About all

Why water is important for the body: Functions of Water: 7 Health Benefits


Functions of Water: 7 Health Benefits

1. Water Protects Your Tissues, Spinal Cord, and Joints

Water does more than just quench your thirst and regulate your body’s temperature; it keeps the tissues in your body moist, according to the Mayo Clinic Health System. You know how it feels when your eyes, nose, or mouth gets dry? Keeping your body hydrated helps it retain optimum levels of moisture in these sensitive areas, as well as in the blood, bones, and brain. In addition, water helps protect the spinal cord, and it acts as a lubricant and cushion for your joints.

2. Water Helps Your Body Remove Waste

Adequate water intake enables your body to excrete waste through perspiration, urination, and defecation. Water helps your kidneys remove waste from your blood and keep the blood vessels that run to your kidneys open and filter them out, according to the National Kidney Foundation. Water is also important for helping prevent constipation, points out the University of Rochester Medical Center. However, as research notes, there is no evidence to prove that increasing your fluid intake will cure constipation.

RELATED: Are You Drinking Enough Water? These Are the Health Risks of Dehydration

3. Water Aids in Digestion

Water is important for healthy digestion. As the Mayo Clinic explains, water helps break down the food you eat, allowing its nutrients to be absorbed by your body. After you drink, both your small and large intestines absorb water, which moves into your bloodstream and is also used to break down nutrients. As your large intestine absorbs water, stool changes from liquid to solid, according to the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Water is also necessary to help you digest soluble fiber, per MedlinePlus. With the help of water, this fiber turns to gel and slows digestion.

4. Water Prevents You From Becoming Dehydrated

Your body loses fluids when you engage in vigorous exercise, sweat in high heat, or come down with a fever or contract an illness that causes vomiting or diarrhea, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. If you’re losing fluids for any of these reasons, it’s important to increase your fluid intake so that you can restore your body’s natural hydration level. Your doctor may also recommend that you drink more fluids to help treat other health conditions, like bladder infections and urinary tract stones. If you’re pregnant or nursing, you may want to consult with your physician about your fluid intake because your body will be using more fluids than usual, especially if you’re breastfeeding.

RELATED: Water Fasting 101: What You Need to Know

5. Water Helps Your Brain Function Optimally

Ever feel foggy headed? Take a sip of water. Research shows that dehydration is a drag to memory, attention, and energy, per a small study on adult men from China published in June 2019 in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. It’s no wonder, considering h3O makes up 75 percent of the brain, the authors point out. One reason for that foggy-headed feeling? “Adequate electrolyte balance is vital to keeping your body functioning optimally. Low electrolytes can cause issues including muscle weakness, fatigue, and confusion,” says Gabrielle Lyon, DO, a functional medicine physician in New York City.

6. Water Keeps Your Cardiovascular System Healthy

Water is a huge part of your blood. (For instance, plasma — the pale yellow liquid portion of your blood — is about 90 percent water, notes Britannica.) If you become dehydrated, your blood becomes more concentrated, which can lead to an imbalance of the electrolyte minerals it contains (sodium and potassium, for example), says Susan Blum, MD, founder of the Blum Center for Health in Rye Brook, New York. These electrolytes are necessary for proper muscle and heart function. “Dehydration can also lead to lower blood volume, and thus blood pressure, so you may feel light-headed or woozy standing up,” she says.

RELATED: Is It Dehydration or Something Else?

7. Water Can Help You Eat Healthier

It may be plain, but it’s powerful. In a study of more than 18,300 American adults, people who drank just 1 percent more water a day ate fewer calories and less saturated fat, sugar, sodium, and cholesterol, according to a study published in February 2016 in the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Water may help fill you up, especially if you drink it before eating a meal, a notion that was backed up in a small study of 15 young, healthy participants that was published in October 2018 in Clinical Nutrition Research.

How Much Water Do You Need?

As the Mayo Clinic notes, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recommends that men consume 3.7 liters (15.5 cups) and women get 2.7 liters (11.5 cups) of fluids per day, which can come from water, beverages in general, and food (such as fruits and vegetables). You can also try the Urine Color Test, courtesy of the U. S. Army Public Health Command, to evaluate how you’re doing on drinking up. After going to the bathroom, look at the color of your urine. If it is very pale yellow to light yellow, you’re well hydrated. Darker yellow is a sign of dehydration. Brown or cola-colored urine is a medical emergency, and you should seek medical attention.

Additional reporting by Jen Laskey.

Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go (for Kids)

What do you, the trees, and a hamster have in common? Give up? You all need water. All living things must have water to survive, whether they get it from a water fountain, a rain cloud, or a little bottle attached to the side of a hamster cage.

Without water, your body would stop working properly. Water makes up more than half of your body weight, and a person can’t survive for more than a few days without it. Why? Your body has lots of important jobs and it needs water to do many of them. For instance, your blood, which contains a lot of water, carries oxygen to all the cells of your body. Without oxygen, those tiny cells would die and your body would stop working.

Water is also in lymph (say: limf), a fluid that is part of your immune system, which helps you fight off illness. Water helps keep your temperature normal. You need water to digest your food and get rid of waste. Water is needed for digestive juices, urine (pee), and poop. And you can bet that water is the main ingredient in perspiration, also called sweat.

Besides being an important part of the fluids in your body, water is needed by each cell to work.

Your body doesn’t get water only from drinking water. Any fluid you drink will contain water, but water and milk are the best choices. Lots of foods contain water too. Fruit contains quite a bit of water, which you could probably tell if you’ve ever bitten into a peach or plum and felt the juices dripping down your chin. Vegetables also contain a lot of water — think of slicing into a fat tomato or crunching into a crisp stalk of celery.

How Much Is Enough?

Because water is so important, you might wonder if you’re drinking enough. There is no magic amount of water that kids need to drink every day. The amount kids need depends on their age, body size, health, and activity level, plus the weather (temperature and humidity levels).

Usually, kids drink something with meals and should definitely drink when they’re thirsty. But if you’re sick, or it’s warm out or you’re exercising, you’ll need more. Be sure to drink some extra water when you’re out in warm weather, especially while playing sports or exercising.

When you drink is also important. If you’re going to sports practice, a game, or just working out or playing hard, drink water before, during, and after playing. Don’t forget your water bottle. You can’t play your best when you’re thinking about how thirsty you are!

When your body doesn’t have enough water, that’s called being dehydrated. Dehydration also can keep you from being as fast and as sharp as you’d like to be. A bad case of dehydration can make you sick. So keep that water bottle handy when the weather warms up! Not only does water fight dehydration, but it’s refreshing and has no calories.

Your body regulates the amount of water in your system. The body holds on to water when you don’t have enough or gets rid of it if you have too much. If your pee is very light yellow, you are well hydrated. When your pee is very dark yellow, it’s probably time to drink up.

You can help your body by drinking when you’re thirsty and drinking extra water when you exercise and when it’s warm out. Your body will be able to do all of its wonderful, waterful jobs and you’ll feel great!

Hydration: Why It’s So Important

Your body depends on water to survive. Every cell, tissue, and organ in your body needs water to work properly. For example, your body uses water to maintain its temperature, remove waste, and lubricate your joints. Water is needed for overall good health.

Path to improved health

Look to water first

You should drink water every day. Most people have been told they should drink 6 to 8, 8-ounce glasses of water each day. That’s a reasonable goal. However, different people need different amounts of water to stay hydrated. Most healthy people can stay well hydrated by drinking water and other fluids whenever they feel thirsty. For some people, fewer than 8 glasses may be enough. Other people may need more than 8 glasses each day.

Other options

While plain water is best for staying hydrated, other drinks and foods can help, too. Fruit and vegetable juices, milk, and herbal teas add to the amount of water you get each day. Even caffeinated drinks (for example, coffee, tea, and soda) can contribute to your daily water intake. A moderate amount of caffeine (400 milligrams) isn’t harmful for most people. Here are the caffeine amounts found in popular drinks:

  • 12 ounces of soda: 30 to 40 milligrams
  • 8 ounces of green or black tea: 30 to 50 milligrams
  • 8 ounces black coffee: 80 to 100 milligrams
  • 8-ounce energy drink: 40 to 250 milligrams

However, it’s best to limit caffeinated drinks. Caffeine may cause some people to urinate more frequently or feel anxious or jittery. Plus, be mindful of what you drink. Some choices may add extra calories from sugar to your diet.

Water can also be found in fruits and vegetables (for example, watermelon, tomatoes, and lettuce), and in soup broths.

Sports drinks can be helpful if you’re planning on exercising at higher than normal levels for more than an hour. They contain carbohydrates and electrolytes that can increase your energy. They help your body absorb water. However, some sports drinks are high in calories from added sugar. They also may contain high levels of sodium (salt). Check the serving size on the label. One bottle usually contains more than one serving. Some sports drinks contain caffeine, too. Remember that a safe amount of caffeine to consume each day is no more than 400 milligrams.

Energy drinks are not the same as sports drinks. Energy drinks usually contain large amounts of caffeine. Also, they contain ingredients that overstimulate you (guarana, ginseng, or taurine). These are things your body doesn’t need. Most of these drinks are also high in added sugar. According to doctors, children and teens should not have energy drinks.

If staying hydrated is difficult for you, here are some tips that can help:

  • Keep a bottle of water with you during the day. To reduce your costs, carry a reusable water bottle and fill it with tap water.
  • If you don’t like the taste of plain water, try adding a slice of lemon or lime to your drink.
  • Drink water before, during, and after a workout.
  • When you’re feeling hungry, drink water. Thirst is often confused with hunger. True hunger will not be satisfied by drinking water. Drinking water may also contribute to a healthy weight-loss plan. Some research suggests that drinking water can help you feel full.
  • If you have trouble remembering to drink water, drink on a schedule. For example, drink water when you wake up, at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and when you go to bed. Or, drink a small glass of water at the beginning of each hour.
  • Drink water when you go to a restaurant. It will keep you hydrated, and it’s free.

Things to consider

If you don’t drink enough water, you may become dehydrated. This means your body doesn’t have enough fluid to operate properly.

