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When my stomach is empty it hurts: The request could not be satisfied


Abdominal Pain | Should You Be Concerned? 10 Causes, Relief


Gallstones are small, round deposits found in the gallbladder, the organ where bile is stored. Gallstones can be subclassified a number of ways. Oftentimes, gallstones will be referred to as either cholesterol stones or pigment stones depending on the makeup of the gallstone

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder of the large intestine. It is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and bowel movement issues that can be difficult to treat. Signs and symptoms of IBS are usually not severe or life-threateni…

Menstrual cramps

Menstrual cramps, also called dysmenorrhea, are actually contractions of the uterus as it expels its lining during a woman’s monthly period.

A certain amount of mild cramping is normal, triggered by hormone-like substances called prostaglandins. However, painful cramps may be caused by underlying conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, high prostaglandin levels, or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. )

Severe cramping may be present, as well as nausea, headache, and dull pain that radiates to the low back and thighs. It is most common in women under age 30 who smoke, have heavy and irregular periods, and have never given birth.

An obstetrician/gynecologist (women’s specialist) can do tests for underlying conditions such as those mentioned above. Women over age 25 who suddenly begin having severe cramps should see a doctor to rule out the sudden onset of a more serious concern.

Treatment of mild cramping can be done with heating pads to the abdomen and with over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen. Birth control pills, which regulate the menstrual cycle, are often effective in lessening cramps.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: abdominal pain (stomach ache), abdominal cramps (stomach cramps), painful periods, lower back pain, abdominal pain that shoots to the back

Symptoms that always occur with menstrual cramps: abdominal pain (stomach ache)

Symptoms that never occur with menstrual cramps: being severely ill, disapearance of periods for over a year

Urgency: Self-treatment

Normal variation of constipation

Constipation means bowel movements which have become infrequent and/or hardened and difficult to pass.

There is wide variation in what is thought “normal” when it comes to frequency of bowel movements. Anywhere from three times a day to three times a week is considered normal.

As long as stools are easy to pass, laxatives should not be used in an effort to force the body to a more frequent schedule.

Constipation is usually caused by lack of fiber in the diet; not drinking enough water; insufficient exercise; and often suppressing the urge to have a bowel movement.

A number of medications and remedies, especially narcotic pain relievers, can cause constipation.

Women are often affected, due to pregnancy and other hormonal changes. Young children who demand low-fiber or “junk food” diets are also susceptible.

Constipation is a condition, not a disease, and most of the time is easily corrected. If simple adjustments in diet, exercise, and bowel habits don’t help, a doctor can be consulted to rule out a more serious cause.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: abdominal pain (stomach ache), nausea, stomach bloating, constipation, constipation

Symptoms that always occur with normal variation of constipation: constipation

Symptoms that never occur with normal variation of constipation: vomiting

Urgency: Self-treatment

Acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas, which creates and releases insulin and glucagon to keep the sugar levels in your blood stable. It also creates the enzymes that digest your food in the small intestine. When these enzymes accidentally get activated in the pancreas, they digest the pancreas itself, causing pain and inflammation.

Rarity: Rare

Top Symptoms: constant abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, being severely ill, severe abdominal pain, fever

Symptoms that always occur with acute pancreatitis: constant abdominal pain

Urgency: Hospital emergency room


Appendicitis refers to inflammation of the appendix, a small finger-like structure in the lower right corner of the belly. Appendicitis is extremely common, occurring in about five to 10 percent of people at some point in their lifetime. While it can occur at any age, the most commonly affected group…

Intestinal inflammation (diverticulitis)

Diverticula are small pouches that bulge outward through the colon, or large intestine. Diverticulitis is a condition where the pouches become inflamed or infected, a process which can cause fever, nausea, vomiting, chills, cramping, and constipation.

Rarity: Uncommon

Top Symptoms: abdominal pain (stomach ache), nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, constipation

Symptoms that never occur with intestinal inflammation (diverticulitis): pain below the ribs, pain in the upper right abdomen

Urgency: Hospital emergency room

Other abdominal pain causes

Abdominal pain can also occur due to the following.

  • Bowel issues: Both diarrhea and constipation can cause abdominal pain symptoms. If your bowel movements are less than normal, you can expect some form of abdominal pain.
  • Stress: Many diseases can come from mental and physical distress. Anxiety and panic disorders are connected to abdominal pain as well.
  • Internal injuries: Internal bleeding, stomach ulcers, and tearing in any of the stomach muscles, lining, or nearby organs can cause severe abdominal pain that should be treated as soon as possible.

Why Does My Stomach Hurt? 32 Causes Of Stomach Pain And Bloat

Stomach pain is something pretty much everyone is acquainted with at some point in their lives. While some conditions are mild enough to be treated with at-home remedies, it’s possible you’re dealing with something more serious if your pain is severe or happening all the time. So you definitely want to get to the bottom of that tricky Q: Why does my stomach hurt?

“There are various causes of stomach pain, which can be acute or chronic and can be caused by issues relating to the stomach, appendix, gallbladder, spleen, bowel, liver, gynecological issues, or other issues,” says Michael D. Dann, MD, a gasteroenterologist at Manhattan Gastroenterology in New York City. “A thorough examination and further investigation can help you to understand and properly treat the cause of your pain.”

Because the list of possible causes is pretty long, Dr. Dann recommends that all persistent or intense abdominal pain always be evaluated with a thorough consultation and examination by a gastroenterologist for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. While there are tons of totally harmless reasons that you’re stomach hurts (hi, indigestion!), you def want to rule out a serious illness or condition.

Read on for 32 potential causes of stomach pain, as well as how to identify and treat them.

1. Irritable bowel syndrome

IBS is one of the most common causes of abdominal pain, says Dr. Dann. Symptoms typically include pain in the belly and abdomen area that is nagging and chronic, altered bowel habits, nausea, and vomiting.

How to treat it: Treatment will vary depending on symptoms can include dietary modifications, medication, and lifestyle behavior changes (think: adapting new stress management techniques, as stress can exacerbate IBS symptoms).

2. Lactose intolerance

Symptoms of lactose intolerance include a crampy abdominal pain (often in the lower abdomen), bloating, flatulence, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting, all after eating dairy products that contain the sugar molecule lactose.

How to treat it: The most obvious way to treat lactose intolerance is to eliminate or limit dairy products from your diet, says Dr. Dann. You can also take an enzyme replacement to relieve symptoms, or treat secondary causes of lactase deficiency, such as with calcium and vitamin D supplementation.

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3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) typically complain of heartburn, regurgitation, and difficulty swallowing, says Dr. Dann. However, some patients may also deal with abdominal or chest pain, nausea, chronic cough, hoarseness, or wheezing.

How to treat it: Mild and intermittent symptoms can be managed with lifestyle and dietary modification, says Dr. Dann. Medication may be needed for persistent or frequent symptoms and can include antacids, histamine h3 receptor blockers (such as Pepcid, a. k.a. famotidine), or proton pump inhibitors such as Prilosec (omeprazole). Severe symptoms may require surgery.

4. Gas and bloating

Gas in your digestive tract comes from either swallowed air and the normal breakdown of certain undigested foods by harmless bacteria that are naturally present in the large intestine, per Dr. Dann. Although it can often cause embarrassing moments, it’s a normal aspect of digestion. Gas pain and other symptoms like burping, flatulence, bloating, and cramping can be exacerbated by certain foods such as dairy products and artificial sweeteners, according to the Mayo Clinic.

How to treat it: If it’s not related to another condition, gas can often be treated and managed with various over-the-counter medications (such as Beano or Gas-X) and dietary changes. If you experience chronic gas and severe pain, it could be a sign of another underlying GI condition, which a doc can help to diagnose.

5. Food poisoning

Food poisoning results from eating contaminated food, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, in addition to abdominal pain, according to the Mayo Clinic.

How to treat it: Food poisoning can often be treated at home by replacing fluids and electrolytes and letting it run its course. But if you experience severe symptoms like dehydration, bloody stool, and a fever over 100 degrees, you should seek medical attention.

6. Indigestion

Indigestion is pretty much just the formal name for having an upset stomach, marked by upper abdominal pain, often after a meal. Other symptoms can include gas and nausea, according to the Mayo Clinic.

7. Gastritis

Gastritis is the term for inflammation involving the lining of the stomach. Symptoms are similar to GERD and include abdominal discomfort/pain, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting. Gastritis can be caused by irritation due to excessive alcohol use, stress, medication such as anti-inflammatory drugs, bile reflux, and infections caused by bacteria like Helicobacter pylori, the latter of which can also lead to ulcers and stomach cancer.

How to treat it: Treatment depends on the specific cause, of course. For example, acute gastritis caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or alcohol may be relieved by stopping use of those substances. Medications that block or reduce acid production and promote healing can also help, as can antacids and antibiotics to treat H. pylori infection.

8. Peptic ulcer disease

This condition typically includes upper abdominal pain with the pain occasionally localizing to one side, says Dr. Dann. Additional symptoms include abdominal bloating, fullness, nausea, and the inability to eat a full meal, or feeling full after only a small amount of food.

How to treat it: To treat this condition, with the guidance of a doctor, discontinue use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and work to eliminate H. pylori with appropriate medications to promote ulcer healing, says Dr. Dann.

9. Functional dyspepsia

This is the term used to describe gastrointestinal symptoms where the cause seems to be unknown. Symptoms of functional dyspepsia can overlap with GERD and gastritis, says Dr. Dann.

How to treat it: Patients under 60 years of age should be tested and treated for H. pylori, says Dr. Dann. This sometimes will include an upper endoscopy, particularly if they’re over age 60. Patients who are H. pylori negative or who continue to have symptoms after gettiing rid of the bacteria should be treated with antisecretory therapy with a proton pump inhibitor.

10. Gastroenteritis and infectious colitis

These are the terms for inflammation in the lining of the intestines and colon, respectively. Symptoms will vary based on the location and cause. In both cases, the underlying cause could be due to a condition such as Crohn’s disease or even something more benign such as a lack of blood flow to the abdominal area, says Dr. Dann. Patients with infectious colitis generally have diarrhea associated abdominal pain, which may be severe.

How to treat it: Depending on the severity of symptoms, antibiotics may be needed.

11. Appendicitis

Acute appendicitis typically presents initially with pain around the belly button which radiates into the right lower quadrant of the abdomen area, says Dr. Dann. It is associated with nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

How to treat it: For patients with non-perforated appendicitis (meaning the appendix hasn’t bursted), you’ll likely need an appendectomy in a fairly timely fashion. If the appendix hasn’t been ruptured, you may be able to treat it solely with antibiotics. If the appendix has ruptured? You’ll need emergency surgery.

12. Gallstones

Gallstones can cause intense discomfort or sharp pain located in the right upper quadrant or other area below the chest. That’s because gallstones occur when digestive fluid deposits have hardened in the gallbladder, and these “stones” have temporarily blocked the duct, causing discomfort and pain. The pain may radiate to the back and right shoulder blade and symptoms can also include nausea, vomiting, and sweating. Pain can last 30 to 90 minutes at a time, and an abdominal examination unfortunately won’t tend to show much, says Dr. Dann.

How to treat it: During a gallstone attack, pain can be controlled with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. “Elective gallbladder removal should be considered for patients with gallstones on imaging to prevent future attacks and complications of gallstone disease,” says Dr. Dann.

13. Acute cholecystitis

This is the term for when inflammation occurs in the gallbladder, typically from a clogged duct (like from a gallstone). Acute cholecystitis symptoms can include severe, prolonged, steady pain (like for more than four to six hours) involving the right upper quadrant. You may also have a fever and an elevated white blood cell count, and you may be hypersensitive when you put pressure on the area below the ribs while breathing deeply.

How to treat it: This is a more serious condition that requires hospitalization, says Dr. Dann. Treatment will include intravenous hydration (meaning through an IV), pain meds, IV antibiotics, and surgery to remove the gallbladder.

14. Acute cholangitis

Acute cholangitis can present similarly to acute cholecystitis but is typically more severe, says Dr. Dann. It occurs when a stone becomes impacted in ducts draining bile from the liver into in the small intestine, leading to an infection. Symptoms include fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eye), and abdominal pain. The abdominal pain is typically vague and located in the right upper quadrant.

How to treat it: Similarly to the previous condition, treatment will include hospitalization with intravenous hydration, pain medications, antibiotics, and surgery.

15. Celiac disease

The OG reason for going gluten-free, celiac disease sufferers tend to experience abdominal pain and excessive flatulence in addition to diarrhea, which is often foul-smelling due to malabsorption, says Dr. Dann. Symptoms can present as early as infancy but most commonly present between the ages of 10 and 40. Patients may also experience weight loss, anemia (low red blood cell count), neurologic disorders from deficiencies of B vitamins, and osteopenia (thinning of the bones) due to vitamin D and calcium deficiencies.

How to treat it: Most patients can manage celiac disease with a gluten-free diet, as well as by monitoring and reporting any complications to their doctor.

16. Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis can be acute and chronic. The pain is typically severe and can even radiate to the back. Symptoms can also include nausea and vomiting, and you might feel a little bit of relief when you sit upright or lean forward, says Dr. Dann.

How to treat it: Most cases of pancreatitis require hospitalization, along with fluid replacement and pain meds.

17. Acute hepatitis

Hepatitis is when there is inflammation in the liver due to one fo the five hepatitis infections. Patients with acute hepatitis may have pain in the right upper quadrant, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Other symptoms include jaundice, dark urine, and light colored stools.

How to treat it: Treatment will vary depending on the underlying cause and may require hospitalization for supportive care, says Dr. Dann.

18. Gastroparesis

Gastroparesis is a condition when the stomach can’t properly empty itself of food contents. In addition to abdominal pain, a person with gastroparesis will have nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and in severe cases, weight loss. The cause is often unknown, but gastroparesis can be seen in diabetics and post-surgery patients.

How to treat it: Treatment typically includes making changes to your diet, getting your blood sugar levels and changes under control if you’re diabetic, and hydrating. Medication such as metoclopramide (Reglan) may be necessary, and some patients may require a feeding tube, says Dr. Dann.

19. Kidney stones

Kidney stones occur when a stone passes from the kidney into the ducts carrying urine to the bladder. Mild to severe pain is the most common symptom and can occur in the back or abdomen. Additional symptoms include nausea, vomiting, painful or urgent urination, and blood in the urine.

How to treat it: Kidney stones are most often treated with pain medication and hydration until the stone passes naturally through your urinary system. Large stones may require additional treatment, like lithotripsy (a procedure used to help break up the stones) or surgical removal.

20. A bladder or kidney infection

Bladder infections can definitely cause abdominal pain, as well as painful and urgent urination, and/or blood in the urine. If it’s a kidney infection you’re dealing with, you may also have a fever, chills, thigh pain, and joint tenderness.

How to treat it: Most cases can be treated with a course of oral antibiotics, though severe cases may require hospitalization and IV antibiotics. In rare cases, surgery may be required, says Dr. Dann.

21. Heart attack

You may be surprised by this, but symptoms for acute myocardial infarction (the medical term for heart attack) can include abdominal pain, belching, nausea, and indigestion, as well as shortness of breath or chest pain.

How to treat it: Management will depend on the underlying cause but will always requires prompt recognition and hospitalization, says Dr. Dann. Heart attacks are no joke.

22. Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a disorder in which tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside of it, often leading to lower abdominal/pelvic pain. Symptoms include painful periods with abdominal cramps, painful during sex, and/or infertility. Endometriosis can also lead to bowel and bladder issues, says Dr. Dann.

How to treat it: Initial treatment typically includes oral contraceptives and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, says Dr. Dann. However, recurrence rates are high if you stop taking medication. If treatment isn’t successful, surgery to remove the tissue growth is an option.

23. Uterine fibroids

Also known as leiomyomas, uterine fibroids typically lead to chronic lower abdominal/pelvic pressure or pain. Symptoms will vary depending on the size and number of fibroids and can include abdominal tenderness and low-grade fever, and your gyno may be able to feel large fibroids during an external abdominal exam.

How to treat it: Treatment can include oral contraceptives or GnRH agonists (medications that affect hormone levels). Some women also find relief with an IUD as a birth control method. In other cases, myomectomy (a surgical procedure to remove uterine fibroids) might be necessary.

24. Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts are solid or fluid-filled sacs or pockets in or on top of an ovary. Pain is often a sign that the cyst has ruptured or burst, says Dr. Dann. The most common symptom is lower quadrant pain, and especially pain after sex.

How to treat it: Ovarian cysts can often be managed with monitoring by your doctor and with over-the-counter pain-relief meds. In severe cases, surgery may be required.

25. Ovulatory pain

This pain can occur in the middle of your menstrual cycle, coinciding with timing of ovulation. It may be right- or left-sided, depending on which side you’re ovulating from during that cycle.

How to treat it: This pain usually goes away within 24 hours, says Dr. Dann. You can treat it with over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. If ovulation is particularly painful for you, taking birth control pills to prevent ovulation may be a solution worth talking to your gyno about.

26. Ectopic pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, typically on the fallopian tube. It typically occurs during the first trimester, with symptoms such as abdominal pain and or vaginal bleeding that can be life-threatening.

How to treat it: With an early diagnosis, most patients may be treated with a drug called methotrexate (MTX). But in some cases, a woman may need surgery, says Dr. Dann.

27. Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) typically includes acute lower abdominal and or pelvic pain. Patients may also have pelvic organ tenderness and evidence of inflammation of the genital tract. Any sexually active woman is at risk of developing PID, and it most often happens when an STD is left untreated, causing this infection of the reproductive organs.

How to treat it: Treatment can include antibiotics used to treat gonorrhea, chlamydia, and other bacterial infections. Severe or complicated PID may require hospitalization.

28. Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion occurs when an ovary becomes twisted around the ligaments that hold it in place. Symptoms can include moderate to severe pelvic pain, typically associated with nausea, a noticeable mass or bloating in the pelvic area, and sometimes vomiting, says Dr. Dann.

How to treat it: Ovarian torsion can sometimes resolves itself, but it often involves surgery. Surgical removal of the ovary may sometimes be required as well, says Dr. Dann.

29. Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer has a reputation as a “silent killer,” as it’s often asymptomatic until it’s in an advanced stage. But early symptoms may include bloating or abdominal/pelvic pain, urinary urgency or frequency, and postmenopausal bleeding.

How to treat it: Treatment will require surgery followed by chemotherapy, says Dr. Dann.

30. Ovarian hyperstimulation

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) can cause abdominal discomfort from enlarged ovaries in women undergoing fertility treatment. Early symptoms are usually mild to moderate and begin four to seven days after the ovulatory dose of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone. Late symptoms are typically more severe and begins at least nine days after the ovulatory dose of hCG during a conception cycle.

How to treat it: Mild or moderate OHSS and can be managed with analgesics such as Tylenol (acetaminophen), and by avoiding intense physical activity, says Dr. Dann.

31. Endometritis

Endometritis is the inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus, a.k.a. the endometrium. It typically involves lower abdominal and pelvic pain, as well as painful periods with cramping, pain during sex, and/or infertility. It can also lead to bowel and bladder issues, notes Dr. Dann.

How to treat it: Most infections are mild and cured with antibiotic therapy, though some may require IV antibiotics or curettage, a surgical scraping procedure to remove the affected tissue.

32. Crohn’s disease

Crohn’s disease is another type of inflammatory bowel disease that causes inflammation in the digestive tract. It’s marked by symptoms such as abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, cramping, and bloody stool, according to the Mayo Clinic. If you have have symptoms that could be consistent with Crohn’s disease or have already been diagnosed, you should always be evaluated with a thorough consultation and examination by a physician for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan, and to exclude a more serious or urgent condition, says Dr. Dann.

How to treat it: While there’s unfortunately no cure for Crohn’s, it’s often treated and managed with medications such as corticosteroids, immune system suppressors, and antibiotics. In severe cases, surgery may be required.

Emilia Benton
Emilia Benton is a Houston-based freelance writer and editor.

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These 4 Underlying Conditions Might Explain Why Your Stomach Hurts After You Eat

The last thing you expect after enjoying a great meal is stomach pain, but it can and does happen.

One of the most common reasons for this might be dyspepsia, which is basically just a fancy word for indigestion. Dyspepsia causes abdominal pain, bloating, and feelings of fullness after you eat, and it’s actually pretty common, says Scott Gabbard, M.D., a gastroenterologist at the Cleveland Clinic. According to the American Gastroenterological Association, about one in every four people get dyspepsia at some point.

While indigestion is typically fleeting, your stomach might also hurt after you eat because of an underlying condition.

This can be caused by a long list of things, says Ashkan Farhadi, M.D., a gastroenterologist at MemorialCare Orange Coast Medical Center and director of MemorialCare Medical Group’s Digestive Disease Project in Fountain Valley, Calif. Still, there are issues that are more commonly linked with post-meal stomach pain. Here are the biggies you should know about:

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Also known as GERD, this condition happens when stomach acid irritates the lining of your esophagus, creating heartburn and stomach pain in the process, Farhadi says. You’re more likely to suffer from GERD if you tend to overeat or love spicy foods—that allows acid to flow up into your esophagus, which can be pretty painful, says Rudolph Bedford, M.D., a gastroenterologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, Calif. If you think you’re struggling with GERD, try cutting back on spicy foods, caffeine, and alcohol, and take over-the-counter antacids to help with symptoms. If that still doesn’t do the trick, call your doctor.

Find out what you MUST do the next time you go to the doctor:

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IBS, an intestinal disorder that can cause pain in your stomach, gas, diarrhea, and constipation, can show up in a number of different ways, but it can definitely cause stomach pain after you eat, Farhadi says. If your stomach keeps hurting after you eat and you’re struggling with constipation or diarrhea, it’s a good idea to check in with your doctor to get tested for IBS.

Related: 6 Warning Signs Of Stomach Cancer That Have Nothing To Do With Pain

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Celiac disease is an immune reaction to eating gluten that can impact sufferers in different ways. One is stomach pain after you eat gluten, Bedford says. BTW: Your stomach can also hurt if you have a mild gluten intolerance (meaning, your body has difficulty digesting gluten), but this is different from Celiac disease. With Celiac, a person’s small intestine becomes damaged when they eat gluten; with a gluten intolerance, someone may simply have a physical reaction like diarrhea or gas after eating gluten. Your doctor can help you determine what might be at the root of the problem. (Drop stubborn pounds for good with Take It All Off! Keep It All Off!)

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If you’re struggling with chronic pain after you eat and are also dealing with weight loss, anemia, vomiting, trouble swallowing, or blood in your poop, it could be a sign of an ulcer, Gabbard says. Ulcers, which are sores that develop in the lining of your esophagus, stomach, or small intestine, are usually treated with acid-reducing medication and antibiotics in some cases, so you really need to see a doctor about this.

Related: 6 Signs You’ve Got A Serious Problem With Your Stomach

Again, sometimes the reason can be as simple as overeating, but if you find that your stomach regularly hurts after you eat, it’s a good idea to rope in a medical professional to help you figure out why.

Korin Miller
Korin Miller is a freelance writer specializing in general wellness, sexual health and relationships, and lifestyle trends, with work appearing in Men’s Health, Women’s Health, Self, Glamour, and more.

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6 Stomach Pains You Should Never Ignore

For most people, stomach aches are a regular part of life. But beyond the acute, temporary discomfort that we’ve all experienced, there are also several forms of abdominal pain that can be a sign of a serious health issue and shouldn’t be ignored.

That said, it can be pretty tricky to figure out if your stomach pain is the type that will resolve on its own or if you need to see your doctor. Here’s the lowdown on six types of stomach pain you don’t want to brush aside:

1. Pain that’s not going away

Any chronic stomach discomfort ― that is, persistent or recurrent pain that lasts three months or longer ― warrants a visit to a doctor or nutritionist, said Liz McMahon, a Philadelphia-based registered dietitian. This sort of discomfort includes symptoms like ongoing diarrhea, constipation, pain after eating, feeling full after just a few bites of food, bloating and gas.

These conditions could be caused by anything from irritable bowel syndrome or lactose intolerance to something more severe like gastroparesis, a condition where the stomach doesn’t empty properly, she said.

It’s important to see a GI doctor to rule out anything more serious like inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease, as well as just to get a proper diagnosis,” McMahon said. “Once we know what the issue is, then the registered dietitian can provide the right diet recommendations.”

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2. Pain that’s accompanied by nausea or vomiting

Stomach discomfort that comes along with nausea and vomiting can happen for a number of reasons, said Elena Ivanina, a gastroenterologist at Lenox Hill Hospital. This includes intestinal or bowel obstruction, gastrointestinal infection, inflammation, kidney stones, a ruptured ovarian cyst, an ulcer or even a heart attack.

“There are many other diagnoses to consider so it is important to speak with a physician if you have abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting,” Ivanina said.

Of course, some cases of nausea are due to overeating and food poisoning and usually pass within a day or two.

“Most people have suffered from the occasional stomach bug that lasts around 24 hours and know how that feels,” Ivanina said. But it’s time to see a doctor if the pain is unfamiliar, getting worse, isn’t going away, or is associated with symptoms like a fever or blood in the stool, she said.

3. Pain or discomfort along with blood in the stool

Any blood coming from the mouth or anus needs to be evaluated by a doctor,” said Samantha Nazareth, a New York City-based gastroenterologist.

Keep in mind that blood in the stool won’t always be red ― it can also be black and tar-like, which is often indicative of bleeding from somewhere higher up in the digestive tract, such as the stomach. Gastrointestinal bleeding can come from a number of sources including colitis, diverticulosis, hemorrhoids, a bleeding gastric ulcer and gastrointestinal cancers, Nazareth said.

But certain foods and medications can also cause tarry stools, so it’s important to think about what you’re taking and eating, said Niket Sonpal, adjunct assistant professor at Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine. These include foods like blueberries, beets, black licorice and more and medications like iron pills and bismuth medicines like Pepto-Bismol.

4. Pain that’s sudden and intense

If you’re experiencing strong and severe stomach pain, something probably isn’t right. Specific and localized pain that involves “a sharp shooting sensation that may even take your breath away, cause you to double over or hold the area, and happens in waves,” could be from an obstruction such as gallstones or kidney stones, Sonpal said.

Appendicitis is also a consideration when you’re experiencing sharp pain, Nazareth said. Often this will be the type of pain that’s worsening, comes on suddenly or isn’t going away. Severe pain can also be due to an ulcer, pancreatitis or a bile duct blockage.

“The key is to really zero in on the kind of pain that is being felt because they are indicative of different things,” Sonpal said, adding that it’s important not to delay getting help when sharp pains are involved.

5. Pain or discomfort that comes along with unexplained weight loss

“Unexpected or unintentional weight loss is always concerning and must be evaluated by a doctor whether it accompanies stomach pain or any other symptom,” Ivanina said, adding that this could be a sign of a risk for cancer, chronic pancreatitis, Crohn’s disease or other illnesses.

6. Pain or discomfort along with a fever

If you’re experiencing stomach discomfort and also have a higher body temperature than usual, this could indicate the presence of an infection. In cases like this, you’ll want to see a doctor, Sonpal said.

Ultimately, you know your body better than anyone. If you think something is wrong ― even if you’re unsure that it’s serious ― it’s always best to check in with a physician. Don’t just stomach your stomach pain.

Skipping Meals & Stomach Cramps

Skipping meals can lead to stomach pain.

Eating regular meals is beneficial for physical and gastric health, but many people skip meals due to lack of time or out of an erroneous belief that it will help bolster a weight-loss diet. Skipping meals can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including painful stomach cramps.

Peptic Ulcers

Causation of peptic ulcers has been a matter of debate in the medical and scientific communities for some time. A theory that ulcers are caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori replaced earlier theories that ulcers were caused by stress and personality factors, but more recent research indicates that the bacteria theory is too simplistic and stress indeed plays a role, according to a 1999 “Journal of the American Medical Association” comment by doctors from Italy and the United States. Skipped meals and interrupted sleep patterns can contribute to an increased duodenal acid load, leading to development or exacerbating the symptoms of a painful peptic ulcer. Regular meals along with regular, unbroken sleep can decrease stomach acids and increase production of substances that fight inflammation and promote healing, thus reducing stomach pain from ulcer formation.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome refers to a collection of chronic symptoms of gastric distress, including stomach cramps and pain, constipation or diarrhea, bloating and gas. Although doctors do not know the precise cause of irritable bowel syndrome, most people can control or minimize their symptoms through dietary changes, according to the University of Minnesota Life Science Foundation. Eating regular meals at the same time each day is a key dietary habit to support digestive health and avoid irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Avoiding large meals, eating more fiber and drinking water rather than alcohol or caffeinated beverages can also help alleviate irritable bowel syndrome.

Stomach Pain

Nonulcer stomach pain refers to the common symptoms of bloating, belching, nausea and cramping not identified as originating from any specific disease or disorder, according to MayoClinic. com. Skipping meals, leaving the stomach empty except for stomach acid, can create feelings of nausea. Large meals, especially those eaten after the stomach has been empty a while, can create sensations of bloating and an excess of gas, accompanied by stomach pain. Eat small, regular meals and avoid fatty, greasy and overly spicy foods to minimize incidences of nonulcer stomach cramps. If dietary changes do not ameliorate stomach problems, consult a doctor to help rule out more serious gastric disorders.


Both stomach pains and skipping meals can be symptoms of excessive stress. When faced with mental or physical stress factors, the body responds with a natural fight-or-flight reaction. While this is useful in a short-term crisis, living with stress on an ongoing basis can result in numerous negative health consequences, according to the Georgetown University Health Education Services. Missing meals, working through breaks and chronic fatigue are all symptoms of ongoing stress, as are headaches, feelings of anxiety and stomach problems like cramps and digestive disorders. Reducing stress through exercise and relaxation may relieve these symptoms, but see a doctor if stress is unmanageable, as ongoing mental and physical effects of stress can lead to serious health consequences.

Common Causes of Stomach Pain after Eating

That little “tummy ache” could be attributed to eating too much or too fast, but it could also be a sign of a more serious health problem. In this article, we take a look at the possible causes of stomach pain after eating.

Over Eating

Stomach pain is often caused by simply eating your food too quickly. When you overeat, you might not take the time to chew through your food properly and you might notice that the food generally disappears from your plate very quickly. Take your time and chew slowly when you eat.

Food Intolerances

It is estimated that nearly 20% of the population is intolerant or sensitive to certain foods. Stomach pain and cramping are common symptoms of food intolerances or sensitivities, which are often associated with dairy, gluten, nuts, yeast, and tomatoes.

