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Whats wellbutrin used for: Wellbutrin Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing

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Wellbutrin Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing

See also the How to Use, Precautions, and Warning sections.

Nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, headache, constipation, increased sweating, joint aches, sore throat, blurred vision, strange taste in the mouth, diarrhea, or dizziness may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

This medication may raise your blood pressure. Check your blood pressure regularly and tell your doctor if the results are high.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: chest pain, fainting, fast/pounding/irregular heartbeat, hearing problems, ringing in the ears, severe headache, mental/mood changes (e. g., agitation, anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, memory loss), uncontrolled movements (tremor), unusual weight loss or gain.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: muscle pain/tenderness/weakness.

Get medical help right away if you have any very serious side effects, including: eye pain/swelling/redness, widened pupils, vision changes (such as seeing rainbows around lights at night).

This drug may rarely cause seizures. Seek immediate medical attention if you experience a seizure. If you have a seizure while taking bupropion, you should not take this drug again.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of a serious allergic reaction include: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US –

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Bupropion HBr Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing

See also Warning section.

Dry mouth, sore throat, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, ringing in the ears, headache, decreased appetite, weight loss, constipation, trouble sleeping, increased sweating, or shaking (tremor) may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

An empty tablet shell may appear in your stool. This effect is harmless because your body has already absorbed the medication.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

This medication may raise your blood pressure. Check your blood pressure regularly and tell your doctor if the results are high.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: fast/pounding/irregular heartbeat, mental/mood changes (such as anxiety, agitation, confusion, unusual behavior/thinking, memory loss), unusual weight loss or gain.

Stop taking bupropion and get medical help right away if you have any very serious side effects, including: seizure, eye pain/swelling/redness, widened pupils, vision changes (such as seeing rainbows around lights at night, blurred vision).

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), painful sores in the mouth/around the eyes, severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US –

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Bupropion: MedlinePlus Drug Information

For people taking bupropion (Wellbutrin) for depression:

A small number of children, teenagers, and young adults (up to 24 years of age) who took antidepressants (‘mood elevators’) such as bupropion during clinical studies became suicidal (thinking about harming or killing oneself or planning or trying to do so). Children, teenagers, and young adults who take antidepressants to treat depression or other mental illnesses may be more likely to become suicidal than children, teenagers, and young adults who do not take antidepressants to treat these conditions. This risk should be considered and compared with the potential benefit in the treatment of depression, in deciding whether a child or teenager should take an antidepressant. Children younger than 18 years of age should not normally take bupropion, but in some cases, a doctor may decide that bupropion is the best medication to treat a child’s condition.

No matter what your age, before you take an antidepressant, you, your parent, or your caregiver should talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of treating your condition with an antidepressant or with other treatments. You should also talk about the risks and benefits of not treating your condition. You should know that having depression or another mental illness greatly increases the risk that you will become suicidal, especially at the beginning of your treatment or any time that your dose is increased or decreased. This risk is higher if you or anyone in your family has or has ever had bipolar disorder or mania or has thought about or attempted suicide. Talk to your doctor about your condition, symptoms, and personal and family medical history. You and your doctor will decide what type of treatment is right for you.

You should know that your mental health may change in unexpected ways when you take bupropion or other antidepressants even if you are an adult over age 24 or if you do not have a mental illness and you are taking bupropion to treat a different type of condition. You may become suicidal, especially at the beginning of your treatment and any time that your dose is increased or decreased. You, your family, or your caregiver should call your doctor right away if you experience any of the following symptoms: new or worsening depression; thinking about harming or killing yourself, or planning or trying to do so; extreme worry; agitation; panic attacks; difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep; aggressive behavior; irritability; acting without thinking; severe restlessness; and frenzied abnormal excitement. Be sure that your family or caregiver knows which symptoms may be serious so they can call the doctor if you are unable to seek treatment on your own.

For all patients taking bupropion:

Your health care provider will want to see you often while you are taking bupropion, especially at the beginning of your treatment. Be sure to keep all appointments or office visits with your doctor.

Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer’s patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with bupropion and each time you refill your prescription. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You also can visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm or the manufacturer’s website to obtain the Medication Guide.

Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking bupropion.

Wellbutrin XL – Uses, Side Effects, Interactions

How does this medication work? What will it do for me?

Bupropion belongs to the family of medications known as antidepressants. It is used to treat major depression and to prevent autumn-winter seasonal depression. It is believed to work by affecting the balance of noradrenaline and dopamine, chemicals that occur naturally in the brain and affect mood.

For the treatment of depression, the full effects of the medication may not be seen until after several weeks of treatment.

This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here.

Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.

Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it.

What form(s) does this medication come in?

150 mg
Each creamy-white-to-pale-yellow, round, extended-release tablet printed with “WXL 150” in purple ink contains 150 mg of bupropion hydrochloride. Nonmedicinal ingredients: denatured ethyl alcohol, ethylcellulose, glyceryl behenate, isopropyl alcohol, methylacrylic acid co-polymer dispersion, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, silicon dioxide, triethyl citrate, N-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, shellac glaze, titanium dioxide, and red and blue FD&C dyes.

300 mg
Each creamy-white-to-pale-yellow, round, extended-release tablet printed with “WXL 300” in gray ink contains 300 mg of bupropion hydrochloride. Nonmedicinal ingredients: denatured ethyl alcohol, ethylcellulose, glyceryl behenate, isopropyl alcohol, methylacrylic acid co-polymer dispersion, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, silicon dioxide, triethyl citrate, N-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, shellac glaze, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide black.

How should I use this medication?

The recommended starting dose of bupropion extended-release tablets for treatment of major depressive disorder is 150 mg daily, taken in the morning. This dose may be increased to 300 mg daily after 1 week at the lower dose.

For prevention of seasonal depression, this medication should be started in the autumn before symptoms of depression develop and continued through the winter. The usual starting dose is 150 mg taken once daily in the morning. It may be increased to 300 mg taken once daily after 1 week at the lower dose. For people taking 300 mg daily, the dose should be reduced to 150 mg daily for 2 weeks prior to stopping this medication in the spring.

Bupropion extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole with fluids. They should not be chewed, crushed, or halved, as this may affect how this medication is absorbed by the body and result in unwanted side effects.

Many things can affect the dose of a medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way that you are taking the medication without consulting your doctor.

It is important to take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. If you miss a dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you are not sure what to do after missing a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.

Store this medication at room temperature and keep it out of the reach of children.

Do not dispose of medications in wastewater (e.g. down the sink or in the toilet) or in household garbage. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medications that are no longer needed or have expired.

Who should NOT take this medication?

Do not take this medication if you:

  • are allergic to bupropion or to any of the ingredients of the medication
  • are having abrupt withdrawal issues from alcohol, benzodiazepines (e. g., diazepam, clonazepam, lorazepam) or other sedatives (e.g., phenobarbital)
  • are taking another medication that contains bupropion (e.g., Zyban® or Wellbutrin® SR)
  • have a seizure disorder or a history of seizures
  • have or have had an eating disorder (bulimia or anorexia nervosa)
  • have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI; e.g., phenelzine, tranylcypromine) within the last 14 days
  • have taken thioridazine (an antipsychotic medication) within the last 14 days

What side effects are possible with this medication?

Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.

The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.

The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.

Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.

  • appetite changes
  • bloating
  • constipation
  • dizziness
  • dryness of mouth
  • headache
  • migraine
  • nausea or vomiting
  • trouble sleeping
  • weight changes

Although most of the side effects listed below don’t happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not check with your doctor or seek medical attention.

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

  • aggression
  • agitation
  • anxiety
  • confusion  
  • false beliefs that cannot be changed by facts
  • hallucinations (seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not actually there)
  • inability to urinate
  • increased blood pressure
  • low sodium levels in the blood (e. g., tiredness; weakness; confusion; with achy, stiff, or uncoordinated muscles)
  • new or worsened emotional or behavioural problems
  • signs of liver problems (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, skin itching, weight loss, yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark urine, pale stools)
  • symptoms of high blood sugar (e.g., frequent urination, increased thirst, excessive eating, unexplained weight loss, poor wound healing, infections, fruity breath odour)
  • skin rash, hives or itching

Seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:

  • seizures (convulsions)
  • signs of a severe skin reaction such as blistering, peeling, a rash covering a large area of the body, a rash that spreads quickly, or a rash combined with fever or discomfort
  • signs of a serious allergic reaction (i.e., hives, blistering skin rash, difficulty breathing, fainting, severe muscle or joint pain, or swelling of the face and throat)
  • thoughts of harming yourself or others

Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.

Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?

Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.

Drowsiness/reduced alertness: Bupropion may affect the mental or physical abilities needed to drive or operate machinery. Avoid driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous tasks until you have determined how this medication affects you.

Glaucoma: This medication may cause the symptoms of glaucoma (increased pressure in the eye) to become worse. If you have glaucoma, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed. Report any changes in vision to your doctor as soon as possible while you are taking this medication.

Heart disease: It is not known whether bupropion is safe for use by people with a recent history of heart attack or unstable heart disease. Bupropion may cause increases in blood pressure. If you have heart problems, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.

Identical medications: Wellbutrin® XL, Wellbutrin® SR, Zyban®, and several other medications contain the same active ingredient (bupropion). If you are taking one of these medications, do not take the other or any other product containing bupropion, as the risk of seizures increases with an increased dosage. To reduce the risk of seizures, the total daily dose of this medication should not be greater than 300 mg.

