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Why water is important to humans: Functions of Water: 7 Health Benefits

Functions of Water: 7 Health Benefits

1. Water Protects Your Tissues, Spinal Cord, and Joints

Water does more than just quench your thirst and regulate your body’s temperature; it keeps the tissues in your body moist, according to the Mayo Clinic Health System. You know how it feels when your eyes, nose, or mouth gets dry? Keeping your body hydrated helps it retain optimum levels of moisture in these sensitive areas, as well as in the blood, bones, and brain. In addition, water helps protect the spinal cord, and it acts as a lubricant and cushion for your joints.

2. Water Helps Your Body Remove Waste

Adequate water intake enables your body to excrete waste through perspiration, urination, and defecation. Water helps your kidneys remove waste from your blood and keep the blood vessels that run to your kidneys open and filter them out, according to the National Kidney Foundation. Water is also important for helping prevent constipation, points out the University of Rochester Medical Center. However, as research notes, there is no evidence to prove that increasing your fluid intake will cure constipation.

RELATED: Are You Drinking Enough Water? These Are the Health Risks of Dehydration

3. Water Aids in Digestion

Water is important for healthy digestion. As the Mayo Clinic explains, water helps break down the food you eat, allowing its nutrients to be absorbed by your body. After you drink, both your small and large intestines absorb water, which moves into your bloodstream and is also used to break down nutrients. As your large intestine absorbs water, stool changes from liquid to solid, according to the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Water is also necessary to help you digest soluble fiber, per MedlinePlus. With the help of water, this fiber turns to gel and slows digestion.

4. Water Prevents You From Becoming Dehydrated

Your body loses fluids when you engage in vigorous exercise, sweat in high heat, or come down with a fever or contract an illness that causes vomiting or diarrhea, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. If you’re losing fluids for any of these reasons, it’s important to increase your fluid intake so that you can restore your body’s natural hydration level. Your doctor may also recommend that you drink more fluids to help treat other health conditions, like bladder infections and urinary tract stones. If you’re pregnant or nursing, you may want to consult with your physician about your fluid intake because your body will be using more fluids than usual, especially if you’re breastfeeding.

RELATED: Water Fasting 101: What You Need to Know

5. Water Helps Your Brain Function Optimally

Ever feel foggy headed? Take a sip of water. Research shows that dehydration is a drag to memory, attention, and energy, per a small study on adult men from China published in June 2019 in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. It’s no wonder, considering h3O makes up 75 percent of the brain, the authors point out. One reason for that foggy-headed feeling? “Adequate electrolyte balance is vital to keeping your body functioning optimally. Low electrolytes can cause issues including muscle weakness, fatigue, and confusion,” says Gabrielle Lyon, DO, a functional medicine physician in New York City.

6. Water Keeps Your Cardiovascular System Healthy

Water is a huge part of your blood. (For instance, plasma — the pale yellow liquid portion of your blood — is about 90 percent water, notes Britannica.) If you become dehydrated, your blood becomes more concentrated, which can lead to an imbalance of the electrolyte minerals it contains (sodium and potassium, for example), says Susan Blum, MD, founder of the Blum Center for Health in Rye Brook, New York. These electrolytes are necessary for proper muscle and heart function. “Dehydration can also lead to lower blood volume, and thus blood pressure, so you may feel light-headed or woozy standing up,” she says.

RELATED: Is It Dehydration or Something Else?

7. Water Can Help You Eat Healthier

It may be plain, but it’s powerful. In a study of more than 18,300 American adults, people who drank just 1 percent more water a day ate fewer calories and less saturated fat, sugar, sodium, and cholesterol, according to a study published in February 2016 in the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Water may help fill you up, especially if you drink it before eating a meal, a notion that was backed up in a small study of 15 young, healthy participants that was published in October 2018 in Clinical Nutrition Research.

How Much Water Do You Need?

As the Mayo Clinic notes, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recommends that men consume 3.7 liters (15.5 cups) and women get 2.7 liters (11.5 cups) of fluids per day, which can come from water, beverages in general, and food (such as fruits and vegetables). You can also try the Urine Color Test, courtesy of the U.S. Army Public Health Command, to evaluate how you’re doing on drinking up. After going to the bathroom, look at the color of your urine. If it is very pale yellow to light yellow, you’re well hydrated. Darker yellow is a sign of dehydration. Brown or cola-colored urine is a medical emergency, and you should seek medical attention.

Additional reporting by Jen Laskey.

Water: Essential to your body

Speaking of Health

Drinking water does more than just quench your thirst — it’s essential to keeping your body functioning properly and feeling healthy. Nearly all of your body’s major systems depend on water to function and survive. You’d be surprised about what staying hydrated can do for your body.

Here are just a few important ways water works in your body:
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Moistens tissues in the eyes, nose and mouth
  • Protects body organs and tissues
  • Carries nutrients and oxygen to cells
  • Lubricates joints
  • Lessens burden the on kidneys and liver by flushing out waste products
  • Helps dissolve minerals and nutrients to make them accessible to your body

Every day, you lose water through your breath, perspiration, urine and bowel movements, which is why it’s important to continue to take in water throughout the day. For your body to function at its best, you must replenish its water supply with beverages and food that contain water.

Mayo Clinic recommends this minimum daily intake of water:
  • Women — 11.5 cups
  • Men — 15.5 cups

By consuming the minimum recommendation of water, you’re helping your body function better and improving your overall health. Read tips and a recipe if you have difficulty drinking enough water daily.

