What will a pap smear show: Pap smear – Mayo Clinic
Pap Tests vs. HPV Tests
Miriam @ Planned Parenthood
Jan. 27, 2022, 10:56 p.m.
Pap tests and HPV tests are some of the best ways to prevent cervical cancer. These screenings can help find problems on the cervix early on, so you can treat them before they lead to cancer. Cervical cancer used to be the most frequent cause of cancer deaths in women, but thanks to Pap and HPV tests, along with the HPV vaccine, it’s now much less common in the U.S. — that’s why regular screenings are so important.
What do Pap and HPV tests feel like?
Pap and HPV tests only take a few minutes. A nurse or doctor uses a speculum to open your vagina. They gently rub your cervix with a small swab, brush, or spatula to get a tiny sample of cells, then they send that cell sample to a lab for testing. There may be some pressure when your doctor or nurse opens the speculum inside you, and you might also feel a light scratching or a small, mild cramp when they rub your cervix. It can sometimes be a little uncomfortable, but it usually doesn’t hurt and it’s over very quickly.
Pap and HPV tests use the same process and feel similar to the patient, but they test for different things.
What does the HPV test look for?
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a really common sexually transmitted infection. Most of the time it’s not harmful, and your body naturally clears it over time. But a few types of HPV can cause cell changes that may eventually lead to cancer in some people — these types are called “high-risk HPV.”
An HPV test looks for some of these high-risk types of HPV on your cervix. After your doctor sends your HPV test to the lab, the results will come back as “positive” or “negative.”
What does the Pap test look for?
Pap tests, sometimes called Pap smears, look for abnormal cells on your cervix that can possibly lead to cervical cancer. Pap tests find cell changes caused by high-risk HPV, but they don’t test for HPV itself.
After your doctor sends your Pap test to the lab, the results will come back as “normal” or “abnormal.”
Do the Pap and HPV tests find cancer?
Nope. Pap and HPV tests don’t find cancer directly. They’re just screenings that tell your doctor whether you need more testing or treatment.
When should I get a Pap test and/or HPV test, and which kind of test do I need?
How often you get tested depends on your age, medical history, and the results of your last Pap or HPV tests. In general:
If you’re 21–24 years old: You can choose to get a Pap test every 3 years, or you can wait until you’re 25 to start getting tested.
If you’re 25–65 years old: Get an HPV test every 5 years, or a Pap test and HPV test together (called co-testing) every 5 years. In some places where HPV tests are not as available, you may get only a Pap test every 3 years.
If you’re older than 65: You may not need HPV/Pap tests anymore.
You can get both the Pap and HPV tests during your regular wellness exam. Your doctor can tell you which tests you need and when you need them based on your personal situation. If you have a history of HPV or abnormal Pap tests, your doctor may want to test you more often.
It takes years for HPV to cause cell changes, and for those cell changes to become cancer. So HPV tests catch problems a little earlier than Pap tests, because they find HPV before it may cause cell changes — Pap tests find cell changes after they’ve already happened. That’s why some doctors recommend HPV tests over Pap tests, and why you may need testing less often when you get HPV tests. But both tests are great tools for preventing cervical cancer.
Wait, every 3-5 years? Did the HPV and Pap test screening guidelines change?
Yep. Guidelines for keeping your cervix healthy might have changed since your last visit, and you may need testing less often than you used to. That’s because doctors and researchers have learned more about what causes cervical cancer, so testing has gotten better over time. They also learned that it takes several years for precancerous cell changes to develop. Getting tested more often than you need may cause you to have unnecessary procedures.
Your doctor or nurse might still follow older guidelines, or want to test you more often based on your medical history. No matter what they recommend, you should feel comfortable with the amount of testing you’re getting. So if you have questions or concerns, talk with your doctor about a plan that makes sense for you.
What happens if I get an abnormal Pap test result or positive HPV test result?
If the lab finds abnormal cells on your cervix from a Pap test, or if your HPV test comes back positive, don’t panic — it doesn’t mean you have cancer, it just means that you might need more testing and/or treatment. Your doctor may also just monitor your cervix to see if the issue goes away on its own (which is common).
Do I still need Pap or HPV tests if I got the HPV vaccine?