Your urine can be an indicator if you’re dehydrated. If it’s colorless or light yellow, you’re well hydrated. If your urine is a dark yellow or amber color, you may be dehydrated.

There are other signs that can signal you may be dehydrated. They include:

  • Little or no urine.
  • Urine that is darker than usual.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Sleepiness or fatigue.
  • Extreme thirst.
  • Headache.
  • Confusion.
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness.
  • No tears when crying.

Some people are at higher risk of dehydration, including people who exercise at a high intensity (or in hot weather) for too long, have certain medical conditions (kidney stones, bladder infection), are sick (fever, vomiting, diarrhea), are pregnant or breastfeeding, are trying to lose weight, or aren’t able to get enough fluids during the day. Older adults are also at higher risk. As you get older, your brain may not be able to sense dehydration. It doesn’t send signals for thirst.

Note that water makes up more than half of your body weight. You lose water each day when you go to the bathroom, sweat, and even when you breathe. You lose water even faster when the weather is really hot, when you’re physically active, or if you have a fever. Vomiting and diarrhea can also lead to rapid water loss. Be sure to actively drink plenty of water to avoid becoming dehydrated.

Questions for your doctor

  • I don’t like water. What’s the next best thing to keep me hydrated?
  • Are there foods I can add to water to make it taste better?
  • What if I can’t consume as many fluids as doctors recommend?
  • What does it mean if I drink a lot of fluids but don’t urinate often?
  • How does drinking alcohol affect hydration?


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Water & Nutrition

National Institutes of Health, MedlinePlus: Dehydration

Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians

This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.

Importance of water and human health


1 | 2

“I’m dying of thirst!”

Well, you just might. It sounds so simple. h3O – two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. This substance also known as water, is one of the most essential elements to health and is so important that your body actually has a specific drought management system in place to prevent dehydration and ensure your survival. Water might be everywhere, but one must never take it for granted.

Water makes up more than two thirds of human body weight, and without water, we would die in a few days. The human brain is made up of 95% water, blood is 82% and lungs 90%. A mere 2% drop in our body’s water supply can trigger signs of dehydration: fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on smaller print, such as a computer screen. (Are you having trouble reading this? Drink up!) Mild dehydration is also one of the most common causes of daytime fatigue. An estimated 75% of Americans have mild, chronic dehydration. Pretty scary statistic for a developed country where water is readily available through the tap or bottle water.

Water is important to the mechanics of the human body. The body cannot work without it, just as a car cannot run without gas and oil, or EV without electricity. In fact, all the cell and organ functions that make up our entire anatomy and physiology depend on water for their functioning.

Water serves as a lubricant to your body

Water serves as a lubricant in digestion and almost all other body processes. The water in our saliva helps facilitate chewing and swallowing, ensuring that food will slide easily down the esophagus. Water also lubricates our joints and cartilages and allows them to (pardon the pun) move more fluidly. When dehydrated, the body rations water away from the joints. Less lubrication equals greater friction and that can cause joint, knee and back pain potentially leading to injuries and arthritis. Even our eyeballs need plenty of lubrication to work well and remain healthy.

Water regulates your body temperature

Our bodies can control over-heating through perspiration from sweat glands in the skin and from evaporation which produces a cooling effect. Blood is also routed into areas close to the surface of the skin where it can be cooled and then carried back to the interior of the body. Conversing in a cold environment, the skin maintains proper body temperature by shunting the blood away from the exterior surface thereby conserving heat within the body. The movement of water within our cellular systems also transports vital blood plasma which is 92% made of water. Blood plasma play a critical role in buffering the body’s pH, circulating antibodies from the immune system, and regulating osmotic balance which all helps to maintain proper body temperature. Moreover, dehydration limits cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses. This could lead to an increase of core temperature.

1 | 2

Read Next:
Are You Drinking Enough Water?

Why It’s Important To Drink Water Every Day

Most people are well aware of the fact that they need to drink water, but have you ever stopped and wondered, “Why?” If you haven’t, you are now, so here are six important reasons you need to be drinking plenty of water every day.

Water and the Human Body

Your body by weight is more than half water. In fact, water is a component in every tissue, organ, and cell in your body. Likewise, most chemical reactions in the body require water. This includes digestion, metabolism, and breathing. Intestines and kidneys cannot effectively rid your body of waste without adequate hydration. To put it mildly, life could not go on without water in some form – your body simply could not function.

You can think of water as a nutrient your body needs. It is present in other liquids, water itself, as well as foods. Each of these forms of water are essential to replace the large amounts of water you lose daily. Fluid loss occurs through evaporation, respiration, urination, and defecation. To maintain a high level of health, you need to replenish this loss daily.

According to the CDC, drinking water is essential for optimal health. Proper hydration prevents constipation, mood swings, kidney stones, and overheating.

If your intake is not equal to your output of water, you’ll become dehydrated. Several factors can cause fluid loss. This includes warm or dry climates, vigorous exercise, high altitude, illnesses such as diarrhea, and even age. But what are the specific ways water serves your body?

Here are six answers to ‘why it’s important to drink water every day‘ …

1. Maintain Your Balance of Fluids

Water is a component of all the fluids in your body. These fluids aid in digestion, absorption, circulation, salivation, and transportation of nutrients. They also help regulate body temperature. Your brain communicates with your kidneys to control how much fluid you release as urine or retain as reserves in your body. If you are low on fluids, your brain will trigger your thirst mechanism. If ignored, you become dehydrated. You can then experience negative side effects. Here in Colorado, dehydration can be a major contributor to altitude sickness.

2. Control Your Calorie Intake

Water has always been a component of a healthy diet. Water doesn’t have calories. Thus, it is a better hydrating choice than high-caloric beverages to reduce calories. Likewise, food that has a high water content tend to looks larger and keep you fuller than low water foods. These high water foods include fruits, veggies, soups with a broth base, oatmeal, and beans.

3. Increase Energy in Your Muscles

Cells shrivel when lacking fluids and electrolytes. This contributes to muscle fatigue. Without adequate fluids, the muscles don’t work as well. Drinking enough fluid when you are exercising is important. According to the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines, drink at least 17 fluid ounces about two hours before exercise. Then begin drinking fluids early and drink them at regular intervals. This will offset any fluid your body is losing in the form of sweat.

4. Maintain Healthy Skin

Your skin is also largely made up of water and acts as a barrier to prevent fluid loss from your body. Proper hydration isn’t a miracle wrinkle remover. But dehydrated skin is more wrinkled and dry. Make sure you are providing your body with adequate hydration, and your kidneys will do the rest.

5. Improve Your Kidney Function

Your fluids assist in carrying the waste products out of your cells. The most aggressive toxicant in your body is blood urea nitrogen. This component is a water-soluble waste that normally passes through the kidneys to be eliminated through urine. As long as you are adequately hydrated, your kidneys typically do an effective job at cleansing and ridding your body of toxins.

Your fluids assist in carrying the waste products out of your cells. The most aggressive toxicant in your body is blood urea nitrogen. This component is a water-soluble waste. It passes through the kidneys and eliminated through urine. When hydrated, your kidneys do an effective job at cleansing and ridding your body of toxins.

6. Maintain Proper Bowel Processes

Being hydrated also helps move waste through your gastrointestinal tract, preventing constipation. When dehydrated, your colon draws water from your stool to maintain fluid levels. This results in constipation.

Change Your Lifestyle Choices

Here’s how you can drink more water for a healthy, balanced lifestyle:

  • include a beverage with each snack or meal
  • choose beverages you like to drink
  • eat more raw fruits and vegetables
  • keep a bottle of water with you wherever you are

What If I’m Severely Dehydrated?

It’s not uncommon for people to get severely dehydrated in Colorado Springs. Fortunately, Anywhere UrgentCare™ offers IV hydration as part of our mobile urgent care services. Give us a call and we can deliver IV hydration to your home or hotel room.

Originally published March 12, 2018.

The importance of water in our daily lives. |

All plants and animals need water to survive. There can be no life on earth without water. Why is water so important? Because 60 percent of our body weight is made up of water. Our bodies use water in all the cells, organs, and tissues, to help regulate body temperature and maintain other bodily functions. Because our bodies lose water through breathing, sweating, and digestion, it’s crucial to rehydrate and replace water by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water.

Let’s look at all the ways water impacts our lives…

  • Water helps by creating saliva

Water is the main component of saliva. It’s critical for breaking down solid food and keeping your mouth healthy. If you find your mouth is drier than usual, increase your water intake. If that doesn’t work, see your doctor

Staying hydrated is critical to maintaining a normal body temperature. Our bodies lose water when we sweat, and in hot environments. Sweat keeps our bodies cool, but our body temperatures will go up if we don’t replenish the water we lose. That lack of water causes dehydration, which in turn causes levels of electrolytes and plasma to drop

  • Water aids cognitive functions

Proper hydration is crucial to staying in good cognitive shape. Research has shown that inadequate water intake can negatively impact our focus, alertness, and short-term memory

Water  helps lubricate and cushion our joints, spinal cord, and tissues. This helps us to be more physically active, and reduces the discomfort caused by conditions such as arthritis

  • It helps excrete the waste in our bodies through perspiration, urination, and defecation

Our bodies use water to sweat, urinate, and pass healthy bowel movements. We all need water to replenish fluids lost from sweating. We also need water in our systems to have healthy stools and avoid constipation. Drinking enough water helps our kidneys to work more efficiently  thus preventing kidney stones

Drinking plenty of water while working out, taking part in sports or just being on the move, is essential.  Keeping ourselves hydrated also affects our strength, power, and endurance

Drinking water helps to boost our metabolic rate. This boost has a positive impact on our energy levels. Drinking 500 milliliters of water can boost the metabolic rate by 30 percent in both men and women, one study has found. Negative effects of exercising in the heat, without staying hydrated, can result in serious medical incidents. In fact, extreme dehydration can cause seizures, and sometimes, even death.

  • Water prevents overall dehydration

Dehydration is the result of the body being deprived of adequate water. And,  since water is critical for the successful functioning of many bodily functions, dehydration can be very dangerous. Even leading to fatal consequences. Severe dehydration can lead to serious outcomes, including:

  • swelling in the brain
  • kidney failure
  • seizures

Make sure to drink enough water to replace what’s lost through sweating, urination, and bowel movements, to avoid dehydration.