Food Allergies

Dairy products, nuts, eggs, peanut butter, soy, corn, wheat, and gluten are common food allergies that can cause symptoms such as stomach pain. A food elimination diet or an allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody test can be conducted to determine whether you are allergic to a particular food or substance.

Celiac Disease

Stomach pain is a common symptom of celiac disease. The condition is characterized by gluten sensitivity. People with celiac disease will immediately react to a specific protein found in gluten called gliadin—it is found in wheat, rye, barley, spelt and oats.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

This is a common gastrointestinal disorder that affects approximately 15% of the population. Some symptoms include gas, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, cramping, abdominal pain, or stomach pain after eating. Candida, food allergies, and food sensitivities are also associated with irritable bowel syndrome.


Stomach pain after eating can also indicate pancreatitis, especially when the pain lasts for over six hours. Pancreatitis is known as pancreas inflammation. People with pancreatitis will experience pain that begins around the upper abdomen; the pain will then spread to the back. Other pancreatitis symptoms include fever, nausea, and vomiting.


Diverticulitis is a condition where pouches in the colon become inflamed from bacteria. The pouches are also known as cysts or diverticula. Some symptoms include fever, constipation, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, bowel habit changes, and cramping pain, especially around the lower left area of the abdomen. Stomach pain after eating is also common.

Intestinal Obstruction

When there is a blockage in your colon or small intestine, it can be difficult for foods to be digested properly. When you eat too fast, large pieces of food may not be broken down. A hernia or tumor can also lead to intestinal obstruction.

Chronic Candida

Abdominal pain can also be a symptom of chronic candida—a condition also known as yeast overgrowth. Other common symptoms associated with candida include chronic fatigue, bloating, gas, and depression.


Heartburn is also sometimes referred to as acid reflux, or acid indigestion. Heartburn is the result of too little stomach acid, and it can produce burning chest pain after eating. The pain may only last a few minutes, or up to several hours. Stomach pain after eating can also be attributed to gallstones, eating spicy foods, a stomach flu, lactose intolerance, food poisoning, appendicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, Crohn’s disease, and peptic ulcers. Stomach pain after eating may also be the result of a blocked blood vessel.

Gastroparesis | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Gastroparesis, also called gastric stasis, occurs when there is delayed gastric emptying. Delayed gastric emptying means the stomach takes too long to empty its contents. Sometimes, when the food doesn’t empty properly, it forms a solid mass called a bezoar. Although bezoars had magical powers in the Harry Potter books, usually these big masses of old food can block the stomach and lead to symptoms of nausea, vomiting and even obstruction of the stomach, which in turn may prevent food from passing into the small intestine.

Gastroparesis Symptoms

Gastroparesis often causes a number of nonspecific symptoms. It is important for a gastroenterologist to make a diagnosis. Symptoms of gastroparesis include:

  • An early feeling of fullness

Gastroparesis Diagnosis

A diagnosis of gastroparesis begins with a comprehensive physical exam during which you describe your symptoms and medical history. Your doctor may find abdominal distention (swelling) or tenderness. Your doctor will also look for signs of underlying diseases or disorders that may be causing the gastroparesis. One big culprit can be diabetes. The high blood sugars from diabetes damage the nerves over time and can cause this delayed emptying. Treating the underlying cause will treat the gastroparesis as well.

During the physical exam, your doctor may listen for a “succession splash.” The doctor will gently shake you and listen for the sound of fluid in your body. It can help confirm that there is an obstruction in your abdomen.

Your doctor may order laboratory tests as well. Although there is no definitive lab test for diagnosing gastroparesis, it may help rule out other underlying conditions.
Other tests your doctor may perform include:

  • Upper gastrointestinal barium contrast radiography
  • Gastric emptying scintigraphy

Upper Endoscopy

An endoscope is a thin, flexible tube that your doctor passes through your mouth and into your intestines. Upper endoscopy is performed using the endoscope in order to see the esophagus and stomach. Your doctor will most likely perform an upper endoscopy to rule out a mechanical obstruction at the outlet of the stomach, also called the pylorus. Obstruction is when there is a blockage of the intestines. The outlet of the stomach can have ulceration, damage or just a clog of food blocking the path. All of these can be seen at endoscopy.

During an upper endoscopy:

  • You receive an anesthetic to help relax your gag reflex. You may also receive pain medication and a sedative.
  • You lie on your left side, referred to as the left lateral position, and the endoscope is inserted through your mouth and pharynx and into the esophagus.
  • The endoscope transmits an image of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum to a monitor that your physician is watching.

Upper Gastrointestinal Barium Contrast Radiography

Barium contrast radiography is an X-ray study. It is a commonly used procedure to diagnose gastroparesis.

During barium contrast radiography:

  • You swallow a contrast solution called barium.
  • The barium coats your esophagus and gastrointestinal tract, making it easier for the doctor to detect abnormalities.
  • Your doctor can determine if there are delays in the liquid emptying from your stomach.

Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy

Gastric emptying scintigraphy is the most commonly used test to confirm gastroparesis.

During the scintigraphy test, you will be given a special meal and sometimes a special drink. The meal will be radiolabeled with a marker that can be seen by the scanner. The goal of the test is to follow this special food as it travels through your system. Unlike diagnostic procedures that require you to fast beforehand, gastric emptying scintigraphy actually requires you to eat this special meal right before the test.

During a gastric emptying scintigraphy:

  • You may be asked to have your blood sugar checked if you are diabetic. Blood sugar values over 250 can interfere with testing.
  • You may be asked not to take narcotics for a time period before the test, as these medications can also interfere with the test.
  • At Johns Hopkins, you are given a specially prepared meal of eggs, toast, jam and some water. Some centers provide other foods to be eaten. This meal has an exact number of calories and grams of fat, which helps us to compare the results of your test to those of other people.
  • Prior to eating, your doctor will attach a radiotracer to the food. Don’t worry — the radiotracer has about as much radioactivity as a walk for an hour in a park when it’s sunny outside. It’s designed to be safe and well tolerated and to avoid causing harm.
  • A scan is taken right away and then every hour after the meal is ingested for up to four hours. Your medical team will evaluate how the food you ingested moves through your stomach and gastrointestinal tract. A gastric emptying test may show a delay in emptying, which can help your doctors to make the diagnosis.

Antroduodenal Manometry

Antroduodenal manometry test the muscles used in digestion. During this procedure:

  • Your doctor inserts a catheter through your mouth and into your stomach.
  • The catheter stays in place for a period of six hours, in order to measure electrical and muscular activity in your stomach.
  • You fast for the first few hours, so the doctor can record the measurements in a fasting state.
  • Later, you eat a solid meal and your doctor records the measurements during digestion.

This procedure can help diagnose the exact cause of the gastroparesis. Doctors often use it for patients after standard treatments have failed, for surgery candidates and for patients with unexplained nausea.

Wireless Motility Study

A wireless motility study evaluates the time it takes for your stomach to empty. This is generally well tolerated and less invasive than other diagnostic studies.

During a wireless motility study:

  • You ingest a small pill, which travels through your gastrointestinal system.
  • As it travels, it collects data (temperature, acidity levels, pressure waves) and sends it to a data receiver that you wear, usually around your waist.
  • The doctor sees the data, and you return to your doctor after a few days to review the results.
  • The capsule is excreted in your bowel movements.

The advantage of this method is that you can continue with your normal activities while the capsule gathers the necessary information.

90,000 Infectious Thoughts That Can Kill – BBC News Russian Service

  • David Robson
  • BBC Future

Photo Credit, Thinkstock

To die, it is sometimes enough to believe that you are sick. As the correspondent found out

BBC Future , we can unknowingly pick up such irrational fears from others – sometimes with dire consequences.

Avoid those who like to abuse.Like the spells of evil wizards, their words can do you quite tangible harm.

It has long been known that self-hypnosis can cause disease without the presence of infection. In the same way that voodoo priests were able to harm their victim with the power of suggestion, often the mere belief of a person that he was sick can lead to the development of real symptoms of the disease – such as nausea or dizziness – and even death. This phenomenon is known as the nocebo effect (as opposed to the placebo effect)

Nowadays, it has become evident that dangerous suggestions are easily spread in the form of rumors and gossip, and the negative effect of them is extremely large.Perhaps this is why some houses are considered cursed, as their residents invariably fall ill, and people who live near wind turbines complain of unexplained bouts of dizziness, insomnia, and nausea. If you have ever experienced “flu” symptoms after vaccination, suspect your mobile phone is causing you headaches, or suffer from unexpected allergies to certain foods, it is possible that you too have become a victim of nocebo.

“The nocebo effect is a good illustration of what our minds are capable of,” says neurologist Dimos Mitsikostas of the Naval Hospital in Athens, Greece. “And we cannot fully explain it.”

Killing Joke

Physicians have long known that suggestion can be fatal. The eighth-century Viennese physician Erich Menninger von Lerchenthal described a nasty student joke with a tragic outcome: the students at his medical school disliked one assistant and decided to teach him a lesson.The assistant was suddenly attacked, blindfolded, put his head on the deck and announced that he would now be beheaded. Then a wet rag was thrown around his neck. Convinced that it was the cold steel of the blade, the unfortunate, as described by von Lerchenthal, “died on the spot.”

Photo author, Thinkstock

Photo caption,

Placebo brings with it all the same as real medicine – both relief and side effects

Although stories like this abound, modern medical research has still mainly studied the ability of the human mind not to self-destruct, but to self-heal – the so-called placebo effect, which in Latin means “I like it. “Nowadays, placebo is used in any clinical study – the test drug and the control dummy drug (usually in the form of lactose-based tablets) are randomly distributed among the subjects. Patients do not know what exactly they got. At the same time, a certain positive effect is observed even when taking a placebo, due to the subject’s faith in the healing power of the drug.

However, in addition to the observed positive effect of placebo, patients often complain of unexplained unpleasant symptoms – nausea, headaches or other painful sensations.The fact is that all participants in a clinical trial – regardless of whether they got the real drug or “dummy” – are warned about the possible side effects of the tested drug. It seems that in some patients taking placebo, the very expectation of the possible occurrence of such effects can lead to their occurrence. “This phenomenon has been observed from one study to the next, but it has never really been studied,” says Ted Kapchuk, a professor at Harvard University School of Medicine.

Over the past 10 years, scientists have found that the nocebo effect (translated from Latin – “damage”) is very common. Mitsikostas studied the results of research on remedies for migraines, multiple sclerosis and depression. In many such studies, he found pronounced manifestations of the nocebo effect. So, in clinical trials of drugs for Parkinson’s disease, up to 65% of those taking placebo complained about the negative effects of therapy. “As a result, about one patient in 10 dropped out of the research program before its completion, which is a very large number,” he notes.

Although many of these symptoms – such as nausea or pain – can be attributed to subjective sensations, the nocebo effect sometimes manifests itself in the form of rashes and skin irritations. And sometimes it can be detected during physiological testing. “This is incredible: the patient is only taking sugar pills, but the tests indicate an elevated liver enzyme level,” says Mitsikostas.

Photo author, Thinkstock

Photo caption,

Sometimes just fear of illness is enough…

Skeptics may argue that the patient’s brain is likely to “inspire” the body with these side effects, but measurements of the nervous system of people experiencing the nocebo effect showed that after taking a placebo, the spinal cord begins to register an increase in pain before it can connect the brain, which is responsible for conscious thinking.

Consider the nearly fatal case of “Patient A,” which was described in 2007 by Dr. Roy Reeves. A patient suffering from depression took a whole bottle of pills, deciding to commit suicide.Almost immediately, regretting his decision, he rushed to the hospital, but collapsed on the threshold of the emergency department. His condition looked very serious – doctors recorded a sharp drop in blood pressure and hyperventilation of the lungs. The patient was immediately put on a drip, but a blood test did not reveal a trace of the medication taken in his body. Four hours later, another doctor informed Reeves that the man was part of a control group of subjects in a clinical study and that overdose symptoms occurred after taking a placebo.Soon after patient A found out about this, his health returned to normal.

It is not known if this case was actually fatal, although neuroscience professor Fabrizio Benedetti of the University of Turin School of Medicine believes it is likely. He scanned the brains of the subjects while they were instilled with negative thoughts, and came to the conclusion that such suggestions activate the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands (glands that produce adrenaline), which are designed to respond to extreme threats to the body.If a person is afraid enough of something, a cocktail of hormones produced by these organs can be fatal, says Benedetti.

Ailments from rumors

The very idea that a doctor might inadvertently worsen a patient’s condition with a careless word is troubling. And now it becomes obvious that even a rumor or gossip heard in passing is enough to spread the nocebo effect.

Last year Benedetti set up an experiment, inviting more than 100 students to take part in an ascent to an altitude of 3000 m in the Italian Alps.A few days before the planned hike, he told one of the potential participants about the possible negative consequences of being at high altitude in the form of migraines caused by thin air. By the appointed day, it was discovered that the rumor had spread to more than a quarter of the group, and everyone who heard it began to suffer from severe headaches. Moreover, analysis of the saliva of these students indicated an overreaction to a low oxygen content in the body, including an increase in enzyme activity associated with manifestations of altitude sickness (one of the symptoms of which is headache).”The biochemistry of the brain has changed in impressionable students,” says Benedetti.

Photo author, Thinkstock

Photo caption,

After every report in the media about ailments from the type of windmills, the number of such cases increases sharply

In other words, negative suggestions that can cause symptoms of illness can be contagious. “They are passed on to friends and neighbors, spreading rapidly among the population,” says Benedetti. In another study, it turned out that even when seeing another patient in pain, the treatment procedure can cause the subject more painful sensations than in the usual state – that is, apparently, the nocebo effect can be transmitted from one person to another non-verbally, through a simple visual observation.Even worse, negative thoughts can be contaminated without even realizing it. It seems that the nocebo effect is capable of triggering signals emanating from our subconscious.

History is replete with mysterious epidemics, which can be explained by the nocebo effect. The most famous outbreak of chorea (disorderly uncontrolled movements) that occurred in French Strasbourg in 1518 and ended in several deaths. In the 1960s. American textile workers were struck by the June Beetle epidemic, which manifested itself in dizziness and vomiting.Not a single poisonous insect has ever been recognized as the cause of this condition. Most chilling was the series of mysterious deaths in the Hmong community who emigrated to the United States from Southeast Asia in the 1980s. Healthy young people began to suffer from regular nightmares and sleep paralysis, after which they died in their sleep. Experts hypothesized that these deaths were the cause of the Hmong’s sincere belief in the existence of evil night spirits.

Often the fear of new technological advances can become the cause of discomfort: at the end of the 19th century.people who used the first telephones complained of dizziness and severe headaches, and office workers in Scandinavia in the 1980s. there was a rash on the skin – according to one version, because of the computer monitors they used at work.

Today, the nocebo effect tends to be considered the most likely cause of such disorders as “wind turbine syndrome” (nausea and insomnia associated with living near wind turbines), especially common in Canada, as well as “electrosensitivity” – an alleged allergic reaction to signals from mobile phones and wireless internet.Sometimes sufferers of these ailments are even forced to surround their sleeping places with metal screens so as not to experience constant ringing in their ears – while dozens of experiments have convincingly proved that people develop the same symptoms in the presence of an inoperative source of electromagnetic waves, if they are told that in fact it works.

The results of the study of the nocebo effect indicate that the ailments it can cause should not be neglected. “I have no doubt that people actually experience the physiological symptoms of disease,” says Professor of Psychology James Rubin of King’s College London.Even the former head of the World Health Organization experienced the effect of the nocebo effect: she banned the use of mobile phones in her office, because she was sure that they caused her severe headaches.

