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Where does it band attach: The functional anatomy of the iliotibial band during flexion and extension of the knee: implications for understanding iliotibial band syndrome

Understanding the IT band – Harvard Gazette

For many people, it’s the source of a nagging — and painful — injury, but for Carolyn Eng, the IT band is an intriguing mystery, one she may be close to solving.

A former Ph.D. student in Harvard’s Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Eng is the first author of two studies that examine how the iliotibial band stores and releases elastic energy to make walking and running more efficient. The studies — co-authored by Daniel Lieberman, the Edwin M. Lerner II Professor of Biological Sciences and chair of the Department of Human Evolutionary Biology; Andrew Biewener, the Charles P. Lyman Professor of Biology; and Allison Arnold-Rife, a research associate in Biewener’s lab — are described in new papers in the Journal of Experimental Biology and the Journal of Biomechanics.

“We found that the human IT band has the capacity to store 15 to 20 times more elastic energy per body mass than its much-less-developed precursor structure in a chimp,” Eng said. “We looked at the IT band’s capacity to store energy during running, and we found its energy-storage capacity is substantially greater during running than walking, and that’s partly because running is a much springier gait. We don’t know whether the IT band evolved for running or walking; it could have evolved for walking and later evolved to play a larger role in running.”

The IT band runs along the outside of the thigh, from just above the hip to just below the knee, and is made up of fascia, an elastic connective tissue found throughout the body. Though often compared to tendons — the two can serve similar functions — fascia is composed of large sheets, while tendons are more rope-like.

Fascia is “a sheath that encloses muscles, connects muscles to bone and … compartmentalizes muscles that serve a similar function, and the IT band is the largest piece of fascia in the human body,” Eng said.

The notion that the IT band acts as a spring to aid in locomotion runs counter to the decades-old belief that its primary function is to stabilize the hip during walking.

“Unlike many clinicians and anatomists, we use the lens of evolution to think about how humans are adapted not just for walking, but also for running, so we look at the IT band from a totally different perspective,” Lieberman said. “When we looked at the difference between a chimp and a human, we saw this big elastic band, and the immediate idea that leapt out at us was that the IT band looked like another elastic structure, like the Achilles tendon, that might be important in saving energy during locomotion, especially running.”

The findings, Biewener said, “will have key importance for basic science and clinical studies that seek to integrate the role of this key fascial structure into programs of sports-exercise training and gait rehabilitation.”

To understand what role the IT band plays in locomotion, the researchers developed a computer model to estimate how much it stretched ― and by extension, how much energy it stored — during walking and running.

Computer simulation of a human leg running

Credit: Carolyn Eng

One part of the IT band stretches as the limb swings backward, Eng explained, storing elastic energy. That stored energy is then released as the leg swings forward during a stride, potentially resulting in energy savings.

“It’s like recycling energy,” Eng said. “Replacing muscles with these passive rubber bands makes moving more economical. There are a lot of unique features in human limbs — like long legs and large joints — that are adaptations for bipedal locomotion, and the IT band just stood out as something that could potentially play a role in making running and possibly even walking more economical.”

Building such complex computer models was no easy feat, and adding to the complexity, Eng said, was the fact that precise descriptions of the IT band — which muscles attached to it and where — were all but non-existent.

“It’s difficult to understand how muscles and connective tissues function in the human body,” Eng said. “To get at how they function during movement, you need sensors implanted in the muscles or tendons, and that’s difficult to do in humans.”

To ensure the model was accurate, Eng and colleagues relied on cadavers.

Using a custom-built frame, Eng manipulated five human and five chimpanzee cadaver limbs through a series of movements, and measured how much the IT band changed length for a given shift in joint angle. She used the measurements to calculate the moment arm of the IT band about the hip and knee. The moment arm describes the location of the IT band relative to the joint, and plays an important role in determining how much the IT band strains and how much torque it transmits during locomotion. She then repeated the process for different parts of the IT band, and for each plane of movement at the hip and knee.

“These measurements were vital for specifying the anatomical locations of the muscles and the IT band on the model,” Eng said. “The geometry of the model was very important, so we needed to place muscles very accurately on the body.

Going forward, the researchers hope to expand their investigation, possibly to include other primate species that are adapted for running, and to explore how better understanding of the IT band might help athletes avoid or treat injury.

“IT band syndrome is a painful overuse injury that plagues many runners and cyclists, but its underlying cause is unknown,” said Arnold-Rife. “One of our next steps, using the computer models that Carolyn has developed, is to estimate how much force the IT band transmits in runners with and without IT band pain.  These studies could help us establish a scientific basis for treating athletes with IT band injury.”