The importance of water.

It’s pretty obvious that having adequate water in your body  is critical to nearly every part of it. Not only will maintaining your recommended daily intake help you to maintain your current state of good health, it could also improve it in the long run. The amount of water you need will depend on the environment and climate you live in, how physically active you are, and whether you are suffering from an illness, ailment or  any other health problems.

Here are some ways to make sure that  you drink enough water:

  • Carry a water bottle with you wherever you go. Keep taking sips from it as and when you feel the need
  • Track your water intake. Make sure you consume the optimum amount every day, which is a minimum of half your body weight, in ounces/milligrams

The 10 Most Important Reasons To Drink Water In The Morning
– Hydrant

Water is vital to your body’s health and function—you can’t keep it running smoothly without consuming plenty of water throughout the day. Your daily hydration ritual should begin with a morning glass of water, an underrated yet essential part of any healthy routine. In fact, drinking water in the morning isn’t just about starting your day off well-hydrated; drinking water on an empty stomach can bring its own wealth of benefits as well!

Hydrant offers you the best possible way to hydrate from the moment your day begins. With the replacement electrolytes your body needs, Hydrant mixed into a morning glass of water sets you up for the day ahead, no matter what you face. Read on now to learn more about why you should drink water in the morning. Why is drinking water important? 



Here are 10 reasons for you to drink water in the morning:


1. Morning Hydration Remedies Natural Dehydration

You might not feel it, but after a long night’s sleep your body wakes up naturally dehydrated. The amount of water you consume the evening before makes little difference. By the time you wake up, you need to hydrate your body for the day ahead. 

The longer you go without water after waking up, the longer it’ll take you to remedy your dehydration. Without a glass of water in the morning, you may start to feel the physical symptoms of dehydration soon after waking up.



2. Start the Day Refreshed by Drinking Water in the Morning 

We all know how it feels to have that groggy, half-asleep sensation hanging over us after we get out of bed. Refreshing yourself with water before those feelings set in is a great way to hit the ground running. We can’t think of a better reason to start your day with a glass of water.

A refreshing glass of water can really revitalize you and help you to feel more positive about and prepared for the day ahead. There’s also nothing better than a glass of water to fix the morning dry mouth feeling. Don’t reach for anything fizzy or caffeinated first thing; a glass of water will do so much more for you. (And a glass of water with Hydrant will do even more!)



3. Drinking Water in the Morning Will Improve Gut Health 

Staying properly hydrated may help prevent or relieve the symptoms of numerous health issues. In some cases, drinking water on an empty stomach may make those benefits felt more keenly. Intestinal infections, for example, have been found to be less likely for people who drink more water. Whether or not you’ve had gut problems, this alone is a great reason to drink more water in the morning.



4. Balance Your Body Fluids by Drinking Water in the morning

By drinking more water in the morning, your body will get a head start on keeping your bodily fluids properly balanced throughout the day. With a proper balance of bodily fluids comes proper organ function. The lymphatic system is a great example of the positive effects of drinking more water.

Your body’s lymph system is responsible for balancing bodily fluids. The lymph system is kept healthy, in part, by drinking water every day. In other words, proper daily hydration helps the lymphatic system keep your body fluids properly balanced. Proper hydration begets proper function, begets a balanced body.


5. Drinking Water in the Morning Will Fuel Your Brain

Your brain is around 75% water. That should give you a good idea of just how important it is that you drink water to fuel your brain and keep it as healthy as it can be. Your brain won’t be able to function at its optimal level if you don’t hydrate. 

If you start your day with a glass of water, your mind will feel clearer and sharper throughout the day. You’ll feel more alert and on the ball, and that’s never a bad thing. You might even feel that you have an advantage over everyone else in the room when you’re properly hydrated.



6. Drink Water in the Morning and Remove Your Body’s Natural Waste

When you wake up in the morning, your body will have unwanted waste in it that can be naturally removed by drinking water (i.e., through urine). By peeing right after you wake up, you remove the waste your kidneys have filtered from your system overnight. Just because you went to sleep doesn’t mean your body stopped working! Drinking water before bed and right when you get up helps your body push its own reset button when it comes to removing waste.



7. Support Your Immune System by Drinking Water

The threat of infection may be mitigated if you consume enough water to keep your immune system up and running. Drinking water on an empty stomach is known to be particularly good for your immune system. Of course, the health and efficiency of your immune system is vital to your overall health.



8. Do Your Skin a Favor and Drink Water in the Morning

The health of your skin and its microbiome is in part determined by your hydration habits. Starting your day with a glass or two of water can only help the health— and thus, appearance! —of your skin.



9. Drinking Water Will Kickstart Your Metabolism 

If you’re trying to lose weight, drinking water in the morning may further help your efforts to kickstart your metabolism. Staying hydrated helps your body start to burn calories faster, which is vital when you’re trying to shed body fat. 

Gulping down a glass of water may also make you feel fuller, temporarily helping to decrease appetite. You’ll be much less likely to snack on foods throughout the day if you feel full, so consider replacing a bag of chips with a glass of water. You don’t necessarily need to consume calories to feel fuller. Of course, eating enough and correctly is as much a part of a healthy routine as staying properly hydrated. Water is not a meal replacement!



10. Keep Yourself Regular by Drinking Water

It might not be something that you like to think about in much detail, but regular bowel movements are important to your overall health and well being. If you’re not very regular, that can cause problems to pile up. Constipation is never any fun to deal with; help avoid it by staying properly hydrated.

Drinking water in the morning will encourage regular morning bowel movements, and that’s definitely a healthy thing. Plus your overall digestive system will be much healthier throughout the day, as well as further into the future if you get into the habit of drinking water in the morning.


Conclusion: Add Hydrant into your morning ritual! 

Water is essential to survival; proper hydration at the right times is essential to healthy and happy living. When you drink water matters just as much as how much you drink.

Now that you know all the benefits of drinking water at the start of the day, all you need to do is start doing it. Better yet, try Hydrant and drink more water effortlessly. 


Other stories about dehydration 

If you want to read more about what dehydration does to the human body, click here.


90,000 How does water affect the body? – article

A person is 60-70% water. Therefore, it is so vital to drink water. In order to maintain the body in good condition, a person must constantly replenish the fluid balance, consuming one and a half, or even two liters per day.

The role and influence of water for the human body

Different parts of the human body also contain different amounts of water, for example, the vitreous body of the eye contains 99% of water, followed by blood – there water is 83%, followed by adipose tissue – 29%, water is even in our skeleton – 22%, and, surprisingly – in tooth enamel – 0.2%.Based on this, we can say with precision how important water is for our body. Water disperses the blood, improves the functioning of the visual apparatus, prevents the accumulation of excess fat, and much more. If the fluid level is not replenished, then the person may simply die.

The proper existence of the human body, namely: the implementation of the metabolic process, maintenance of heat balance, excretion of waste products and so on, will be impossible in the absence of water. Being limited in water consumption throughout the day (and especially in hot climates), a person’s morale deteriorates, his volitional qualities and fighting capacity decrease, and also leads to fatigue.

Correct observance of the water intake regime ensures both efficiency and stability of the drinking balance, where there will be no dehydration or overload of the body with water.

Due to the action of water and certain processes in the body, a variety of toxins and metabolic products are released from the human body through sweat and other excretory systems. With the help of water, and later on – perspiration, a person maintains a normal temperature in his body, freeing himself from excess heat.

Benefits of water for our body

Water is a value. No living organism can exist without it. Water relieves us of diseases, cleanses our body, keeps us young.

What are the beneficial effects of water on our body?

Skin rejuvenation.
Scientists have proven that when drinking pure drinking water, our skin cells receive a beneficial effect due to the fact that water simply does not allow the cells to dry out, nourishing them with moisture, as it were from the inside.

Removal of toxins from the body.
Many are aware of the assistance of water in removing harmful toxins from our gastrointestinal tract system. In this, our body is also obliged to the function of the kidneys, the effective work of which is provided by the same simple water and its correct use

Reducing the risk of heart attack.
Cardiovascular specialists advise sticking to at least five glasses of water throughout the day, as this can reduce the risk of heart attacks by up to 70%.

Water is a natural lubricant for joints.
It has been scientifically proven that an insufficient amount of water in our body can provoke muscle spasms, because water is the main constituent that plays an integral role in the formation of “lubrication” for joints and muscle tissue. To prevent muscle spasm during physical exercise, doctors recommend drinking water before and after training.

Restoration of energy in the body.
During the day, we not only consume liquid, but also lose it as a result of natural processes: when breathing, when we sweat, when urinating, and so on.Water is an excellent source of energy recovery. The more water you drink, the more energy you save during working hours.

Direct necessity for the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
Water takes part in all processes of the gastrointestinal tract, from the delivery of nutrients and trace elements, to the elimination of all unnecessary and already processed materials. To prevent your body from experiencing digestive problems, it is also advisable to drink as much water as possible.

Reducing the risk of infectious diseases.
If there is little water in the body, it increases the risk of dehydration, which certainly leads to a decrease in the functioning of the immune system. The latter becomes the cause of frequent diseases and infection, which also passes with great difficulty.

Natural regulation of body temperature.
And water is responsible for thermoregulation in our body. If we have warmed up due to, for example, sports, then we just need to restore the amount of fluid in the body for cooling.

Fat burning.
Cells that are saturated with water are able to disperse fatty deposits. Water has a very good effect on metabolism, which helps a person lose weight.

Improvement of general well-being in the body.
Water is the source of your good mood and well-being. Even during illness, you can often hear the wish that you need to drink more water, the infection will go away by itself. Doctors can confirm, and the above facts are enough.

As a result: in order to remain as beautiful and young, to remain vigorous and in a good mood, heed the advice that a person needs to drink as much water as possible per day.The “Water to You” delivery company is ready to bring water completely free of charge to anywhere in the city. Order water from us and keep your youth for many years to come.