Kidney function: Bupropion is removed from the body by the kidneys. Decreased kidney function can cause this medication to build up in the body, causing side effects. If you have kidney disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.

Liver function: Bupropion is removed from the body by the liver. Decreased liver function can cause this medication to build up in the body, causing side effects. If you have liver disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.

This medication may also cause a decrease in liver function. If you experience symptoms of liver problems such as fatigue, feeling unwell, loss of appetite, nausea, yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, dark urine, pale stools, abdominal pain or swelling, and itchy skin, contact your doctor immediately.

Seizure risk: This medication may increase the risk of seizures.  If you are at risk of seizures, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.

Things which increase the risk of seizures include:

  • addiction to cocaine, stimulants (e.g., amphetamines), or opiates (e.g., morphine, codeine, oxycodone)
  • diabetes treated with oral medications or insulin
  • excessive alcohol use
  • history of head trauma or seizures (including epilepsy)
  • severe liver problems
  • tumours of the brain or spinal cord
  • use of other medications that make seizures more likely (e.g., antipsychotics, antidepressants, lithium, theophylline, steroids)
  • use of over-the-counter stimulants or appetite suppressants

Stopping the medication: Stopping this medication suddenly may lead to side effects. If you are thinking of stopping the medication, check with your doctor first.

Serotonin syndrome: Severe reactions are possible when bupropion is combined with other medications that act on serotonin, such as tricyclic antidepressants and serotonin reuptake inhibitors, other medications used to treat depression. Similar effects occur when too much bupropion is taken or is allowed to build up in the body. Symptoms of a reaction may include muscle rigidity and spasms, difficulty moving, and changes in mental state including delirium and agitation. These reactions should be treated as a medical emergency and immediate medical treatment should be obtained as coma and death are possible.

Suicidal or agitated behaviour, or other behaviour changes: Especially in the first few weeks or when doses are changed, a small number of people may feel worse instead of better when taking this medication. People may feel agitated (restless, anxious, aggressive, emotional, and feeling not like themselves), or they may want to hurt themselves or others. If you experience these side effects or notice them in a family member who is taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately. Your doctor will monitor you closely for these side effects while you are taking this medication.

Pregnancy: This medication should not be taken during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. It has been reported that babies born to pregnant women who have taken medications of this kind during pregnancy may be adversely affected. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.

Breast-feeding: Bupropion passes into breast milk. Because this medication presents risks to breast-feeding infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue bupropion, taking into account the importance of the medication to the mother. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding.

Children: The safety and effectiveness of using bupropion have not been established for children and adolescents under 18 years of age. The use of this medication in children under 18 may cause behavioural and emotional changes, such as suicidal thoughts and behaviour.

Seniors: Because this medication is removed from the body by the kidneys and liver, seniors may be at an increased risk of side effects, including seizures, if they use this medication. If you are over 65, discuss with your doctor whether any special monitoring is required.

What other drugs could interact with this medication?

There may be an interaction between bupropion extended-release tablets and any of the following:

  • alcohol
  • amphetamines (e.g., amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, lisdexamfetamine)
  • antihistamines (e.g., doxylamine, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine)
  • anti-malarial medications (e.g., chloroquine, mefloquine, primaquine)
  • anti-Parkinson medications (e.g., amantadine, apomorphine, bromocriptine, levodopa, pramipexole, ropinirole) – dopamine agonists
  • antipsychotics (e. g., chlorpromazine, clozapine, haloperidol, risperidone)
  • atomoxetine
  • beta-blockers (e.g., metoprolol, propranolol, timolol)
  • caffeine
  • carbamazepine
  • clopidogrel
  • codeine
  • cyclophosphamide
  • dabrafenib
  • dexmethylphenidate
  • dextromethorphan
  • digoxin
  • doxorubicin
  • duloxetine
  • efavirenz
  • eliglustat
  • fesoterodine
  • flecainide
  • galantamine
  • gefitinib
  • hydrocodone
  • linezolid
  • lithium
  • lumacaftor and ivacaftor
  • meperidine
  • methylphenidate
  • metoclopramide
  • mexiletine
  • mifepristone
  • mirtazapine
  • monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI; e.g., phenelzine, tranylcypromine, moclobemide, rasagiline, selegiline) – bupropion should not be started until at least 14 days after MAO inhibitors are stopped
  • nelfinavir
  • nicotine replacement therapy (e. g., nicotine patch)
  • phenobarbital
  • phenytoin
  • primidone
  • promethazine
  • propafenone
  • rifampin
  • ritonavir
  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; e.g., citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline)
  • tamoxifen
  • tamsulosin
  • tetrabenazine
  • theophylline
  • ticlopidine
  • tolterodine
  • tramadol
  • tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine)
  • venlafaxine
  • vilazodone

If you are taking any of these medications, speak with your doctor or pharmacist. Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:

  • stop taking one of the medications,
  • change one of the medications to another,
  • change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or
  • leave everything as is.

An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.

Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.

All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/Wellbutrin-XL

Mixing Wellbutrin (Bupropion) And Alcohol — Interactions And Side Effects

Wellbutrin and other antidepressant medications can be a vital tool for someone battling depression or anxiety. However, as with all drugs, Wellbutrin comes with certain side effects that can be dangerous if mixed with alcohol.

There are many medications that interact negatively with alcohol, which is why so many drugs come with an explicit warning not to mix with alcohol. When Wellbutrin and alcohol are mixed together, individuals are at risk for health issues such as nausea, vomiting, seizures, and impairment.

What Is Wellbutrin (Bupropion)?

Wellbutrin (bupropion) is a prescription medication commonly prescribed to treat depression, seasonal affective disorder (“winter depression”), and to help people quit smoking.

Wellbutrin treats depression differently than many other antidepressant medications, as it’s classified as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). NDRIs are often prescribed for those who haven’t responded well to other antidepressant medications, or who struggled with side effects such as weight gain and sexual dysfunction.

Some common brand names for bupropion include:

  • Budeprion SR
  • Aplenzin
  • Forfivo XL
  • Wellbutrin SR
  • Wellbutrin XL
  • Zyban

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Can You Mix Wellbutrin And Alcohol?

Because alcohol is largely considered socially acceptable, some people may forget that it’s a substance that can be harmful when misused. If you take any regular prescription medications, it’s important to understand how alcohol can interact with your medication.

Some people who take Wellbutrin may be able to drink occasionally without any side effects. However, if an individual mixes alcohol with Wellbutrin regularly, or drinks large amounts of alcohol with Wellbutrin, it can be hazardous to their health.

Some of the risks of taking Wellbutrin with alcohol include:

  • alcohol poisoning
  • blackouts
  • blurred vision
  • dizzy spells
  • fatigue
  • nausea
  • poor judgment
  • paranoia
  • seizures
  • suicidal thoughts
  • vomiting

Side Effects Of Wellbutrin

Any time a medication is recommended, the prescribing physician should explain the risks of the drug. All drugs come with some level of risk, and if your doctor has prescribed Wellbutrin, they’ve asserted the benefits of this medication should outweigh any potential side effects.

However, there are side effects associated with Wellbutrin that are unique to this medication. Some people taking Wellbutrin may experience little to no side effects, whereas others have a difficult time adjusting to any dosage amount. Keep your doctor informed about any side effects or changes you notice in relation to your Wellbutrin prescription.

Wellbutrin is associated with the following side effects:

  • lethargy
  • excitement
  • anxiety
  • trouble sleeping
  • dry mouth
  • headache
  • vomiting
  • upset stomach
  • changes in weight
  • constipation
  • frequent urination
  • sore throat
  • shakiness
  • extreme sweating

Sometimes, Wellbutrin can cause serious and fatal side effects. If you or someone you know begins displaying any of these signs or symptoms, seek immediate medical attention.

Serious side effects of Wellbutrin include:

  • disorientation
  • hallucinations
  • paranoia
  • joint pain
  • irregular heartbeat
  • seizures

Long-Term Effects Of Mixing Wellbutrin And Alcohol

Alcohol is a depressant drug and should be used with caution, especially for those who struggle with depression. Mixing alcohol with an antidepressant medication like Wellbutrin not only increases the side effects of both drugs but can heighten the chances of developing a physical dependence or addiction to alcohol.

Combining alcohol and Wellbutrin can have long-term effects on your health, including:

  • decreased effectiveness of Wellbutrin
  • increased risk of abusing alcohol or becoming addicted
  • higher chance of becoming physically dependent on alcohol
  • elevated risk of overdose

If you take Wellbutrin and are wondering about how it will interact with alcohol, make sure to ask your doctor and be honest about the amount you drink.

Medically Supervised Detox Programs For Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol is often used to mask or self-medicate the symptoms of depression, but mixing alcohol with an antidepressant-like Wellbutrin can be extremely dangerous. Additionally, regularly mixing alcohol with any medication can be a sign of alcohol abuse and addiction.

Over 20 million Americans struggle with substance abuse, and nearly half of those also have a co-occurring disorder, such as depression or post-traumatic stress syndrome. If you or someone you love is mixing Wellbutrin with alcohol, or displaying other signs of alcohol addiction, you are not in this alone.