Electrosensitivity symptoms are less common, but nocebo effects can occur in other ways. Maybe you have noticed an unexplained intolerance to certain dishes? 20% of the population of England suffer from food allergies, although, according to the results of hospital tests, only about a tenth of this number have medical problems that can explain this phenomenon.It is possible that the nocebo effect also explains the manifestation in some people of symptoms of malaise after a placebo injection when testing new vaccines, as well as the widely discussed side effects of pharmacological contraception (depression, migraines and breast pain), the presence of which is mostly not confirmed clinically. To this list can probably be added the nausea and visual fatigue that some 3D TV users complain about.

Photo author, Thinkstock

Photo caption,

In order to become infected with toxic thoughts, it is not at all necessary to fall under the spell of an evil sorcerer

What can you do? It is, of course, very difficult to combat misconceptions and people’s suggestibility, but a responsible media approach would at least help contain the spread of harmful rumors.In 2013, Rubin found that even just watching a short video on the subject of electrosensitivity could be enough for subjects to develop symptoms. There is also evidence indicating the possibility that the number of complaints to medical institutions with complaints about “wind turbine syndrome” is growing after reports in the local media about the potential harm of wind turbines. In other words, a disease can be caused only by a person’s fear for their health.

How should the medical staff behave? Rebecca Wells of Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center in North Carolina notes that this is a serious dilemma for modern medicine. Doctors are required to disclose to patients the potential side effects of medications, as they need to obtain so-called “informed consent” from the patient for treatment. However, in certain cases, as we can see, the very fact of informing can worsen the patient’s condition.”There is no definitive answer to the question of exactly what effect a particular drug has,” says Wells. In her opinion, in the future, doctors may have to reconsider the existing approach, taking into account exactly what information needs to be disclosed to patients and how it should be presented. Caution is important on a case-by-case basis – as Benedetti points out, due to the infectiousness of the nocebo effect, side effects experienced by one person can quickly spread to large populations.

Education may help reduce the nocebo effect. For example, Mitsikostas tries to explain to patients that they should be critical of their own expectations of a particular event. “It is necessary to get the patient to deal with internal fears,” he says.

According to Mitsikostas, the connection between the psyche and the somatic cannot be ignored despite recent advances in healthcare. “For thousands of years, all medicine was actually a placebo – healers treated people, using the desire of the patients themselves to recover.The patient’s will to heal is, albeit insufficient, but a prerequisite for successful treatment, “he says.

price, an appointment for a paid appointment and a consultation with a gastroenterologist at the Litfond Polyclinic

Lactase deficiency – a violation of the breakdown of lactose due to a deficiency of the enzyme lactase of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, accompanied by clinical symptoms.

Lactose is milk sugar.The enzyme that breaks down lactose is called lactase.

Lactase deficiency is characterized by development of intestinal symptoms more often after taking milk and dairy products: flatulence, pain and rumbling in the abdomen, diarrhea, bloating, nausea is possible. The stool is liquid or mushy, light yellow in color, with a sour odor.

Nonspecific abdominal symptoms (bloating, upset stools, nausea) develop after eating foods containing lactose, mainly whole milk and dairy products.But today lactose is added to other food products (for example, meat, confectionery).

The pharmaceutical industry also uses it as an excipient.

The severity of symptoms of hypolactasia depends on the individual physiological characteristics of a person, intestinal microflora, diet, psychological factors.

Primary lactase deficiency should be distinguished from secondary (acquired), which occurs when the mucous membrane of the small intestine is damaged against the background of any acute or chronic disease.Such damage is possible with infectious (intestinal infection), immune (intolerance to cow’s milk protein), inflammatory processes in the intestines, atrophic changes (with celiac disease, after a long period of complete parenteral nutrition, etc.).

Also, this disorder should not be confused with congenital lactase deficiency, a rare genetic disorder, the symptoms of which appear immediately after birth and are associated with the initiation of breastfeeding.

The gold standard for the diagnosis of lactase deficiency is the study of lactase activity in a biopsy material of the small intestine.12pieces. The method has high sensitivity and specificity.

The indication for this study is the presence of symptoms of stool disorders such as diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain, bloating, rumbling, as well as symptoms of malabsorption with a deficiency in the body of calcium, potassium, vitamin D and B12.

Test for lactase deficiency expands the diagnostic capabilities of EGDS – examination at the outpatient stage and allows you to improve the diagnosis of diseases of the small intestine in patients with chronic diarrhea.

The results obtained using the rapid test should be considered in comparison with the clinical picture.

Sverdlovsk Regional Oncological Dispensary GAUZ SOOD

24/04/20 Dmitry Valerievich:

“Received a course of radiotherapy from 03/30/2020 to 04/21/2020. For me, this is a kind of test in connection with my chronic diseases, but I think that everything will be fine. And I would like to say to all doctors and nurses, in particular: doctor-radiotherapist Pavlova Zhanna Vladimirovna and nurse Shestakova Larisa Nikolaevna, thank you! And wish you patience and peace of mind. ”

15/04/20 Olga Voronova:

“I would like to express my deep gratitude from me and my family not only to a doctor from God and a wonderful man with a heart of gold, but also to the wonderful leader , head of oncology department No. 7 , oncologist of the highest qualification category Belykh Dmitry Valerievich. Thank you for your professionalism and kind heart. Thank you for the amazing work you do every day! For an excellent team that, under your leadership, helps people like me not only survive, but maintain health and believe in their strength again! It is a great happiness that such competent, skillful and talented, caring people work exactly where they are most needed.
Good health to you. Thank you for being! With deep respect to you and all your wonderful team Olga Voronova and my family. ”

13/04/20 EA:

“I express my gratitude to the head of the abdominal department – doctor oncologist Vadim Alekseevich Golodnov for the successful operation on March 30, 2020. And a return to a fulfilling life. Thank you from me and my whole family for the professionalism, support, sensitive and attentive attitude.
It is a great happiness that such competent, skillful and talented, caring people work exactly where they are most needed.

Special thanks to the medical staff of the abdominal department (oncology # 3). Your patience, responsiveness, sensitivity, understanding, caring, friendly and attentive attitude, heal better than medical procedures.
Thank you from the bottom of my heart and wish you continued professional success and worthy remuneration for your work !!! ”

07/04/20 Artem :

“Good afternoon! I would like to express my gratitude to Uksusnikov Vladimir Alekseevich.It is rare in our hospitals that there are doctors who are so passionate about their work and are really interested in the patients’ recovery. Vladimir Alekseevich is one of these few people, and this is not only my opinion. Thanks for the treatment. ”

03/24/20 Elena Ivanovna :

“I express my deep gratitude to the doctor of the polyclinic Basargina Irina Viktorovna and her nurse Ekaterina Olegovna! We go to her with dad (Mikhail Ivanovich 83 years old) always behaves tactfully! Dad always explains everything clearly.Not all doctors find a common language with my dad))) ”.

03/24/20 Natalya Aleksandrovna :

“Ivan Vladimirovich, thank you to your team for helping our family in a difficult situation!

My mother, Vera Nikiforovna Butorina, 91 years old, was diagnosed in September 2019. All this time we were not left alone with our trouble: they came at the first request, provided a concentrator (thanks to which it was easier to breathe), helped with the right word.A very sensitive and respectful attitude gave strength to our grandmother. Thank you very much and God forbid all the best!

It is pleasantly surprising that such young doctors have such a big heart! You are doing a good deed that cannot be overemphasized. Thank you again everyone:

Votinova Elena Viktorovna,

Sukhanov Sergey Alexandrovich,

Kvashnin Roman Andreevich,

Kozlov Yaroslav Olegovich,

Natal Viktorovna! ”

03/20/20 Maria Grigorievna :

“I express my deep gratitude to Mishina Anna Valerievna – an oncologist for her conscientiousness, clarity, attentiveness in work, patience and timely help.I wish this fragile and beautiful woman only happiness, health and prosperity. ”

04/03/20 Vladimir :

“I want to say a huge thank you to Maxim Vladlenovich Gerasimov, his golden hands, and also a huge thank you to the anesthesiologist-resuscitator Yazov Oleg Aleksandrovich for his professionalism. And of course, thanks to Alexander Sergeevich Shershever for such a professional attitude. I wish you all long long life and great health !!!

Special thanks to all NHOs !!! Thank you!!!”

02/03/20 Ekaterina :

“On behalf of my grandmother, we would like to thank all the staff of the day hospital for conducting radiation therapy at ul.Komsomolskaya, 11. A wonderful team, everyone is very polite, attentive, friendly attitude to all patients, from the security staff, Natalya Valerievna, a medical registrar, a procedural nurse, Oksana Yurievna, doctors Evgeny Valerievich and Natalya Nikolaevna. Thanks to all!!!”

02/18/20 Irina :

“Thank you for the excellent FGS procedure, endoscopist Alexander Sergeevich Pogodin. Previously, similar procedures I went through caused only fear of the next forthcoming “execution”.Now there is confidence that this procedure can be painless – it all depends on the doctor. Thank you, Alexander Sergeevich. ”

02/18/20 Elena Aleksandrovna :

“I express my sincere gratitude to Alexander Alexandrovich Zharikov for his professionalism, responsibility, kindness, and responsiveness. With all my heart I wish him personally and his family health, good luck and success in his very difficult profession. ”

02/18/20 Elena Aleksandrovna :

“I express my sincere gratitude to Astashkina Larisa Anatolyevna for her professionalism, responsibility, kindness and responsiveness.I wish her health, good luck, success in her difficult profession ”.

17/02/20 Vasily Vladimirovich:

“I want to say a huge thank you to Pavel Grigorievich Bazhukov, an oncologist of the polyclinic (304 cab) for his professionalism, caring attitude towards patients, his desire to send for treatment without wasting time. I would like to wish Pavel Grigorievich health, all the best, and long life. Thanks!

01/29/20 Olga Yurievna:

“I would like to thank the attending physician Natalya Anatolyevna Halamirenko and the nurse Valeria Vladislavovna, who constantly receive me with my difficult problems in room 206, for their professionalism, indifference and patience.They always accept with a smile, listen carefully and examine, give directions. Sitting in line in the office, I hear good reviews about their work from people of different generations. It’s not easy to live with such a diagnosis, but it’s so nice to come to the hospital to get a charge of hope and confidence, and these kind Doctor and Nurse know how to support and give a piece of their soul. Thank you from the bottom of my heart! ”

01/20/20 Elena Malinovskaya:

“I express my gratitude to the surgeon-oncologist Aleksey Mikhailovich Galkin and the nurse Yulia Kubasova of the Oncology Department No. 7, who saved my life in the literal sense of the word !!! When I started bleeding, Yulia Kubasova was not confused and did not fuss.All of Yulia’s actions were competent, confident and precise. She understood what she was doing and what further actions should be, and Yulia also managed to do several things at the same time. With all her concentration, she still managed to cheer and calm me down! And when I found out that my attending physician Aleksey Mikhailovich had come and he himself would operate on me, I already knew for sure that everything would be fine in good hands! Thank you very much from me personally and from all my family for your highest professionalism, for your kind and sympathetic heart!

I would also like to express special gratitude to the nurses of Yulia Kubasova, Natalia Sokolova and Svetlana Fink for carrying out the manipulations.They managed not only to get into my thinnest veins of the hand and wrist, but at the same time absolutely painless and without bruises! None of the veins were damaged by them, which is rare. For which many thanks to them !!

I wish you success! Good health and happiness to you and all your loved ones !! ”

11/01/20 Alexey Arsenievich:

“Many thanks to Maksim Albertovich Alexandrov, a thoracic surgeon, for the successful operation on December 19, 2019.Maxim Albertovich is a wonderful Doctor and a very good Person! He is a true professional, performing modern high-tech operations. Maxim Albertovich, Thank you very much for your attentive and caring attitude towards patients. ”

08/01/20 Lyalina N.G .:

“We express our deep gratitude to the staff of the 2nd Oncology Department (Branch No. 2 in Kamensk-Uralsky) for their sensitive and attentive attitude towards patients. I would especially like to thank Olga Sergeevna Savelyeva, Gulnaz Yurinovna Yulbaeva, Valentina Viktorovna Zemlyanukhina, for the wonderful attitude towards our mother.You are masters of your craft !!! Thank you for your care, help and for all the good that you have done for us. Respectfully yours, the Lyalin family ”.

11/12/19 Natalya Lvovna:

“I would like to express my deep gratitude to the neurosurgeon Gornykh Kirill Alexandrovich! You are the same doctor who put me on my feet! An operation was performed to remove the herniated disc. I will never stop thanking you and will always remember you! You are not only an excellent neurosurgeon, you are a benevolent and wonderful person.I want to thank you for your “golden” hands and your professionalism. You have brought me back to a fulfilling life!

Many thanks to all honey. to the sisters of the neurosurgical department for their kind attitude to patients, patience and responsiveness!

Best regards, Strelchenko N. L. ”

09/12/19 Dedyukhin Nikolay Nikolaevich:

“It is not the first year that I have been seen by the oncologist Gilmutdinov Timur Rifkatovich. Thank you for your sensitive attitude towards patients.Happy New Year. I wish you happiness, health, success always and in everything!

Respectfully yours, Dedyukhin Nikolay Nikolaevich. Novouralsk “

05/12/19 Elena:

“Many thanks to the staff of the day hospital and its doctors-oncologists for their care, professionalism and life!”

03/12/19 Danilova Tatiana:

“I express my gratitude to the staff of the oncology center and personally to the doctor of the polyclinic, oncourologist Gilmutdinov Timur Rifkatovich and the nurse of the Russian cabinet Irina Valerievna for the worthy examination and treatment of my dad”.

07/11/19 Fotiadi Anna Terentyevna:

“From the bottom of my heart I thank the wonderful surgeons-oncologists Golodnov Vadim Alekseevich and Lobanov Ilya Nikolaevich for their high professionalism, colossal work and ability to work with different age categories of patients. I bow to you. I wish you health and always successful operations ”.

06/11/19 Fotiadi Anna Terentyevna:

“Congratulations on your Professional Holiday – the Day of the Radiologist: doctor Denis Vladimirovich Kutyavin and laboratory assistant Tatyana Mikhailovna Sviridova (Kamensk-Uralsky).And we express our deepest gratitude. Thank you for their professionalism and sensitivity to patients. The Maltsev family ”.

18/10/19 Shubakova Elena:

“Many thanks to all the staff of the neurosurgical department, Gerasimov Maxim Vladilenovich and Shershever Alexander Sergeevich. For almost a year now I have been living without unbearable pain from trigeminal neuralgia. After the operation to decompress the root of the facial nerve, she even began to forget that she could not do without drugs and constant anxiety that shooting pains would begin again.Many THANKS to everyone for your work. Every day I thank YOU for giving me a healthy life, when you can just enjoy everything without looking back, smile, talk, which was previously inaccessible. Health to all and good luck in your hard work.

16/10/19 Evgeniya:

“I would like to express my deep gratitude to Artur Gennadievich Sukhnev for his“ golden hands ”and high professionalism! I operated on my mother, a very elderly woman (79 years old), and now she is doing well.

Thank you from the bottom of my heart, Artur Gennadievich, I bow before your work, and although I am not a very disciplined parishioner, now I will always light a candle for you in church ”.