Iliotibial (IT) Band Tendonitis of the Hip – Upswing Health

Iliotibial band (IT) tendonitis, also called iliotibial band (IT) syndrome, is a condition characterized by inflammation that affects the iliotibial (IT) band of the upper leg. The IT band runs along the outer part of the thigh, from the hip to the knee. It consists of connective tissue called, fascia, that connects the buttock and hip muscles to the top of the shin bone. IT band tendonitis is most common in runners.

What causes Iliotibial (IT) Band Tendonitis of the Hip?

IT band tendonitis is a non-traumatic injury that is brought on by overuse. It usually occurs in runners when the band is tight or has been overworked. Common causes of IT band tendonitis include:

• Overtraining
• Running only one course
• Wearing footwear that is worn out
• Improper foot mechanics
• Failing to stretch sufficiently

Iliotibial (IT) band tendonitis is common in these sports:

• Long distance running or marathon running
• Soccer
• Tennis

Symptoms

You may have IT band tendonitis if you experience one or more of the following symptoms:

• Pain on the outside of the hip along the IT band
• Pain with sleeping on the hip
• Pain that increases when climbing or descending stairs

When to see a doctor

If you notice pain on the outside of the hip that does not resolve on its own, make an appointment with an orthopedic specialist, as this may indicate inflammation of the IT band. During your appointment, your doctor will check for tenderness by touching the outside of your hip. He/she will also assess the flexibility of the leg by having you perform various stretches, like the Ober’s test.

In order to make a diagnosis, your doctor may prescribe the following imaging tests to rule out other causes of hip pain:

• X-ray
• MRI

Non-operative treatment

IT band tendonitis is treated using conservative, non-operative methods. Treatment for IT band tendonitis may include:

• Rest
• Stretching (this is a key factor in IT band tendonitis treatment)
• Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, like ibuprofen, to reduce inflammation

As improper foot and training mechanics may contribute to IT band tendonitis, your doctor may recommend the following treatments to reduce the risk of developing IT band tendonitis in the future:

• Correcting training errors
• Finding proper shoe wear to encourage proper foot mechanics

Try these exercises to help address your condition:

Below is a PDF of the Exercise Program

ITB Tendonitis

Surgical Treatment

IT band tendonitis does not require surgery and is almost always treated conservatively, using non-operative treatments.

Recovery

You can return to training when you have no pain and have regained flexibility in the leg. When you are recovering from IT band tendonitis, it is important that you return to running gradually. You will also need to make sure that you warm up carefully and stretch both before and after exercising.

Stop twisting – 2. About cable attachment methods / Sudo Null IT News

At the request of listeners, so to speak. Correctly connecting the cable is half the battle, but if it dangles freely, then it will not live long – either it will be hurt, or it will be torn, or it will be bitten off (not necessarily with evil intentions). Or maybe just slip out of the joint under its own weight. Or it may not slip out, which is even worse – go and find the place where the contact disappeared. So this article will talk about how you can fix the cable so that it does not go anywhere.
Yes, and such mounts are ugly, uncomfortable, and give out a non-professional:

What, in essence, is the process of attaching wires? These are actions aimed at connecting (it can be rigid or not, detachable or one-piece, etc. ) one object (cable), which is not able to independently maintain its position in space, to another object (wall, beams, masts, etc.). other exotics), which is usually much more solid and does not need additional props.


The walls are different, that’s a fact. But in most cases, their classification can be reduced to three types:

Dense

Timber, sleepers, mud hut, chipboard, wood, plaster and soft mortars, including gypsum. In general, where you can tighten the screw without any problems.
Usually there are no problems, only a screw and a screwdriver are needed. Well, someone who will twist, of course. It twists easily, holds firmly, hang anything. After twisting, leaves a minimal hole.

Solid

Solid mortars, concretes, bricks, cements, screeds. Where the screw does not turn.
We make a hole with a puncher, a drill (for singles, making at least 20 pieces with an impact drill – do not appreciate yourself), a chipper (for masochists, or USSR-fils), insert a plastic dowel there (chopik, as the Tajiks say), or USSR-style: a hand-turned piece of wood, and we are already screwing a screw into it. With the correct choice of the size of the dowel and hole, it holds perfectly. After dismantling, it leaves a larger hole.

Thin

Plastic, drywall, GVL, and other thin materials, behind which is a void. Accordingly, it is better not to turn the screw there – most of it will simply hang in the air.
And here questions traditionally arise – when you try to tighten a screw there, it falls through, spins uselessly, not wanting to hold on. If you manage to wrap it there, nothing heavier than a picture can be hung – with any tangible load, it will simply bend and break out of the wall, leaving a hole behind it.