The role of water for figure and skin | Lifestyle

An increase in the amount of clean, high-quality water consumed leads to an improvement in the absorption of nutrients by the body, promotes the loss of extra pounds, moisturizes the skin, detoxification, has a positive effect on the metabolic process, as well as on most of the most important aspects of human health.Natural, healthy weight loss can only happen by increasing your intake of clean, quality water. Water is not only the number one component for human health from the inside, it also affects the external state of the body – it plays a leading role in maintaining health, youth and beauty.

Increasing the amount of fluid we consume naturally kicks off the metabolic process and promotes better absorption of nutrients from the food and nutritional supplements we consume.This process results in healthy weight loss.

If we do not drink enough water, our intestines are less able to absorb nutrients, and as a result, most of the nutrients from food and supplements that we consume are not absorbed by the body.

Sugars and carbohydrates are absorbed and absorbed by the body faster than other substances, therefore, without consuming the required amount of clean drinking water, we get numerous “empty calories” instead of the energetically valuable substances necessary for our body.Food cravings are mainly the result of a lack of nutrients – this is how our body tells us that it is missing something. If the food we eat is not digested properly due to the fact that the process of absorption of nutrients is difficult, our body persistently informs about this in the form of an increased appetite.

In order to understand whether you are drinking enough water, you should observe the color of urine. The more intense the color of urine, the greater the water deficit in your body, which results in a decrease in the rate of absorption of nutrients by the body and a slowdown in the metabolic process in the body.

The quality of the water we drink also greatly influences our body’s ability to gain and lose weight. One of the main functions of the liver is to filter and remove toxins from the body. The liver does its important job of interacting with the kidneys using water. If the water we consume contains chemicals such as chlorine, lead, as well as pollutants from agricultural and industrial enterprises, then the liver spends all its efforts on filtering out these harmful substances, instead of converting fat into energy.

Also, water helps to make the skin firm and elastic and maintain its moisture level. To achieve beautiful, radiant, healthy skin on the outside, you need to moisturize it from the inside out. Consuming more quality liquids can leave your skin feeling soft, youthful and healthy.

Numerous modern studies confirm the link between the consumption of chlorinated water and thyroid dysfunction, which is the cause of excess weight.All weight loss programs are based on reducing the number of calories consumed and increasing the metabolic rate. Both of these goals can be achieved by increasing the amount of water consumed of an appropriate quality.

Try drinking a glass of water in the morning, before lunch, and an hour before bed. The result will surprise you! Water is undoubtedly one of the most important conditions for healthy skin and natural weight loss.

Water – benefits and harms for cleansing the body

Remembering the school course in biology, the following information comes to mind: “the human body is 60-80% water”.What does it mean? And the fact that water is its most important component, its shortage leads to disruption of natural life processes and malfunctions in the work of individual organs.

How much water is in the body?

There is no specific figure as to how much water is contained in our body. The indicator depends on a number of factors, including age and individual characteristics. The younger and the more energetic our body is, the more fluid it contains.On the contrary, with the approach of old age, characterized by active processes of skin withering, a drop in the working capacity of some organs, a violation of the functions of brain activity, its amount decreases due to natural reasons, which, of course, is harmful to the body. It is possible to compensate for the lack of h3O by observing the daily intake of drinking water, which is 30-40 ml for each kilogram of weight. The amount of water you drink may be increased due to the summer heat or vacation in hot countries, the presence of colds, lactation, etc.

Optimal water intake:

  • glass – on an empty stomach,
  • another one – half an hour before the meal,
  • next – 2.5 hours after eating,
  • 1-1.5 hours before bedtime – the last glass of liquid for today.

You can get used to this regime in a week, then you will not hesitate to drink as much water as you need. And remember – an extra glass of water will not harm, but the risk of developing many diseases will significantly reduce.

What does water shortage lead to?

The health benefits of water are clear. Being an active participant in biological processes, water cleanses our body both from the outside and from the inside, improves well-being and rejuvenates the body at the cellular level. Unfortunately, most of us do not pay enough attention to “drinking issues”, consuming no more than a third of the daily value of h3O per day, and this amount falls on the water entering our body with fruits, vegetables, other foods or drinks (carbonated, tea, coffee, etc.).

The body does not receive clean drinking water, which leads to a deficiency of life-giving moisture and dehydration, and this is fraught with serious consequences. The damage caused by dehydration is enormous. The fact is that the body, trying to compensate for the lack of fluid on its own, gradually takes it from the cells and blood. In turn, the functioning of vital organs – the brain, heart, lungs, liver, etc., and even joints – is disrupted. The skin becomes dry and flabby, a feeling of fatigue, headaches appear, a person becomes distracted, immunity decreases … All these symptoms become a reason to consult a doctor.

But it is enough to drink a glass of pure water once an hour or two. And many health problems can be avoided! Compliance with the drinking regime is a guarantee of good health and excellent prevention of many diseases.

On the benefits of pure water for our body

  • Regular drinking helps to eliminate salts, toxins and toxins that accumulate in cells and clog our body, causing serious harm to it. Water, according to most scientists, stabilizes the kidneys, which are a natural filter and are responsible for cleansing the body.In other words, the more water we drink, the easier it is for the kidneys to excrete harmful substances. Only 150-200 ml of warm water on an empty stomach will best cleanse the mucous membranes from toxins accumulated overnight and “start” the digestive tract.
  • Drinking glass after glass of clean water throughout the day, we not only cleanse our body, but also fight body fat. It has been proven that the less water the body contains, the easier it is to gain excess weight. The benefits of water for weight loss are manifested in the fact that it is the only product that does not contain calories.True, if we are talking about a bottled product, then this is not always the case, and a certain amount of calories may still be present in it. A glass of water that fills the stomach can reduce appetite and dull hunger. Isn’t this, first of all, necessary for people who are jealous of their weight?
  • Removing waste products, water is necessary for the normal functioning of the digestive system. It reduces the risk of developing infectious diseases, and is also a natural lubricant for joints.Cartilage and joints that do not receive the required amount of fluid become more fragile and prone to damage. Often there are painful sensations in the joints, which, again, is associated with a large accumulation of toxins in the blood. Drinking frequently can help prevent arthritis, reduce back pain and even strengthen the spine, which is 3/4 water.
  • Water is an excellent thermostat. It is not in vain that after active sports or during intense heat, doctors recommend drinking more.Water “cools” a heated body and normalizes body temperature. Regular fasting water intake is a good prevention of heart disease. Cardiologists are confident that a person consuming a sufficient amount of h3O per day reduces the risk of heart attack to a minimum.
  • Water is also essential for healthy skin. As a result of dehydration, the skin becomes dry, loses elasticity, and may even begin to flake off. In addition, the concentration of toxins increases, and their difficult elimination through the skin with sweat is fraught with the appearance of inflammation and skin irritation.Water saturates our cells from the inside out, moisturizes the skin and prevents its rapid aging.

Drink filtered water

A glass of water drunk on an empty stomach has the maximum benefit. Having lost moisture during sleep, the body needs to restore it. Drinking water on an empty stomach is one of the best habits. It’s good to take care of your morning liquid beforehand and toss a slice of lemon and lime into the glass. A vitamin infusion drunk on an empty stomach will charge you with energy for the whole day!

Just don’t forget about water purification.The harm of tap water leaves no reason to doubt. Boiled water, which many of us are used to drinking, is also not suitable for health improvement. It is not for nothing that it is called “dead”. Of course, it will not cause serious harm, but such water is devoid of nutrients and oxygen, which means that the effect of its use will be minimal.

Boiled water can be used in one case, if, apart from raw water of dubious quality, there are no other sources of liquid nearby. In all other cases, preference should be given to filtered water, since the variety of household filters allows you to do this quickly and without special financial costs.

The material was prepared by the doctor of the UZD “Grodno University Clinic” Kaskevich Yu.Yu.

Hydration of the body | Mad wave important for swimmers?

Influence of water balance on training

Water is the environment in which swimmers undergo most of their training, therefore athletes often do not understand how much they lose fluids and do not notice when they are really thirsty, because it seems easier to do without drinking in the pool than during training on land.

Water is essential for all metabolic processes, many of which affect the maintenance and recovery of working capacity, as well as the effectiveness of training. Our muscles are 73% water, so hydration (from ancient Greek ὕδωρ “water”) plays a huge role in all processes – from muscle recovery to protein synthesis and absorption of nutrients.

From the mouth through the esophagus, water enters the stomach and then into the intestines. There, its active absorption takes place, and together with the water, the substances dissolved in it are absorbed, and those that were in it from the very beginning – salts, minerals, trace elements, and those that entered our body along with food.Here water manifests itself as a powerful solvent that provides our cells with all the necessary substances. Once inside, the water travels through the blood vessels throughout the body. The blood itself consists of half of blood cells, and half of plasma, which is precisely water with organic and mineral compounds dissolved in it. Water, which has fulfilled its function of transferring the necessary substances throughout the body, before leaving it, performs another important action.As a result of biochemical reactions (processing of proteins and carbohydrates), natural waste remains – slags. Water also dissolves them, after which it leaves the body. Water is excreted not only in urine. About 50% of the consumed water is excreted through the kidneys, 15% is excreted through the intestines, another 15% is exhaled into the environment, the remaining 20% ​​is evaporated through the skin.

“If you do not drink water, basic biochemical reactions do not occur in your body.”

Dave Salo, Especially for mad wave

Hydration also helps regulate body temperature and joint function – both are extremely important for swimming, so it is impossible to achieve good results with imbalances in water balance without harming your body.

The importance of hydration for swimmers also lies in the fact that our blood contains 93% water, and the blood transports oxygen and essential nutrients to provide the body with energy and maintain health. Adequate water helps the heart pump blood more efficiently.

“A decrease in the required amount of fluid in the body by only 2% can lead to a decrease in performance by 10-20%. This is an impressive loss – you will be wasting a lot of effort during training without getting a significant improvement in results.”

Mad Wave Team

Dehydration of any degree can adversely affect a swimmer’s performance during a swim. With dehydration, swimmers get tired faster during training, react more slowly, and increase the risk of injury and seizures not only in the pool, but also outside it.

In short, you won’t be able to train and recover properly without proper hydration, so it is very important to provide the body with the necessary elements for this.