11/10/19 Makarova Maria Grigorievna:

Good afternoon! I express my deepest gratitude, appreciation and respect:

  1. Alexander Pavlovich Getmanchuk – Deputy Chief Physician for Outpatient Clinic Work, for his kind, sensitive and attentive attitude towards patients; the ability to tune in to positive and recovery; and also for his charming smile!
  2. Nikolai Vladimirovich Makhotin – Head of Minimally Invasive Surgery, for the work done, competence, professionalism, attentiveness and patience.
  3. Thanks to all the minimally invasive surgery nurses for their clarity and consistency in their work, understanding and kind attitude.

I wish them to remain as humane and patient, in spite of capricious difficult patients and incredibly hard and responsible work. And again, many thanks for your heroic selfless work! All health, good luck and happiness! “.

11/10/19 Rebrova Galina Aleksandrovna (Perm) :

“We want to say a huge thank you to all the hospital staff, chapters.the doctor, the head of the radiological department, the head nurse, all the nurses, the registry staff. Thank you for being there, for working in such an institution. It is very important, faced with such a bad disease, to get into the hands of sensitive, attentive, caring and loving doctors. Thank you for your professionalism and for your kind hearts. May God give you health for many years and more such people in our healthcare. Thanks to you, there is hope and desire to live and fight ”.

11/09/19 Murzina V.A :

“I want to express my deep gratitude to the chapters. to the doctor of SOOD Vladimir Gennadievich Elishev, for the prompt and adequate solution of my appeal. I am very glad that Vladimir Gennadievich is not indifferent to other people’s problems, it is this quality that every doctor should have. I would like to wish you health, professional stability, and long life ”.

26/08/19 Slavinskaya Nina Lukyanovna :

“You know, there are good doctors, and there are special ones.They are sent to us by Fate, weaving threads of responsibility, honesty, dedication, kindness into a person. Special Doctors have a big soul and golden hands. Alexey Mikhailovich Galkin – Special Doctor. Every day Aleksey Mikhailovich, as an oncologist, saves many lives. And this applies not only to patients, but also to their relatives. Agree, the illness of a loved one is a tragedy for the whole family. And recovery is a new birthday.
I want to say a huge thank you to Alexei Mikhailovich for the opportunity to hug children, play with grandchildren, feel the wind, in a word, Live! Alexey Mikhailovich is a professional and a good person.Fighting for life in the operating room, he also helps patients find strength in the ward to cope with difficulties in words.

With respect and gratitude, Slavinskaya Nina Lukyanovna and her family ”.

23/08/19 Julia :

“I express my HUGE THANKS to the neurosurgeon Dubskikh Alexey Olegovich! I am happy that fate brought me to you and you put me on my feet (I came with an intervertebral hernia, severe pains and a cane in my hands, and on the third day after the operation, I went home on my feet)! You are brilliant in your work!
I remember how I went, chose a hospital and a neurosurgeon, but after communication there were always some doubts … but when I first came to your appointment, for some reason, I felt calm in my soul and I easily decided to be operated on with you !
A small footprint in the lumbar region is delightful – 2 cm !!! You are a jeweler !!!
Thank you a million times, Alexey Olegovich! I will always remember you)))

Separate BIG THANKS to all honey.to the staff: for your responsiveness, participation, help in everything! You are all golden! We wish you health, patience, we need you!

15/08/19 Margarita :

“I would like to express my deep gratitude to the entire staff of the 1st Oncology Department. I was treated in this department in July-August 2019. The work of all employees (junior medical staff, catering department, nurses and doctors) is aimed at making patients feel their help, attention and care.I sincerely thank the treating doctor Sergei Vladimirovich Boyko, a young, but very qualified and promising doctor. And the optimism and benevolence of the anesthesiologist O.D. Irikha helped me to get ready for the operation. I am sure that this work of the department is the merit of its head Anatoly Vasilyevich Budlyansky – an excellent diagnostician, surgeon and organizer. I wish all employees continued success in their difficult, but so necessary work for patients. ”

06/08/19 Irina :

“I want to say gratitude to all honey.to the staff of the 1st General Oncology Department, for your hard work and reverent attitude towards patients. I would also like to thank my attending oncologist Vladimir Boyko !!! Thank you for the successful operation and for the beautiful result! I wish you professional growth, all the very best! ”

01/08/19 Lyubov Sergeevna :

“Thank you so much for your understanding and very good attitude towards patients BARSUKOVA ELENA SERGEEVNA, there would be more people like that”

22/07/19 Natalia :

“Competent, skillful and talented, caring people work exactly where they are needed most.I would like to express my deep gratitude to all the staff of the palliative department in Verkh-Neyvinsky for their professionalism, support, sensitive and attentive attitude ”

27/06/19 Irina :

“I express my heartfelt gratitude to Alexey Olegovich Dubskikh. In January 2019, he successfully operated on my mother, Valentina V. Semyonovna. Despite the complexity and duration of the operation, at the moment my mother is feeling well. Health, patience and all the best to the doctor, all medical personnel.Special thanks to the nurses of the department for their responsiveness, patience and cordiality “

24/06/19 Milena :

“On June 24, 2019 I was consulted by Mikhail Vladimirovich Beresnev, a young and competent doctor. I liked the reception very much: quickly, everything is clear, a good attitude towards the patient. And the nurse is friendly too. Thanks!”

06/18/19 Natalia B :

“We express our deep gratitude to the medical staff of the palliative care unit I. Sobachev.V., Kvashnin R.A., Votinova E.V., Sivikova A.V. Thank you for your care, help and, in general, for everything that you do for us ”.

31/05/19 Olga Valentinovna :

“Good afternoon. I want to say a huge THANK YOU to the doctors of the General Oncology Department: A.V. Budlyansky, M.T. Ozhorbaev, V.S. Boyko. These are Doctors from God !!! Thank you for your professionalism, intelligence and tact. Many thanks to the medical staff of the department. Girls, your golden hands, patient care and care are priceless !!! ”.

05/26/19 Alexander :

“While undergoing rehabilitation in SOOD in the urology department, I had a chance to personally meet all the medical staff, the most attentive and kind was Irina Ivanovna Grin, who easily put injections, including droppers. You could talk to her and she easily answered all questions and gave recommendations. I would like to express my deep gratitude to all the medical staff of the urological department, including Irina Ivanovna. “

26/05/19 Sergei :

“We did practice in the oncological dispensary (urology department). In the course of work, we met with the procedural nurse Irina Ivanovna Grin. Her professional and teaching qualities deserve respect and admiration. We received from her a vast experience of high-quality work with patients and practical skills in carrying out intramuscular, intravenous drip, jet injections, as well as collecting systems and determining the blood group.I am proud and happy that I had the honor to learn from her! Thank you Irina Ivanovna! There would be more such masters of their craft ”.

18/04/19 Unnamed :

“Thanks to all the medical staff of the urological department and especially to the surgeon K. Ilyin and the attending physician D. A. Kovalchuk for their professionalism. Good health to you. Your patient is from room 919 ”.

17/04/19 Unnamed :

“Good afternoon! I would like to write a review about the radiologists Basargina I.V. and Izyurov L.N. Many thanks to these doctors – they saved me from the operation. It is not the disease that is treated, but the patient. The attitude is informal and very human. Those who were treated at Komsomolskaya, 11 will understand me ”.

12/04/19 Unnamed :

“Yesterday I was preparing for a trip to the dispensary. At the reception, my uncle politely explained how to get to the reception. In the wardrobe, another uncle smiled and greeted. Shoe covers, by the way, are in large quantities for free. There were two people at the front desk to the terminal.Before I could get the ticket out of it, they announced where I should go, and I didn’t even have time to look around where that fourth window was. The smiling girl quickly arranged everything, said that she would not have to wait long. And so it happened, went to the appointment ahead of her time. The doctor and nurse are very attentive and polite. We made an appointment for further consultation. And judging by the mood of the patients, they also like it here: on the street a man in a dressing gown, with pipes from under him (apparently, recently after an operation) was joking with a friend. *** I promise to write further ”.

05/04/19 Anna Nikobenko:

“A twin sister was diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 38. Fortunately, we got on Sobolev to a professional – oncologist Boyko Vladimir Sergeevich! It was very difficult to accept the diagnosis, especially considering that my sister has a disabled child. One must live long and in good health. Vladimir Sergeevich found his own approach to our situation: he tuned in for the best, reassured, and most importantly, he performed the operation very efficiently. Great human gratitude to him, and wishes for further success in his mission! ”

24/03/19 Marina Gennadievna :

“It was all a long time ago.In July 2014, she was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Not the best stage. I didn’t expect to be able to survive it. I could. Podolskaya Natalya Ivanovna and the best surgeon – Grechishnikov Alexander Petrovich helped. Saved. I pray for them every morning. I live. I am glad. I wish you all health and patience. ”

90,000 About Fedot the archer, the dashing fellow – Filatov. The full text of the poem – About Fedot the Archer, a daring fellow
Fedot was neither handsome, nor ugly, nor blush, nor pale, nor rich, nor poor,
neither in scab, nor in brocade, and so, in general.
Fedot’s service – fishing and hunting. The Tsar – game and fish, Fedot – thanks.
Guests in the palace are like seeds in a cucumber.
One from Sweden, another from Greece, the third from Hawaii – and give everyone a meal!
One – lobsters, another – squid, the third – sardines, and one earner!
Once they give him the order: a little light in the morning to appear at the court.
The king looks like a morel, a head with a fist, and wickedness in him is an agromous volume.
He looks at Fedka like an ulcer at a radish.
Fedka’s shirt got wet from fear, his temples pounded, his belly rumbled,
here, as they say, and the fairy tale began …


To our morning brine
The Aglitsky ambassador arrived,
And we have snacks in our house –
Half hump and moss.

Equip yourself, brother, on the way
Yes, get us some food –
Capercaillie al partridge,
Al isho someone.

Can’t you – who to blame? –
I have to execute you.
State affairs –
Do you catch the thread? ..


Why don’t I understand
With my mind?

It turns out, I’m wearing
All politics in the country:
I won’t get a partridge –
There is no doubt there will be war.

So that the Aglitsky ambassador
I will not be angry with hunger –
I will not regret my head,
I will provide pickle! ..

The buffoon-ridicule

The king’s word is harder than a biscuit.
If you send it to a bear, you will go to a bear, but where to go – you have to, Fedya!
Or game and fish – or sword and rack.
Fedot walked around a hundred forests, a hundred swamps, but all in vain – no partridge, no wood grouse!
Tired, no urine, and it’s the night before.
At least with an empty bag, but it’s time to go home.
Suddenly he sees – a bird, a forest pigeon, sits, does not hide, is not afraid of a gun …


What a misfortune, what a misfortune,
There is no sign of game.
I’ll shoot a pigeon,
Anything, but food!

And actually speaking,
Doves are scolded in vain.
A pigeon – if in gravy –
It is no worse than a capercaillie! ..


You, Fedot, don’t touch me,
Benefits in entom not a penny –
And you won’t fill the pan,
And you won’t fill a pillow …

Tea, overseas gentleman
Loves fresh galantine,
And what meat is in me,
So, not meat, only laughter! ..


Either the goblin is ryan now,
Either the air is drunk now,
Either it happened in the ear
What kind of defect do I have?

Either from the royal ones from the windows
Such a law has been announced,
So that the birds speak
Human language ?….


Don’t do it, Fedot, robbery,
And take me with you.
How you will bring me into the firelight
I will become your destiny.

I will sew, wash, cook,
Do not reproach for insults,
And play the violin for you,
And you will kill the bugs! ..


What kind of parable – I don’t understand? ..
Okay, climb in my bag! ..
There, on the spot, we’ll figure it out,
Who’s where and what’s what!

The comic buffoon

Fedot brought the turtle-dove to himself, which means, to the small chamber.
Sits gloomy, hung his head.
And there are serious reasons for rupture.
Our Fedot was not happy with the hunt.
But the tsar does not like to joke – he will chop off his head at once.
Fedot sits, grieves, says goodbye to the white light.
I remembered about the bird, the forest pigeon.
Lo and behold – and in the middle of the gorenka, instead of that turtle, stands a red maiden,
slender as a tree! ..


Hello, Fedya! .. You and me –
We are now one family.
I am your wife, Marusya,
I am your spouse.

Why are you silent, dear friend Fedot,
How do you put water in your mouth? ..
Al is not the one on me kokoshnik,
Al is the outfit I’m wearing is not the same? ..


On you, my soul,
Century would look without breathing,
Only to become your spouse
I do not shine a shisha! ..

I was not – just dawn –
At the reception with the king,
Well, the king gave me a task
In the sense, it means, wood grouse …

Though it’s not the season for game –
There is no reason to argue with the authorities:
Okay, I think I’ll get it,
Tea, wood grouse, not bison.

I passed a whole day,
And good luck – even if only a shadow:
Not a single serious bird,
Everything is solid rubbish! case
I’m getting my head off.

And I don’t need anything like that
Neither in the office, nor in the house,
Because my whole meaning
Exclusively in the mind! ..


Do not twist and whine!
There will be a table and there will be game!
Come stand before me,
Tit Kuzmich and Frol Fomich!

(Maroussia claps her hands – two hefty fellows appear)

If you understood the order –
Follow this hour!

Good fellows

If you please, do not hesitate,
Tea, this is not the first time !….

The comic buffoon

And the tsar and the ambassador are already sitting at the table.
Nearby – you look! – a princess and a nanny.
And everyone is waiting for the promised food from Fedya.
What conversation is there without a hearty meal?
And the table is empty: carrots and cabbage, dill and parsley –
that’s the whole feast.
The guest is bored, shakes his boots, examines the holes in the tablecloth.
The Tsar is angry, does not notice how he calls Fedka by his mother.
Suddenly – as from the sky: a loaf of bread, a bucket of caviar, a stewed turkey,
sterlet ear, veal offal – and such food
names up to a thousand!
With such food – how not to have a conversation !….


Causes antires.
Your technical progress:
How do you sow rutabagas there –
With skin ali without? ..




Causes antires.
Your nutritional process:
How do you drink cocoa there –
With saccharin ali without? ..




Causes antires




He was at least ashamed of ambassador b !….
Al completely weakened in his head? ..
Wherever they say –
All one will bring down women!


Are you back in your dudu?
I’ll hand it over to jail, mind you!
I’m not just a balabonya,
I’m leading a policy!

The girl Evon has grown up,
And she is thin, as half a weight!
So I’m thinking of how to pass off
Our steal as an ambassador!

Only need for good for
To lure him without anger –
To make subtle hints
Nevsuriez and from afar.


Yes, for the enth ambassador
Even I would not go, –
So it stares, you pushover,
To shake off the table!

He is everything to you “Yes” and “Yes”,
And meanwhile he eats and eats everything.
Turn away – he’s half a Rasei
Swallow in one sitting!


Ali will stitch his mouth,
I will drive Ali out!
You already gave me up
All overseas attaches!

Dave was a Gishpan grand,
He was a dandy, he was a dandy!
In each ear for a diamond –
What is not a variant for you?

Well you arranged so that the guest
Inadvertently sat down on the nail,
And the guest’s otsedova –
Political anger! ..


How, I remember !…. Entot grand
Was to devour a great talent:
He climbed into the plate with his head,
He already slapped the bow with fat!

What do not ask the grandee –
He is like a butt – “si” yes “si”,
Well, and everything itself is leaning
On Iwashi herring!