For such cases, there are many solutions, which are called – fasteners for hollow structures. Here are the 3 most common types:

Molly (MOLLY, “umbrella”), a special case of anchor bolts.

A serious metal structure that opens (sometimes even with a special tool) on the other side of the wall and does not go anywhere. And you can do anything with it – even hang a chandelier (some models already come with a hook and a mounting plate for lamps), even hanging equipment.
Looks like this:

Of the minuses – you need to drill a hole first, and not a small one.


Driva (an anchor with a DRIVA (metal) or TT22 (plastic) drill), an intimidating drill,

as if specially created for a lobotomy

Looks like this:

It is inserted into a screwdriver (although you can get by with a drill, and even a screwdriver), and twists into the wall like a regular screw:

It turns out here is such a blamba, into which the screw is already twisted:

After that, you can fasten everything you need to this screw. I showed metal above, but there are also plastic ones:


Butterflies (butterfly dowels, TNF, TNF-W)

The meaning is simple. A hole is made in the wall, the dowel is straightened and thrust into the wall. You start to tighten the screw – it catches the far part of the dowel and pulls it to the wall, squeezing it in such a way that it is pressed against the wall from the other side.
Disadvantages – he must definitely hold something from “your” side, otherwise the thin rim will slip, and the dowel, together with the screw, disappears into the depths of the wall. You can’t just hang a picture on a string on such a dowel.

All of the above fasteners are used only for hollow structures – walls made of GVL, GKL.


As a result of the above measures, we have a wall ready for screwing. But it will not be possible to fasten the wire with screws, this only works with the Soviet telephone “noodles”. One of the principles of cable management is that management tools must not damage the cable.

Option one: wires in a pipe.
Or rather in the corrugation. Called “ Corrugated pipe PVF with broach

A broach is a wire that sticks out at both ends.

One end is fixed on the wire:

And for the second you need to gently pull, and the cable will be in the corrugation.

The pieces in the middle are fasteners.

They are screwed to the wall with screws:

And the corrugation snaps into them:

It turns out like this:

For greater convenience, fasteners can be snapped into each other, for even installation of several corrugations at once.
The main advantage of the corrugation is that it is airtight. Therefore, it can be used outdoors:

True, it must be borne in mind that in this case there should not be cuts and holes on it, and if there are, they should be from below. A couple of liters of water can easily pour into the holes located at the top, and pull the corrugation out of the mounts under its own weight. For such cases, there are special mounts that additionally snap on top, but for some reason I haven’t seen them in stores for a long time. Of course, all connections for outdoor use should be sealed whenever possible. At least with a simple sealant, if there are no seals.

PVC corrugation also does not like frequent insertion-removal from fasteners, ideally – fixed it and that’s it. Otherwise it will wrinkle and crack:

By the way, here the fasteners are snapped into each other.
And it does not support combustion, does not allow the wires to catch fire, limiting the air flow to them, saves the wire from crushing when immured in expanding mixtures. True, such a sleeve should not be placed where there is a risk of flooding, or nibbling by rodents. In these cases, it is better to use the same corrugation, but metal. Called metal hose , usually with a long code in which the size, thickness, sheath, etc. are encrypted. But I usually buy it, poking into the window, “and this is 10 meters.” 🙂

And the corrugation saves the wires from prying eyes, and the sense of beauty – from the type of wires. But, let’s say we have a bundle of wires that will not offend our sense of beauty in any way, because it will be laid behind a false ceiling or closed with a partition.
To begin with, it must be collected in order to visually distinguish it from other similar beams, and to prevent entanglement.
I think no one needs to explain what nylon tie is? Everyone has seen her at least once.

One end has a ratchet head:

And along the rest of the length of the screed – an inclined corrugated surface. The latch passes only in one direction, and it stops in the other.

We wrap the wires, snap, tighten to the limit. Trim off the end if desired.

Of course, disposable. Something needs to be pulled out or added – we cut it, and snap a new one.

Not suitable for negative temperatures and bright sun – it becomes brittle in the cold, after which the first gust of wind effectively breaks the ties along the entire length of the cable. It crumbles after exposure to the sun (from a month to a year or two, depending on the manufacturer). They do not like excessive tension and loads – they are torn. In short, the destiny of a polyethylene screed is the organization of light cables, attaching them to the panels. Do not hang the cable on the ties, at least completely. Attach something else.
For example, on a metal tie:

So they are called – stainless steel coupler .