Signs of dehydration

One of the easiest ways to detect dehydration is when you are thirsty.But when this symptom appears, the body is most likely already dehydrated. Other symptoms of dehydration are general fatigue and stress. Since the brain tissue is 70-80% water, with dehydration, mental activity deteriorates, fatigue and irritability appear. All this, of course, affects the performance of the swimmer in the pool.
The most accurate way to check your water balance is the color of your urine. Light yellow urine indicates a normal water balance, the darker the urine, the more dehydrated.

“Dehydration is accompanied by certain symptoms: loss of 1% of fluid makes you thirsty, 2% – decreased endurance, 3% – decreased strength, 5% – increased heart rate, apathy, muscle weakness, nausea.”

Mad Wave Team

The most accurate way to check your water balance is the color of your urine. Light yellow urine indicates a normal water balance, the darker the urine, the more dehydrated.

Dehydration rate:

Water balance: 0 to 1%
Minimum dehydration: 1 to 3%
Significant dehydration: 3 to 5%
Severe dehydration: more than 5%

Depending on the intensity of work, each the thousand meters that an athlete swims during training or pre-competition warm-up leads to a loss of 100-200 ml of fluid.Thus, a swimmer can lose up to 1 liter of fluid in an hour. We already know that fluid loss of more than 2% of a swimmer’s body weight can reduce the effect of high-intensity work by 45%.

How to avoid dehydration?

It is only possible to eliminate dehydration naturally by drinking clean drinking water. Tea, coffee, beer, alcohol, artificial drinks, in addition to containing water, also contain dehydrating substances such as caffeine, as well as various chemical components.
The topic of hydration has been thoroughly studied by many international organizations and research institutes, but the most common opinion of the US National Academy of Medical Sciences is that the average man aged 19-30 needs about 3.7 liters. liquids per day, and a woman of the same age group 2.7 liters. These calculations are based on the assumption that for 1 calorie of food eaten, you need to consume 1 gram of liquid.

The World Health Organization believes that a person needs to drink 30 ml of water per day for every kilogram of a person’s weight.This method of calculation is the most correct and optimal, since the amount of water consumed must correspond to the mass of a person. With a weight of 100 kg, you need to consume 3 liters every day, and a person weighing 60 kg – 1.8 liters.

Both of these methods are useful for maintaining the fluid balance of the average adult, but swimmers must also consider fluid loss during training in the water.

The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that for regular exercise, drinking 480-600 ml of water at least 15 minutes before training and 100-250 ml every 15 minutes during training.To do this, it is advisable to have a liter bottle of water on the side of the pool. Do not forget to drink water strictly on schedule, and not when you feel thirsty.

If you are training at high intensity, weigh yourself before and after training to get a more accurate idea of ​​the amount of water lost by the body. For optimal performance and health, it is recommended to drink 600 to 720 ml of water for every 500 grams lost. Changes in body weight indicate a risk of dehydration and whether the body is getting enough fluids.

By following these guidelines, you will be able to maintain your fluid levels and exercise longer and harder without becoming overworked or dehydrated. At the same time, do not forget that the body of each person is unique, has its own metabolism and constitution, and you need to regulate your drinking regime, taking into account personal characteristics.

Water balance – for health and beauty – justfood blog

Water balance – for health and beauty

As contradictory as it may sound, we need water like air.Almost everyone knows that the human body is largely composed of water. But how many people think about what this means in practice?

Let’s try to figure it out. Here are just a few facts about water:

    • Without water, perhaps, not a single life process is complete: from moisturizing mucous membranes and joints to assimilating vitamins and “delivering” oxygen.
    • Absolute record holder for water content in the body – gastric juice – up to 99%. Healthy blood water content is about 92%.The brain is 80% water. And even in bones, its share is impressive – about 20-30%.
    • Only through breathing a person loses up to 0.5 liters of water per day. With normal sweating and other vital processes, this loss is 1.5 liters daily. And with intense physical exertion with sweat, our body can remove up to 3 liters of fluid per day!
    • Alcoholic drinks, strong tea and coffee contribute to the accelerated removal of fluid from the body. Passion for these drinks can lead to chronic dehydration.
    • Lack of water in excess of 2% of body weight causes dehydration. If this figure exceeds 10%, there is a serious threat to health and life.
    • Weight loss is much more effective when diet and exercise are diluted with the right amount of water.

The balance between the amount of water excreted and received by the body is the water balance

How much to drink?

The answer to the question of how much water to drink in order to maintain this balance is individual for each person.A resident of middle latitudes needs 6-8 glasses of water a day.

The daily consumption rate depends on:

    • Gender and age of the person. Young people need more moisture than older people. The need for water in women is higher than that of men.
    • Life rhythm. The more mental and physical efforts, the more water the body “asks for”.
    • Environmental conditions. Water helps the body to rid itself of toxins. Living in regions with poor ecology forces us to pay more attention to water.
    • Climatic conditions. In hot weather, moisture loss increases, and it is important to replenish them in time.
What to drink?

Most experts agree that it is better to drink not boiled water (it is deprived of oxygen), but filtered tap water. At the same time, it is important to take seriously the choice of a good filter, taking into account the characteristics of the water in a particular area. The correct filter removes chlorine and most harmful impurities while maintaining oxygen and electrolyte saturation.

How do you know if the balance is out of order?

Thirst is an obvious, but far from the only sign that the body is experiencing a lack of water. In addition, thirst is indicative of short-term dehydration: in the heat or after exercise, for example. But chronic dehydration is more difficult to determine, and its consequences are more serious:

    • Headaches
    • Fatigue, insomnia, lethargy
    • Digestive disorders, constipation
    • Dry and premature aging of the skin
    • Kidney disease
    • Edema
    • Allergies

If you have one or more of the listed manifestations, analyze the amount and quality of water you drink.Often, expensive medical examinations can be avoided simply by restoring the water-salt balance.

Eat healthy and stay hydrated

Dishes from our menu do not contain spices and excess salt, which means they will not cause water to be “washed out” from the body. Diet will also help you normalize your daily water intake. Just drink a glass of water immediately upon waking up and 20-30 minutes before each meal. If in between meals you feel hunger, do not rush to “seize” it: perhaps the body asks only for water.

How to drink water during training? Can I drink while exercising?

User agreement

1. By joining this Agreement and leaving your data on the Site https://profit-consort.ru/,
(hereinafter referred to as the Site), owned by O.P. Shevtsov. (hereinafter referred to as the Site Administration), by filling out
fields of online application forms, User:

– confirms that all the data specified by him belong to him personally,

– confirms and acknowledges that he has carefully read this Agreement in full
and the conditions for the processing by the Site Administration of his personal data indicated by him
in the fields of online applications, the text of the agreement and the conditions for the processing of personal data to him

– agrees to the processing of the information provided by the Site Administration
personal data in order to conclude between him and the Site Administration of this
Agreement, as well as its subsequent execution;

– agrees with the terms of personal data processing without reservations and restrictions,
namely, with the performance by the Site Administration of the actions provided for in cl.3 h. 1 tbsp.
3 of the Federal Law of 27.07.2006 N 152-FZ “On Personal Data”, and confirms that
that in giving such consent, he acts freely, of his own free will and in his own interests.

2. The Site Administration uses the User’s personal data for:

– processing of personal data that are necessary for the provision and provision of
services to the User;

– creating, analyzing and monitoring the client base;

– informing the User about contests and promotions;

– newsletters of the Site to the User;

– informing the User about new products and services;

– informing about promotions and special offers;

– notifications of the User about various events.

3. The Site Administration has the right to process personal data by entering them
in electronic databases, inclusion in lists (registers) and internal reporting forms.
The processing of personal data can be either automated or without the use of
automation equipment.

4.By accepting the terms of this Agreement, the User also agrees to receive
information and (or) advertising mailing by phone (in the format of SMS messages) and / or
by email from the Site Administration.

5. The Agreement is valid indefinitely from the moment the User provides his data
and can be withdrawn by the User at any time by sending
the corresponding order or statement in a simple written form to the email address
mail info @ profit-consort.ru

6. The Site Administration has the right to amend this Agreement. When making
changes in the current edition, the date of the last update is indicated. New edition
Of the Agreement comes into force from the moment of its placement, unless otherwise provided by the new
version of the Agreement.

7. The current version of the Agreement is located on the Site on the page at:


8. To this Agreement and the relationship between the User and the Site Administration arising
in connection with the application of the Agreement, the law of the Russian Federation shall apply.




90,000 Water requirement and hydration of cats and dogs

Nestlé Research Center
St. Louis, MO
Email: [email protected]

List of abbreviations:
AVP: arginine vasopressin
BW: body weight
GFR: glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
LMH: hydration dry mass (muscle mass)
LUTD: lower urinary tract diseases TBW
total water in the body
Keywords: true hydration, hypohydration, hyperhydration


Water has always been considered the most important nutrient.Estimates of daily water requirements for cats and dogs have been reported, but there is no consensus on how to determine adequate hydration in pets. Typical recommendations for proper water intake for healthy pets are that fresh water is always available and unlimited, creating the conditions for true hydration. This article will look at what is currently known to establish daily water requirements, and will discuss water consumption patterns and how this affects the various parameters of hydration assessment in healthy cats and dogs.


Water has always been considered the most important nutrient. (1,2) An estimate of the daily water requirements for cats and dogs has been reported. (3) However, there is no consensus on how to determine the optimal hydration, or the optimal amount of water intake, or the overall effect of normal hydration on the health of pets. A typical recommendation for a healthy pet to ensure individual true hydration is to have fresh water readily available, but there is no hard data to determine true hydration or target water intake.The limited number of studies on water consumption, water balance and urine parameters, conducted mainly on cats or dogs from kennels, forces us to refer to work carried out back in the 1970s. Much remains to be investigated to expand current knowledge of the water and hydration needs of domestic cats and dogs.