I’ll rot for your line
I will rot at the root of you!
I’m not joking with you,
I’m talking seriously!

From Germany Baron
Was good from all sides,
Duck could not resist even here –
Inflicted damage on him.

Who to the bottom of his bucket
Threw a dead mouse?
You are a uniform pest,
Cursed soul !….


Yeah, your entot baron
Wasn’t bad to crackle!
Sun him in a flock of crows –
Will take him away from the crows.

Seemingly proud – “I-a” and “I-a”,
And gluttonous like a pig,
Give straw – he will eat straw,
Tea, someone else’s, not your own! ..


Well Shpienka, give me some time –
I’ll put you in prison!
So I’m not a spiteful man,
But I am strict with pests.

Here answer me – don’t waste your words!
Where can the princess take her husband?
Tea, yourself, you fool, you see –
She’s not a host of grooms!

If the regiment was crowding here –
There would be a lot of bickering,
Well, no – grab anyone,
Even if he was a Bryansk wolf !….


If you are in power in the Race,
Duck and rule the Race to your heart’s content,
But don’t poke your nose into my fate
And don’t get into my love!

In the house of an entikh attaché
There are a few pieces on the floor,
I can’t breathe from their cologne
I can’t breathe anymore! ..


If love is really evil,
Duck will love the ambassador too.
And along the way you will correct me
And trade affairs.

I am under the entot antires
I will fuse him with hemp and wood,
All publicity agrees,
Only you go against it !….


No matter how hard you suck your eyebrow –
I repeat again and again:
The individual has the right
To suburban love!

Maybe it’s finally
And it would have come to the rings, –
If I had suddenly got married
Your Fedotushko-archer! ..


Quack, fool!
Come on, march to your room
And teach solfeggia!

And the damned archer,
The impudent and scoundrel,
I will with whips and batogs
At once I will brave the palace !….

The comic buffoon

There was a general with the tsar, he was collecting information.
He will hide his face in his beard – and walk through the city.
Sniffs, dog, thinking differently.
Overhears conversations: what if there are conspirators in the country?
Where he hears the FAQ, he will write it down in a little book.
And at seven exactly – to the king for a report.


What’s not fun, General?
Ali got sick with measles,
Ali got drunk on braga,
Ali lost at cards?

Ali’s service is not nice,
Ali’s army is small,
Ali found in the gun
Damage to the barrel?

Report without any lies,
Why there is darkness in your heart, –
I want to know in detail,
Who, where, faq and how !….


I was just at the archer,
At Fedot the daring,
As I saw his wife –
So I stumbled from the porch.

Third day – I’m not lying to her! –
I don’t take a saber in my hands,
And such a dreaminess,
Why look I’m going to die!

And the other day there was a sin –
I almost invented a rhyme,
The doctors were scared,
They say: love shock! ..


An archer walked around me! ..
But I knew that I was a widower !.
Well, in a moment, entu steal
Take me to the palace!

And the insidious archer
Now wipe it off your face,
So that it doesn’t wipe off
Near our porch! ..


Snatching her is not work,
Yes, the people are painfully cool:
How will they find out whose idea , –
They will grind you to powder!

Today the people have become daring,
Don’t put a finger in their mouth, –
We do not favor Fedot,
And the people – on the contrary!


You are such a fool with us
On Saturdays, how is it?
Why do I owe the Minister
Explain such a trifle?

So that bad things about the king
The people did not talk in vain,
Act strictly according to the law,
That is, act … on the sly.

Well, I’m already right there –
I will reward you for your work:
Blacksmiths have been given an assignment –
The order will be forged by tomorrow!
I was all thinking in the sweat of my brow – how to get rid of the archer.
Yes in the head the thoughts turned sour from the tension.
I remembered at my leisure an old friend, Baba Yaga, a bone leg.
I’m going to her, she’s smarter! ..
And that middle of the oak forest gathers herbs, cooks all kinds of poisons.
As I saw the general, I lost all the herbariums.
I missed in the wilderness without a kindred spirit! ..

Baba Yaga

You are not your own chavoy,
Not ruddy, not alive! ..
Ali Swede near St. Petersburg,
Ali Turk near Moscow? ..

Eat aspen bark –
And you will cheer up for the time being:
Tea, no chemistry,
Tea, natural gifts!

There is a useful mineral in the juice, general,
There is a useful mineral, –
Of the generals
None of them died !….


Enough, grandma! .. I’m not sick! ..
Let’s go over the hill! ..
Rumble hedgehogs and squirrels,
There is a serious conversation.

Here we have one archer –
Very literate, you bastard! ..
So it turned out to be my task
To completely exhaust him!

Just how? Cut the head off –
Duck will start to blow the rumor! ..
Can you help with advice,
How clever to ruin him? ..

Baba Yaga

Conjure, baba, conjure, grandfather,
Three on the side – yours are not,
Ace tambourine, pine coffin,
About the archer, give me an answer!

If he is so zealous and quick,
That he argues with the king, –
Let him get it by tomorrow
A carpet embroidered with gold.

So that it was visible on it,
As on a map, the whole country.
Well, if he doesn’t get it,
That’s a winemaker! ..


Ah yes grandma! Oh yes special!
That’s the end of the hassle!
At least take you out of the stupa –
Yes, the minister to the palace!

None is not at odds with the German,
Is it far from trouble,
And I’m ready with you
At least for reconnaissance, at least where!

For good I pay good:
Like a marten, like a beaver,
But if you don’t like, I can pay with a coin,
With gold or silver !….

Baba Yaga

Enough, dove, do not sin,
Take away your pennies, –
I’m not an ethnos for money,
I’m an ethnos for a soul.

There will be a new trouble –
Hurry straight here.
Tea, and we are not animals in the forest,
Tea, we will always help you! ..

Comic buffoon

Calling the king of the archer, a daring fellow.
Isho did not give the task, and he is already angry in advance.
He twists with his hands, knocks with his feet, rotates his eyes, in general, frightens.
He is so eager to let Fedot know that he has aches right in his bones !….


Get a carpet by the morning –
Embroidered with gold pattern! ..
State affairs, –
Break yourself, but be kind!

So that you can see it on it,
As on the map, the whole country,
Because I’m from the balcony
There is no fucking review!

You will not find it, I want to do it, –
I will shorten my head,
I will hand you over at dawn
Straight into the executioner’s clutches!

The funny man

Fedot came home, dumb from grief.
He sat down in a corner, looking at the ceiling, his clear eyes were covered with tears.
Manya cries out for food, but he beats his neck, does not want anything, hesitates and whimpers …


Are you often angry like a hedgehog?
Do you eat or drink?
Ali’s porridge is burnt,
Ali’s jelly is not good?


What kind of food is there!
The tsar is fierce – it’s just trouble!
There is no villain on the entogo
No council, no court!

Get some, screaming, carpet,
Embroidered with gold pattern,
The width of the whole Race,
One hundred forests and one hundred lakes !….


Do not twist and whine!
Let the old bastard run wild!
Well, stand before me,
Tit Kuzmich and Frol Fomich! ..

(Marusya claps her hands – two hefty fellows appear.)

If you understood the order –
Follow this hour!

Well done

If you please, do not hesitate,
Tea, this is not the first time!

The comic buffoon

In the morning Fedot – at the Tsar’s gate.
Came to the reception, and the carpet was received.
Stands smiling, the guards are not afraid.
The king was surprised, he choked on caviar.
Anger sharpens him, but does not want to show it.
He looks like he’s glad! ..


You asked for a carpet yesterday, –
Well, duck I pinned him.
Everything according to the contract –
Both drawing and color scheme.

All Raseyushka in full
Reflected on the carpet.
This carpet is a gift to you.
My wife has woven it! ..


Ah yes wow! Ah yes grip!
How many are you married?
Ali, did you get married right away
One-piece weaving mill?

You, Fedot, have a wife
Though she’s smart, she’s all alone!
And to weave this overnight –
Their division is needed !….


Al-carpet does not please the eye?
Al is the wrong pattern in the carpet?
Well, duck I under my arm –
And the conversation is over!

So that it’s not in vain that labor was wasted,
I’ll sell it to merchants,
And let him from Rasea
Sails to Amsterdam! ..


I would hit you with whips,
Four or five
Over serious people!

But since I am spokon
I respect order and law, –
Here’s a nickle for vodka
And off you go !….

The comic buffoon

The king is calling for the general, a pin in his visor!
The king’s face looks like a beet, and when it is red, it looks like a dangerous hand.
Beats, infection, no more than once, but does not fall past the eye.
Anto General checked himself: from the beginning of the tale he has been wearing a bandage! ..


Well, brother, what is the result?
Fooled a bit?
Only this one will pull
about a heel!

You are wide in the shoulders,
And your head is completely withered.
Here’s a little clever and you will fix it.
On government-owned grubs! ..


Put me in prison
For any period of time –
All this science
Will not go to me, you fool, for future use!

I would have a saber and a horse –
Yes to the line of fire!
And palace intrigues –
This is not about me!


You me, your nobleness,
Throw a fever into a flog!
You figure out how to defeat Fedot without a saber!

Well, and you will be a fool –
Do not look for guilt in anyone:
I will clean your snout
Personally with an enthy fist !….

The comic buffoon

The general rubbed his hands in vain: it didn’t come out of the raid – to destroy Fedot.
The poor man’s head is tense again.
And in the head – hey! – Well, at least a little thought!
I thought, I thought, I didn’t think it at all.
Whatever one may do – you can’t do without Yaga!
Once again I have run into the oak grove – to look for a council on Fedka! ..

Baba Yaga

Are you gloomy again?
What is the reason, who is to blame?
Al Gishpanets is pursuing,
Has Al Khishpanets gone to war?

Here’s a jelly from the mold!
Tea, have you tried it before?
Duck drink – and you will forget at once
About the worldly carousel!

It doesn’t taste so good,
But it’s shivering,
You’ll be healthy by tomorrow,
If you don’t die !….


I’m talking about the archer again!
There is no end to my misfortune!
That is why I am sick,
That is why I slept from my face.

What a cunning scoundrel –
Everybody wiped their noses around!
No matter how you did magic here,
And he got that carpet!

Although he looks like a simpleton,
And cook a master with his head,
So henceforth, conjure more seriousness,
With feeling, so your rasstak!

Baba Yaga

Conjure, baba, sorcerer, grandfather,
Three on the side – yours are not,
Ace of diamonds, pine coffin,
Give me an answer about the archer!

So !…. Hey! .. Uh-huh! .. Aha! ..
This is what Yaga found out:
Let him find a deer for you,
So that horns are made of gold! ..

Search the whole world –
There are none of those in nature!
Anto I’m for you, blue,
I speak like a local historian! ..

The buffoon-funny man

Calls the king of the archer, a daring fellow.
Our Fedot did not have time to wipe the sweat from his face, and the villainous tsar had a new idea.
The Tsar is seething with ideas, and Fedka sweat!
In general, Fedka’s life is worse than a bitter radish !….


Well, throw off the blues and laziness
And – on the road this very day!
State affair –
Poorly need a deer!

If you are a servant of the king –
Go over the mountains, over the meadows
And find me a deer there,
So that horns are made of gold.

Do not go and do not cross,
And go and provide,
Otherwise, you will find out at the moment,
How your head flies off your shoulders! ..

The buffoon-funny man

Fedot came home, snot – fringed!
He sat down in front of a torch in an embrace with a torpedo.
The beautiful wife throws herself on the neck, but he does not touch his wife!
Sits, crying – grieving, so! ..


Do you often look like an owl?
Al fiddling about what?
Al in the hodgepodge is not enough salt,
Al beefsteak under-pepper?


What kind of dinner there is!
The tsar tortured – no save!
In the morning you will again have to
Answer to him!

Entot tsar of fierce enemy –
Again sends me on the run:
Find, shouts, a deer,
So that horns from gold !….


Do not twist and whine!
There are sorrows and oprich!
Come stand before me,
Tit Kuzmich and Frol Fomich!

(Maroussia claps her hands – two stalwart fellows appear.)

If you understand the order –
Follow this hour!

Well done

If you please, hesitate –
Tea, it’s not the first time! ..

Funny buffoon

A little light Fedot – at the Tsar’s gate.
I came to the reception, and the deer was welcome.
The king’s anger stabbed to the left.
Would crush a nit, but doesn’t show up.
Sits, yawns – hides anger! ..


Tea, are you waiting? Good day!
Look out the window when you are not lazy!
You ordered a deer –
Well, here’s a deer for you!

And – mind you! – the horns on it
So they are puffing with fire,
From him without any lamp
At night, as bright as day! ..


Those deer – don’t lie! –
Not in Tula or Tver.
What is in Tver – in Baghdad itself
There are at most three of them!

Now count up, soldier –
Where is Moscow, and where is Baghdad!
Ali, did you hit the road during the night
To Baghdad and back? ..


Well, come on, you vigorous louse!
And the deer is not good for you?
And yesterday I was cleaning my soul:
Take out the deer and put it down! ..

If you are already rich, –
I will return it to Baghdad.
Who is in power there? –
That guy will be happy! ..


You, Fedka, give up ethno,
Or you will be apart from your head!
I see your hints
Exceptionally through your teeth!

Well, okay, for the prestige
Can’t you forgive the devil!
Here’s a nickle for vodka
And go where you want !….

The comic buffoon

Summons the Tsar General –
as much straight from under the blanket.
The general is in a panic, looking for underpants,
understands – they are not calling for gingerbread!
The king is sitting on the throne –
is angry with the whole world.
Black with anger,
like a raven in the churchyard! ..


No matter how hard you fought, dear, –
Fedot did not fall into the snare!
About you already compiled
Fitsialny obituary,

Only need to decide,
How to decide more correctly:
To deafen with a candelabrum
To strangle al with a pillow?


I blundered, sir!
Here are those sabers, if you want – go for it!
Only more so Fedotom
My brains are not turpentine!

What a fool – do not blame me!
My essence is different!
I’d like to attack somewhere.
Al to storm somewhere! ..


You are fighting with a sword,
Just learn the FAQ:
Fedot must be defeated
Not with a sword, but with your head!

Well, and you will be just as fast,
As you were before,
I will attach you, a cow’s muzzle,
I myself will attach it under the ax! ..

The comic buffoon

Our fool has strained his mind again.
And it was that mind – small bins.
I thought, I thought, I thought, I didn’t think it at all.
The dogs whistled to the horde – and to Yaga in the oak grove.
She saw the General – leaped right up to the Urals.
Yes, she came to her senses and returned:
, no matter how it turned out worse! ..

Baba Yaga

You are not yourself!
There’s a pimple on your lip!
Oh, you will waste your health.
In political struggle! ..

Try hare droppings!
He is vigorous! He will get through!
And where is more curative than honey,
Though it is not honey to taste.

Although it tastes cool,
And sometimes people die from it,
But which ones survive –
Those live to old age !….


Don’t tell me, grandma!
You look for ways!
You figure out how to bring Fedot
To the grave!

No matter how hard you fought, Yaga,
But not a fig came out!
Fedot procured a deer –
Precious horns!

You blow your head off
Yes, use your magic more carefully.
Our Sagittarius, as it turned out,
Don’t be so stunned! ..

Baba Yaga

Actually, I’m cunning
In the sense of meanness, my gut,
But what about me this day
Doesn’t do magic in the morning !….

Everything stabs and hurts,
And burns with fire in my chest! ..
I have long suspected
I have encephalitis! ..