There is help available, in the form of drug and alcohol addiction treatment. There are various drug and alcohol rehab centers available throughout the U.S., many of which include specialized care for dual diagnosis, medication-assisted treatment, and medically supervised detox services.

When someone drinks large amounts of alcohol, their body can become dependent on the substance, meaning it requires a certain amount of the drug in order to function normally. If the body does not receive the substance, they may begin to experience alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

Some of the signs of alcohol withdrawal include:  

  • anxiety
  • shaking hands
  • insomnia
  • sweating
  • changes in mood
  • enlarged pupils
  • agitation
  • headaches
  • lowered appetite
  • hallucinations
  • seizures

Due to the serious nature of some of these symptoms, alcohol withdrawal can be dangerous and should always take place under medical supervision. A medically supervised detox program allows the patient to safely pass through the withdrawal stage and begin their treatment. Medical detox services will likely include encouragement, medication-assisted treatment, and help determine a treatment plan.

Treatment For Alcohol Abuse And Addiction

In order for detox to be considered successful, the healthcare providers have to work with the participant toward developing the next steps for their course of treatment. This includes outlining the types of treatment facilities and therapy options available.

Some of the treatment styles found in alcohol rehab centers include:

  • Inpatient programs: This residential-style program provides temporary living space for patients in which to begin their recovery. Considered the highest level of care, inpatient treatment provides a safe and structured environment, where patients are able to practice sober living skills in a supportive atmosphere. Therapies provided may include group and individual counseling, 12-Step support groups, wellness care, and holistic therapies like meditation and yoga.
  • Partial hospitalization programs (PHPs): The next level of care includes PHPs, where patients engage in a daytime treatment program. Typically offered five days per week, for six hours per day, PHPs provide addiction education, family therapy sessions, and medication-assisted treatment in a supervised environment.
  • Intensive outpatient programs (IOP)s: IOPs provide the most flexible scheduling options for alcohol addiction treatment, as they are usually offered with morning or evening sessions. IOPs will provide many of the same treatments as other alcohol rehab facilities, but may also have requirements such as regular drug screenings, in order to maintain accountability.

If you have questions about mixing Wellbutrin and alcohol, or finding treatment for alcohol abuse and addiction, reach out to one of our specialists today.

6 Common Wellbutrin Side Effects

It might seem unfair that the drug you’re taking to relieve your depression is now giving you insomnia. But that’s just one common Wellbutrin side effect that can affect people who take this medication.

While Wellbutrin (and antidepressants in general) do a lot of good, it’s always smart to be aware of the downsides, too.

What is Wellbutrin?

Wellbutrin, a.k.a. bupropion, is “a mainstay treatment for major depressive disorder,” along with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), says Marra Ackerman, M.D., clinical assistant professor of psychiatry at NYU Langone Health.

Unlike other antidepressants, like selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which include Zoloft, Prozac, and Lexapro, Wellbutrin is in its own class. It’s a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). “It doesn’t actually affect the serotonin system. It affects norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain,” says Ackerman, explaining that dopamine helps control the brain’s reward and pleasure centers.

Doctors also prescribe it to help wean smokers off of nicotine, says Ackerman. “The mechanism of how it impacts nicotine cravings is not entirely clear,” Ackerman says. “But it does reduce cravings in patients and you can see people who are entirely able to quit.”

But, as with most drugs, there are a few Wellbutrin side effects that you should definitely not ignore.

1. You’re feeling more anxious than usual.

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Doctors may choose Wellbutrin for patients whose depression symptoms are more “melancholic” or “sluggish,” says Ackerman, because it can give patients a boost energy-wise. “It can be like an extra cup of coffee,” she says.

Some women, however, may find it actually revs them up too much, increasing anxiety. If that happens, talk with your doctor right away about trying a new drug, advises Ackerman.

2. Your heart is going a mile a minute.

Some people may experience heart palpitations, called tachycardia (more than 100 beats per minute), while on Wellbutrin, says Ackerman. If this happens, tell your doctor ASAP. They’ll likely order an electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG), a test that measures the electrical activity of your heartbeat to check for underlying heart issues, says Ackerman.

3. You just can’t fall asleep.

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It’s fairly common for Wellbutrin-takers to experience insomnia, a.k.a. difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, but keep an eye on it to make sure it doesn’t start interfering with your daily activities. “If someone’s really having issues, they may have to switch drugs,” says Ackerman.

4. You’re experiencing seizures.

“The most serious side effect we worry about with Wellbutrin is the increased risk in seizures, especially in certain sub-populations like patients with eating disorders, particularly bulimia,” says Ackerman.

There’s also an increased risk of seizures with Wellbutrin if you have a pre-existing seizure disorder or a brain tumor, she adds. If this happens, let your doctor know right away.

5. Your daily cup makes you extra jittery.

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Because Wellbutrin can amp up some women, caffeine—like your daily latte or diet soda— may make you feel over-the-top jittery, says Ackerman. If you start to notice this symptom after taking Wellbutrin, cut out caffeine while you’re on the medication, or go decaf until you’re off the drug.

6. You’ve got tons of energy all of a sudden.

This can be a perk of the drug for women who want to feel more energized. But Ackerman warns: “There’s a risk of flipping someone into hypomania [a mild form of hyperactivity] or mania if they have an underlying bipolar disorder.” It’s for this reason, Ackerman adds, that Wellbutrin wouldn’t be used in bipolar patients, unless it was paired with a mood stabilizer.

7. You don’t even want to think about food.

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While it’s less common, diminished hunger and weight loss can come with Wellbutrin use, too, says Ackerman. But this side effect, and a dampened sex drive, are actually more common with other antidepressants, specifically SSRIs, adds Ackerman.

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Bupropion: Uses, Interactions, Mechanism of Action

Summary

Bupropion is a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and as an aid to smoking cessation.

Brand Names

Aplenzin, Budeprion, Contrave, Forfivo, Wellbutrin, Zyban

Generic Name
Bupropion
DrugBank Accession Number
DB01156
Background

Bupropion (also known as the brand name product Wellbutrin®) is a norepinephrine/dopamine-reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) used most commonly for the management of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), and as an aid for smoking cessation. Bupropion exerts its pharmacological effects by weakly inhibiting the enzymes involved in the uptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine from the synaptic cleft, therefore prolonging their duration of action within the neuronal synapse and the downstream effects of these neurotransmitters. More specifically, bupropion binds to the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the dopamine transporter (DAT).8,12

Bupropion was originally classified as an “atypical” antidepressant because it does not exert the same effects as the classical antidepressants such as Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs), Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs), or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). While it has comparable effectiveness to typical first-line options for the treatment of depression such as SSRIs,9,10 bupropion is a unique option for the treatment of MDD as it lacks any clinically relevant serotonergic effects, typical of other mood medications, or any effects on histamine or adrenaline receptors.8 Lack of activity at these receptors results in a more tolerable side effect profile; bupropion is less likely to cause sexual side effects, sedation, or weight gain as compared to SSRIs or TCAs, for example.10,11

When used as an aid to smoking cessation, bupropion is thought to confer its anti-craving and anti-withdrawal effects by inhibiting dopamine reuptake, which is thought to be involved in the reward pathways associated with nicotine, and through the antagonism of the nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptor.15,1,14 A Cochrane Review of meta-analyses of available treatment modalities for smoking cessation found that abstinence rates approximately doubled when bupropion was used as compared to placebo, and was found to have similar rates of smoking cessation as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).13

Bupropion is sometimes used as an add-on agent to first-line treatments of depression such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications when there is a treatment-failure or only partial response.7 Bupropion is also used off-label for the management of Attention/Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults with comorbid bipolar depression to avoid mood destabilization caused by typical stimulant medications used for the treatment of ADHD.27

When used in combination with naltrexone in the marketed product ContraveⓇ for chronic weight management, the two components are thought to have effects on areas of the brain involved in the regulation of food intake. This includes the hypothalamus, which is involved in appetite regulation, and the mesolimbic dopamine circuit, which is involved in reward pathways.24 Studies have shown that the combined activity of bupropion and naltrexone increase the firing rate of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and blockade of opioid receptor-mediated POMC auto-inhibition, which are associated with a reduction in food intake and increased energy expenditure.24,20,22 The combination of naltrexone and bupropion was shown to result in a statistically significant weight loss, with a mean change in body weight of -6.2 or greater (overweight) in the presence of at least one weight-related comorbid condition (e.g., hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia).

Bupropion is also used off-label as a first-line treatment in patients with ADHD and comorbid bipolar disorder when used as an adjunct to mood stabilizers.27

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Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings

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Pharmacodynamics

Bupropion is chemically unrelated to tricyclic, tetracyclic, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, or other known antidepressant agents. Compared to classical tricyclic antidepressants, Bupropion is a relatively weak inhibitor of the neuronal uptake of norepinephrine and dopamine. In addition, Bupropion does not inhibit monoamine oxidase. Bupropion has been found to be essentially inactive at the serotonin transporter (SERT)(IC50 >10 000 nM),12 however both bupropion and its primary metabolite hydroxybupropion have been found to block the function of cation-selective serotonin type 3A receptors (5-HT3ARs).

