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Where is the pain: New App Intuitively Tracks Pain


Where Is Your Pain Coming From?

No matter your age, aches and pains can take the joy out of life’s activities. Whether it’s sore knees after taking a job, or a stiff back while getting out of bed, determining the true cause of the pain can seem frustrating if not impossible. Since pain is the body’s response to a wide variety of stimuli, it is important to pay careful consideration to a variety of factors. By listening to your body, and making sure not to aggravate it further, you can determine where your pain is coming from.


How Long Have You Been In Pain?


When it comes to diagnosing your pain, it is helpful to categorize it into two different categories: acute and chronic. Acute pain is often characterized by its short duration and sudden onset. Typically considered to be any pain that lasts less than three months, it can be the result of an injury or other traumatic event. Acute pain will also generally resolve itself as the tissues begin to heal over time.


Chronic pain, on the other hand, can persist for years. When this type of pain is caused by damaged bodily tissue, it is called nociceptive pain. It is commonly associated with pain due to tumors or by the blockage of an organ. Neuropathic pain is the result of damage to the nerves themselves. It often feels heavy, or as if the location of the pain is burning or numb.


Is the Pain Localized?


The next step in determining the cause of your pain is by pinpointing its location. Where and over what percentage of your body feels the discomfort can provide pivotal clues in the identification of its root cause. Pain felt over a large swath of the body is likely due to a muscle strain or inflammation. This is usually the result of an injury sustained during physical activity, such as weightlifting or playing a sport. If the pain can be pinpointed to a specific location on the body, it can be due to nerve damage or a simple bruise.


It’s important to note, that although back pain is often a sign of muscle injury or herniated discs, its location can also signify a larger issue with bodily organs such as the kidneys. If your pain is associated with other symptoms such as blood in the urine or facial swelling due to fluid retention, see a doctor immediately in order to assess the cause.


When is the Pain at Its Worst?


Not all pain is uniform. A muscle bruise will experience its greatest amount of pain when under duress, while lower back pain may not be present unless sitting or standing in a specific way. With regards to the latter, pain that is the worst upon waking up and is accompanied by a numbness or tingling down the leg is very likely due to an inflammation of the sciatic nerve. If the pain appears after prolonged periods of standing and walking, it can be attributed to muscle fatigue along the spinal column.




Extreme pain can leave you feeling like things will never get better. Fortunately, there is hope. Visit Anatomix Physical Therapy for a consultation today, and begin your journey on the road to recovery.










What Is Chronic Pain Management? Symptoms and Reasons to Control Chronic Pain

Just about everyone feels pain from time to time. When you cut your finger or pull a muscle, pain is your body’s way of telling you something is wrong. Once the injury heals, you stop hurting.

Chronic pain is different. Your body keeps hurting weeks, months, or even years after the injury. Doctors often define chronic pain as any pain that lasts for 3 to 6 months or more.

Chronic pain can have real effects on your day-to-day life and your mental health. But you and your doctor can work together to treat it.

What Makes You Feel Chronic Pain?

The feeling of pain comes from a series of messages that zip through your nervous system. When you hurt yourself, the injury turns on pain sensors in that area. They send a message in the form of an electrical signal, which travels from nerve to nerve until it reaches your brain. Your brain processes the signal and sends out the message that you hurt.

Usually the signal stops when the cause of the pain is resolved — your body repairs the wound on your finger or your torn muscle. But with chronic pain, the nerve signals keep firing even after you’ve healed.

Which Conditions Cause Chronic Pain?

Sometimes chronic pain can begin without any obvious cause. But for many people, it starts after an injury or because of a health condition. Some of the leading causes include:


Chronic pain can range from mild to severe. It can continue day after day or come and go. The pain can feel like:

  • A dull ache
  • Throbbing
  • Burning
  • Shooting
  • Squeezing
  • Stinging
  • Soreness
  • Stiffness

Sometimes pain is just one of many symptoms, which can also include:

Chronic Pain and Your Mental Health

Chronic pain can interfere with your daily life, keeping you from doing things you want and need to do. It can take a toll on your self-esteem and make you feel angry, depressed, anxious, and frustrated.

The link between your emotions and pain can create a cycle. When you hurt, you’re more likely to feel depressed. That can make your pain even worse. The link between depression and pain is why doctors often use antidepressants as one treatment for chronic pain. These drugs can help with both the pain and the emotional strain it causes.

Pain also interferes with sleep and raises your stress levels. Both a lack of sleep and more stress can make pain feel stronger.

Get Help for Chronic Pain

If you hurt and it doesn’t seem to get better, see your primary care doctor or a pain specialist. They can help you find relief so pain won’t keep you from living your life. Some options include medicine, relaxation therapy, physical therapy, acupuncture, and lifestyle changes, such as getting enough sleep and not smoking.

Why Do I Have Pain? (for Kids)

Waking up with a sore throat that really hurts when you swallow. Jamming your finger at basketball practice. Playing a video game for so long that your wrist aches. These situations are different, but they have one thing in common: They all make you say “ouch!”

When your body is injured in some way or something else is wrong, your nerves (cells that help your body send and receive information) send millions of messages to your brain about what’s going on. Your brain then makes you feel pain. So if you put your hand on a hot stove, your nerves call your brain, and your brain quickly sends the message that your hand hurts. You get this message and pull your hand away from the hot stove, which saves your hand from further injury.

People don’t come with warning lights, like the lights on a car dashboard that let the driver know when the car is low on oil or gas. We need the sensation of pain to let us know when our bodies need extra care. It’s an important signal.

When we sense pain, we pay attention to our bodies and can take steps to fix what hurts. Pain also may prevent us from injuring a body part even more. If it didn’t hurt to walk on a broken leg, a person might keep using it and cause more damage. If your throat is really sore, you’ll probably go to the doctor, who can treat the infection if you have one.

Doctors and other health professionals use a person’s pain as a clue in figuring out what is wrong. The first question you will probably be asked is: “how much pain do you have?” or “how much does it hurt?” Often a nurse will show you some pictures of faces with smiles or tears so that you can choose the one that matches how you feel. This will help your doctor or nurse know how much you hurt.

Here are some other questions a doctor might ask about pain:

  • Where does it hurt?
  • Does it hurt all the time?
  • When did it start hurting?
  • Does the pain stay in one place or move around?
  • Does anything make the pain feel better?
  • What makes it worse?