Since hydration is not static throughout the day, there are many situations in pets’ daily life that can lead to hypohydration.This problem is not unique to cats and dogs, as a large amount of research is currently underway and in humans to understand and establish guideline values ​​and acceptable ranges of water intake to determine optimal hydration and recommendations for water intake. (4-7)

In addition, a link between inadequate hydration and health effects has been described for a variety of pathologies, including hyperglycemia and accelerated progression of diabetes, a higher risk of chronic kidney disease, recurrent nephrolithiasis, and hypertension.(7)

The purpose of this review is to revise what is currently known about the daily water requirements of cats and dogs, taking into account the variability in the moisture content of the diet itself. The review will discuss studies that provide some basis for the use of various physiological measures in assessing and determining hydration in healthy cats and dogs. This review will also identify some gaps in existing research on water consumption and can serve as a basis for future research beyond the current understanding of daily water requirements.Ultimately, future work should consider and investigate how “optimal” hydration and daily water intake affect not only metabolic and urological health, but also non-urological aspects of health such as obesity, brain health, and cognitive and behavioral patterns. which can benefit the pet.

Water as a medium and nutrient

Water is an essential nutrient as it is responsible for maintaining many physiological functions and as a medium for the removal of metabolic waste.In addition, water in the body also creates a complex dynamic body-fluid matrix that underlies all metabolic processes. The water component of the body of a cat or dog is in constant motion, therefore, the regulation of water balance and water consumption caused by thirst are necessary to replenish the constant loss of water during evaporation through the breath and skin surfaces, as well as periodic water loss in urine, saliva or feces. Heavy water (D2O) studies have shown that total body water (TBW) varies widely, for cats (52-67% of BW) (8) and for dogs (54-61% of BW).(9) However, the percentage of TBW is significantly influenced by the percentage of body fat, so that the% TBW decreases with increasing fat mass. This phenomenon is also seen in people, who can also have TBW in the range of 50 to 70%, decreasing with increasing% body fat. (7)

TBW is usually at 73.2% of lean body mass, (10,11) which is the constant for lean body mass hydration (LMH). Although 73.2% is an assumed constant used to determine the proportions of muscle mass and fat mass in body composition studies, the hydration constant of an individual animal will vary.Numerous studies in cats and dogs have shown that the mean hydration constant can range from 71.3% to 75.9% in dogs (9,12,13) ​​and from 71.8% to 75.7% in cats. (8) While it is not surprising that TBW decreases with increasing body weight, new data highlight that LMH also appears to decrease with increasing body fat. (9)
Specifically, dogs with> 25% body fat had an LMH ranging from 72 to 74%, while lean dogs between 7 and 20% body fat had an LMH ranging from 74 to 78%.This can provide insight into the animal’s hydration status and TBW in overweight or obese dog populations. The standard LMH and the reference TBW range have also been discussed in relation to human nutrition and obesity due to the increasing prevalence of obesity in humans. (14)

Water balance regulation

Ultimately, the level of water intake is determined by physiological factors that regulate thirst, which are due to the body’s desire to maintain cellular homeostasis and a stable supply of water in the body during the daily fluctuations between mild hypohydration and mild overhydration.(4) The regulation of water balance and thirst is tightly controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms involving various hormonal systems, which mainly include the arginine-vasopressin (AVP), or vasopressin, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. An increase in plasma osmolality above the “natural” level or a decrease in blood volume causes the secretion of AVP, which in turn stimulates water intake in dogs (15) and cats. (6,17) Although the role of neuroendocrine systems in the regulation of water and sodium balance is closely related to the general topic of hydration and water intake, more detailed reviews of these systems and neurobiochemical mechanisms have been described by other authors.(18-20)

Water consumption and daily water requirements of cats and dogs

The most recent survey of water requirements for cats and dogs, reports (3) daily water intake (ml) using three different counting methods: 1) ml / kg bw; 2) ml / kg of dry matter of food; and 3) ml / IU kcal, meal (water-to-calorie ratio). In all of these methods, water intake can be achieved through a combination of water intake as food moisture, drinking water, and metabolic water.Metabolic water is formed during the oxidation of macronutrients (fats, carbohydrates and proteins) and can be calculated as 10-16 ml of water per 100 kcal ME (21) or by calculating water (g) per 100 g of macronutrient (107, 60 or 41, respectively). (3)

While there seems to be no consensus or recommendation as to which method is most accurate or appropriate, the third method, based on the ratio of water: calorie intake, allows you to conveniently and accurately assess the water needs of a healthy pet, taking into account different dietary compositions and different levels of activity, which lead to a change in the level of calorie intake.However, there is some evidence that when training dogs in extremely cold climates, this method overestimates the true need for water. (22) Another feature is that ratio changes are accurate only if calorie intake is reliably stable.

Overall, the reported daily water to calorie ratio to estimate a cat’s water requirement is 0.6-0.7 for dry food (23-25) and 0.9 (26) for wet food.

In sedentary dry-fed dogs, a 1: 1 ratio was previously reported (3) and recent studies by Nestlé Purina generally support this estimate (1.1: 1, B. Zanghi, unpublished data). In dogs, the total water intake was the same regardless of the type of diet (dry or wet food). (15)

The difference in daily water to calorie ratio observed in healthy cats is due to the fact that they self-regulate their total water intake to meet their daily needs in response to the moisture content of their food through drinking.(3,23,27,28) The higher ratio in wet eating cats is a result of consuming a large portion of their daily fluid intake as food moisture, so they drink very little free water. In contrast, dry food cats get significantly less water from their food, but drink significantly more. However, drinking water from dry food usually does not compensate for water from wet food. Unfortunately, pet owners don’t always have the correct idea that their cat is drinking enough.When a cat eats dry food, owners may often see it drinking and therefore feel that the cat should be sufficiently hydrated (Nestlé Purina, con – sumer research). Interestingly, there is also the opposite perception, when owners who regularly feed their pets with wet food note that they rarely watch the cat drink, so they assume that the animal must be dehydrated.

It is now generally accepted that a higher total water intake by cats and a higher water-to-calorie ratio when fed wet food will result in greater urine output.Dry food cats, with a lower daily water to calorie ratio, consume enough water to meet their daily needs. (3) However, cats with lower urinary tract disease (LUTD) appear to benefit from increased total water intake and more urine output. Thus, for cats with LUTD, there has been some evidence that increased water intake can be achieved by increasing food moisture (27,29) or increasing sodium to stimulate drinking.(30-32)

Human studies have shown that increasing water intake to increase urine volume and dilute urine is generally recommended as one of the methods for preventing recurrence of urolithiasis. (33-34) Voluntarily drinking more water is the most common recommendation for increasing fluid intake in humans, but also includes drinking other common beverages. (33-35)
While the increase in total water intake for cats has been achieved through dietary modification or sodium thirst stimulation, no studies have been reported to increase fluid intake by increasing drinking or by altering water composition, which has been widely studied in humans.Although it has previously been suggested to add flavors to water or use fountains for drinking, (36) only one study reported comparing water consumption from a fountain to a bowl, (37) which, based on measured specific gravity and osmolality, did not contribute to urine dilution. In terms of taste and nutrient-enriched drinking water, initial studies of Nestlé Purina in healthy cats and dogs (B. Zanghi, unpublished data) showed that water intake through drinking and urine dilution can be significantly increased when provided with nutrient-enriched water. …

Determination of the level of hydration: what is optimal versus sufficient?

Hydration is a dynamic process of water consumption and loss, with constant regulation to maintain a stable total body water volume. (38) Many factors influence daily water loss and therefore hydration, including environment, health status, age, physical activity, water availability, and diet. Factors such as the environment, water availability and physical activity play a significant role in the dramatic change in hydration status.However, factors such as age, health, and diet can have a chronic effect on hydration.

Although orientation towards healthy or optimal hydration is considered important for pets and humans, physiological parameters and daily water requirements to achieve the desired level of “optimal” hydration have not yet been determined.
This is where much of the human nutrition work is focused to more accurately identify biomarkers associated with optimal hydration and to set more accurate targets for assessing daily water intake.(7,38-41) Previously, the categorization of hydration levels tended to be based on states of hypohydration (dehydration), true hydration, and overhydration (water intoxication). However, questions remained about which biomarkers to use to assign a particular hydration status to an individual. These issues still remain the subject of discussion and debate. (42-44)

One of the indicators that, as has been identified in the past, is important for describing some of the characteristics of true hydration in healthy people, is a very narrow range of mean serum osmolality (279-281 mOsm / kg).However, this osmolality is maintained over a very wide range of total daily water consumption (1.7 to 7.9 L h3O / d). (5) Such a narrow range of serum osmolality was confirmed in a separate study (289-292 mOsm / kg with water consumption <1.2-4 L / day). (39) Based on such a wide range of water intake, urine osmolality for healthy kidney function can also be broad (50 to 1200 mosm / kg), (46) therefore, body water turnover can be low or high.Thus, in the last At the same time, a new perspective appeared to view hydration as a “process” rather than a “state”. (7) The idea is based on growing evidence that a process of low hydration (low daily TBW turnover) can have detrimental health effects. (47-49) A low hydration process would result from low daily water intake and low urine volume with higher osmolality.

For humans, drinking water accounts for the majority of total water consumption, while water content in food varies greatly, accounting for approximately 20-30% of total water consumption (50.51), and metabolic water production provides only a small proportion of consumption.In contrast, as described above in cats and possibly dogs, dietary moisture significantly affects total daily water intake and directly affects the proportion of water intake through drinking. Using diet moisture (wet versus dry food) as an example, the distinct difference in total daily water intake and water: calorie ratios in cats raises a fundamental question in determining hydration levels. On what basis is true hydration determined, and should the principle of the hydration process be applied, especially in cats that naturally produce highly concentrated urine?

Assuming that cats and possibly dogs eating dry food with free access to fresh water maintain true hydration, pets eating wet food or high-moisture foods may be considered prone to overhydration and more urine output.Thus, it is likely to result in increased body water turnover, which suggests a higher hydration process. Alternatively, if ingestion of wet food was the basis for maintaining true hydration, then by default the ingestion of dry food would suggest that the pets can maintain a state of mild hypohydration. The third perspective is that it is possible that both scenarios are indeed true hydration, which additionally involves considering an approach to assessing hydration as a process and with the need to take into account the daily volume of water entering and leaving.In this case, the intake of dry or wet food does not determine the level of the “hydration process” and the associated total water turnover in the body.