Yes. The HPV vaccine is a great way to help prevent HPV and cervical cancer. But the HPV vaccine doesn’t protect against ALL types of HPV, so it’s still important to get testing when your doctor recommends it.
Where can I get an HPV or Pap test?
You can get Pap and HPV tests from a nurse or doctor, like the ones at your local Planned Parenthood health center. You may also be able to get them at some community health clinics or through the health department. Thanks to the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), Pap or HPV tests are usually free with health insurance. If you don’t have health insurance or you’re worried about costs, contact your local Planned Parenthood health center to see if they can hook you up with affordable care.
Pap test | Canadian Cancer Society
A Pap test is a procedure that removes a small sample of cells from the cervix. It is done to look for changes to the cells in the cervix.
A Pap test is mainly used to:
- screen for and help diagnose precancerous conditions of the cervix and cervical cancer
- help diagnose precancerous conditions of the vagina and vaginal cancer
- diagnose infection and inflammation in the lower female reproductive tract
- follow up after an abnormal Pap test or to monitor precancerous conditions
- check for abnormal cell changes or to see if cancer comes back (recurs) after treatment
To prepare for a Pap test:
- Book your appointment for when you are not having your period.
- Don’t have sexual intercourse for at least 24 hours before your Pap test.
- Don’t use vaginal douches, vaginal medicines, vaginal sprays or powders, or contraceptive creams for at least 24 hours before your Pap test.
- Don’t have a Pap test if you are being treated for a cervical or vaginal infection. Wait at least 2 weeks after treatment has ended before having a Pap test.
- Empty your bladder before the Pap test.
A Pap test may be done as part of a regular checkup or during a pelvic exam. It is usually done in a doctor’s or nurse’s office or in a clinic. It only takes a few minutes. You may feel some discomfort or pressure during the procedure, but it is not usually painful.
During a Pap test you lie on your back with your feet up in stirrups. The doctor or nurse places a speculum (a clear plastic or metal device) into the vagina. The speculum keeps the vagina open so they can see the upper part of the vagina and cervix. Using a small stick, spatula, and/or brush the doctor or nurse gently scrapes the surface of the cervix to pick up cells. Sometimes they will use a special brush to collect cells from the inner part of the cervix that leads into the uterus. Samples of cells from the vagina can also be taken during a Pap test.
The collected cells are placed in a special liquid. The sample is sent to a lab to be examined under a microscope. If the cells are placed in a container filled with a special liquid, it is called a liquid-based Pap test. The liquid containing the sample of cells may also be used to test for the human papillomavirus (HPV).
You may have some light bleeding from the vagina after a Pap test.
Find out more about a pelvic exam.
A Pap test result may be described as normal or abnormal. Normal results are also sometimes described as negative.
A normal result means that no abnormal or cancerous cells were found.
If your Pap test results are abnormal, it doesn’t always mean that you have a precancerous condition or cancer. Some abnormal cells return to normal on their own. Other abnormal cells or precancerous changes in the cervix or vagina may develop into cancer over time if they aren’t treated.
Abnormal cells in the cervix or vagina are classified based on the type of cell that has changed and how different they look from normal cells. How abnormal they are may be described as low or high grade.
Squamous cells come from the surface of the cervix or vagina. Glandular cells come from the inside of the cervical canal.
Squamous cell changes are described as squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). SIL is described as low grade (least severe) or high grade (most severe).
- Atypical squamous cells (ASC) means the cells don’t look normal. It is the most common finding.
- Atypical squamous cells – undetermined significance (ASC-US) means some cells don’t look completely normal.
- Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) means the cells have mild changes in size and shape, caused by an HPV infection.
- Atypical squamous cells (ASC-H) means the cells don’t look normal but it’s not clear what the changes mean. The abnormal cells could be a high-grade lesion.
- High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) means there are abnormal or precancerous cells present and they have a higher chance of progressing to cancer.
- Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) means there are cancer cells in the lining of the outer surface of the cervix.
Glandular cell changes are described as:
- Atypical glandular cells (AGC) means the cells don’t look normal.
- Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) means there are cancer cells in the glandular tissue lining the inside of the cervix but there has been no spread into the deeper tissues of the cervix or surrounding tissue.