They ask these questions because they want what you want: for the pain to go away! If pain doesn’t go away on its own, often a doctor can suggest medicine or other treatments that will make you feel better until it does.

Types of Pain | Acute, Chronic, Radicular & More | Beaumont

Medically speaking, pain is an uncomfortable sensation that usually signals an injury or illness. Generally speaking, pain is the body’s way of telling you something isn’t right. This is the purpose of pain. It is meant to make you uncomfortable so if you are injured or sick, you will know you need to do something (or stop doing something). 

When you do something that hurts your body, your brain normally triggers the pain response. If you touch something hot, the pain you feel is your body’s way of telling you that you should stop touching the hot item and should take action to cool the skin. If you walk on an injured ankle and it hurts, that’s also your body telling you to stop. 

The perception of pain varies from person to person. One person might have a broken bone and not even realize it, while another might feel significant pain from that same injury. That’s because pain is mediated by nerve fibers in your body, and these nerve fibers have the job of sending pain signals to the brain (which happens very quickly). Once they find their way to the brain, the brain acts to make you aware of the pain. Because every person’s body is different, their nerve fibers and their brain can react differently to the same stimuli. That helps explain why pain perception and pain tolerance can differ so much from one person to another. 

Types of pain

We hear this question all the time: “What are the different types of pain?” 

This is both a simple and a complicated answer. There are five common types of pain, but some pain can fit into more than one category, which is where the complication comes in.

The five most common types of pain are:

  • Acute pain
  • Chronic pain
  • Neuropathic pain
  • Nociceptive pain
  • Radicular pain

Acute pain

Acute pain means the pain is short in duration (relatively speaking), lasting from minutes to about three months (sometimes up to six months). Acute pain also tends to be related to a soft-tissue injury or a temporary illness, so it typically subsides after the injury heals or the illness subsides. Acute pain from an injury may evolve into chronic pain if the injury doesn’t heal correctly or if the pain signals malfunction.

Chronic pain

Chronic pain is longer in duration. It can be constant or intermittent. For example, headaches can be considered chronic pain when they continue over many months or years – even if the pain isn’t always present. Chronic pain is often due to a health condition, like arthritis, fibromyalgia, or a spine condition.

Neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain is due to damage to the nerves or other parts of the nervous system. It is often described as shooting, stabbing, or burning pain, or it feels like pins and needles. It can also affect sensitivity to touch and can make someone have difficulty feeling hot or cold sensations. Neuropathic pain is a common type of chronic pain. It may be intermittent (meaning it comes and goes), and it can be so severe that it makes performing everyday tasks difficult. Because the pain can interfere with normal movement, it can also lead to mobility issues.  

Nociceptive pain

Nociceptive pain is a type of pain caused by damage to body tissue. People often describe it as being a sharp, achy, or throbbing pain. It’s often caused by an external injury. For example, if you hit your elbow, stub your toe, twist your ankle, or fall and scrape up your knee, you may feel nociceptive pain. This type of pain is often experienced in the joints, muscles, skin, tendons, and bones. It can be both acute and chronic.

Radicular pain

Radicular pain is a very specific type of pain can occur when the spinal nerve gets compressed or inflamed. It radiates from the back and hip into the leg(s) by way of the spine and spinal nerve root. People who have radicular pain may experience tingling, numbness, and muscle weakness. Pain that radiates from the back and into the leg is called radiculopathy. It’s commonly known as sciatica because the pain is due to the sciatic nerve being affected. This type of pain is often steady, and people can feel it deep in the leg. Walking, sitting, and some other activities can make sciatica worse. It is one of the most common forms of radicular pain.

How do I know if my pain is normal or if I should see a doctor?

Most pain is a normal response to injury or illness and doesn’t require a trip to the doctor. But how will you know if your pain is a sign of something serious? If you fall asleep in an awkward position and you wake up with neck or back pain, that’s most likely normal. If you get a minor (first degree) burn, the associated pain is normal and probably doesn’t require doctor’s attention. If stub your toe or bump your knee, short-term pain is normal.

As a rule, if your pain only lasts for the amount of time you’d expect it to and you know the cause, it’s probably normal. But if your pain is severe, lasts longer than you think it should for the injury or illness, or you don’t know what’s causing it, you may want to call your doctor. 

Here are some examples of both normal pain and the type of pain that requires medical attention.

Some causes of normal pain

  • A skinned elbow or knee
  • A minor burn
  • A pulled or strained muscle
  • A tension headache
  • Post-surgical pain at the incision site
  • A broken bone
  • A minor ankle sprain
  • Muscle, tendon, skin, or bone injury
  • Labor and delivery

Sometimes normal pain still requires a visit to the doctor or even the emergency room. If you have a serious injury, regardless of your pain severity or tolerance, you should see a doctor. If you have other symptoms besides pain, such as significant bleeding, joint or bone malformation, swelling, or difficulty performing normal, everyday tasks, seek medical attention. When in doubt, call your doctor. It’s always better to err on the site of caution than to take the chance that your injury or illness will get worse.

Some causes of pain that may require medical attention

  • Arthritis
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Diabetes
  • A herniated disc in the neck or back
  • Cancer
  • Chronic migraine headaches
  • A compressed or pinched nerve
  • Sciatica
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke

Pain Management at Beaumont 

At the Beaumont Centers for Pain Management and other locations, Beaumont uses the latest technology and pain management procedures to help patients with all forms of pain. We provide treatment from a multi-disciplinary perspective, individually tailoring care to meet each patient’s pain management needs.   Using the latest technology, we can offer interventions to reduce pain severity, improve quality of life, and increase physical functioning. Pain treatment at Beaumont is available through many different specialists in multiple disciplines.

Make an appointment at Beaumont

If you’re experiencing any type of pain, we can help. Call the Beaumont Physician Referral service today us today at 800-633-7377 to make an appointment and for assistance determining what Beaumont physician or clinic is the best choice for your pain management situation. 

Pain and pain management – adults

Pain is a very common condition. The occurrence of pain rises as people get older, and women are more likely to experience pain than men. 

Types of pain

There are 2 main types of pain: 

  • Acute pain – a normal response to an injury or medical condition. It starts suddenly and is usually short-lived.
  • Chronic pain – continues beyond the time expected for healing. It generally lasts for longer than 3 months.