Bupropion produces dose-related central nervous system (CNS) stimulant effects in animals, as evidenced by increased locomotor activity, increased rates of responding in various schedule-controlled operant behaviour tasks, and, at high doses, induction of mild stereotyped behaviour Label. Due to these stimulant effects and selective activity at dopamine and norepinephrine receptors, bupropion has been identified as having an abuse potential.Label,17 Bupropion has a similar structure to the controlled substance Cathinone, and has been identified as having mild amphetamine-like activity, particularly when inhaled or injected.17

Bupropion is also known to lower the seizure threshold, making any pre-existing seizure conditions a contraindication to its use. This risk is exacerbated when bupropion is combined with other drugs or substances that lower the seizure threshold, such as cocaine, or in clinical situations that would increase the risk of a seizure such as abrupt alcohol or benzodiazepine withdrawal.Label As norepinephrine has been shown to have anticonvulsant properties, bupropion’s inhibitory effects on NET are thought to contribute to its pro-convulsant activity.17

Bupropion has been shown to increase blood pressure and pose a risk for exacerbation of unmanaged or pre-existing hypertension,18,Label however, clinical trials of bupropion in smokers with CVD have not identified an increased incidence of CV events including stroke or heart attack.19 In clinical trials, the mean increase in systolic blood pressure associated with the use of bupropion was found to be 1.3 mmHg.Label

Mechanism of action

Bupropion is a norepinephrine/dopamine-reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) that exerts its pharmacological effects by weakly inhibiting the enzymes involved in the uptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine from the synaptic cleft, therefore prolonging their duration of action within the neuronal synapse and the downstream effects of these neurotransmitters. More specifically, bupropion binds to the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the dopamine transporter (DAT).8,12

Bupropion was originally classified as an “atypical” antidepressant because it does not exert the same effects as the classical antidepressants such as Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs), Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs), or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). While it has comparable effectiveness to typical first-line options for the treatment of depression such as SSRIs,9,10 bupropion is a unique option for the treatment of MDD as it lacks any clinically relevant serotonergic effects, typical of other mood medications, or any effects on histamine or adrenaline receptors.8 Lack of activity at these receptors results in a more tolerable side effect profile; bupropion is less likely to cause sexual side effects, sedation, or weight gain as compared to SSRIs or TCAs, for example.10,11

When used as an aid to smoking cessation, bupropion is thought to confer its anti-craving and anti-withdrawal effects by inhibiting dopamine reuptake, which is thought to be involved in the reward pathways associated with nicotine, and through the antagonism of the nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptor (AChR), thereby blunting the effects of nicotine.15,1,14 Furthermore, the stimulatory effects produced by bupropion in the central nervous system are similar to nicotine’s effects, making low doses of bupropion a suitable option as a nicotine substitute.23

When used in combination with naltrexone in the marketed product ContraveⓇ for chronic weight management, the two components are thought to have effects on areas of the brain involved in the regulation of food intake. This includes the hypothalamus, which is involved in appetite regulation, and the mesolimbic dopamine circuit, which is involved in reward pathways.24 Studies have shown that the combined activity of bupropion and naltrexone increase the firing rate of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and blockade of opioid receptor-mediated POMC auto-inhibition, which are associated with a reduction in food intake and increased energy expenditure.24,20,22 This combination was also found to reduce food intake when injected directly into the ventral tegmental area of the mesolimbic circuit in mice, which is an area associated with the regulation of reward pathways.24

Absorption

Bupropion is currently available in 3 distinct, but bioequivalent formulations: immediate release (IR), sustained-release (SR), and extended-release (XL).

Immediate Release Formulation
In humans, following oral administration of bupropion hydrochloride tablets, peak plasma bupropion concentrations are usually achieved within 2 hours. IR formulations provide a short duration of action and are therefore generally dosed three times per day.

Sustained Release Formulation
In humans, following oral administration of bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets (SR), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of bupropion is usually achieved within 3 hours. SR formulations provide a 12-hour extended release of medication and are therefore generally dosed twice per day.

Extended Release Formulation
Following single oral administration of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) to healthy volunteers, the median time to peak plasma concentrations for bupropion was approximately 5 hours. The presence of food did not affect the peak concentration or area under the curve of bupropion. XL formulations provide a 24-hour extended release of medication and are therefore generally dosed once per day/

In a trial comparing chronic dosing with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) 150 mg twice daily to bupropion immediate-release formulation 100 mg 3 times daily, the steady state Cmax for bupropion after bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets (SR) administration was approximately 85% of those achieved after bupropion immediate-release formulation administration. Exposure (AUC) to bupropion was equivalent for both formulations. Bioequivalence was also demonstrated for all three major active metabolites (i.e., hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion) for both Cmax and AUC. Thus, at steady state, bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets (SR) given twice daily, and the immediate-release formulation of bupropion given 3 times daily, are essentially bioequivalent for both bupropion and the 3 quantitatively important metabolites.Label

Furthermore, in a study comparing 14-day dosing with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL), 300 mg once-daily to the immediate-release formulation of bupropion at 100 mg 3 times daily, equivalence was demonstrated for peak plasma concentration and area under the curve for bupropion and the three metabolites (hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion). Additionally, in a study comparing 14-day dosing with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) 300 mg once daily to the sustained-release formulation of bupropion at 150 mg 2 times daily, equivalence was demonstrated for peak plasma concentration and area under the curve for bupropion and the three metabolites.Label

Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) can be taken with or without food. Bupropion Cmax and AUC were increased by 11% to 35% and 16% to 19%, respectively, when bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) was administered with food to healthy volunteers in three trials. The food effect is not considered clinically significant.Label

Following a single-dose administration of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) in humans, Cmax of bupropion’s metabolite hydroxybupropion occurs approximately 6 hours post-dose and is approximately 10 times the peak level of the parent drug at steady state. The elimination half-life of hydroxybupropion is approximately 20 (±5) hours and its AUC at steady state is about 17 times that of bupropion. The times to peak concentrations for the erythrohydrobupropion and threohydrobupropion metabolites are similar to that of the hydroxybupropion metabolite. However, their elimination half-lives are longer, 33(±10) and 37 (±13) hours, respectively, and steady-state AUCs are 1.5 and 7 times that of bupropion, respectively.Label

Volume of distribution

Not Available

Protein binding

In vitro tests show that bupropion is 84% bound to human plasma proteins at concentrations up to 200 mcg per mL. The extent of protein binding of the hydroxybupropion metabolite is similar to that for bupropion, whereas the extent of protein binding of the threohydrobupropion metabolite is about half that seen with bupropion.Label

Metabolism

Bupropion is extensively metabolized in humans. Three metabolites are active: hydroxybupropion, which is formed via hydroxylation of the tert-butyl group of bupropion, and the amino-alcohol isomers, threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion, which are formed via reduction of the carbonyl group. In vitro findings suggest that CYP2B6 is the principal isoenzyme involved in the formation of hydroxybupropion, while cytochrome P450 enzymes are not involved in the formation of threohydrobupropion. Hydroxybupropion has been shown to have the same affinity as bupropion for the norepinephrine transporter (NET) but approximately 50% of its antidepressant activity despite reaching concentrations of ~10-fold higher than that of the parent drug.23

Oxidation of the bupropion side chain results in the formation of a glycine conjugate of meta-chlorobenzoic acid, which is then excreted as the major urinary metabolite. The potency and toxicity of the metabolites relative to bupropion have not been fully characterized. However, it has been demonstrated in an antidepressant screening test in mice that hydroxybupropion is one-half as potent as bupropion, while threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion are 5-fold less potent than bupropion. This may be of clinical importance because the plasma concentrations of the metabolites are as high as or higher than those of bupropion.Label

Bupropion and its metabolites exhibit linear kinetics following chronic administration of 300 to 450 mg per day.

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Route of elimination

Bupropion is extensively metabolized in humans. Oxidation of the bupropion side chain results in the formation of a glycine conjugate of metachlorobenzoic acid, which is then excreted as the major urinary metabolite. Following oral administration of 200 mg of 14C-bupropion in humans, 87% and 10% of the radioactive dose were recovered in the urine and feces, respectively. However, the fraction of the oral dose of bupropion excreted unchanged was only 0.5%, a finding consistent with the extensive metabolism of bupropion.

Half-life

24 hours

Clearance

Not Available

Adverse Effects

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Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include seizures, hallucinations, loss of consciousness, tachycardia, and cardiac arrest.

Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/Enzyme Allele name Genotype(s) Defining Change(s) Type(s) Description Details
D(2) dopamine receptor (C;C) C Allele, homozygous Effect Directly Studied The presence of this genotype in DRD2 is associated with improved therapeutic response to bupropion. Details

90,000 The benefits of essential oils for anxiety

Work, relationships and daily life can be extremely stressful. If the stress is too much or you don’t know how to deal with it, it can lead to anxiety. Anxiety is a mental disorder that affects millions of people every year. Fortunately, there are many different ways to get rid of anxiety. Some people solve this problem with natural essential oils.

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Anxiety Symptoms

Before diving into the topic of essential oils for anxiety, it is a good idea to start by learning to recognize anxiety. Some of the most common symptoms are:

  • Excessive anxiety
  • Agitation
  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Concentration problems
  • Overwhelming, irrational fears
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle tension
  • Sleep problems trouble falling asleep
  • Avoid social interactions
  • Panic attacks

Almost everyone experiences anxiety at some point in their lives.This can happen very quickly in extremely stressful situations or just in everyday life. If the anxiety is mild or fleeting, you can deal with it yourself. Some people use essential oils for this. However, if symptoms persist or go away again, you may have a problem that requires medication and / or therapy. Even so, you can add essential oils to your treatment.

is good butrin and SSRI

What are essential oils?