- Adenocarcinoma means there is cancer in the lining inside the cervix (endocervical cancer).
Infection with HPV is the most common cause of changes to cervical cells. Sometimes cells infected with HPV can become precancerous. Changes to the cervix may also be caused by:
- viral, bacterial or yeast infection
- non-cancerous growths such as polyps or cysts
Your doctor may recommend more tests, procedures, follow-up care or treatment.
Follow-up for an abnormal Pap test depends on how severe the results are. Some abnormalities may not need to be treated because some abnormal cells change back to normal on their own. Other abnormal cells or precancerous changes to cells may develop into cancer if they aren’t treated.
Follow-up tests and treatment for abnormal Pap test results include:
- another Pap test
- an HPV test
- a colposcopy (a procedure that uses a lighted magnifying instrument, called a colposcope, to examine the vulva, vagina and cervix)
- endocervical curettage (a type of biopsy to remove cells from the endocervical canal, which is the passageway from the uterus to the vagina)
- a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or other type of cone biopsy
Find out more about an HPV test, a LEEP and a cone biopsy.
If you have an abnormal Pap test result when you are pregnant, your doctor will talk to you about next steps. You may have a colposcopy. But doctors usually avoid taking a biopsy until after you have given birth because there is a small chance that taking a biopsy sample can cause bleeding.
Screening tests, including the Pap test, have a risk of giving misleading results.
A false-negative result means that the test doesn’t find cancer or abnormal cells even though they are present. This may occur if the sample doesn’t have enough tissue or cells. It can also happen when abnormal cells in the sample are missed.
A false-positive result means that the test shows abnormal cells even though they are not present. This means that something looks like a precancerous condition, but it actually isn’t. A false-positive result may lead to unnecessary follow-up tests, procedures and anxiety.
Pap test. British Columbia Ministry of Health. HealthLink BC. 2017: https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/medical-tests/.
Abnormal pap test. British Columbia Ministry of Health. HealthLink BC. 2017: http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/index.html.
Fischbach FT, Fischbach MA. Fischbach’s A Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 10th ed. Wolters Kluwer; 2018.
. Cervical cancer. Yarbro CH, Wujcki D, Holmes Gobel B, (eds.). Cancer Nursing: Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2018: 50: 1397 – 1421.
US National Library of Medicine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Pap Test. 2017: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003911.htm.
What a smear for flora shows in women
November 19, 2021
A simple procedure helps in the diagnosis of infections.
What is a female flora smear
A female flora smear is a method for diagnosing inflammation and some infections, in which the gynecologist takes a little discharge from the patient’s vagina. The sample is then sent to a laboratory for analysis. The specialist will be able to see normal cells of the body or various bacteria, fungi.
In what cases is a flora swab taken for women? For example, itching and burning in the vagina, pain when urinating.
Pregnant women will also need an examination. They take samples of secretions three times:
- when registering;
- in the second trimester;
- in the third trimester.
How to prepare for a flora smear
Examination is not carried out during menstruation, as such a sample will not show anything. It will have a lot of blood and remnants of the endometrium.
In other cases, on the eve of a visit to the gynecologist, it is not recommended to douche, and 2 days before the smear, use vaginal preparations. This can affect the composition of the microflora and distort the results of the examination.
How a flora smear is done in women
The patient undresses from the waist down and lies down on the gynecological chair. The doctor gently inserts dilators into the vagina to push the walls apart. It doesn’t hurt, but it can be uncomfortable.
Then the doctor takes a little secretion with a sterile swab or a special brush and applies it to a small slide. The sample is sent to a laboratory where it will be stained and examined under a microscope.
What a doctor can see in a smear for flora in women
The basis of the vaginal microflora is lactobacilli. They look like small blue sticks. In a smear, there should be a lot of them in the field of view. It is also considered normal if the laboratory assistant sees less than 5 leukocytes. The presence of cells of the epithelium of the vagina, which are rejected in a natural way, is allowed.
But sometimes there are signs that speak of pathology. These are:
- A large number of leukocytes. It is bad if there are more than 10 of them in sight. This is a symptom of inflammation, cervicitis, and sometimes trichomoniasis.
- Key cells. This is the vaginal epithelium to which microbes have attached. Usually this is how bacterial vaginosis manifests itself.