Pain may be anything from a dull ache to a sharp stab and can range from mild to extreme. You may feel pain in one part of your body or it may be widespread.

Pain management strategies

Studies suggest that a person’s emotional wellbeing can impact the experience of pain. Understanding the cause and learning effective ways to cope with your pain can improve your quality of life. Key pain management strategies include:

Causes of pain

The most common causes of pain in adults include:

How pain affects the body

Pain is a complex protective mechanism. It is an essential part of evolution that protects the body from danger and harm. 

The body has pain receptors that are attached to 2 main types of nerves that detect danger. One nerve type relays messages quickly, causing a sharp, sudden pain. The other relays messages slowly, causing a dull, throbbing pain. 

Some areas of the body have more pain receptors than others. For example, the skin has lots of receptors so it is easy to tell the exact location and type of pain. There are far fewer receptors in the gut, so it is harder to pinpoint the precise location of a stomach ache.

If pain receptors in the skin are activated by touching something dangerous (for example something hot or sharp), these nerves send alerts to the spinal cord and then to part of the brain called the thalamus. 

Sometimes the spinal cord sends an immediate signal back to the muscles to make them contract. This moves the affected body part away from the source of danger or harm.

This is a reflex reaction that prevents further damage occurring. It happens before you feel pain.

Once the ‘alert!’ message reaches the thalamus, it sorts the information the nerves have sent, taking into account your previous experience, beliefs, expectations, culture and social norms. This explains why people have very different responses to pain.

The thalamus then sends the information on to other parts of the brain that are linked to physical response, thought and emotion. This is when you may feel the sensation of pain, think ‘That hurt! What was it?’, and feel annoyed.

The thalamus also contributes to mood and arousal, which helps to explain why your interpretation of pain partly depends on your state of mind. 

Managing pain without medicines

Many non-medicine treatments are available to help you manage your pain. A combination of treatments and therapies is often more effective than just one.

Some non-medicine options include: 

  • Heat or cold – use ice packs immediately after an injury to reduce swelling. Heat packs are better for relieving chronic muscle or joint injuries.
  • Physical therapies – such as walking, stretching, strengthening or aerobic exercises may help reduce pain, keep you mobile and improve your mood. You may need to increase your exercise very slowly to avoid over-doing it.
  • Massage – this is another physical therapy; it is better suited to soft tissue injuries and should be avoided if the pain is in the joints. There is some evidence that suggests massage may help manage pain, but it is not recommended as a long-term therapy.
  • Relaxation and stress management techniques – including meditation and yoga.
  • Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) – this form of psychological therapy can help you learn to change how you think and, in turn, how you feel and behave about pain. This is a valuable strategy for learning to self-manage chronic pain.
  • Acupuncture – a component of traditional Chinese medicine. Acupuncture involves inserting thin needles into specific points on the skin. It aims to restore balance within the body and encourage it to heal by releasing natural pain-relieving compounds (endorphins). Some people find that acupuncture reduces the severity of their pain and enables them to maintain function. However, studies on the effectiveness of acupuncture in managing pain is inconclusive. 
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy – low voltage electrical currents pass through the skin via electrodes, prompting a pain-relieving response from the body. There is not enough published evidence to support the use of TENS for the treatment of some chronic pain conditions. However, some people with chronic pain that are unresponsive to other treatments may experience a benefit. 

Your doctor or other healthcare professional can guide you through the best treatments for you. 

Pain medicines

Many people will use a pain medicine (analgesic) at some time in their lives. 

The main types of pain medicines are: 

  • Paracetamol – often recommended as the first medicine to relieve short-term pain.
  • Aspirin – for short-term relief of fever and mild-to-moderate pain (such as period pain or headache). 
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen – these medicines relieve pain and reduce inflammation (redness and swelling).
  • Opioid medicines, such as codeine, morphine and oxycodone – these medicines are reserved for severe or cancer pain.
  • Local anaesthetics (drops, sprays, creams or injections) – used when nerves can be easily reached.  
  • Some antidepressants and anti-epilepsy medicines – used for a specific type of pain, called nerve pain.  

How pain medicines work

Pain medicines work in various ways. Aspirin and other NSAIDs are pain medicines that help to reduce inflammation and fever. They do this by stopping chemicals called prostaglandins. Prostaglandins cause inflammation, swelling and make nerve endings sensitive, which can lead to pain. 

Prostaglandins also help protect the stomach from stomach acid, which is why these medicines can cause irritation and bleeding in some people.

Opioid medicines work in a different way. They change pain messages in the brain, which is why these medicines can be addictive.

Choosing the right pain medicine

The right choice of medicine for you will depend on: 

  • the location, intensity, duration and type of pain
  • any activities that ease the pain or make it worse
  • the impact your pain has on your lifestyle, such as how it affects your appetite or quality of sleep
  • your other medical conditions 
  • other medicines you take.

Discuss these with your doctor or other health professional, so that you choose the safest and most effective pain relief option. 

Managing your medicines effectively

Always follow instructions for taking your medicines safely and effectively. By doing so:

  • your pain is more likely to be well managed
  • you are less likely to need larger doses of medicine
  • you can reduce your risk of side effects.

Medicines for chronic pain are best taken regularly. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if your medicines are not working or are causing problems, such as side effects. These are more likely to occur if you are taking pain medicines for a long time.

It is important to use a variety of strategies to help reduce pain. Do not rely on medicines alone. People can lower the levels of pain they feel by:

  • staying active
  • pacing their daily activity so as to avoid pain flares (this involves finding the balance between under- and over-doing it)
  • avoiding pain triggers
  • using coping strategies.

Side effects of pain medicines

Some of the side effects of common pain medicines include: 

  • Paracetamol – side effects are rare when taken at the recommended dose and for a short time. Paracetamol can cause skin rash and liver damage if used in large doses for a long time.
  • Aspirin – the most common side effects are nausea, vomiting, indigestion and stomach ulcer. Some people may experience more serious side effects such as an asthma attack, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), kidney damage and bleeding.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – can cause headache, nausea, stomach upset, heartburn, skin rash, tiredness, dizziness, ringing in the ears and raised blood pressure. They can also make heart failure or kidney failure worse, and increase the risk of heart attack, angina, stroke and bleeding. NSAIDs should always be used cautiously and for the shortest time possible. 
  • Opioid pain medicines such as morphine, oxycodone and codeine – commonly cause drowsiness, confusion, falls, nausea, vomiting and constipation. They can also reduce physical coordination and balance. Importantly, these medicines can lead to dependence and slow down breathing, resulting in accidental fatal overdose. 