The approach to using the hydration process may or may not be appropriate for domestic cats and dogs. The biomarkers that are used to measure different degrees of hydration in cats and dogs may be different from those used in humans. In contrast to humans, serum osmolality in cats was recorded in a very wide range (276-361, tab.1), and although it is less broad for dogs (281-333, Table 2), it is still significantly higher than for humans. In addition, after determining the type of diet and moisture content for individual cats and dogs with a stable regimen and a moderately active sedentary lifestyle, the total daily water intake remains relatively stable. Compared to total adult water intake, trying to define and recommend daily water intake for dogs is possible, but not ideal, because body weight (BW) can vary dramatically from breed to breed and, as a consequence, volume ranges will need to be recalculated.However, this comparison may work for cats, as there are far fewer differences in BW across breeds. Regardless, if the water: calorie ratio is used as a measure of total water intake, when cats are indoors in a climate-controlled environment and their calorie intake is stable, then the daily range of average water: calories tracked over seven days is relatively narrow ( 0.55-0.69, B. Zanghi, unpublished data). This contrasts with the range of water consumption in humans.The daily variability of the mean values ​​of the water: calorie ratio tracked over 14 days in dogs is slightly greater (1.0-1.4, B. Zanghi, unpublished data). Although the water: calorie ratio does not determine whether water intake is increasing or calorie intake is decreasing, in situations where food intake is stable, this method can be useful for normalizing water intake in all breeds of dogs and cats and providing a baseline assessment of low or high hydration. …

Biomarkers of hydration: normal ranges required

Using the same logic that is at the center of current research on human nutrition and hydration, it seems important to further define the different physiological indicators of urine excretion and water intake in healthy populations with different demographics. (4,7,52) Although many urine indicators are traditionally used as a clinical benchmark for assessing normal or abnormal kidney function, some of these indicators can be used to establish confidence intervals, percentile ranges, and thus target scores in a feline population or dogs to at least determine true hydration.This is obviously easier said than done, as it takes a lot of work to determine how and to what extent true hydration may differ between breeds, sex, body composition, age, etc. Given the existing published literature on cats and For dogs, some values ​​have been derived primarily from data from healthy pets, disaggregated by sex and food moisture (Tables 1 and 2).

In most healthy animals, the kidneys usually produce concentrated urine, and fluid intake is usually not in excess of what is needed to maintain normal hydration.In humans, urine osmolality has a typical range of 100 to 1200 mOsm / kg, which decreases with increasing total water intake (40) and is about two to three times the serum osmolality. Likewise, in dogs, urine osmolality can vary widely (from 150 to 1943 mOsm / kg), and also decreases with increasing water: calorie ratio (Figure 1). Since dogs have a much higher concentration capacity than humans, this can result in a wide range of urine to serum osmolality ratios (0.5 to 6.7, Fig.2). In contrast, cats have a much higher minimum threshold for urine concentration, which typically ranges from about 2000 to 3000 mOsm / kg (Table 1). Therefore, this is 5.9-8.5 times higher than the osmolality of blood serum (Fig. 3) when they have free access to tap water regardless of whether they eat wet or dry food. One related indicator that needs better evaluation is the potential relationship between urine concentration and urine output, especially in cats.

Interestingly, recent studies have shown that urine dilution in cats is possible below 2000 mOsm / kg when given free access to nutrient-rich flavored water (test water), which increases water intake (Figure 4). However, urine dilution is not fully explained by the ratio of water to calories consumed, as urine dilution occurs even when the ratio is below 0.6. This is partially due to the slight reduction in food calorie intake that cats experience when drinking the tasty test water.Examining these data based on volume of water intake alone and standardization by body weight (ml / kg body weight) provides a clearer picture of the significance of increased water intake for urine dilution through drinking (Figure 5).

Concentrated urine is also normal with adequate water intake in dogs, and increased water intake leads to dilution of the urine (Fig. 1). Consideration of data from dogs (Fig. 1) and cats (Fig. 5) demonstrates some evidence to support the study of the hypothesis of increased hydration.However, for dogs and cats, this is just the beginning, as urine excretion and overall water balance will still need to be investigated to better assess hydration.

Based only on the dog data shown in Figure 1 and not on the body of literature compiled in Table 2, it appears that adequate hydration, or true hydration, can be achieved if the water: calorie ratio is at least 0. 9 – 1.1. Although optimal hydration remains to be determined, increasing the water: calorie ratio to at least 1.4 appears to maintain low to moderate urine concentration.Based on the data in Figure 5, it follows that when cats consume approximately 30 ml / kg body weight of total water per day from all dietary and metabolic sources, urine can be effectively diluted while remaining within the normal clinical ranges of healthy kidney function (urine specific gravity> 1.025 or osmolality> ~ 1000). These findings are also consistent with higher urine output and no change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR / GFR), 53 which was confirmed in a separate study.(25) For dogs, GFR and other physiological measures will also be necessary and helpful in assessing voiding volume. Finally, since all of the data described above applies to healthy pets, it is possible that the optimal water requirement or urine biomarkers associated with hydration are unlikely to be the same when comparing healthy individuals with those with LUTD or renal dysfunction.

Hypohydration and Brain Health.

Nutritional studies examining dehydration in humans have shown that people often experience moderate dehydration during daily activities due to inadequate water intake, (4) studies from the 1940s provide evidence of this.(54,55) Based on this work, people feel thirsty when they lose 1 to 2% BW as a result of dehydration. Evidence has been obtained in dogs that thirst is elicited with a loss of 0.5-1% BW. (56.57)

Although this seemed inconsequential in the past, it has only recently become apparent that mild hypohydration (<2%) can have cognitive consequences. A study in young adults (men and women) and children showed that dehydration with a loss of BW <2% leads to impaired cognitive function and poor mood.(52,58,59) To date, no such data exist for cats or dogs. The human data provides insight into the areas that need to be investigated to study the potential impact of mild dehydration on all aspects of pet brain health, behavior, cognitive ability, and even brain development. Since mild dehydration can affect mood and pain in humans, it also highlights areas to consider when examining pets.So it is worth looking into older and / or overweight animals suffering from osteoarthritis or joint discomfort, especially since overweight pets seem to tend to have less TBW.


This review is an initial attempt to begin gathering the available knowledge about healthy pets and to identify areas for studying water and hydration needs. Obviously, a significant amount of research remains to be done before the hydration status or hydration process for domestic dogs and cats can be determined.The current literature is beginning to provide a basis for setting targets for daily water intake for cats and dogs consuming wet and dry foods. How different amounts of daily water intake relate to low, moderate or high hydration processes, as well as the perspective of how this affects long-term health, remains to be determined. Perhaps, in the future, this will provide us with a basis for revising dietary recommendations for water for healthy pets.For elderly pets, animals with urinary tract diseases, obesity, water requirements are likely to be higher.


Table 1

Mean (± SD) serum, urine and water intakes in adult cats, sex-differentiated and non-sex, eating dry or wet food with free access to mains water.

Health Status (Age)
Gender and Food Type * – Gender and Food Type *
Serum Osmolality (mOsmo / kg) – Serum Osmolality (mOsm / kg)
Urine Specific Gravity – Urine Specific Gravity (g / ml)
Urine Osmolality (mOsmo / kg) – Urine Osmolality (mOsm / kg)
Daily Water Intake (mL / kg BW) – Daily Water Intake (ml / kg BW)
Refs – References
Healthy (… years) – healthy (… age)
Healthy (adult) – healthy adult
Idiopathic cystitis (1-7 years) – idiopathic cystitis (1-7 years)
Female-wet – female-wet
Female-dry – female-dry
Male – dry – male-dry
Male – wet – male-wet

* food type designated dry for food with less than 10% moisture, while wet food with approximately 65-75% moisture
# M + F: not separated by sex
† the number in parentheses corresponds to the number of pets, used for urinalysis
‡ visually estimated mean based on Figure 4 of ref. 60
†† for free oral volume only (total volume ml / day)
* * units: (total volume ml / day)
# ### data collected after 6 months of dieting
ND: not determined
NR: not reported

Table 2

Mean ± SD) of serum, urine, and water intake in healthy adult dogs, sex-differentiated and not, consuming dry food with freely available water.

Health Status (Age) – Health status (age)
Gender – Gender
Serum Osmolality (mOsmo / kg) – Serum Osmolality (mOsm / kg)
Urine Specific Gravity – Urine Specific Gravity (g / ml)
Urine Osmolality (mOsmo / kg) – Urine Osmolality (mOsm / kg)
Daily Water Intake (mL / kg BW) – Daily Water Intake (ml / kg BW)
Refs – References

Mongrel (3-15 years) – Mongrel (3-15 years)
Kelpie (2 years) – Kelpie (2 years)
Beagle or Hound (0.5-10 years) – Beagle or Hound (0.5-10 years)
Beagles and Labrador Retriever (2.4-11 years) – Bigley and Labrador Retrievers (2,4-11 years old)
Breednotspecified (adult) – no breed specified (adult)

Male – male
Female – female
median (range) – median (range)
NP: Nestlé Purina, unpublished data – unpublished data from Nestlé Purina

Figure 1

Data for dogs (N = 345): comparison of urine osmolality (mosm / kg) obtained from samples collected 5 times over 2 weeks from N = 35 dogs on the same days as water data: calorie content (ml: ME kcal), followed by repetition of the collection a second time in a few weeks.
Vertical axis: urine osmolality (mosm * kg-1)
Horizontal axis: water consumption ml: ME kcal

Figure 2

Data for dogs (N = 325) comparison of both urine osmolality (mosm / kg) and serum osmolality (mosm / kg) obtained from samples collected 5 times over 2 weeks from N = 33 dogs, followed by repetition of collection during the second time in a few weeks.
Vertical axis: urine osmolality (mosm * kg-1)
Horizontal axis: serum osmolality (mosm * kg-1)

Figure 3

Cat data (N = 135) comparing urine osmolality (mosm / kg) and serum osmolality (mosm / kg) obtained from samples collected 3 times over 2 weeks from N = 23 cats (tap water), followed by repeating the collection a second time after a few weeks (test water). (53)