Oh, what a bad luck for me!
Do you hear how grumpy in the back?
In a word, since such a thing is
I’m actually on the bulletin!


Sick – no problem!
Eat a frog from the pond!
There is no more reliable medicine,
Than the natural environment!

You fool me
Can’t even think!
Better all your podlyuchit
Strain to work!

And if you get on the rampage –
Take the saber out of the knife!
Although you are my friend,
And there must be order !….

Baba Yaga

Sorcerer, woman, sorcerer, grandfather.
Three on the side – yours are not,
Ace of diamonds, pine coffin,
Give me an answer about the archer!

Let Fedot show agility,
Let him be able to get you
In general, it cannot-be-possible!

Well, Fedot, now hold on!
It seems to be true!
That’s really entogo task
You will not complete in life! ..

Buffoon-funny man

Calling the King of the archer, a daring fellow.
Again, an order of state importance.
But when will this torment end!
And meanwhile the fairy tale is far from the denouement! ..


Contrive me to get
Write down the name for yourself,
In order not to forget in a hurry!

But you won’t do it by morning –
I will grind you into powder,
Because your karachter
I have not liked it for a long time!

So don’t blow your lips,
But let’s get on the road!
Public Affairs –
Do you get the point?

The comic buffoon

Fedot came home – more terrible than death itself!
White as chalk, face numb.
He sat by the window – a veil in his eyes.
Manya rushed, and he – zero attention! ..
You will be in sorrow, if death is behind your shoulders! ..


Well, pour out your soul,
Desperately you devil be angry?
Al in a salad a la Milanese
Not enough truffles? ..


I am yours, Marus, menu
Exceptionally appreciate,
Only my life, Marusia,
Ruined at the root!

What should I do? How can I be? ..
How can I get rid of my misfortune?
The Tsar ordered me to deliver
To-Chavo-Can’t-be-can-be !….


Do not be sad or whine!
One has only to throw a cry!
Well, stand before me,
Tit Kuzmich and Frol Fomich!

(Maroussia claps her hands –
two stalwart fellows appear)

If you understand the order –
Follow this hour!


Well done

Sorry, hostess,
This is not about us!

If only a schematic drawing was made –
We would have started a whirlwind.
Well, and so – look as you want,
You will find a bald devil!

Where to look and how to get
After all, there is no such thing in the world,
How long can you dig the earth! ..


Don’t demand it, my dear friend Fedot,
My income is not great!
Know, destiny for you, beloved,
Go on a hike yourself!

Do not fornicate abroad,
Be sure to keep yourself clean.
Do not interfere with conversations
And do not start dating!

Avoid empty hassles,
Avoid crooked roads,
Think more about your health,
Eat sour cream and cottage cheese !….


You, Marus, don’t be afraid!
Formed, Marus!
I will fulfill the imperial task
And I will return safe and sound!

Don’t be discouraged without me!
Water the ficus more often!
If you want, play the balalaika,
If you want, embroider on the hoop!

Well, there will be someone like that,
Who will disturb your peace, –
I don’t need to teach you:
A frying pan at hand! ..

A funny buffoon

Fedot left for an overseas campaign.
The General learned about that – he lost his last mind.
Our cunning man runs to the king in the palace to report that the archer is finished.
Already drilled a hole for the order, tolstomordina! ..


Good or bad news –
Report to me as it is!
Better bitter, but true,
Than pleasant, but flattery!

Only if enta news
It will be again – not God knows,
You can sit down for such a truth
For ten years you can sit down! ..


Report: a little dawn
Fedka raised anchors!
Thank God, we got rid of
From him, from the ghoul!


Well, Nanny, go syudy,
Get down to work –
Tear from the crown of your hair
Those who are gray.

And what are not gray-haired –
Those comb them in rows.
Yes, take it easy with a comb,
I have no gardens there! ..


Well, scratch, old devil,
If he bakes a bald spot ?!
You have every hair here.
We must register! ..

And why do you need
Wife at the age of ent?
After all, you, as a man,
Excuse me, a worthless price! ..


Though I am deprived of hair,
And I must marry!
The Persian Shah is also bald,
And has forty wives!

I just want one
Get yourself a wife!
I am not in an intimate sense
And I won’t pull one ?….


Duck the shah, you see,
There is a strength, and become,
And you, you dead cricket,
C-under the crown can not be seen!

In your years
The power is still not the same!
Would you save your health,
After all, you are already more than a hundred! ..


What an importance – more than a hundred!
If only the blood was thick!
They say they are submissive to love
Everything is literally age!

So, nanny, you don’t want to,
And I am good for business!
If all love is submissive,
Duck and I are submissive too !….


You, my friend, are one of those husbands,
What is more harmless than snakes –
They bite, they don’t bite,
Not to say worse!

To steal someone else’s woman,
You must have ardor and passion!
And your task now is
You can’t get to the cemetery! ..

Tsar (General)

Well, you keep quiet about the FAQ
Are you strumming medals?
Al do not you see how rotten
State-owned prestige?

The nanny is bending me in an arc,
And the minister – no gu-gu!
You are on the defensive,
So fight back the enemy !….


Why, women’s courts
About men are always thin!
Do not fail in yourself,
You are a lover even wherever!

Proud profile, firm step,
From the back – duck a clean check!
Just move the crown to one side,
So that it does not hang on your ears! ..

Tsar (Nanny)

Here the minister is not my enemy,
He said everything as it is without a fool,
But he is not a stupid man,
Do not look that he is a fool.

Well – one bedlam from you,
Shame on the king, embarrassment to the ambassadors!
I have been antiresissing for a long time,
You are not sent to us ?….

Do not spy and do not harm,
And if you dare – look:
Conversation with you
There will be a big one in front! ..

Funny buffoon

The Tsar is going to Mana – to pay attention.
Himself sits in the carriage, stinks with decolon,
For the king, the suite is powdered, curled,
Behind the suite is a chest – kozinaki and hazelnuts.
All honor according to honor – the Tsar is going to the bride! ..


On the instructions of the Tsar
Fedka left for the seas!
In general, I otseda it
Fused, simply put!

In order not to live in poverty alone –
Become my wife!
What about the faq ?…. I’m a prominent man
And a groovy caress! ..


Fedot did not have time to make a step
A step from the gate,
And the crows flew
To Fedotov’s garden! ..


You are me, girl, don’t be silly!
They offer – take it!
Tea, not every evening to see you.
Widowed kings come! ..

This very hour, I say,
Get ready to the altar!
I went crazy with delight,
Duck smell the ammonia!


You are better, sir,
Hit others for others!
Well I care – to wait for Fedot
Yes, look at the calendar!


Enough, girl – rumors lie!
Waiting for the archer is a waste of work.
He’s in some Hong Kong
Eating some mushroom fruit!

You yourself, fool, suspension:
He’s there, and you are here!
Fedot was no longer present,
Fedot was there, but all of them came out!


Even though you can whip me with a whip,
Even if you slash me with a sword, –
All one thing with your wife
I will not care!


You, Marus do not make me angry
And the conflict with me will not last!
The other day from Paris
The guillotine was brought to me!

In the light of what I have said –
Better be my wife!
I have nerves too,
I am not steel either!


Go away, hateful, away,
And you don’t mind becoming your husband!
You won’t leave – so I can and
Help the frying pan!


Well, those at the door –
Get her shackled quickly!
Anto what a fashion –
Frying pans into kings!

Here you will get better in prison –
And you will get better in your mind!
How are you, girl, do not bother,
And we will get married by the winter !….


Catch me, you bastard,
A lot of work is needed!
Goodbye, my friend sitny,
Maybe we’ll see you when! ..

(Maroussia turns into a dove and flies away)


Fedot sailed for almost a year.
I ate halva, ate persimmon – and kept my own in mind!
Miracles in the world are like flies in the toilet,
and the necessary miracle is not to be seen yet.
Fedot is worried – time is ticking!
I decided without hysteria: I’ll go to America!
Fedot floats among endless waters,
ahead is sunset, behind is sunrise.
Suddenly in the middle of the campaign the weather turned bad.
There was no misfortune – and on you, hello,
ship – booty! – and fell apart! ..
The thunderstorm died down – Fedot opened his eyes:
lies on the wave, completely unharmed.
Sees the island sticking out like a float.
I got to the coast, I thought – America.
He took out a map, checked – but no, not America!
Buyan Island, be it cursed –
maybe, what’s the flaw in the map?
Fedot sits, hiccups, delves into the situation …


No matter how whim of the king
I never sailed across the seas –
I have never seen a lousy place,
Frankly speaking!

Well, the island is just longing! –
All of stone and sand,
And as long as the eye can see –
No rivulet, no line !….

Yes it wouldn’t be a problem,
If there was food here,
If there would be quinoa,
Duck would get quinoa! food in bulk,
I have her poods!

Here, for example, get
Straight from the stove,
Here is a turkey roast,
Here is cherry plum compote!

Here are sausages, here are cheeses,
Here are half a centner of caviar,
Here are Caribbean lobsters,
Here are Don sturgeons! ..

(Tables of food appear)


Who are these miracles?
Anto what kind of voices?
There is nowhere to hide –
Okiyan and heaven!

Show me honor, master,
Show yourself what you are!
It is indecent to a guest somehow
Alone to drink and eat!

Tea, on your island
More fun to be bored together –
Where we will scatter cards,
Where we will pour a cup! ..


I would be glad, but my portrait –
It’s a secret for me!
I myself sometimes hesitate,
Either I am, or not !….

I have countless worries:
There is food, but there is nothing to eat,
There is tobacco, but there is nothing to sniff,
There is a sakmya, but there is nothing to sit down with!

So tired for a thousand years,
What is not the joy of the white light!
I thought I would hang myself,
Duck again, no neck!


Ah yes, meet! .. Therefore,
I managed to get you, –
To-Chavo-On-White-Light –
At all-Can’t-Be!

Than, longing and melancholy,
To spend life in vain,
Maybe you will float with me
To the racial king ?….

Take a walk, freshen up,
Make friends with the white light!
What a life without adventures,
Just horror, not zhist! ..


I have useful prospects
Never opposed!
I’m ready even for the bees in the hive,
If only in the coleftiv!

Give an order – and even where,
At least for the extraction of ore!
I will work for free,
Without drinking and without food!

I am good for any business,
I enter any door,
I’ll get you whatever you want,
Though a savvy louse !….


Louse, it is, of course, what then?
Louse, it’s not bad too!
But on the entoy nascoma
You won’t go far!

Get me a fleet better –
Ali a boat, ali a raft,
Since you’re so skillful
A polyglot in entom business!

By the morning, by five o’clock,
We must be on our way,
Because we are already in Rasee
We are already tired of waiting! cannibalistic tribe.
London-paris greased skis, the tsar had thinner ambassadors!
In front of the ambassador, the tsar jumps like a goat: they say, here’s a daughter, take her – and that’s it!
You know, things are really really bad, since it came to such a disaster!
Well, okay, it can be worse – if only the girl was with her husband! ..


Good afternoon, happy hour!
Glad to see you with us!
Believe good, salam aleikum,
Bona sir, you ist das!

Who are you from? .. How old are you? ..
Are you married or not?
Would you like to chat with our Fraulen


In front of whom are you, old devil,
Are you making a polite?
Your ambassador, I’m sorry,
The third day is like tears from a palm tree!

If he were wearing a cap at least, –
It would not be such an embarrassment,
And on him from clothes –
Nichavo, in addition to beads !….


You are a spy, ethno fact!
Whatever you blurt out – everything is out of step!
You are with everyone abroad
I ruined the contact!

I’ve been waiting for messengers for years,
And she is from the Sentsa!
For whom, then, should the princess
give in the end?


Look at his face:
Ears apart, nose ring!
Yes, and the skin is all speckled,
Like a cuckoo’s egg! ..

Even I – faq to hide? –
Wouldn’t go to bed with him!
Duck really our girl
For this to give ?….


If the chances are zero,
They are looking for gold in ash!
The girl, too, in the sense of a mug
Far from crème brulee!

Anyone will do it now –
Though hunchbacked, even pockmarked,
Because the pockmarked ones also do not burst with us! ..


Duck, after all, he is from wild places,
What he sees, he eats!
Do you remember the topaz vase?
Eat, Herod, – these are the cross!

If he asked, villain,
Salmon and mushrooms –
Duck, after all, is eating horrible faq,
From porcelain to nails!


Whatever he asks for is a guest!
Bring everything to him in handfuls!
Tea, we don’t have a shortage
Neither china nor nails?

If salmon hates him,
Let him eat the faq he wants.
Look, on a well-fed stomach.
And he will seduce the princess! ..


Yes, ambassadors – give them at least poison! –
Everyone will eat for free!
He may be safe,
But let him be watched!

You tell him like a father-in-law:
Eat, they say, everything, but know, they say, honor!
Because he is in the heat of
And the princess can eat!


So that with this – yes to go out?
Well, really pipes! .. Well, no! ..
He is so unprepossessing,
Dak isho and a cannibal !….

Yes, let him, the troglodyte,
He will make me rich with gold –
No reciprocal passion
He will not excite me!


Call off the ambassador
Yes, stay with him vis-a-vis,
And you will be patient a little –
It will come to love there!

If the entot troglodyte
will see your appearance, –
He will forever lose
Appetite for cannibalism! ..


How much, daddy, you are not, –
The right to choose is mine!
I’ll get poisoned, but not become
Cannibal wife!

But if
comes with Fedot’s proposal, –
For me, out of candidates
, Anton will be the one !….


Charged like a hoopoe –
Every word is Fedot!
Besides Fedot, there is no
No sorrows, no worries!

Your Fedot is now at the bottom,
In the depths of Okiyan,
And – since the drowned man –
Doesn’t need a wife! ..


If it is so –
I refuse to eat!
Here’s my father,
Political revenge!

I won’t eat caviar,
As usual, in a bucket –
And on the basis of exhaustion
I’ll get sick and die !….


Wherever you spit, wherever you poke, –
From ministers to relatives –
All solid freethinkers,
All pests are alone! ..

Well, there is a lump in your throat!
There is no sympathy in anyone!
Here I will find a deafened forest
And I will get a job as a forester! ..

The buffoon-ridicule

A year has passed, another is coming – Fedot has returned home.
But there is no home, one skeleton sticks out,
beams and rafters, and nettles all around.
And under the cornice a lump of gray.
a bird curled up, a forest Dove …


Well, little wife, come on
Set the table for your husband!
Get me out of the oven
A rounder loaf!

Pour vigorous cabbage soup
Fatter and thicker,
I became thinner
From overseas vegetables!

There is no one in the whole house,
Except for the wind alone!
Suspicious case,
Has there been a faq? ..

(Dove turns into Marusya)


Welcome back, Fedot!
Your campaign has been long!
Al forgot his Marusya,
That he didn’t ride for a whole year?

Abroad, go,
Entertainment – a dime a dozen!
Looked, I suppose, a girlfriend
Yes, he warmed up on his chest !….


I have seen the white light,
Josephine and Henriette,
But there are no beauties like you
Among them, Marusya, there are no!

And I walked across the seas
Even though it was a long time, but not in vain –
Fulfilled all the same task
of the Cunning Tsar! I would not have taken a step
From my dear gate!

You left – he, disgraceful,
Began to look after me,
Persuaded, ohalnik,
Become a wife of a wife!


Really ?…. Ah, the villain! ..
Now believe in people,
Here and stand for the honor of the uniform,
Here for the service and be happy! ..