You can find a more complete list of side effects in a Consumer Medicine Information leaflet. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking any pain medicine to ensure it is safe for you. 

Precautions when taking pain medicines

Treat over-the-counter pain medicines with caution, just like any other medicines. It’s always good to discuss any medicines with your doctor or pharmacist.

General suggestions include: 

  • Don’t self-medicate with pain medicines during pregnancy – some can reach the fetus through the placenta and potentially cause harm.
  • Take care if you are elderly or caring for an older person. Older people have an increased risk of side effects. For example, taking aspirin regularly for chronic pain (such as arthritis) can cause a dangerous bleeding stomach ulcer.
  • When buying over-the-counter pain medicines, speak with a pharmacist about any prescription and complementary medicines you are taking so they can help you choose a pain medicine that is safe for you. 
  • Don’t take more than one over-the-counter medicine at a time without consulting your doctor or pharmacist. It is easier than you think to unintentionally take an overdose. For example, many ‘cold and flu’ medicines contain paracetamol, so it is important not to take any other paracetamol-containing medicine at the same time.
  • See your doctor or healthcare professional for proper treatment for sport injuries.
  • Don’t use pain medicines to ‘tough it out’. 
  • Consult your doctor or pharmacist before using any over-the-counter medicine if you have a chronic (ongoing) physical condition, such as heart disease or diabetes.

Managing pain that cannot be easily relieved

Sometimes pain will persist and cannot be easily relieved. It’s natural to feel worried, sad or fearful when you are in pain. Here are some suggestions for how to handle persistent pain: 

  • Focus on improving your day-to-day function, rather than completely stopping the pain.
  • Accept that your pain may not go away and that flare-ups may occur. Talk yourself through these times.
  • Find out as much as you can about your condition so that you don’t fret or worry unnecessarily about the pain. 
  • Enlist the support of family and friends. Let them know what support you need; find ways to stay in touch. 
  • Take steps to prevent or ease depression by any means that work for you, including talking to friends or professionals.
  • Don’t increase your pain medicines without talking to your doctor or pharmacist first.
  • Increasing your dose may not help your pain and might cause you harm.
  • Improve your physical fitness, eat healthy foods and make sure you get all the rest you need.
  • Try not to allow the pain to stop you living your life the way you want to. Try gently reintroducing activities that you used to enjoy. You may need to cut back on some activities if pain flare-ups occur, but increase slowly again as you did before.
  • Concentrate on finding fun and rewarding activities that don’t make your pain worse.
  • Seek advice on new coping strategies and skills from a healthcare professional such as a psychologist. 

Where to get help

Chest Pain: A Heart Attack or Something Else? – Harvard Health Publishing

What makes you worry that chest pain is serious, like a heart attack

When is chest pain serious? That dull burning feeling in your chest doesn’t seem to be going away, and even feels like it is getting worse. Is it a heart attack, or something else?

It’s a vexing question, one that millions of people — and their doctors — face each year. What’s the problem? Chest pain can stem from dozens of conditions besides heart attack, from pancreatitis to pneumonia or panic attack.

Millions of Americans with chest pain are seen in hospital emergency departments every year. Only 20% of them are diagnosed with a heart attack or an episode of unstable angina, a warning sign that a heart attack may happen soon. A few have another potentially life-threatening problem, such as pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the lungs) or aortic dissection (a tear in the inner layer of the aorta). Some are experiencing “regular” angina, which occurs when part of the heart isn’t getting as much oxygen-rich blood as it needs during periods of physical exertion or emotional stress. Most of them, though, had a condition unrelated to the heart or arteries.

The other tricky problem with heart attacks is that different people experience them in different ways. Some have classic chest pain. Others have jaw pain or back pain. Still others become breathless, or extremely fatigued, or nauseated.

Chest pain and heart attack symptoms

Chest pain is only one of the possible signs of an impending heart attack. If you notice one or more of the signs below in yourself or someone else, call 911 or your local emergency number right away.

  • Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness, burning, tightness, or pain in the center of the chest

  • Pain, numbness, pinching, prickling, or other uncomfortable sensations in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or stomach

  • Shortness of breath

  • Sudden nausea or vomiting

  • Lightheadedness or dizziness

  • Unusual fatigue

  • Heat/flushing or a cold sweat

  • Sudden heaviness, weakness, or aching in one or both arms

Describe chest pain to your doctor

Doctors use several pieces of information to determine who is, and who isn’t, having a heart attack. In addition to the description of your symptoms and your heart risk profile, doctors use the results of an electrocardiogram (ECG) and a blood test called cardiac troponin. But sometimes these don’t immediately show abnormalities. So, what you describe to the doctor and your medical history are extremely important in determining the initial steps in your treatment.

Here are some things your doctors will want to know about what you are experiencing:

  • What is it that you are feeling (pain, pressure, tightness, etc.)?

  • Where is the discomfort?

  • When did it start?

  • Has it gotten worse or stayed the same?

  • Is the feeling constant, or does it come and go?

  • Have you felt it before?

  • What were you doing before these feelings started?

Clear answers to these questions go a long way toward nailing down a diagnosis. A few seconds of recurrent stabbing pain is less likely to be a heart attack (see box), while pain centered in the chest that spreads out to the left arm or jaw is more likely to be one.