- Candida cells or hyphae (i.e. chains). Their presence indicates a fungal infection.
- Gonococci. These bacteria resemble a coffee bean in shape and are located in pairs within leukocytes. They are difficult to distinguish, but sometimes the laboratory assistant manages to examine microorganisms. If they are found, it’s gonorrhea.
What to do if the flora smear does not meet the norm
Everything will depend on which cells are found. If it is candidiasis, the gynecologist will prescribe an antifungal agent for the woman. And with inflammation or bacterial vaginosis, you will need antibiotics. If it is gonorrhea or trichomoniasis, antibiotic treatment is necessary not only for the patient, but also for the sexual partner. You may not be able to have sex during therapy.
When the course of treatment is completed, the gynecologist will conduct a second analysis: it is necessary to make sure that the drugs have helped.
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- Vaginitis: what it is, where it comes from and how to treat it
what tests are needed and what they show
- 1 Flora smear in women: what does the test show and why is it needed?
- 1.1 What is a female flora smear and why is it performed
- 1.2 Preparing for a flora smear
- 1.3 What tests are required for a female flora smear?
- 1.4 Flora smear for women
- 1.5 How to interpret flora smear results
- 1.6 Norms and deviations in the analysis of a swab for flora
- 1. 7 The importance of coccal and fungal flora in the analysis of a smear for flora
- 1.8 Which diseases can be detected by a smear analysis for flora
- 1.9 When should a repeat smear analysis be in women
- 1.10 Regular smearing for flora is the key to women’s health
- 1.11 Video on the topic:
- 1.12 Q&A:
- 22.214.171.124 How often should a flora test be done?
- 126.96.36.199 What is the procedure for taking a flora test?
- 188.8.131.52 What are the causes of a disorder in the flora?
- 184.108.40.206 What is dysbacteriosis and why is it bad?
- 220.127.116.11 Can flora be analyzed during menstruation?
- 18.104.22.168 What actions are required in case of violations in the microflora?
An article about what a swab shows in women. You will learn how the test is done and what results may indicate an infection or disease in the breast. It is important to know how to properly prepare and what steps to take if problems are identified. Read the details here.
Routine flora testing is an important step in the diagnosis and treatment of infections associated with the female reproductive system. A flora smear is a laboratory test that allows you to evaluate the microbiome of the vagina and cervix, and provide information about the presence of infections, bacterial vaginosis and fungal infections.
Correct smear analysis for flora will reveal the cause of unpleasant symptoms resulting from various diseases, such as vaginitis, vulvitis and other infectious diseases of the reproductive system. An annual screening will eliminate the risk of serious complications such as cervical cancer, which is one of the most common causes of death among young women.
The flora test is a simple procedure that can be performed in any medical facility. As a result of the information received, it is possible to treat the reproductive system and women’s health in general, and take measures to improve the quality of life and prevent possible complications.
What is a female flora test and why is it performed
The female flora test is one of the most common tests performed in gynecology. It is designed to detect the presence or absence of pathogens in a woman’s vagina.
This analysis allows you to assess the possibility of developing various diseases of the female genital organs. Among them can be candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, human papillomavirus and other diseases. In addition, a flora smear in women shows the presence of normal microflora in the vagina, which is an important indicator of a woman’s health.
Women usually have a flora swab every six months or a year if they don’t have vaginal problems. However, if a woman has any changes, such as itching, burning, soreness during intercourse, or unusual discharge, a flora smear can help identify the cause of these symptoms and treat them effectively.
Preparing for a flora smear
In order for the results of the analysis to be as accurate as possible, it is necessary to properly prepare for a smear for flora. First of all, you need to make sure that you did not take antibiotics or antimicrobials within 24 hours before the test. It is also advisable to refrain from sexual intercourse and the use of intimate hygiene products for 2-3 days before taking a smear.
If the patient is menstruating on the day of the smear, clean urine should be brought instead of the smear. Before passing urine, it is necessary to carry out hygiene procedures and consult with your doctor about additional preparation requirements.
Make sure that you go to a certified medical center and that the medical staff correctly explains to you which swab to take and how to take it correctly.
What tests are needed for a flora smear in women?