Well, okay, I’ll
Explain to him, what’s what!
I’ll write him down to his heels
I’ll write it under Khokhloma! ..

Stop making fools
Out of racial men!
I have nothing to lose now,
Except for my own shackles!

Funny buffoon

Fedot agitated, summoned an honest people.
The neighbors decided to help Fedya.
Frol took the stake, Ustin took the drin, Ignat took the grip.
And all behind Fedot – to the Tsar’s gates.
General to meet them, damn him!
He jumped up sideways, sparkled with his pupil,
made a long look – and to the tsar to report!


Gathered there at the gate
Entot … how are his … people!
In general, the case takes
Social turn!

And Fedot is to blame for everything,
Anto he is stirring up the people,
He is knocking down the population
To carry out a coup! ..


Well, why are you with us,
With a saber like that?
We are holding you for that,
So that the Tsar’s peace may be protected!

After the rain on Thursday
I’ll give you another medal over,
Just try your best,
So that the people don’t overthrow me !….


Look, a medal! .. A great honor! ..
I have countless awards:
All hung like a tree,
On the back – and then there are six of them! ..

To protect you from troubles
I have no reason now!
You are for your own meanness
You must answer yourself! ..

The buffoon-funny man

He made a fool of a fool, and how he spoke!
Even though the Tsar is angry, try it!
Not a time to hit the crown.
The Tsar came out on the porch, made a stern face,
and on the square to the people – the whole Race is present!


What the hell is it,
Excuse me, understand?
We are not any storage,
To raise confusion!

Who wants to go to the Kolyma –
Come out one by one!
There you will at the moment
Enlightenment in the mind!


As for the mind,
He is very bright:
Thank God, we distinguish
Forget-me-not from shit!

Why did you quickly send me
Sent over a hundred seas?
Is it not for the purpose of marrying
To my wife ?….


Anto where are you, villain,
Got such ideas,
To rivet faq got
On decent people!

Does it suit me –
To pester your wife? ..
Here you go, you fools,
On foreign tours! ..


You don’t hurt something, –
We are to you, tea, not for tea!
Well, and you’re going to chase, –
I’ll go in the snout by chance!

About you, about a scoundrel,
Glory is already in Cherepovets!
You all the people in the soul
Spit on my face !….


In vain, Fedya! .. For me
My people are my relatives.
I am without thinking about the people
I can’t live a day! ..

In the morning I smear a sandwich –
Immediately a thought: what about the people?
And caviar does not go down your throat,
And compote does not pour into your mouth!

And the culprit is the General,
Intriguer and immoral!
Anto he, a cow’s muzzle,
The Tsarev’s honor has been smeared!

Let him come out! .. Where is he there? ..
I’ll ask him now! ..
I’ll rip off his medal,
Yes, with a medal in the muzzles !….


Whatever, brothers … I’m for you
I lost my eyes in the attack! ..
I’m not daring when
Contrary to the masses! ..

I will justify. I will serve.
I suffer. I’ll sit there.
To the oppressive top
I no longer belong! ..

And the culprit is Yaga!
There is no more dangerous enemy!
Gorynych himself is in front of her –
So, – not a snake, but a small fry!

Well, where are you, the fidget?
Look people in the eye!
Personally, I can’t resist –
I cut my saber twice !….

Baba Yaga

I am a folkloric element,
I have a document.
I generally can squat
Fly away at any moment!

For the heat, for the blizzard
Everyone scolds me, hag,
And there is no more harm in me,
Than in a chamomile in the meadow!

Well, by chance, well, jokingly,
Has gone astray!
Duck, after all, I am a child of nature,
Let it be bad, but a child!

If you judge – the duck of those two,
My accomplices.
Anto I look like evil spirits,
And in fact they are cleaner !….


Well, you are a cunning people,
Azhno takes a shock!
Everyone thinks the other is a freak,
Despite the fact that he himself is a freak.

Though racial people in general
They are not fierce for reprisal,
But I, robots, will have to
Execute judgment on you.


Spare me, archer!
I’m a bastard! I’m a scoundrel!
I will send myself to Voronezh,
I will send myself to Yelets! ..

Only not to Magadan,
Anto for me beyond my years:
I’ll get there while –
I’m afraid I’ll give you an oak!


I acknowledge my guilt.
Meru. Degree. Depth.
And please send me
to the current war.

No war – I will take everything –
Ref. Hard labor. Prison.
But preferably in July,
And preferably in Crimea.

Baba Yaga

Where am I, widow?
Is it just to Khiva!
I’m already on the outskirts –
There’s nowhere else to go! – I live! ..

To rest my soul
Tetyushi would come up!
Tama in the sense of medicine
Herbs are painfully good! ..


We will put you in a tub,
We will throw you into the sea and – adieu!
You will manage with a bucket,
Don’t give you a boat!

And carry you okiyan
Straight to the island on Buyan!
Well, so as not to run wild,
Here’s my personal accordion,

True, he is my fault! –
Doesn’t play a damn thing,
But no,
And you need culture!


As for the king –
Let him go over the seas.
I have problems with me
Deep down to the lantern!

He was punished by fate
For treachery and robbery.
Anto he, damned ghoul,
Separated me from you!

Thank God, at last,
The Usurper is finished,
And now we can safely go
Down the aisle! ..


I would be glad, but I have no need for two spouses in my house!
Address the topic
To an unmarried person! ..


Have you lost your mind?
The fish swims into the net by itself!
Tea, not everyone is so happy
Got it for nothing!

Ali you think she’s following her
Not many guys running around?
On the list of candidates
There are better robots!

All with excitement in their blood
They are waiting for the princess’s love,
Such competition –
Straight at least poison them with dust!

Dave wooed in a little light
At once the Turks, the Greek and the Swede, –
Dak immediately received
Negative answer!

And a beggar archer
Arrogance does not suit at all.
Take, fool, princess
And drag her to the crown! ..


I am not a Turk or a Greek,
I am a family man
And my wife Marusya
I will never part!


So you can’t help it
Am I grieving to help a girl?
But I am for the time being
After all, the Tsar’s daughter!

If I don’t get it
I want a FAQ from you –
You’ll go off the seat
Straight into the clutches of the executioner!


Where are you – oh and hot! –
Can’t you find the executioner?
When dad was overthrown,
Immediately asked a snatch!

To us now – keep in mind! –
You have to be in harmony with the crowd:
Despotism is not in fashion now,
Democracy is in motion.

Would you leave
To entot … how is it … to Brussels,
If this happens,
Sorry, merry-go-round!

You forgive her, Fedot, –
She’s got confusion in her mind,
She got from her books of thought
Became backwards.

Read Dumas –
So she’s crazy!
Will go mad a little –
Will calm down herself! ..


Come on, princess, don’t be sad!
And do not crunch with moss!
That love did not work out for us, –
Forgive me for that!

But since I am in debt
I cannot stay,
I am in your misfortune for you –
As I can – I will help!

I’m from Tula to Torzhok
I’ll search everything to the top,
Though from the bottom of the sea –
And I’ll get a fiancé!


I agree !…. Only all
Not everyone will be good for me.
I want such a husband,
To look like you!

Whether he is a Swiss there, or a reaper,
A healer, a baker, or a blacksmith, –
I have one condition:
Let him be your twin! Though such copies
Everything in Rasee counts.

As for the mind –
Duplicates are dumb to me.
However, ethno, I hope
You noticed yourself.

Well, yes, the word of a fellow.
It’s not thinner than jellied meat:
Since I promised –
I’ll get a twin!

And now, honest people,
Take the faces out of your beards!
Tea, we are not having a requiem,
Quite the opposite!

Now we are not shedding tears, –
Singing songs and drinking honey! ..
Well, stand in front of me,
To-Chavo-Can’t-Be! ..


I’ve been I’m standing here,
At the edge of the porch,
I’m waiting for you to finish your meeting


Treat honest people
From overseas bounties!
Tea, they didn’t take such food
When they were born, they didn’t take it in their mouths!

Offer them in reality
Samarkand halva,
And Turkish pistachio,
And Persian quince!

Put everything on the tablecloth –
Chocolate and marmalade,
And Dutch brisket,
And Chukhonsky servilat!

Don’t forget the Swiss cheese!
The one that is full of holes!
Throw us a feast for glory,
Such as the world has not seen!

Well, and if someone asks
Mint of one hundred grams of commercials –
So be it !…. Today you can! ..
Thank God, there is something for that! ..

Funny buffoon

I was at that feast too, ate granular caviar.
I was eating pilaf. Filat was eating salad. Ustin ate galantine.
And Fedot the Archer was eating pickled cucumber.
And how he ate a cucumber – here the fairy tale ends!
And that the tale is bad – that is the storyteller of wine.
It would be impossible to catch a fool and give a cuff,
but it is impossible in any way – after all, the narrator is a fool!
And from time immemorial we have no court for fools! ..

Serotonin: what is it, in simple words :: Health :: RBC Style

Serotonin affects almost all of our body.He acts not only in the usual role of the “hormone of happiness”, but also plays many other important roles. Therefore, it is worth monitoring its level and helping yourself to keep it normal.

Anastasia Afanasyeva, psychiatrist, psychotherapist, clinical director of the service for the selection of psychologists Alter

What is Serotonin

Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters of the nervous system, molecules that perform the functions of a “negotiator” or “communicator”: they move between neurons (nerve cells), helping to transmit a signal from one of them to another.Serotonin is produced from the essential amino acid tryptophan, which is found in protein foods of animal and plant origin.

Although we are accustomed to associating serotonin with mood and emotions, that is, with the activity of our nervous system, the brain produces only 5% of the serotonin contained in the body. It is these 5% that affect our emotional state. The lion’s share of this substance (80–95%) is actually synthesized and stored in the cells of the gastrointestinal tract.Serotonin is also produced in certain skin cells, platelets, and cells in a number of other organs. All this mass of serotonin is also in play: it turns out that this hormone performs many more important functions.

What Serotonin Does

Serotonin helps reduce depression and regulate anxiety and anxiety. But, in addition to this, it affects our entire body: it helps us sleep, eat, digest food and even heal wounds – not only mental, but also quite physical.(I would like to say: what would we do without him!)

This is how this substance is involved in various processes and functions of the body.


Serotonin is believed to regulate the intensity of anxiety, happiness, and background mood. If there is enough serotonin, then we are in a consistently good mood, and vice versa: depressive states are associated with low serotonin levels.


Serotonin stimulates the regions of the brain that control the sleep-wake cycle – it is he who “decides” whether you sleep or not.

Blood coagulation

Serotonin, which platelets accumulate from the blood, aids wound healing – it causes tiny arteries to narrow and may help blood clot normally.

Bone Strength

This hormone plays an important role in bone health. Too high levels of serotonin in bone can lead to osteoporosis.

Regulation of bowel function

As we said, the bulk of the serotonin in our body is found in the stomach and intestines.This substance helps to control the motility and function of the gastrointestinal tract.

Help with food poisoning

Serotonin is one of the causes of nausea and indigestion as a reaction to toxic substances that enter the body with food. In case of poisoning, the production of serotonin in the intestines increases and diarrhea occurs in order to quickly displace harmful or unpleasant food. Also, serotonin increases in the blood – this stimulates the part of the brain that triggers the nausea mechanism.

Sexual function

Low serotonin levels are associated with increased libido. And vice versa: if there is a lot of serotonin, libido decreases. And the truth: why make unnecessary body movements, if we are already fine?

Why is serotonin called the “happiness hormone”

Serotonin regulates our mood. When there is enough serotonin, we feel:

  • is happier;

  • is calmer;

  • 93,282 more focused;

  • 93,282 less disturbing;

  • are more emotionally resilient.

Since the 1980s, drugs have been actively used to treat depression that increase serotonin levels by blocking its natural breakdown. This group of antidepressants is called SSRIs – selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It was on the basis of research on these drugs that the suggestion was born that increasing the amount of serotonin relieves the symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, this conclusion is now being questioned. The problem is that serotonin levels can only be measured in the blood, not in the brain.This means that it cannot be argued that SSRIs really affect the level of this substance in the nervous system.

And yet there is a connection between the amount of serotonin and our emotional state. So, in 2016, a study was carried out on mice, in the nerve cells of which there were no receptors that inhibit the synthesis of serotonin. Accordingly, more serotonin entered their brains. The study showed that these mice experienced less anxiety and depression, and better tolerated external stress [1].

Thus, today scientists are inclined to believe that serotonin does not so much increase the intensity and duration of positive emotions as it reduces our susceptibility to negative ones.

How to increase serotonin without drugs

The good old healthy lifestyle will help to raise the level of serotonin. All those basic ways to prevent depression and keep yourself in good shape, which each article on these topics recommends, work precisely because they contribute to the production of serotonin in the body.


The sun helps to increase the production of serotonin. Spend more time outdoors, go for walks. In autumn and winter, the lack of sun can be compensated for, if not by a trip to the warm islands, then by light therapy – treatment with special lamps.

Physical exercise

Light jogging, walking, swimming, cycling, cardio training will help restore serotonin levels. It is important that the load is regular, but at the same time moderate and pleasant.A useful habit is to use at least part of the way to work or lunch break as an opportunity to walk (and at the same time “recharge” with ultraviolet light, if the weather permits).


Meditation can reduce stress levels and promote a positive outlook on life. This, in turn, also helps maintain high serotonin levels.

Normalization of sleep

Adequate sleep on a regular basis is essential to stabilize the serotonin system.


Can serotonin be found in food? Let’s talk about this in more detail.

What is Serotonin

Contrary to popular belief, food does not contain serotonin – it is synthesized only in our body. Food contains tryptophan, the very amino acid that is then converted into serotonin.

In order for this hormone to be produced in the body more, you need to include the following foods in your diet:

  • eggs;
  • hard cheeses;
  • turkey;
  • nuts;
  • salmon;
  • tofu;
  • pineapple.

It can be assumed that eating fewer foods containing tryptophan will lead to a decrease in mood. However, studies show that if tryptophan is removed from the diet, the emotional background decreases only in those people who have already had depressive episodes before. For those who did not suffer from depression in the past, the decrease in intake of tryptophan with food did not significantly affect. This seems to be due to the fact that serotonin metabolism is altered in people with depressive disorders.

As we have already found out, serotonin helps stabilize mood, and if you actively increase it in all the ways listed above, this does not mean that you will feel euphoria: your emotional background will simply become more even, you will be less prone to anxiety and more resistant to stress.

Why elevated serotonin is dangerous

Even if you eat cheese and nuts in kilograms, you do not need to worry about the fact that serotonin will exceed the norm (although you should not overeat in any case).An excess of this hormone in the body can occur, for example, due to improper intake of certain medications (most often antidepressants) or their combination with narcotic drugs. This dramatically launches the “factory” for the production of serotonin in our body at full capacity – the hormone is produced too much, which can cause serotonin syndrome, in fact – “poisoning” with serotonin.

Serotonin syndrome most often develops within two hours after taking the first dose of the drug that provoked it, and disappears within 6-24 hours after administration.This condition can be accompanied by symptoms such as diarrhea, tachycardia, anxiety, restlessness, tremors. The temperature can rise to 41 degrees, some may experience confusion.

The most important thing in serotonin syndrome is timely and correct assistance: due to incorrect treatment of symptoms (for example, fever), serious complications can occur, including death. Therefore, the doctor needs to tell about all the drugs that the patient was taking.