Chest pain symptoms and what they mean

More likely to be a heart attack

Less likely to be a heart attack

Sensation of pain, or of pressure, tightness, squeezing, or burning

Sharp or knifelike pain brought on by breathing or coughing

Gradual onset of pain over the course of a few minutes

Sudden stabbing pain that lasts only a few seconds

Pain in diffuse area, including a constant pain in middle of chest

Pain clearly on one side of the body or the other

Pain that extends to the left arm, neck, jaw, or back (see figure below)

Pain that is localized to one small spot

Pain or pressure accompanied by other signs, such as difficulty breathing, a cold sweat, or sudden nausea

Pain that lasts for many hours or days without any other symptoms

Pain or pressure that appears during or after physical exertion or emotional stress (heart attack) or while you are at rest (unstable angina)

Pain reproduced by pressing on the chest or with body motion

When chest pains are serious

Unlike an achy knee or crabby lower back, chest pain isn’t something to shrug off until tomorrow. It also isn’t something to diagnose at home. Don’t play doctor — go see one, fast, if you are worried about pain or discomfort in your chest, upper back, left arm, or jaw; or suddenly faint or develop a cold sweat, nausea, or vomiting. Call 911 or your local emergency number to summon an emergency medical crew. It will whisk you to the hospital in a vehicle full of equipment that can start the diagnosis and keep you stable if your heart really is in trouble.

There are oh-so-many reasons to delay calling for help.

  • I’m too young (you aren’t — even 20-somethings can have heart attacks).
  • I’m in great shape (a heart attack is sometimes the first sign of heart disease).
  • I have a family to take care of (all the more reason to get to the hospital fast).
  • I don’t want to bother anyone (you’d be a bigger bother with advanced heart failure, or dead).

Heart attack pain

Pain from a heart attack isn’t confined to the area around the heart. The most typical locations are marked in dark red; light red shows other possible areas.

What if it isn’t a heart attack? You will be evaluated as if you are having one and, when it is ruled out as the cause of your symptoms, your doctors will look for the actual cause. They won’t be mad at you for crying wolf. Instead, they should congratulate you for taking action (if they don’t, we will) and work with you to get at the root of your chest pain and ease it. If the cause was indigestion, a panic attack, or another possibly recurring condition, the emergency department doctors and your primary care physician can help you interpret what your body is telling you.

Chest pain is serious business. If you think yours might be due to a heart attack, take action right away. The sooner you are checked out, the sooner you can get the kind of artery-opening therapy that can protect your heart from permanent damage.

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should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

Fibromyalgia | Arthritis | CDC

What is fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia (fi·bro·my·al·gi·a) is a condition that causes pain all over the body (also referred to as widespread pain), sleep problems, fatigue, and often emotional and mental distress. People with fibromyalgia may be more sensitive to pain than people without fibromyalgia. This is called abnormal pain perception processing. Fibromyalgia affects about 4 million US adults, about 2% of the adult population. The cause of fibromyalgia is not known, but it can be effectively treated and managed.


What are the signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia?

The most common symptoms of fibromyalgia are

  • Pain and stiffness all over the body
  • Fatigue and tiredness
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Sleep problems
  • Problems with thinking, memory, and concentration
  • Headaches, including migraines

Other symptoms may include:

  • Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
  • Pain in the face or jaw, including disorders of the jaw known as temporomandibular joint syndrome (also known as TMJ)
  • Digestive problems, such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and even irritable bowel syndrome (also known as IBS)

What are the risk factors for fibromyalgia?

Known risk factors include:

  • Age. Fibromyalgia can affect people of all ages, including children. However, most people are diagnosed during middle age and you are more likely to have fibromyalgia as you get older.
  • Lupus or Rheumatoid Arthritis. If you have lupus or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), you are more likely to develop fibromyalgia.

Some other factors have been weakly associated with the onset of fibromyalgia, but more research is needed to see if they are real. These possible risk factors include:

  • Sex. Women are twice as likely to have fibromyalgia as men.  
  • Stressful or traumatic events, such as car accidents, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • Repetitive injuries. Injury from repetitive stress on a joint, such as frequent knee bending.
  • Illness (such as viral infections)
  • Family history
  • Obesity

How is fibromyalgia diagnosed?

Doctors usually diagnose fibromyalgia using the patient’s history, physical examination, X-rays, and blood work.

How is fibromyalgia treated?

Fibromyalgia can be effectively treated and managed with medication and self-management strategies. You can learn about self-management strategies in the section below titled How can I improve my quality of life?

Fibromyalgia should be treated by a doctor or team of healthcare professionals who specialize in the treatment of fibromyalgia and other types of arthritis, called rheumatologists. Doctors usually treat fibromyalgia with a combination of treatments, which may include:

  • Medications, including prescription drugs and over-the-counter pain relievers
  • Aerobic exercise and muscle strengthening exercise
  • Patient education classes, usually in primary care or community settings
  • Stress management techniques such as meditation, yoga, and massage
  • Good sleep habits to improve the quality of sleep
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to treat underlying depression. CBT is a type of talk therapy meant to change the way people act or think

In addition to medical treatment, people can manage their fibromyalgia with the self-management strategies described below, which are proven to reduce pain and disability, so they can pursue the activities important to them.

What are the complications of fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia can cause pain, disability, and a lower quality of life. US adults with fibromyalgia may have complications such as:

  • More hospitalizations. If you have fibromyalgia you are twice as likely to be hospitalized as someone without fibromyalgia.
  • Lower quality of life. Women with fibromyalgia may experience a lower quality of life.
  • Higher rates of major depression. Adults with fibromyalgia are more than 3 times more likely to have major depression than adults without fibromyalgia. Screening and treatment for depression are extremely important.
  • Higher death rates from suicide and injuries. Death rates from suicide and injuries are higher among fibromyalgia patients, but overall mortality among adults with fibromyalgia is similar to the general population.
  • Higher rates of other rheumatic conditions. Fibromyalgia often co-occurs with other types of arthritis such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis.

How can I improve my quality of life?

  • Get physically active. Experts recommend that adults be moderately physically active for 150 minutes per week. Walk, swim, or bike 30 minutes a day for five days a week. These 30 minutes can be broken into three separate ten-minute sessions during the day. Regular physical activity can also reduce the risk of developing other chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. Learn more about physical activity for arthritis. You can exercise on your own or participate in a CDC-recommended physical activity program.
  • Go to recommended physical activity programs. Those concerned about how to safely exercise can participate in physical activity programs that are proven effective for reducing pain and disability related to arthritis and improving mood and the ability to move. Classes take place at local Ys, parks, and community centers. These classes can help you feel better. Learn more about CDC-recommended physical activity programs.
  • Join a self-management education class, which helps people with arthritis or other conditions—including fibromyalgia—be more confident in how to control their symptoms, how to live well and understand how the condition affects their lives. Learn more about the CDC-recommended self-management education programs.