When performing a smear for flora in women, it is necessary to pass an analysis for the level of estrogen, as it contributes to the growth of normal microflora in the vagina. It is also recommended to be tested for the presence of fungi, bacteria and viruses in order to identify pathological changes in the microflora.
In addition, a cytology smear can be taken to assess the degree of maturity of the cells of the vaginal epithelium and to identify signs of proliferative or altered cellular material.
However, before having a smear test, ask your gynecologist which tests are needed, depending on age, symptoms, medical history, and other factors.
- Estrogen levels. Testing for estrogen levels allows you to determine whether there is a sufficient amount of this hormone necessary for the growth of normal microflora in the vagina.
- Test for fungi, bacteria and viruses. This test detects the presence of pathological changes in the microflora, which can lead to the development of infections in the vagina or other gynecological diseases.
- Pap smear for cytology. Cytology analysis reveals signs of changes in the cellular material of the vagina and reveals pathologies of epithelial cells.
Flora smear in women
Flora smear test is a diagnostic test aimed at detecting infections and changes in the microflora of the vagina. The results of the analysis help the doctor determine the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and carry out the necessary treatment.
The collection of material for analysis is performed using the vaginal swab method – the gynecologist, using a special brush and a small swab, takes a sample from the inside of the vagina. Then the material is placed on a glass plate or in a test tube for further research.
More accurate test results may require additional testing, such as culture, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and others.
It is important to note that taking a smear for flora is a painless and safe procedure that allows you to detect and prevent the development of various diseases in a timely manner.
How to correctly interpret flora smear results
Flora smear results can be difficult to understand, especially if you are not an expert in this field. However, their correct interpretation is the key to identifying diseases of the genitourinary system and prescribing the correct treatment.
A positive result of means that bacteria, fungi or viruses were detected in the swab. However, a positive result in itself is not a diagnosis, as many pathogens do not cause disease. Therefore, it is necessary to consult a doctor who will analyze the results and make a diagnosis.
A negative result of means that no pathogens were detected in the swab. However, this does not guarantee the absence of disease, as some pathogens may be small and not visible on the smear. If you continue to experience symptoms, you should see your doctor for more testing.
Normal flora means that the swab was found to contain naturally occurring bacteria found in the vagina of healthy women. This is normal and does not indicate a disease.
In any case, smear analysis for flora can be one of the first steps in the diagnosis of diseases of the genitourinary system. However, it is important to remember that only a qualified doctor can evaluate the results of the analysis and make the correct diagnosis.
Norms and deviations in the analysis of a smear for flora
Smear analysis for flora is an important method for diagnosing many gynecological diseases in women. The normal microflora of a woman’s genitals should not cause negative symptoms, but if the balance of microorganisms is disturbed, various infections can occur.
A positive smear result for flora may indicate the presence of infections such as vaginosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, trident, furunculosis, candidiasis, etc. In this case, the woman should immediately contact a gynecologist for treatment.
A negative smear for flora means that the microflora is normal and the vagina is free of pathogens. However, this does not exclude the possibility of other diseases that may require additional examinations.
- Norm: lactobacilli, epithelium, microorganisms that do not pose a threat to health.
- Positive: presence of pathogens.
- Negative result: the microflora is normal, but this does not exclude the possibility of other diseases.
Microorganism name Norm Deviation from the norm
|Lactobacillus||Large amount||Absence or insignificant amount|
|Epithelial cells||Moderate||Absent or excessive|
|Pathogenic microorganisms||Absent||Presence 902 28|
Significance of coccal and fungal flora in smear analysis for flora
Flora in women can be found different types of microorganisms. The coccal flora is represented by spherical bacteria, which can be both normoflora and pathogenic microorganisms. If the coccal flora is present in the smear analysis of the flora in a woman, then this may indicate the presence of an inflammatory process in the uterine chair or in the vagina. Also, coccal flora can be a sign of microflora disturbance and lead to the development of a number of gynecological diseases.
Fungal flora in the smear for flora in women may indicate the presence of candidiasis or other fungal infections in the vagina. Fungal infections are a common disease among women and cause symptoms such as itching, burning, pain during intercourse, and profuse vaginal discharge.
- Coccal flora in the analysis of a smear for flora may indicate:
- the presence of an inflammatory process in the uterus or in the vagina;
- about violation of microflora;
- about the development of a number of gynecological diseases.