Essential oils are oils obtained from plants or other natural sources.They are obtained by distilling and concentrating the starting material – be it a herb, a flower, or something else. When the essential oil is extracted, it retains the aroma and flavor of the original plant. Some believe that this aromatic plant essence can help with anxiety or other conditions.

Ways to Use Essential Oils

Using oils for anxiety is not that difficult. There are four main methods that can be used: inhale, rub into skin, spray, or ingest.To keep it simple, here’s how people use them most often.

Inhalation

You can inhale essential oil in several convenient ways. You can dab a little on a handkerchief, on your wrists, on your palms, or on a cotton ball. Then just bring it to your face and inhale deeply and slowly several times.

Blurred

Use a room diffuser specially designed for aromatherapy to diffuse the oil scent throughout the room.You can get a very simple essential oil diffuser or a sophisticated decorative model that will brighten up your room. Style is just a matter of personal preference. The type of design can make a difference. Design types include:

  • Fan Diffusers
  • Electric Heat Diffusers
  • Candle Diffusers
  • Terracotta Diffusers
  • Lamp Ring Diffusers
  • Ultrasonic Diffusers
  • Spray Diffusers, also called nebulizers2

9000 essential oils using common household items.You can put a few drops on a napkin and leave it on the nightstand. Steam the essential oil in a bowl of hot water, or drip a drop into melted wax after blowing out a regular beeswax candle.

Bath

After your bath is filled, add a little essential oil (see instructions on the label). You can also dilute the essential oil in a carrier oil such as almond or coconut oil before adding it to your bath.This can be helpful if you have sensitive skin.

Topical

Topical application of essential oils, also called dermal application, simply means rubbing them into the skin. Massaging essential oils into the skin adds an extra element of relaxation. Use a carrier oil such as jojoba or rosehip oil and add some essential oil (see label instructions). Then massage it on your skin, or have your massage therapist apply it to your skin during the massage.You can also make a moisturizing lotion by mixing unscented lotion and a few drops of essential oil. Rub it into your skin like any moisturizing lotion.

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Inside

There has been a lot of controversy about whether essential oils should be taken internally. There are no studies that demonstrate the safety of taking essential oils. There is no research to show that it is unsafe, but most people are uncomfortable with taking them by mouth.

Oil Precautions Against Anxiety

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Essential oils are considered safe for most people. However, there are a few things to keep in mind. First, if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or exposing an infant or child to essential oil, start by talking to your doctor or your child’s pediatrician. Using essential oil near pets can cause them to react to the oils.

Second, if you apply essential oil to your skin, test it on a small area of ​​the skin before applying it to larger areas.This will help avoid allergic reactions and side effects. Another way to minimize the risk is to dilute the oils with carrier oil or water. And of course, always use oils according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.

The use of essential oils can cause allergic reactions and even side effects. If you are taking medication or have a medical condition, it is important to talk to your doctor about using essential oils.

Which essential oils are good for anxiety?

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Below is a list of essential oils that some have found to help with anxiety.Remember to talk to your doctor before choosing an oil or using essential oils.

Lavender

Perhaps the most popular essential oil of lavender has a pleasant floral scent. It is believed to help with anxiety and promote sleep.

Bergamot

Bergamot oranges are the source of bergamot essential oil. Their citrusy scent can help relieve anxiety.

Chamomile

Chamomile is a popular herbal remedy that is often used as a tea for its relaxing properties.It also produces an essential oil that can be mixed with a carrier oil and rubbed into the skin or added to the bath.

Rose

Rose petals are used to make rose essential oil. This floral scent is very relaxing.

treatment of nervous breakdown

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orange

The scent of fresh oranges is almost always pleasant. Orange essential oil captures this scent and concentrates it.

Sandalwood

Sandalwood is an aromatic wood that is often used in aromatherapy. Sandalwood is also converted into essential oils, which are believed to help with stress and anxiety.

Ylang-Ylang

Ylangilang is a tree that grows in Malaysia and the Philippines. Its yellow flowers are used to produce essential oil that is believed to help with anxiety and other conditions.

Clary Sage

Another essential oil that people use for stress and anxiety is derived from the herb sage. It is believed that this oil affects the dopamine system of the brain and creates a sense of calmness.

Jasmine

Jasmine essential oils are believed to help with anxiety.

Frankincense

Frankincense essential oil is believed to relieve anxiety and pain. It comes from the Boswellia tree native to Somalia.

Jatamansi

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Jatamnsi also belongs to the same family as Valerian. As an essential oil, it not only helps with anxiety and sleep, but it can also help with depression.

Saint Basil

Holy Basil is a herb with a mint flavor. Many advertise its properties as beneficial for physical pain and anxiety.

Sweet basil

Sweet basil comes from the same family as holy basil.Sweet basil is something that people often use in cooking. It is believed to help with anxiety.

Vetiver

Herb from India is the source of vetiver essential oil. This oil can help.

Patchouli

Patchouli has long been used in Ayurvedic medicine to relieve anxiety and stress. Users find it very soothing and relaxing when inhaled or sprayed.

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Marjoram

You can recognize marjoram by another name: oregano. Many aromatherapists use this essential oil to relieve anxiety.

What about an essential oil blend for anxiety?

While each type of oil can be beneficial on its own, many people find even more relief with essential oil blends for anxiety. Combining two or more oils can create a synergistic effect. Some of the most popular blends are:

  • Essential oils of lavender, lemon and sage.
  • Essential oils of lavender and orange
  • Essential oils of sandalwood and rose
  • Essential oils of ylangylang, clary sage and lavender
  • Essential oils of ylangilang, jasmine and grapefruit
  • Essential oils of lemon and jasmine
  • Benefits of lemonade

Essential Oil for Anxiety

While essential oils are not a panacea for anxiety or any other medical or mental condition, they may offer some help.Here’s a rundown of their benefits.

  • They are relatively safe.
  • They are easy to use.
  • They can sometimes be cheaper than other treatments.
  • For some people, they help relieve symptoms of anxiety.

Do You Need All Essential Oils?

You may experience some of the benefits of using essential oils. It is important to talk to your doctor or other trusted healthcare provider before using them, especially if you have any medical conditions, allergies, are pregnant or are breastfeeding.Traditional medications can also relieve anxiety, as can some types of counseling (therapy). You can speak with a mental health consultant at BetterHelp for online therapy anytime, anywhere that is most suitable for you.

definition of transience psychology

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Provide your plants with boron

Boric acid is often used for plant nutrition, so today we will talk about boric fertilization.Boron deficiency affects the appearance of the plant. Tomatoes and apple trees are especially sensitive to the lack of these elements. We will tell you how to properly feed tomatoes with boric acid. When using a boron source – boric acid, be careful! Do not exceed recommended dosages, and for real benefit, use it in the correct phase of plant development and adhere to the recommended feeding methods. We will also teach you how to create a more accessible form of boron from boric acid.

Recipe. So, for a bucket of water: 100 ml of glycerin, 5 g of boric acid, a solid tablespoon of 9% vinegar, a few tablespoons of 10% ammonia. You can pre-dissolve in a small volume of warm water, and then pour into a bucket of wooy.

Glycerin forms organic borate complexes with boric acid, which are better absorbed by plants. In the absence of glycerin.

Can be used for foliar dressing (spraying is carried out evenly for easy wetting of the leaves), it can be used for root dressing.When pouring under the root, it is necessary to take into account the provision of soils with boron. If this is the first feeding on soils poor in boron, then 1 bucket of solution will be needed for 1 adult tree (you will have to wash it into the root layer of soil with 5-6 more buckets of water in the crown projection), for 1 currant bush, etc. – up to 1 liter , for 1 strawberry bush – up to 1 liter, for 1 tomato plant, etc. – up to 0.5 liters. If feeding is done annually, then the doses can be reduced by 2-3 times.

You can store the solution as long as you like.

And one more note: do not get fooled by boron or calcium chelate. There is no single reason why calcium should be chelated. Calcium is easily absorbed by plants in the form of ions. It is not a metal with variable valence (iron, manganese) or large metal atoms (copper, etc.). In this case, the absorption of calcium is regulated by boron. With a lack of boron, calcium will not be absorbed, even if it is in excess in the soil.

Biological products: application, storage, reproduction

Biological products, do they work at low temperatures? Like chemicals, biological ones have their optimum – 20-30 degrees.But they also work at 10, only more slowly. Biologicals in this part have a great advantage over “chemistry” – they will not decompose, but will always wait for their “release”.

Biologicals, how to understand what live bacteria are? Just put them in the potato broth. Sow in half of the broth, but not in half. After 12 hours, if you notice a difference, it means that there was something alive in the preparation. The next question – if there was something alive in the preparation, was it the same active bacterium or fungus (Trichoderma)? Here is the rule: if it smells like “kvass”, maybe a little with ammonia, but without signs of a putrid smell, then something good lives there, if the smell is expressed in alcohol, then it is yeast (there is no harm from them, but they write that even benefit).Mushrooms are not difficult to recognize by the formed “balls” and clots of deep mycelium. Trichoderma also releases a yellowish pigment into the environment. And on the surface, clots of mycelium with green (like green mold – penicillus) sporulation can form.