Learn more about fibromyalgia

Folk remedies for toothache

What to do if a toothache hurts, but there is no way to get to the dentist? To temporarily relieve pain, folk remedies will come to the rescue. But it should be remembered that the pain will go away, and the problem in the form of a sick tooth will remain, and each subsequent exacerbation will bring more and more suffering, complicate and increase the cost of the inevitable treatment.

It is easy to relieve a toothache with folk remedies using:

1) Rub a sore tooth with aloe juice or its pulp, you can squeeze the juice onto a brush and brush the disturbing tooth or gum with it

2) In the ear, from the side where the tooth hurts, put the plantain root

3) Rinsing your mouth with lukewarm sage broth is an excellent remedy for toothache.

4) Wrap the chopped garlic in cheesecloth, wrap it with a bandage on the wrist opposite to the side on which the tooth hurts.

5) Suck a tablespoon of unrefined vegetable oil for 15-20 minutes

6) Putting a piece of propolis on a sore tooth is another effective home remedy for toothache.

7) Massage the point where the bones of the thumb and forefinger converge on the opposite hand from the diseased tooth, with intense circular movements

8) Intensive pressure on the point under the nose in the “hollow” of the upper lip

9) Massage of the auricle on the side of the causative tooth

10) Put a cotton swab moistened with clove oil

into the carious cavity

11) Peel the onion, pour boiling water over the husk, let it brew and rinse your mouth with this slightly warm solution.

All of the above folk remedies for the treatment of toothache will relieve pain for a short time, and in no way replace a visit to the dentist for a professional and final solution to your dental problem.

Doctors of the MedGarant dental clinic strongly recommend that you do not experiment on your body (if you use a folk remedy for tooth pain), and when the first symptoms appear that require the attention of the dentist, sign up for a free consultation.

Reception of patients with acute toothache in the MedGarant clinics is carried out without queues and prior appointments.

Occupational hygiene – easy prevention

We explain why it is better not to get sick, and not to be treated

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90,000 treatment and diagnosis of pain in Moscow

General Description

The hip joint, one of the largest joints in the human body, connects the head of the femur to the acetabulum of the pelvic bone.Together with muscles and ligaments, it helps to carry out complex movements in the lower limb and provides upright posture.

In a healthy person, the head of the femur has a spherical shape, and all surfaces that make up the joint are covered with smooth cartilage. Intra-articular (synovial) fluid fills the joint cavity, reducing friction between the articular surfaces, supplying the cartilage tissue with nutrients and additionally absorbing the load.

Main causes of pain in the hip joint

  • Osteoarthritis (coxarthrosis)
  • Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head
  • Osteoarthritis, rheumatic osteoarthritis, infectious osteoarthritis
  • Injury, including fracture of the femoral neck
  • Damage to the ligamentous apparatus and surrounding tissues
  • Pain after joint replacement surgery
  • Pathology of the lumbar spine


  • X-ray of the hip joint is one of the key methods for diagnosing diseases of the hip joint, it allows assessing the condition of the bones that make up the joint and the width of the joint space, a decrease in which indicates damage to the cartilage.In some cases, more complex examination methods may be required.
  • CT / MRI of the hip and femur
  • X-ray, CT / MRI of the spine
  • laboratory diagnostics

Treatment of pain in the hip joint at FNKTs FMBA

The main task of the treatment of pain in the hip joint is the diagnosis and elimination of the cause causing the pain. However, pain relief therapy begins immediately.

The approach to the treatment of pain in the hip joint is complex and includes the work of a multidisciplinary team of doctors: an orthopedist-traumatologist, a rehabilitation therapist, a specialist in pain treatment, a physiotherapist.

Key treatments:
  • conservative therapy;
  • physiotherapy exercises;
  • physiotherapy;
  • manual therapy;
  • treatment and diagnostic blockades;
  • radio frequency denervation (RFD) of the hip joint;
  • Prosthetics of the hip joint.

Conservative therapy

For each patient, an individual scheme of analgesic therapy is selected, based on the causes of the disease, the characteristics of the pain syndrome, possible contraindications and drug interactions. Throughout the treatment, the conservative therapy regimen is adjusted depending on the clinical situation.

Invasive methods

Healing blockade

Therapeutic blockade is performed by injecting an anesthetic into the area of ​​a peripheral nerve or spasmodic muscle.The blockade not only relieves pain, but also helps to relax muscles, normalize blood flow and improve tissue trophism.

Radiofrequency denervation (RFD) of the hip joint

Radiofrequency denervation (RFD) of the hip joint is a modern and safe non-surgical method suitable for patients for whom other methods of treatment are ineffective or impossible.

When this technique is used

  • When conservative drug therapy is ineffective – when pain relievers, even the most powerful ones, do not help enough or cannot be prescribed due to side effects;
  • With a long wait for joint replacement surgery – often the patient finds himself in a situation where the operation has to wait for more than a few months.In this case, denervation (RFD) can reduce the intensity of pain and make waiting for the operation more comfortable;
  • If it is impossible to perform joint replacement surgery – when the presence of severe concomitant diseases or other reasons do not allow joint replacement surgery, denervation (RFD) of the hip joint is the most effective and safest alternative;
  • After joint replacement surgery, if pain remains, sometimes even a successful joint replacement surgery does not lead to complete disappearance of pain.In this case, denervation (RFD) of the hip joint can significantly alleviate the patient’s condition and prevent the formation of chronic pain syndrome;

How is denervation (RFD) of the hip joint performed

After a standard examination by a specialist algologist, additional examination and diagnostics, if necessary, a decision is made to carry out denervation (RFD) of the hip joint.

  • The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis.Under sterile conditions, the doctor, under the control of ultrasound, inserts special needles into the places where the small sensitive nerves of the hip joint pass. After the doctor makes sure that the tip of the needle is exactly in the right place, a local anesthetic is injected so that the denervation is painless. After that, a thin electrode is inserted through the channel of the needle, which is connected to a radio frequency generator and the tip of the needle is heated to a predetermined temperature. The patient, as a rule, does not experience any discomfort, the most painful moment of the procedure is the usual injection.
  • In some cases, a diagnostic and treatment block is first performed in order to determine how effective the technique will be for a given case. Under sterile conditions, under the control of an X-ray system, the needles are precisely placed on the nerves that innervate the joint. To reduce discomfort, all manipulations are performed using local anesthesia. After installing the needles, a small amount of anesthetic is injected, interrupting the pain impulse from the affected joint.