- Fungal flora in the analysis of a smear for flora may indicate:
- the presence of candidiasis or other fungal infections in the vagina;
- symptoms such as itching, burning, pain during intercourse, and profuse vaginal discharge.
If coccal or fungal flora is detected in the analysis of a smear for flora in women, it is necessary to contact a gynecologist for additional diagnosis and treatment. Proper and timely treatment will help prevent the development of complications and maintain a woman’s health.
Which diseases can be detected by smear analysis for flora
A smear for flora is one of the most common research methods in gynecology. It helps to identify the presence of inflammation, infections and other disorders in the microflora of the vagina and cervix. Diseases that can be detected by smear analysis on the flora can be of both bacterial and viral origin.
- Colpit . This is the most common disease that can be detected when analyzing a smear for flora. It is characterized by inflammation of the vagina caused by various microorganisms, such as staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, fungi of the genus Candida and others.
- Cervicitis . This is an inflammation of the cervix, which can be caused by both bacterial and viral infections. Most often, the cause is chlamydia, gonococci, mycoplasmas and other microorganisms that can be detected when analyzing a smear for flora.
- Cervical erosion . This is a violation of the structure of the cervix, which often occurs as a result of inflammation. A smear on the flora allows you to identify the presence of infections and inflammations that can cause cervical erosion.
Other diseases, such as fungal infections, trichomoniasis, vaginosis, etc., can also be detected using a swab analysis for flora. Early detection and treatment of these diseases helps prevent their complications and preserve the health of a woman.
When to repeat a flora smear in women
In some cases, a single flora smear may not provide a complete picture of a woman’s biological environment. Therefore, the doctor may prescribe a second analysis if:
- a woman complains of constant vague discharge or itching in the intimate area;
- after the first analysis, an infection or inflammatory process requiring treatment was diagnosed;
- after a course of antibiotics or other drugs that may affect the microflora, you need to make sure that you have completely recovered and there are no complications;
- There were no signs of pregnancy at the time of the first test, and now the woman intends to become pregnant and additional data on infectious status is required.
In addition, a repeat smear test for flora may be required if the woman wants to control her health and prevent possible complications.
Regular smearing for flora is a guarantee of women’s health
Today, a modern woman cannot underestimate the care of her health, because her condition throughout her life depends on it. Regular smearing for flora is one of the effective methods for monitoring the state of the reproductive system.
It is also worth noting that taking a smear for flora is a mandatory procedure before planning a pregnancy. Thanks to this study, the doctor will be able to assess the health of the expectant mother and take the necessary treatment measures if pathogenic microorganisms are found in the smear.
- It is important to understand that taking a smear for flora is not only prevention, it is taking care of your health and the health of your partner.
- A woman should regularly visit a doctor, take all the necessary tests and monitor her condition. Only then will she be completely confident in her health and will be able to enjoy life one hundred percent.
How often should flora analysis be done?
Normally, it is recommended to do a flora test regularly once a year if there are no health problems. If you have any symptoms, such as itching, burning, or an unusual smell, you should contact your doctor and get a smear test done right away.
How does the flora test work?
The procedure for taking an analysis of the flora in women is quite simple and a small nuisance. The doctor uses a small stick or brush to remove a sample of dysplasia or discharge from the vaginal walls and gives instructions on how and when to get tested.
What are the causes of a disorder in the flora?
Various factors can lead to disruption of the normal microflora of the airways. This may be due to sleepless nights, stress, pregnancy, menopause, or antibiotics.
What is dysbacteriosis and why is it bad?
Dysbacteriosis in the flora means that the number of certain microorganisms in the reproductive organs must be increased or decreased. This can lead to various infections and diseases such as vaginitis and urinary tract infections.
Is it possible to do a flora test during menstruation?
It is generally recommended that you have your flora tested when you are not on your period. This will allow you to get more accurate results, since menstrual bleeding can distort the composition of the microflora. However, if necessary, the analysis can be carried out during menstruation.
What actions are required in case of violations in the microflora?
If you have any abnormalities in the microflora, you need to consult a doctor to find out what and how to treat. Treatment usually includes antibiotics and regular hygiene.