Vertical axis: urine osmolality (mosm * kg-1)
Horizontal axis: serum osmolality (mosm * kg-1)
tap water – tap water
test water – test water

Figure 4

Data for cats (N = 135) comparison of urine osmolality (mosmo / kg) obtained from urine samples collected 3 times over 2 weeks from N = 23 cats on the same days as the data water: calorie content (ml: ME kcal) (tap water), followed by repeating the collection a second time after a few weeks (test water). (53)

Vertical axis: urine osmolality (mosm * kg-1)
Horizontal axis: water calorific value ml: ME kcal
tap water – tap water
test water – test water

Figure 5

Feline Data (N = 135): Comparison of urine osmolality (mosmo / kg) obtained from urine samples collected 3 times over 2 weeks from N = 23 cats with the previous day’s total water intake (ml / kg body weight) (tap water), followed by repeating the collection a second time after a few weeks (test water). (53)

Vertical axis: urine osmolality (mosm * kg-1)
Horizontal axis: volume of water consumption ml * kg BW – 1
tap water – tap water
test water – test water

1. Manz F, Wentz A, Sichert-Hellert W. Most Important Nutrient: Determining Adequate Water Intake. J Pediatrician. 2002; 141: 587-592.
2. Jéquier E, Constant F. Water is one of the essential nutrients: the physiological basis of hydration.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010; 64: 115-123.
3. Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats. National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2006: 246-250.
4. Armstrong LE. Biomarkers of hydration in daily life. Nutr today. 2012; 47: S3-S6.
5. Rush EK. Water: Forgotten, underestimated, and under-explored. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013; 67: 492-495.
6. Moen R. Introduction to the European Institutes of Hydration Expert Conference on Human Hydration, Health and Performance.Nutr Rev. 2014; 72 (S2): 55-56.
7. Perrier ET, Armstrong LE, Daudon M et al. From condition to process: Determination of hydration. Obesity facts. 2014; 7 (S2): 6-12.
8. Zanghi BM, Cupp C, Pan Y, et al. Non-invasive measurements of body composition and body water using quantitative magnetic resonance, deuterium water and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in cats. Vet 2013a; 74: 721-732.
9. Zanghi BM, Cupp C, Pan Y, et al. Non-invasive measurements of body composition and body water using quantitative magnetic resonance, deuterium water and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in awake and calm dogs.Am J Vet Res. 2013; 74: 733-743.
10. Wang Z, Deurenberg P, Wang W et al. Hydration of lean body mass: a review and critique of the classical body composition constant. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 69: 833-841.
11. Wang Z, Deurenberg P, Wang W et al. Hydration of lean body mass: a new approach to physiological modeling. I am jay fiziol.zhurn. 1999; 276: E995-E1003. 22
12. Burkholder WJ, Thatcher CD. Validation of predictive equations for using deuterium oxide dilutions to determine body composition in dogs.I V J-J Wet 1998 59: 927-937.
13. Speakman JR, Booles D, Butterwick R. Validation of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) versus chemical analysis in dogs and cats. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25: 439-447.
14. Chumlea WC, Schubert CM, Sun SS, et al. Review of the state of water in the body and the effect of age and obesity on the body of children and adults. J Nutr Health Aging. 2007; 11: 111-118.
15. Ramsay D, Thrasher T. Regulation of fluid intake in dogs after water deprivation.Brain Resistant. 1991; 27: 495-499.
16. Reaves Jr. TA, Liu HM, Qasim MM et al. Osmotic regulation of vasopressin in the cat. I’m Jay Fiziol. 1981; 240: E108-E111.
17. Doris PA. Osmotic regulation of evaporative water loss and body temperature by intracranial receptors in the Heat-stressed cat. Pflug Arch. 1983; 398: 337-340. Osmotic regulation of evaporative water loss and body temperature by intracranial receptors in a heat-stressed cat.
18. Bisset GW, Chowdrey HS.Control of vasopressin release by neuroendocrine reflexes. D Exp Physiol. Zh. 1988; 73: 811-872.
19. Angiotensin, thirst and sodium appetite. Physiological Rev. 1998; 78: 585-686.
20. Steele JL, Henik RA, Stepien RL. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive cats with chronic renal failure. Disease. Veterinarian Ter.2002; 3: 157-166.
21. Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats. National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2006: 39.
22. Hinchcliff K, Reinhart G. Energy metabolism and water circulation in Alaskan sled dogs while running. Recent advances in canine and feline nutritional research. Iams Prok, International Simp Nutr. Carey D, Norton S, Bolser S (eds). Wilmington O: Fraser Orange Press. 1996: 199-206.
23. Seefeldt S, Chapman T.Water content and circulation in the body of cats fed with dry and canned rations. Am J Vet Res. 1979; 40: 183-185.
24. Finco DR, Adams DD, Crowell WA, et al. Food and water intake and urine composition in cats: effects of continuous and intermittent feeding. Am J Vet Res. 1986; 47: 1638-1642.
25. Zanghi B, Gardner C, Reynolds A. Increased water intake and hydration in the domestic cat consuming nutrient-rich water. Proc Am Coll Vet Int Med. 2017. (Annotation in the press)
26.Jackson O, Tovey J. Water balance studies in domestic cats. Feline Pratt. 1977; 7: 30-33.
27. Buckley CM, Hawthorne A, Colyer A, et al. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity, and relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate and Struvite in a cat. Brit Jay Nutr. 2011; 106: S128-S130.
28. Xu H, Greco DS, Zanghi B, et al. Effects of feeding inversely proportional amounts of dry and canned food on water intake, hydration, body composition, and urination in cats.Prok World Small Anim Vet DOC Conf. Cape Town, South Africa. 2014: 852.
29. Markwell PJ, Buffington CA, Chew DJ, et al. Clinical evaluation of commercially available urine acidification diets for the treatment of feline idiopathic cystitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999; 214: 361-365.
30. Hawthorne AJ, Markwell PJ. Dietary sodium helps to increase water intake and urine volume in cats. Jay Nutr. 2004; 134: 2128-2129S.
31. Xu H, Laflamme D, Bartges J et al. Effect of dietary sodium on urine performance in healthy adult cats.J Vet Intern Med. 2006; 20: 738.
32. Xu H, Laflamme D, Long G. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health indicators in mature cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2009; 11: 435-441
33. Borghi L, Meschi T, Schianchi T, et al. Urine volume: a risk factor for stone formation and a preventive measure. Nephron. 1999; 81: 31-37.
34. Guerra A, Allegri F, Meschi T, et al. Effect of urine dilution on the number, size, and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals induced in Vitro by oxalate loading. Clin Chem Lab Med.2005; 43: 585-589.
35. Armstrong LE, Ganio MS, Casa DJ, et al. Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women. Jay Nutr. 2012; 142: 382-388.
36. Forrester D, Roudebush P. Evidence-based management of lower urinary tract disease in cats. Veterinarian Wedge N Am Mal. 2007; 37: 533-558.
37. Grant D. Effect of water source on urine intake and concentration in healthy cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2010; 12: 431-434.
38. Perrier E, Johnson EC, McKenzie AL et al. Urine discoloration as an indicator of change in daily water intake: a quantitative analysis.Eur J Nutr. 2016; 55: 1943-1949.
39. Perrier E, Rondeau P, Poupin M, et al. Association between biomarkers of urine hydration and total fluid intake in healthy adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013; 67: 939-943.
40. Perrier E, Buendia-Jimenez I, Vecchio M et al. Daily urine osmolality as a physiological indicator of adequate water intake. Dis Markers. 2015; 2015: 231063. Doy: 10.1155 / 2015/231063
41. Perrier E, Bottin JH, Vecchio M et al. Urine specific gravity and urine color criteria representing adequate water intake in healthy adults.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017. doi: 10.1038 / ejcn.2016.269 (Epub ahead of print)
42. Shirreffs S. Markers of hydration status. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003; 57: S6-S9.
43. Armstrong LE. Assessing hydration status: the elusive gold standard. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007; 26: 575S-584S.
44. Reimers K. Hydration: Assessment and Recommendations. Nutr today. 2009; 44: 8-10.
45. NCHS: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). 1988-1994. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
46. Guyton A, Hall J. Regulation of extracellular fluid osmolarity and sodium concentration. In KN .: textbook of medical physiology. Guyton Philadelphia: Elsevier. 2006: 348-364.
47 Stookey JD, Pieper CF, Cohen HJ. Hypertensive hyperglycemia progresses to diabetes faster than Normotonic hyperglycemia. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004; 19: 935-944.
48. Manz F, Wentz A. The importance of good hydration for the prevention of chronic disease. Nutr Pererab. 2005; 63: C2-C5.
49. Strippoli GF, Craig JC, Rochtchina E et al.Fluid and nutrient intake and the risk of chronic kidney disease. Nephrology (Carlton). 2011; 16: 326-334.
50. Institute of Medicine: Dietary guidelines for water, potassium, sodium, chloride and sulfate intake. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2004.
51. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values ​​for water. EFSA J. 2010; 8: 1459-1506.
52. Armstrong LE, Ganio MS, Casa DJ, et al. Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women.Jay Nutr. 2012; 142: 382-388.
53. Zanghi B, Gardner C, Gerheart L, et al. Increased water drinking and increased hydration in the domestic cat has been observed when consuming nutrient-fortified water instead of tap water paired with dry food. Jay Fiziol N. Kovroli (under comment)
54. Voluntary dehydration. Human physiology in the desert. New York: Interscience Publishers. Adolph E (Ed). 1947: 254-270.
55. Greenleaf J. Problem: Thirst, drinking behavior and involuntary dehydration.Med Scientific Sports Training. 1992; 24: 645-656.
56. Robinson E, Adolph E. Patterns of normal water intake in a dog. Am J Physiol. 1943; 139: 39-44.
57. O’Connor W. Water consumption of dogs during and after running. Jay Fiziol. 1975; 250: 247-259.
58. Ganio MS, Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, et al. Mild dehydration impairs the cognitive ability and mood of men. Brit Jay Nutr. 2011; 106: 1535-1543.
59. Benton D, Young H. Do small changes in hydration status affect mood and mental performance? Nutr Red.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.