Biological products, is there an effect of ultraviolet radiation on bacteria? On the issue of ultraviolet radiation, a lot of studies were once done regarding the survival of Bacillus thuringiensis (intestinal parasite of some insects – bitoxibacillin, etc.)NS.). So it turned out that there were no problems – they processed the potatoes early in the morning – by lunchtime the beetles couldn’t eat potatoes, but by tomorrow they died. Washes from the leaves show that bacteria survive well on the surface of the leaf facing the sun. But on the flip side – the survival rate is orders of magnitude higher! So that the most complete surface treatment will provide the maximum effect.

Biological products, how to disinfect the soil after growing plants? Trichodermin or phytosporin are excellent environmentally friendly and effective products!

Biologicals, can all bacteria be grown on potato broth? Anything is possible.Potato broth is a very nutritious solution for most soil (and not only) bacteria.

Biologicals, how to store? Store in a dark place. It can be in the refrigerator, or at room temperature without access to light. Best kept refrigerated. You can store it for a long time – up to three months. Reliably grow monocultural preparations at home – azophyte, phytosporin, trichodermin … If the preparation contains a composition of bacteria or fungi, it is difficult to predict what will gain an advantage and grow…

Homemade biopreparation, why did the alcohol smell appear? This means yeast has started! Needs sterilization! Do not chase after large volumes at once – do it first in a half-liter can. And drain the water thoroughly – there should be no water in there. Trichoderma breathes. And if aeration is impaired, then yeast gains an advantage – they can live without oxygen.

Homemade bitoxibacillin (BTB), how to use? 0.5 cups to dissolve in a bucket of water + soap (any) and treat with a sprayer, and the anthill can be slightly moistened (where the ants climb into the ground) undiluted.

BTB, works against cockroaches? No, alas. They have other parasites there. That is, this bacterium also acts, but the others are special strains.

BTB, works from the Colorado potato beetle? btb is an excellent remedy for the Colorado potato beetle. At the same time, unlike chemical pesticides, the beetle has no resistance to bt-toxin.

BTB, works from a scoop? scoop is afraid of him like fire. Or, more correctly, how we cholera!

BTB, how long should ants disappear after use? I disappeared in two weeks.And already 5 weeks have passed – they have not appeared again. Under the stones, they have exits from the anthill. There he processed it.

BTB how to use liquid form? I poured and poured under the stones, and also treated the trunks and branches of trees with liquid. I suspect that they become infected, put this infection into the anthill and infect the queen. She is dying, and all her household is in place with her.

BTB, how to store? Can be in the refrigerator or just in a cool place. For three months it is perfectly stored.It is better to close it not tightly – she likes to breathe – so several layers of gauze. or better – paper.

BTB, safe for children and animals? Absolutely safe, with the exception of insects sensitive to it. And this is the great advantage of this drug.

BTB, is it safe for bees? The pro-site says: “Toxic effect. The substance is harmless to humans and warm-blooded animals, does not have a harmful toxic effect on fish, bees and entomophages (toxic to the mulberry and oak silkworm). “But .. It also confused me, because both bees and ants belong to the order of Hymenoptera. Of course, this does not mean that since it affects one, it will also affect the other … But still, I am afraid.

BTB, how to increase? One teaspoon for 0.5 liter of potato broth is enough. A day or two to grow and it will be ready. You can store it in the refrigerator for up to a month.

Riverm, can you multiply? Yes, you can. The only thing is that you can only grow bacteria and, possibly, yeast, which are part of the preparation.But its composition is much richer due to the content of humic substances, trace elements, etc. Therefore, you will not get the same drug, although a good half of its beneficial properties are completely.

Trichoderma, how to store? Do I need to stir? No, you don’t need to mix. And you just need to store in a cool place. If a small amount, for example, 0.5-1.0 liters, then under the lid in the refrigerator.

Is Trichocin a Trichoderma? Trichocin is also Trichoderma, only a different species.

Is Trichopolum a Trichoderma? No, they only have the word “tricho” the same as trichoderma, for Trichopolis it means “Trichomonas”.

Trichoderma, does stone fruit moniliosis work? You can. And it is better to spray. Abundantly. It is even better to build it up on potatoes (in a decoction), mycelium and spores will grow there, shake it all up properly, strain, dilute with water and do the processing. And on what remains on a sieve or gauze – build up trichoderma again.

Trichoderma, is Trichoderma safe for humans? Trichoderma is believed to be safe for human health.But in practice, I have come across that some sneeze in the presence of Trichoderma. It’s kind of like a mild spore allergy.

Trichocin SP contains trichoderma harzianum strain g-30 vizr, and Trichoderma veride contains strain 471. Gleocladin contains strain 18 vizr. The price is also very different. What is the difference? How are these strains different? Trichoderma harzianum = Glyocladin = Cterniphage. Sternifag decomposes stubble well and destroys root rot pathogens in grain plants. Trichoderma harzianum, strain 18 VIZR (Glyocladin) fights better against pathogens – again, root rot, but worse decomposes grain stubble.Trichoderma Veride 471 is an antagonist of the widest range of pathogens with wide application both for introduction into the ground and for spraying the aboveground part. But, as usual, wide does not mean deep. It works better against someone, worse against another. In this sense, Trichoderma harzianum is a more targeted drug against cereal rot. Although shown to be effective on other plants. But all the same it is a suppressor of root rot.

Trichoderma, can it be used for indoor plants? Quite.But I do not recommend mixing earth with grains at home – it may slightly ping. It is better to wash the grains from the mushroom and water the pots. It also helps a lot.

Trichoderma, for example, how many such grains with trichoderma should be put in a tomato hole ? From a tablespoon of to half a glass.

Trichoderma, can glyocladin be used to produce Trichoderma? Can be used. And it’s better to grind. 1 teaspoon to 0.5 liters of steamed bran.

Trichoderma, will it grow on sawdust? Yes. Steam the sawdust to stifle extraneous microflora, moisten it with a complex liquid fertilizer for flowers, preferably with microelements diluted according to the instructions. And run Trichoderma there. To speed up the process, you can take a pack of yeast, dilute with water, boil properly and also soak the sawdust.

Trichoderma, how to steame cereals if there is no microwave? Pour and drain with boiling water several times.That at least superficially kill the yeast.

Trichoderma, how to use dry Trichodermin for reproduction? Just stir! 5 grams (1 tsp) of the drug in a 0.5 liter jar.

Fitosporin, how often to use? You cannot overdo it. But this is money too. Therefore, the most susceptible to diseases plants (tomato, cucumber, etc.) should be sprayed once every 10-14 days. And for plants prone to root rot (cucumber, for example) – and shed too.

Fitosporin, can be used for greenhouse disinfection? For total disinfection, alas, no. But after tough disinfection, it is useful to add it – to enrich the soil with useful microflora.

Chlorella, how to cook? It’s very simple. It is enough to put a jar of well (not chlorinated) water on the windowsill and soon chlorella will start up there by itself. Or if the water is tap water, let it stand and boil it several times.But for cultivation in a higher concentration than it can grow in ordinary water, it needs mineral salts. Regular liquid fertilizer for indoor flowers is fine. Just dilute it 2 times thinner than recommended on the package. Place a transparent container (preferably a glass jar) in the light, add chlorella or wait for it to populate itself (although you cannot be 100% sure that it will be chlorella). The walls of the bottles will be covered with a green bloom from the inside. This is chlorella.The bottles can be shaken to remove this plaque. And leave to build up further. When the color is already solid green, I stir it up and use it for its intended purpose.

Chlorella, what fertilizer should I add for breeding? Absolutely anything – if only nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were present, and less chlorine. You can even dilute a liquid for indoor flowers – literally a quarter of a teaspoon per liter – as a rule, there is iron in a chelated form, and all that jazz.

90,000 Zinc and Testosterone: Understanding the Connection

Disclaimer

If you have any medical questions or concerns, please contact your doctor. Articles in the Health Guide are based on peer-reviewed research and information gleaned from medical societies and government agencies. However, they are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

When it comes to the alphabet of nutrition, we seem to pay a lot of attention to the first letters and, well, not so many topics that appear later.Vitamin A, calcium, vitamin D? We know they are important and we understand very well what they are doing. Magnesium and manganese? Things are getting a little hazy, but the Health Guide can help you with that. By the time we are completely low on zinc, our knowledge of the matter will be as scarce as what it is possibly an ingredient in sunscreen? But zinc is actually an essential nutrient. And because we cannot manufacture or store it, our bodies rely on us to get enough every day through our diet or supplementation plans.

Vitals

  • Zinc is an essential nutrient and the second most abundant trace element in the body.
  • Your body cannot produce or store the mineral, so you need to get it on a daily basis.
  • Moderate zinc deficiency is associated with hypogonadism or testosterone deficiency.
  • Low zinc levels also affect sperm production, which can contribute to infertility.
  • Zinc can increase testosterone levels by acting on several different processes.
  • It is possible to obtain adequate amounts of zinc from dietary sources, although it can be difficult for vegans.
  • Supplements are also an option, but should be taken with caution as too much of the mineral can also be dangerous.

