, irritability, fatigue. It is also indicated for pregnant women with cramps in the calf muscles.
Contraindications : hypersensitivity to components, lactation, children under 6 years of age, phenylketonuria, severe renal failure.
G=Wide range of applications; is cheaper than foreign counterparts.
A large number of tablets are to be taken daily – 6-8 pieces.
Inexpensive drug with anticonvulsant effect, contains magnesium citrate and vitamin B6. In its composition and indications it is very close to other similar means. Indicated for muscle cramps on the background of magnesium deficiency.
Contraindications : breastfeeding period, age up to 18 years, individual intolerance, phenylketonuria, severe renal insufficiency.
Uneconomical packaging – 30 capsules will last only 5-7 days of use.
The active components of the drug are potassium and magnesium salts, which are necessary for the normal functioning of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. With a deficiency of these trace elements, heart rhythm disturbances and muscle cramps often occur. The remedy is indicated for people with hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. As a rule, these are patients with heart disease and those who regularly take diuretics.
Contraindications : hypersensitivity to the drug, excess magnesium and potassium in the body, Addison’s disease, dehydration, acute and chronic renal failure, hemolysis, age up to 18 years.
Reasonable price; with the permission of a doctor, pregnant and lactating women can take.
Not very convenient regimen – 3 times a day.
It has a similar effect to the previous remedy and allows you to fight potassium and magnesium deficiency in people with heart diseases: coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, rhythm disturbances. Helps to stop cramps caused by a lack of potassium and magnesium in the body.
Contraindications : disorders of amino acid metabolism, individual intolerance, hyperkalemia and hypermagnesemia, acute and chronic renal failure, hemolysis, arterial hypotension, age up to 18 years. It is used with caution during pregnancy and lactation.
Reasonable price; helps to support the work of the heart with a deficiency of potassium and magnesium.
May cause nausea and diarrhoea.
Vitamin-mineral complex contains calcium and vitamin D3 and is indicated for deficiency of these trace elements. Helps strengthen bone tissue and prevent the development of osteoporosis – increased bone fragility, which often affects the elderly, menopausal women and patients who take glucocorticosteroid hormones for a long time. Helps fight muscle spasms that have arisen due to a lack of calcium in the body.
Contraindications : hypersensitivity to components, children under 3 years of age, high concentrations of vitamin D and calcium in the body, phenylketonuria, chronic renal failure. Use during pregnancy is possible in small doses.
Pleasant orange mint flavored chewable tablets for children over 3 years of age and pregnant women.
May cause nausea, constipation, stomach pain.
Calcium D3 Nycomed
Lemon flavored chewable tablets contain calcium and vitamin D3 and are intended for adults and children from 3 years of age. The drug promotes the absorption of phosphorus and calcium in the body, and is also used for calcium and vitamin D deficiency. It helps to strengthen teeth and bones, improve the functioning of the circulatory and nervous systems and cope with convulsive syndrome that develops with a lack of calcium.
Contraindications : individual intolerance, excess calcium and vitamin D in the blood and urine, phenylketonuria, nephrolithiasis, severe renal failure.
Allowed for pregnant and lactating women; pleasant taste.
These soluble tablets contain vitamin D3, which regulates the absorption of phosphorus and calcium in our body. Calcium helps maintain skeletal muscle tone, regulate heart function and blood clotting. With a low content of calcium in the blood, convulsions and muscle spasms often occur.
Indicated for vitamin D3 deficiency in children and adults. The drug helps to cope with hypocalcemia and spasmophilia – a convulsive syndrome against the background of rickets in young children.
Contraindications : vitamin D hypervitaminosis, excess calcium in the blood and urine, sarcoidosis, urolithiasis, acute and chronic diseases of the kidneys and liver, renal failure, hypersensitivity to the drug.
Reasonable price; pleasant taste; can be used in children older than 1 month.
Tablets must first be dissolved in a tablespoon of liquid, which takes some time.
Dietary supplement can be an additional source of vitamin D, which helps the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the body. The supplement is indicated for strengthening bones and teeth, normalizing the work of the cardiovascular system, as well as for muscle spasms and cramps against the background of calcium deficiency 10 .
Contraindications : individual intolerance, age under 18 years.
Few contraindications; convenient regimen – 1 time per day.
Must be taken for a long time, 6 months on average.
How to choose anticonvulsants
— If a deficiency of one or another trace element in the body is detected, you can choose a vitamin-mineral complex yourself. At low concentrations of trace elements in the blood serum, the doctor may recommend increased doses. It is better to give preference to easily digestible dosage forms (for example, chelate complexes), – comments our expert Tatyana Khodanovich.
Popular Questions and Answers
Convulsions due to vitamin and mineral deficiencies occur in a variety of people. Pregnant women, the elderly, and those who do not eat well and take certain medications (such as diuretics) most often experience this problem. The most popular questions about seizures are answered by Tatyana Khodanovich, CEO of PharmEdu educational platform and pharmacist Elza Kunakbayeva
Why do seizures occur?
— Cramps are involuntary paroxysmal muscle contractions. They occur when metabolic processes are disturbed and the amount of ATP (adenosine triphosphoric acid) decreases. With its lack, the muscles cannot relax on their own, and therefore a convulsive contraction occurs. Most often, this is a sudden painful contraction or spasm of the muscles lasting from a few seconds to several minutes.
Excessive exercise, pregnancy, hypothermia or overheating, dehydration, wearing tight uncomfortable shoes, constant being in the same position, varicose veins can provoke convulsions. Convulsions often occur against the background of the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, taking certain medications, and fever.
The appearance of seizures can be caused by a lack of useful substances and vitamins in the body, mainly potassium, magnesium and calcium; lack of vitamins of groups B, E, D, A. In this case, over-the-counter anticonvulsants can help.
You also need to know that seizures can be a symptom of serious diseases: meningitis, encephalitis, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, brain tumors, kidney and liver failure. Therefore, with regular convulsions, it is imperative to consult a general practitioner. If necessary, he will refer to narrow specialists: a cardiologist, a neurologist, a surgeon, a phlebologist.
What to do at home for seizures?
— To relieve cramps in the legs, you need to apply physical effort: straighten your toes with your hands or pull the toe of your foot towards you. If this does not help, you can pinch the skin. After the cramp has passed, the limb can be massaged.