The principle is clear, fill and tighten. Very strong, holds, emnip up to 30kg one minimum. It bites only with wire cutters, do not try to “twist” it to break with pliers – it easily cuts through the cable sheath, but it never breaks.

Working principle:

Inside – a rough ball inside a tapering cavity. When you push the tape in the “right” direction, it rolls out to the wide side (a small metal tongue does not allow it to fall out completely, you can see it in the photo), and when you try to pull it back out, the ball rolls back, falls into a narrow slot, and presses against the tape the harder the harder you pull.

But fastening ties to screws is inconvenient. To eliminate this disadvantage, there are cable tie pads

There are types with or without a glue pad. Of course, you can only count on a glue pad when laying telephone wiring laid across the floor in a very quiet place where no one walks. IMHO, the only use of the platform is to glue it immediately to the right place, before screwing it with a screw (there is a special hole in the center for this).

After that we pass the tie through the narrow holes and fix it on the cable

Here, by the way, are three types – for glue, for a screw, and for a screw in a metal dowel.
We pull:

Only a normal screw with a wide head, screwed into a DRIVA dowel, is firmly held.

One of my favorite pieces is Clamp.

Great solution. I think that everyone has already guessed what to do with it, but I’ll explain anyway. Drilling a hole:

We wrap the cable with a clamp:

And shove it in the hole!

All. The cable is securely fastened. The tie is much thicker than a zip tie, and with the right opening, it easily carries the weight of even a bundle of power cables.

A hit of all times and peoples, the favorite fasteners of the installers of the provider. Plastic fixing bracket.

Cheap, sold in all stores. This is where her virtues end. I don’t know, maybe there is some kind of trick, but for more than 10 years I have not been able to learn how to score it the first time and without swearing. The carnation is small, it is inconvenient to hold. It holds well only in wooden surfaces, which, coupled with the love of installers to mount it on GVL, ensures that the cable comes off after a week. And sometimes they try to drive them into plastic skirting boards and plaster of concrete walls. Or in the mortar between the bricks, yes. In general, you don’t need to do this, for such installers burn in hell, over a smoky fire made of cable insulation.

Plastic earrings for cable (yes, that’s what they are called) and metal clips for cable (I have nothing against them, unlike their plastic namesakes).

The first ones are good because they are fastened with just one screw, but unlike dowel-clamps, it can be used several times – unscrew the screw, add-remove the cable, and tighten it again. And metal staples perfectly hold any heavy cable, and have excellent breaking force, successfully coping with the attacks of cleaners, feet and hands of visitors and those who like to attach their cable to someone else’s.

Probably, like last time, I forgot about some obvious ways, but they will surely be remembered in the comments.
And if you don’t want to skip the discussion, check the box.
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What is a schlegel and how to attach it? – Articles

05 May 2017

The wardrobe door frame is made of aluminum profiles, the side wall is made of chipboard or laminated chipboard. Both materials are solid, so a special seal is attached to the side surface of the door to prevent impact and loud knocking at the moment of closing. It also fills the gap between the door and the side wall of the closet, prevents dust from penetrating inside.

What is a wardrobe slide?

Schlegel is a seal-shock absorber in the form of a brush, placed on the side end of the sliding wardrobe door. Other frequently used names for such components are “buffer tape”, brush seal”. The Russian term “schlegel” comes from the name of the German manufacturer Schlegel International.

Structurally, the Schlegel is a plastic tape, which is stitched with the same plastic thread, which forms a pile on one side. The most common material for the manufacture of the bristle of the brush seal is a polypropylene thread impregnated with special additives. This type of seal has standard sizes:

  • base width – 7 mm;
  • pile height – 6 mm.

The brush seal is mostly self-adhesive. On the bottom of the Schlegel base, a hot-melt adhesive of constant stickiness is applied, which is covered with an anti-adhesive base. When installed, the protective base is easily separated, and it is glued to the side of the door.

What kind of Schlegel is there?

Brush seals differ in the following main characteristics:

  • color;
  • pile density;
  • base width;
  • protective base.

The Mebax company produces Schlegel in a wide range of colors, 10 colors: white, milky, gold, silver, gray, black and others. That is, you can always choose a color that will be in harmony with the wardrobe. The color of the pile and the base may vary or be the same (option “monocolor”).

The density of the pile is determined by the number of rows of stitching.
High density – 4 rows, medium density – 3 rows. The use of shlegel with a high pile density is more functional, but its price is higher.

How to stick the schlegel on the compartment door?

The gluing of the brush seal is carried out after the door is installed in the grooves of the guides and all adjustments are made. Schlegel is glued into the groove provided for it on the profile.