And since zinc is the second most abundant trace element in the human body, only after iron, this is serious if you do not get enough of it all the time. Although only trace amounts are needed (the recommended dose is 11 mg per day for adult men and 8 mg per day for adult women), its role in your body is not at all the same.Correct zinc intake helps to maintain the normal functioning of your body. This trace mineral plays an important role in wound healing and immune function, cell division, and the formation of DNA and proteins. It is also vital for growth and development, affects taste and smell, and has the potential to slow age-related macular degeneration.

Zinc & Testosterone

If all of this wasn’t enough to convince you of the importance of this mineral, it also affects testosterone levels.You may have heard that oysters are an aphrodisiac. Well, they are also one of the best dietary sources of zinc. Even mild zinc deficiency is associated with hypogonadism (also called testosterone deficiency) in men, testicular dysfunction that results in an inability to produce testosterone, sperm, or both. We probably don’t need to tell you, but low testosterone levels can lead to side effects such as changes in body composition due to increased body fat, decreased strength and muscle mass, decreased sex drive, and even erectile dysfunction.(These side effects can also occur if free testosterone levels are low, even if total testosterone is normalized.)

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To see how this mineral might affect testosterone concentration, researchers limited dietary zinc intake in young men for 20 weeks.(Prasad, 1996). During this time, their testosterone levels dropped from an average of 39.9 nmol / L (nanomoles per liter) to 10.6 nmol / L. But the researchers in this study also wanted to look at the opposite. So they took older men with mild zinc deficiencies and gave them supplements for six months. Of course, after 24 weeks, their serum testosterone levels improved. The average testosterone level dropped from 8.3 nmol / L to 16.0 nmol / L, which is in the middle of the range for healthy adults.While the study was small and more research would be needed to confirm how hormone levels are affected by zinc status, it highlights that there is a clear link between the two, as is the link between vitamin D and testosterone.

Low zinc levels also affect spermatogenesis, sperm production, and can also cause sperm abnormalities and serum testosterone withdrawal (Fallah, 2018). This is bad news for over 9% of US men (Chandra, 2019) aged 15–44 who have had fertility problems.

Zinc and other hormones

But then things get a little more complicated. Basically, zinc is involved in many processes in your body that, if they break down, stop or decrease the production of sex hormones. One of them is the correct function of the thyroid gland. Zinc is essential for the production of thyroid-releasing hormones in the brain. When men don’t get enough zinc, their bodies not only fail to produce thyroid hormones as they should, but also affect testosterone production.

Unfortunately, this also means that factors that negatively affect thyroid hormones can also lead to a decrease in testosterone levels. A typical example is intense exercise. Exercise to exhaustion leads to a decrease in both thyroid hormone and testosterone concentration in the wrestling group, one small study found (Kilich, 2006). But four weeks of treatment with zinc sulfate supplements successfully prevented this effect. Another study (Kilic, 2007) looked at the same effect, but in sedentary men rather than athletes, but they found the same thing.Oral zinc treatment prevented the drop in thyroid hormone and testosterone levels caused by fatigue cycling.

Additional Benefits of Zinc

There is another important way this mineral can increase testosterone levels, as well as another of the beneficial effects of zinc: it fights inflammation. Inflammation is associated with oxidative stress, a condition in which there is an imbalance between free radicals, which can cause cell damage, and antioxidants.Zinc can reduce oxidative stress (Marreiro, 2017) by acting as an antioxidant in the body to restore the balance between the two, and this is a vital function of this mineral. Although oxidative stress is associated with many chronic diseases, it can also cause a decrease in testosterone levels, as it can damage Leydig cells (Fallah, 2018), which produce testosterone in the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH).

Correct zinc levels also support the immune system by helping (Honscheid, 2009) to develop T-lymphocytes, which stimulate infection-fighting T cells.Getting enough zinc is also critical for wound healing, so micronutrients are used with vitamin C (Bhattacharya, 2015) to accelerate ulcer healing in a hospital setting. And these same inflammatory attenuation effects are at the root of why zinc (along with vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene) can halt or slow the progression (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Research Group, 2013) of age-related macular degeneration (AMD ).

How to Get Enough Zinc

For most people, food sources should be sufficient to reach your daily requirement.But since oysters and beef are some of the most potent food sources, vegans and vegetarians can struggle to get them without supplements. Other quality sources include nuts and seeds, dairy products, and dark chocolate. Legumes and whole grains also contain zinc, but they may need to be soaked to reduce levels of phytate, a compound that blocks zinc absorption. Certain foods, such as some breakfast cereals, are also fortified with an essential mineral.

But there are people who need zinc supplements.Anyone with gastrointestinal conditions such as Crohn’s disease or celiac disease, as well as people with liver disease, may have difficulty absorbing zinc from their diet and may need high-dose supplements. These people should work closely with a healthcare professional to monitor their zinc concentration. For most people, a multivitamin or ZMA (a combination of zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6) will meet their needs.

can good butrin make you gain weight

Just be sure to follow medical advice if you decide to use supplements.Too much zinc can also be dangerous and can cause magnesium deficiency.

Recommendations

  1. Research of age-related eye diseases 2 research group. (2013). Lutein, zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration. Jama, 309 (19), 2005.DOI: 10.1001 / jama.2013.4997, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644932
  2. Bhattacharya, S., and Mishra, R.K. (2015 ). Pressure ulcers: current understanding and new treatments. Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, 48 (01), 004–016.DOI: 10.4103 / 0970-0358.155260, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25991879
  3. Chandra A., Copen C.E. and Stephen E.H. (December 5, 2019). CDC – NCHS – National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr067.pdf
  4. Fallah, A., Mohammad-Hasani, A., Hosseinzade, Kolagar, A. (2018). Zinc is an essential element of male fertility: an overview of the role of Zn in male health, germination, sperm quality, and fertilization. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, 19 (2), 69–81.Retrieved from http://www.jri.ir/
  5. Honscheid, A., Rink, L., & Haase, H. (2009). T-lymphocytes: a target for the stimulating and inhibiting action of zinc ions. Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders – Targets for Drugs, 9 (2), 132-144. DOI: 10.2174 / 187153009788452390, http://www.eurekaselect.com/84432/article/t-lymphocytes-target-stimulatory-and-inhibitory-effects-zinc-ions
  6. Kilich, M., Baltachi, A. K., Gunay, M., Goekbel, H., Okudan, N., and Chichioglu, I.(2006). Effects of exercise on depletion on thyroid hormones and testosterone levels in elite athletes taking zinc by mouth. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 27 (1-2), 247-252. Retrieved from http://www.nel.edu/
  7. Kilich, M. (2007). Effects of Tiring Cycling Exercise on Thyroid Hormone and Testosterone Levels in Sedentary Men with Oral Zinc Supplementation. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 28 (5), 681–685. Retrieved from http: // www.nel.edu/
  8. Murreiro, D., Cruz, K., Morais, J., Becerra, J., Severo, J., & Oliveira, A.D. (2017). Zinc and oxidative stress: modern mechanisms. Antioxidants, 6 (2), 24.doi: 10.3390 / antiox6020024, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28353636
  9. Prasad, A. (1996). Zinc status and serum testosterone levels in healthy adults. Nutrition, 12 (5), vi. DOI: 10.1016 / s0899-9007 (96) 00064-0, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8875519
  10. Prasad, A.S.(2014). Zinc: an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent: the role of zinc in the degenerative disorders of aging. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 28 (4), 364–371. DOI: 10.1016 / j.jtemb.2014.07.019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25200490

Learn more 90,000 Separated at birth? Jessica Chastain and Bryce Dallas Howard meet face to face in ‘Help’

Separated Birth Jessica Chastain

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1999-2003Bryce Dallas Howard attended New York University and studied at Stella Adler’s acting studio. Also while in New York? Howard’s lookalike, Jessica Chastain, who attended Juilliard on a fellowship from a Robin Williams alumnus.

Now two fair-skinned and red-haired actresses appear in front of the screen as rivals of the southern beauties: Howard as the arrogant Hillbrook, Chastain as the sweet Celia Foote. ‘Help,’ is based on Catherine Stockett’s bestselling book about white housewives and their black maids in Mississippi in the early 60s.

At the Help Party in Los Angeles, both actresses told us about their eerie similarities and how they constantly misidentify themselves.

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Howard, who played Victoria in Twilight. Saga: Eclipse (and who happens to be the daughter of Oscar-winning director Ron Howard) certainly knew about Chastain during their coincidental New York period. She recalled: “People constantly said that there was a woman in New York who looked like me.Gradually, I received more information about her. I walked into the store and they said, “Oh my gosh, your doppelganger is just here!” And it turned into, “There is a woman in Juilliard who looks a lot like you,” and then she went to the Williamstown Theater Festival, and a group of my friends went there, and they all told me, “There is a woman named Jessica Chastain very similar to you ”.

“Even now,” Howard continued, “I was at the hairdresser’s three days ago, and a woman came up to me and asked,“ Are you Jessica? “I said,” No, “but then I said,” Do you mean Jessica Chastain? Just tell me what you want to tell her and I will email her. “We were so often mistaken for each other. And I really like it, because I think she is beautiful. ”

Chastain, who most recently appeared in Terrence Malick’s The Tree of Life, is experiencing similar persistent identity failures. But there is a downside to what I am mistaken for a famous actress.