90,000 Stomach pain

As you know, pain in the abdominal cavity can cause diseases of the organs that are located in it. Unlike, for example, a heart attack, in this case, pain does not require urgent measures, although here the correct diagnosis is no less important. If your life after the first heart attack will never be the same, then if the surgeon removes your gallbladder or inflamed appendix, thereby he will destroy the disease itself. And men who experience abdominal pain, as a rule, are very much afraid of appendicitis, ulcers.Though they are better off worrying about gallstones or diverticula, as ulcers and appendicitis are not so common these days.

Also, unlike chest pain, acute abdominal pain almost never requires an immediate response, even with a perforated ulcer, a short delay for a couple of hours is not at all fatal. However, if they are late for a couple of days, usually patients either die, or the doctors are sued. But fortunately, abdominal pains in many cases are symptoms of very minor disorders.And in order to better understand them, you can use the following tips.

First of all, you need to determine exactly where you are hurting. So the navel serves as the border between the lower and upper parts of your digestive tract (although the large intestine goes higher, but there, serious pain is usually located just below). And the small intestine, coiled in loops, is located in the center of your belly, behind your navel. He usually rarely suffers from serious illness.The most common sources of abdominal pain can be:

  • The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine, about 25 cm long. Food enters it directly from the stomach and here ulcers usually occur more often than in the stomach, however, pain in the duodenum is indistinguishable from stomach pain.
  • Stomach – located above the horizontal line, which under the arch of the ribs of the chest passes through the navel (the so-called epigastric region).Back in school, they explained to us that the stomach digests and mixes food, and its main function is to store and accumulate it. However, a person deprived of a stomach can also normally digest food, only if consumed in large quantities, then unpleasant sensations may appear.
  • The liver is the largest organ located in the abdominal cavity. The liver is located in its upper right part. It should be noted that it is quite rare that liver disease is a source of acute abdominal pain.
  • The gallbladder is a small sac located in the lower right side of the ribcage. So oily bile continuously enters the gallbladder from the liver, where it accumulates and concentrates. And after eating, the gallbladder feeds it into the duodenum in order to improve the absorption of food fats. In the gallbladder, pain can occur for completely different reasons. The most common cause is stones, formed from hardening bile. This is due to the appearance of cholesterol in bile, which precipitates first at high concentrations, as well as when bile is dehydrated.However, the stones are completely harmless as long as they lie motionless in the gallbladder. And problems can begin when they move, blockage of the bile duct that leads to the small intestine. And the pain that can occur when the stone is pushed through the duct can last up to several hours.
  • Large intestine. Most often, pain in it occurs somewhere in the left lower abdomen (cramps, diverticulitis, diarrhea, constipation), and sometimes even in the right lower abdomen (appendicitis). However, the most serious diseases in the colon can rarely cause pain above the navel.But we must not forget about the pain in the upper left abdomen, which occurs with the syndrome of congestion in the splenic flexure of gases. Also, the large intestine on the right under the liver has a different 90 ° turn, but with a much smoother radius, and therefore pain from gas is not often noted here.
  • Pancreas – located in the abdominal cavity rather deep behind the duodenum, stomach. It produces a certain secret, which contains many enzymes, which then enters the small intestine through a separate duct.With inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), pain usually occurs in the epigastric region, which can be felt on the left.

After you determine the nature of your pain (aching pain, burning, pain from gas), try very hard to somehow abstract from it. In some textbooks, ulcer pain is described as a burning sensation, and pain from blockage of the duct by a stone as colic, which increase to a maximum and immediately subside. And the pain from gas is usually compared there with a kind of movement of a large ball along the insides.All these descriptions sometimes may not correspond to your sensations, since the nerves that transmit pain signals from the internal organs, unlike the nerve endings of the skin, are too primitive. Sometimes your life depends on many subtle sensations, but signals inside your body can only serve as a rough warning. A burn of the stomach with acid can cause both aching, dull, gnawing, sharp pain, and not cause any pain at all.

When exactly do you feel pain?

The pain that woke you up in the middle of the night deserves special attention.Usually, pains at night in the stomach area can signal an ulcer, since after midnight the stomach is usually empty, and the secretion of acid increases after about 2 hours. Such pains sometimes appear with almost any dysfunction of the stomach, as well as with various indigestion and dyspepsia.

You can think about the relationship of pain to your food. Often, ulcers feel “hungry pains” because the food neutralizes the acid, but they usually disappear immediately after eating, but not always. And pain from gas usually occurs after eating in 1-2 hours, but not because of the fact that their food secretes, when it enters the stomach, but precisely because during the digestion of food, the intestines are intensively contracted, thereby compressing the gases already present there …

Symptoms associated with pain

Fever can sometimes accompany infections. Also, with catarrh of the stomach, diverticula, appendicitis, the temperature may rise. However, with stones in the gallbladder, gases, ulcers, this is not observed. And the absence, presence, even a slight rise in temperature cannot accurately indicate the severity of the violation.

Vomiting can begin when the outlet from the stomach is blocked, and even with a chronic ulcer. And blocking the exit from the stomach sometimes requires surgical intervention.Often, vomiting is accompanied by severe pain with stones in the gallbladder, exacerbation of ulcers, but generally vomiting is not a specific signal of some kind of malfunction in your digestive tract. The same applies to diarrhea.

Degree of risk

A small hernia (diverticulum) often occurs on the large intestine in middle-aged and older people, since after prolonged consumption of food, which is poor in coarse fibers, its walls weaken, the weakest parts of the colon sag, thereby bulging outward with sacs-diverticula.Usually, dozens of diverticula can be found in older people, which absolutely do not bother them, but until they start bleeding a little or rupture the wall of the colon. A breakthrough (perforation), as a rule, provokes a very painful infection (diverticulitis), which is usually treated with antibiotics, a liquid diet, but sometimes this violation may require surgical intervention.

If you constantly ate large amounts of coarse fiber food and did not suffer from constipation, it means that your colon experienced little stress, and your risk of diverticulitis is quite small.