“I was straight from Juilliard,” she said, “and got a job in a play on Broadway. It was my first job and I was so excited … Anyway, it was around the time The Village [Howard was filming] came out, I was on the subway and noticed these people looking at me …… Finally, one of them came up to me and said, “I’m sorry to bother you, but I just had to say that I consider you a wonderful actress.” And I said, “This is SO cute! Many thanks!’ I mean, I just eat it. Someone thinks I’m great! And then she starts talking about “The Village” and I say, “Um, no. Not me … ‘

“It also happened when I opened the magazine and thought,“ I don’t remember how I did this shoot. ” Oh wait. It even happened today, someone told me: “You are great in the Help trailer! You are sooo disgusting! And I’m like, “No.Not me! ”

Chastain hopes that she and Howard, both in their 30s, can use their striking mirror images to their advantage, perhaps finding a movie or play where they can be played as sisters. “I feel that this is a force that we must use for good!”

And even more confusing, Jessica’s real last name is Howard, but from work she took her mother’s maiden name – Chastain. Smart move.

Test on the topic “Cooking”

Test is a tool for assessing student learning, consisting of a system of test tasks, a standardized procedure for conducting, processing and analyzing the results.

Topic 1 “Technology of making canapes, light and complex cold snacks”

  1. Tiny sandwiches weighing 60-80 g, 0.5 cm – 0.7 cm thick, are called:

a) valovan;

b) canapes;

c) tartlets;

d) all answers are correct.

  1. Small dough baskets filled with all kinds of fillings, both sweet and savory, are called:

a) valovan;

b) canapes;

c) tartlets;

d) all answers are correct.

  1. An appetizer from French cuisine, baked from puff pastry in the shape of a turret, inside which there is all kinds of filling: mushroom, meat, vegetable, sweet, called:

a) valovan;

b) canapes;

c) tartlets;

d) all answers are correct.

  1. Dishes that are traditionally served at buffets are called:

a) cold snacks;

b) hot snacks;

c) sandwiches;

g) salads.

  1. What is the difference between a cold appetizer and a cold dish:

a) serving temperature;

b) registration;

c) ingredients;

g) weighing?

  1. An appetizer, which is a slice of bread or a roll on which additional food products are placed, is called:

a) canapes;

b) pita;

c) sandwich;

g) toast.

  1. Hot sandwiches are called:

a) croutons;

b) pita;

c) hot dog;

g) crouton.

  1. Which sandwich belongs to the group of hot snack sandwiches:

a) croutons;

b) pita;

c) hot dog;

g) crouton.

  1. Bread with a pocket in which the filling is put is called:

a) croutons;

b) pita;

c) hot dog;

g) crouton.

  1. Snacks translated from English mean:

a) cold snack;

b) hot snack;

c) light snack;

g) salad.

  1. Shaft mass after baking should be:

a) 5 gr .;

b) 10 g.;

c) 15 gr .;

g) 20 g.

  1. For crouton-moale, a slice of bread is cut in the form:

a) a rhombus;

b) squares;

c) circle;

d) triangle.

  1. What is the name of stuffed chicken fillet:

a) muale;

b) galantine;

c) fromage;

g) shofrua.

  1. Game cheese is called:

a) moal;

b) galantine;

c) fromage;

g) shofrua.

  1. What is the name of the stuffed chicken

a) muale;

b) galantine;

c) fromage;

g) shofrua?

Topic 2 “Technology of preparation of complex cold dishes from fish, meat and agricultural poultry”

1.A dish made from vegetables, meat or fish, in the form of thin slices – loaves, is called:

a) pate;

b) terrine;

c) Betterbread;

d) galantine.

2. Minced game, meat, liver, eggs, mushrooms, truffles, etc., prepared in a special way, bears the name:

a) pate;

b) terrine;

c) Betterbread;

d) galantine.

3. Lanspeek is:

a) concentrated meat broth;

b) concentrated fish broth;

c) fish broth with gelatin;

g) meat broth with gelatin.

4. A complex garnish made from different varieties of greens and vegetables or from fruits, is called:

a) blanket;

b) demiglas;

c) cornet;

g) masseduan.

5. The fat removed during cooking of broth for aspic, containing a little broth or water, is called

a) birch;

b) deep fat;

c) fume;

g) oil mixture.

6. What is the name of the minced veal liver and pork fat, fried, covered with a shiny film:

a) one year old;

b) gratin;

c) galantine;

g) crouton?

7.What are the names of the green parts of parsley, celery, dill and leek, tied in a bunch:

a) broom;

b) a wreath;

c) stack;

g) bouquet?

8. Which of the following substances is not a gelling agent:

a) gelatin;

b) starch;

c) pectin;

g) cream.

9. Not dressed salads and vinaigrettes can be stored for:

a) 8 hours;

b) 10 hours;

c) 12 hours;

g) 14 hours.

10. The shelf life of pates is:

a) 20 hours;

b) 24 hours;

c) 26 hours;

d) 28 hours.

11. Cold fish dishes with garnish dressed with sauce are stored no more than:

a) 20 minutes;

b) 30 minutes;

c) 40 minutes;

d) 60 minutes.

12. Self-prepared mushroom caviar is stored for:

a) 12 hours;

b) 24 hours;

c) 36 hours;

d) 48 hours.

13. The serving temperature of cold dishes and snacks is:

a) 8-10 about C;

b) 10-12 o C;

c) 12-14 o C;

g) 14-16 o C.

14. The range of cold dishes and snacks on FOP depends on:

a) season;

b) type of enterprise;

c) availability of raw materials in the warehouse;

d) all answers are correct.

15. What happens to fish protein under the influence of heat treatment?

a) is destroyed;

b) evaporates with steam;

c) goes into glutin;

d) all answers are correct.

Topic 3 “Technology of making complex cold sauces”

1. What liquid bases are used for making cold sauces:

a) broth, cream, vinegar and vegetable oil;

b) sour cream, broth and vegetable oil;

c) cream, sour cream and vinegar;

g) vegetable oil and vinegar?

2. Which sauces are cold:

a) dressings, marinades and cream;

b) mayonnaise, marinades and dressings;

c) red, mayonnaise and milk;

g) white, sour cream and milk?

3.Indicate the storage duration of egg-oil mixtures:

a) up to 2 hours;

b) 4 hours;

c) 1 hour;

d) 30 minutes.

4. What substances of mayonnaise determine its high calorie content:

a) flavoring additives;

b) emulsifiers – dairy products;

c) fat content;

d) egg content?

5. Under what conditions does a yellow bloom (staff) form faster on butter:

a) when stored at a temperature of 10 ° C for 80 days;

b) when storing oil in dark rooms at a temperature of -1 ° C for up to 20 days;

c) when storing oil at a temperature of -18 ° C for up to 45 days;

g) when storing oil in bright rooms at a temperature of -1 ° C for up to 20 days?

6.What is the main ingredient in salad dressing:

a) vegetable oil;

b) table vinegar;

c) butter;

g) balsamic vinegar.

7. What are oil mixtures:

a) a mixture of butter mixed with vinegar;

b) butter mixed with crushed products;

c) a mixture of vegetable oil with vinegar;

g) a mixture of butter and vegetable oils?

8.The composition of green butter includes the following ingredients:

a) butter, dill, lemon juice;

b) butter, parsley, citric acid;

c) vegetable oil, celery, lemon juice;

g) butter, parsley, lemon juice.

9. What is the basis of sauces without flour:

a) butter, mushroom broth, vinegar;

b) butter, vinegar, meat broth;

c) butter, vinegar, fish broth;

g) butter, fruit broth, vinegar?

10.Mayonnaise, what fat content is produced by the industry:

a) 20-35%;

b) 45-65%;

c) 25-67%;

d) 65-67%?

11. At what temperature is it necessary to cook the Hollandaise sauce in order to prevent its stratification:

a) 80 about C;

b) 85 o C;

c) 90 o C;

d) 95 o C?

12. What snacks are served with mustard dressing:

a) for snacks made from vegetables;

b) for herring snacks;

c) to appetizers from the tongue;

g) for fish snacks?

13.To dishes of boiled, stewed and fried fish are served:

a) Dutch sauce with mustard;

b) Hollandaise sauce with vinegar;

c) Hollandaise sauce with capers;

g) Hollandaise sauce with cream.

14.Adding red sweet and sour sugar and butter to the sauce, you get:

a) “Sweet” sauce;

b) Creamy sauce;

c) Ariadne sauce;

g) Aurora sauce.

15.Onion sauce with mustard is called:

a) “Piquant”;

b) Mironton;

c) Robert;

g) “Hunting”.

Evaluation Criteria:

Topic 1

Topic 2

Topic 3

15-12 – “5”

15-12 – “5”

15-12 – ” 5 “

11-9 -” 4 “

11-9 -” 4 “

11-9 -” 4 “

7-7 -” 3 “

7-7 -” 3 “

7 -7 – “3”

less than 6 – “2”

less than 6 – “2”

less than 6 – “2”

Answers to tests:

No. questions

Topic 1

Topic 2

Topic 3

1

B

B

D

2

V

A

B

A 3

C

A 3

4

A

D

V

5

D

A

A

6

V

B

A

7

A

D

B

8

D

C

B 9000

V

G

10

V

B

V

11

B

B

A

12

A

B

D

B

V

V

14

V

G

G

15

B

V

V

.