It should be noted that appendicitis at any age is dangerous, but usually this disease is typical for people of adolescence or early adulthood. And pain in the lower right side of the abdomen, which is accompanied by nausea, a slight fever, a general painful condition, can usually indicate appendicitis.

Also, severe pain in the same area, while the general state of health is normal, usually associated with irritation of the intestines, gas.

In women, stones in the gallbladder are noted twice as often as in men.

How severe is your pain?

Most often, moderate pain may indicate a not very serious illness. And excruciating pain, too, may not necessarily be a symptom of an illness that threatens your life, since it can accompany even simple gastroenteritis (stomach catarrh), but you should still pay attention to it.

Do not self-medicate.

Seek medical attention promptly.

inflammation of the pancreas .: causes, complaints, diagnosis and treatment methods on the website of the clinic “Alpha-Health Center”

Inflammation of the pancreas, characterized by severe girdle pain, nausea, and vomiting that does not provide relief. Obstructive jaundice is possible.

The pancreas has two main functions – endocrine (in particular, insulin is formed in it) and exocrine (a number of enzymes necessary for digestion are formed in it).The most common cause of insufficiency of exocrine pancreatic function in adults is alcoholism, and in children – cystic fibrosis (a severe hereditary disease, also accompanied by severe lung infections). Cystic fibrosis should be suspected in all patients under 40 years of age with unexplained exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.


Chronic pancreatitis is manifested by constant or paroxysmal abdominal pain, often in combination with diabetes mellitus (which is manifested by an increased level of glucose in blood tests).

In chronic pancreatitis, exacerbations can be replaced by periods of improvement, or the disease is accompanied by constant pain and impaired absorption of food from the intestines.

With mild to moderate damage to the pancreas, constant pain is the reason for seeking medical attention. Often, at this stage of the disease, deviations of laboratory parameters are detected only with special studies (for example, with a test with secretin). With extensive damage to the pancreas, diarrhea, steatorrhea (excretion of excess fat with feces) and weight loss appear.

In typical cases, the pain is localized in the middle of the abdomen (“under the pit”) and radiates to the back, but it may be more pronounced in the right or left hypochondrium, in the back, or have a diffuse character. Sometimes the pain is localized behind the sternum or in the side. It is usually strong, prolonged, deep, and does not go away after eating and taking antacids. Often it is aggravated by alcohol consumption or after a heavy meal, especially fatty ones. Often the pain is so severe that narcotic analgesics have to be used.Nausea, vomiting, and flatulence (profuse gas) are less common; they are usually caused by a reaction to pain or the use of drugs (especially narcotic analgesics) that suppress the activity of the stomach and intestines.


With prolonged abdominal pain, all patients need ultrasound (ultrasound) or computed tomography (CT) to rule out a false pancreatic cyst. Often, in chronic pancreatitis, changes in the ducts are detected; The relationship between the intensity of pain and the presence of narrowing of the ducts and their extensions has not been revealed, however, sometimes after the installation of a stent (a metal structure that prevents the duct from collapsing), the pain decreases.

A reliable method for diagnosing digestive disorders is the determination of drops of neutral fat and crystals of fatty acids in feces, as well as undigested muscle fibers. A large number of muscle fibers (more than five) in a stool smear indicates a violation of protein digestion.

X-ray of the abdomen can reveal calcifications of the pancreas, confirming chronic pancreatitis. Ultrasound can detect calcifications (even those that are not yet visible on radiographs), an increase in the size of the pancreas and the unevenness of its contours.CT of the abdomen is also used to diagnose chronic pancreatitis; in chronic pancreatitis, in addition to calcifications in the pancreas, an expansion of the pancreatic duct and bile ducts, an uneven increase in the gland, accumulation of fluid, changes in the surrounding tissues are found. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in chronic pancreatitis reveals the expansion of the ducts, as well as areas of their stenosis.


Avoiding alcohol reduces pain in about 50% of patients.Enzyme preparations, such as pancreatin, are also used. Enzyme preparations are best for women with non-alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. In men, the effectiveness of such treatment is 20-25%, in men who abuse alcohol – 12-15%, and in severe pancreatitis in patients of both sexes – 25%. In all cases, with persistent pain, it is necessary to exclude a pseudocyst, since drainage of the cyst often leads to improvement. All patients with chronic pancreatitis with persistent pain have a rather high risk of drug dependence, therefore, only non-narcotic analgesics should be used.It is necessary to warn patients who abuse alcohol against drinking even small doses of alcohol while taking paracetamol at a dose of 3 g per day or more.

90,000 Diseases of the stomach and duodenum

The most common chronic diseases of the stomach and duodenum are gastritis, duodenitis and peptic ulcer . In chronic gastritis, inflammation of the gastric mucosa is noted, with duodenitis, the duodenal mucosa.Peptic ulcer disease is manifested by the formation of a defect (ulcer) in the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum.
The most common symptom of these diseases is pain in the epigastric region. Attention is drawn to the relationship of pain syndrome with food intake. Moreover, depending on the localization of the pathological process, pain can be early, late, hungry. With an ulcer of the antrum of the stomach and duodenal bulb, pain may occur at night, forcing the patient to wake up and eat.The nature of the pain can be different – dull aching, cutting, stabbing, cramping, of varying intensity. Less commonly, patients complain of belching, heaviness in the stomach, stomach overflow after eating, nausea, vomiting, bringing relief, loss of appetite, body weight. Such manifestations can be alarming signs of pyloric stenosis (complications of peptic ulcer disease), as well as stomach cancer.

The reasons for the development of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer are similar.The bacterium Helicobacter pylori plays an important role. In 1994, WHO experts classified H. pylori as a carcinogen of the first risk group. When it enters the stomach, it can persist in it for a long time, multiply and damage the gastric mucosa, causing chronic inflammation, the appearance of erosions and ulcers, contributing to oncological pathology in a certain contingent of patients with a hereditary predisposition, high acidity of gastric juice, disorders of local immunity, blood supply mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum, impaired gastric motility.

Treatment of diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum can be carried out by conservative (therapeutic) and surgical methods. The tactics of treatment and its duration should be determined by the attending physician.

Late treatment of diseases of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, especially erosive gastritis, duodenitis, as well as peptic ulcer disease, and especially self-medication, can lead to the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy, the development of formidable complications of the disease, which often requires urgent surgical treatment.