For more information about ways to consume more water and find out if you’re getting enough for your body’s needs, talk to your health care provider.

For the safety of our patients, staff and visitors, Mayo Clinic has strict masking policies in place. Anyone shown without a mask was either recorded prior to COVID-19 or recorded in a non-patient care area where social distancing and other safety protocols were followed.

Department of Health | 1 Water

1.1 The importance of water

Water is one of the most important substances on earth. All plants and animals must have water to survive. If there was no water there would be no life on earth.

Fig. 6.1: Plants and animals need water.

Apart from drinking it to survive, people have many other uses for water. These include:

  • cooking
  • washing their bodies
  • washing clothes
  • washing cooking and eating utensils; such as billies, saucepans, crockery and cutlery
  • keeping houses and communities clean
  • recreation; such as swimming pools
  • keeping plants alive in gardens and parks

Water is also essential for the healthy growth of farm crops and farm stock and is used in the manufacture of many products.

Fig. 6.2: Some domestic uses of water.

It is most important that the water which people drink and use for other purposes is clean water. This means that the water must be free of germs and chemicals and be clear (not cloudy).

Water that is safe for drinking is called potable water.

Disease-causing germs and chemicals can find their way into water supplies. When this happens the water becomes polluted or contaminated and when people drink it or come in contact with it in other ways they can become very sick.

Water that is not safe to drink is said to be non-potable. Throughout history there have been many occasions when hundreds of thousands of people have died because disease-causing germs have been spread through a community by a polluted water supply.

One of the reasons this happens less frequently now is that people in many countries make sure drinking water supplies are potable. Water supplies are routinely checked for germs and chemicals which can pollute water. If the water is not safe to drink it is treated. All the action taken to make sure that drinking water is potable is called water treatment.

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1.2 Sources of water

There are many ways in which we can collect water. The main sources are discussed below.

Surface water

This is water which falls to the ground as rain or hail.

This water is collected from a special area called a catchment. The catchment feeds water into a holding area via rivers, streams and creeks. The water is then stored in a natural or artificial (manmade) barrier called a dam or reservoir. Dams are usually placed at the lower end of a valley.

Catchment areas are usually far away from towns or cities to lessen the chance of the water being polluted. There are laws which control human activities, such as farming and recreation in catchment areas and on dams to make sure that water supplies are kept potable.

Fig. 6.3: A surface water dam.

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Rivers or lakes

Town or community water supplies are sometimes drawn directly from nearby rivers or lakes.

Fig. 6.4: Rivers and lakes can supply water.


These are found where underground water flows out of the ground naturally without the use of bores, wells or pumps.
Springs often occur towards the bottom of a hill or on sloping ground.

Fig. 6.5: A spring.

Rock catchment areas and rockholes

Sometimes large rocky outcrops contain low areas in which water is trapped. These low areas make good natural dams. Often a wall can be built to increase the amount of trapped water.

Fig. 6.6: A rockhole.

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Excavated dams

Excavated dams are made by scooping out soil to make a large shallow hole. These dams are sometimes placed at the bottom of a slope to aid water collection. However, this can only be done in areas where the soil will not allow the water to drain away very easily through the ground. For example, in clay soils.

Soils which do not allow water to drain away are called impervious.

If a community wants a dam in an area where the soil is not impervious this can still be done by digging the hole and lining it with clay or an impervious liner, such as concrete or heavy plastic. Excavated dams are often used by farmers to supply water to stock.

Fig. 6.7: An excavated dam.

There is often a layer of water lying beneath the ground surface, trapped by an impervious layer of rock which will not allow it to drain away. The water may be close to ground level or it may be deep in the ground. This layer of water is called the water table.

When this water table is close to ground level the water may actually come to the surface and create a permanent wet area called a soak. This usually occurs in low lying areas or hollows.

Soaks are affected by changes in the depth of the water table. That is, if the water table drops then soaks may dry up. Some causes of this can be drought or overuse of ground water by people.

Fig. 6.8: A soak.

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Rainwater tanks

The rainwater which falls on the roofs of houses is often collected using roof guttering leading through a pipe to a storage tank.

Fig. 6.9: A rainwater tank.

Note: EnHealth’s monograph ‘Guidance on use of Rainwater Tanks’ provides the most up-to-date information and advice on the range of potential hazards that can threaten rain water tank water quality. Environmental Health Practitioners are encouraged to use the guide when planning how to prevent these hazards from contaminating rainwater, straightforward monitoring and maintenance activities and, where necessary, corrective actions. The monograph can be found on the enHealth website or by using a search engine with the title of the monograph.

Bores and wells

These are holes drilled into the ground deep enough to find a permanent (long-lasting) body of water. A pipe runs down the hole into the water and a pump is used to get the water up to ground level. The water is then pumped to the community.

Fig. 6.10: A bore.

Artesian bores

Sometimes when a bore is sunk into a low lying area the water gushes out of the hole under its own pressure. This water is under pressure because it is part of an underground body of water much of which is at a higher level than the bore opening. This kind of bore is called an artesian bore.

Fig. 6.11: An artesian bore.

A water supply taken directly from a bore or well is often called groundwater.

The water which comes from any of these sources may be salty, cloudy, smell unpleasant or have germs in it. Water of this kind would require special treatment to make it potable.

15 benefits of drinking water and other water facts

Keeping hydrated is crucial for health and well-being, but many people do not consume enough fluids each day.

Around 60 percent of the body is made up of water, and around 71 percent of the planet’s surface is covered by water.

Perhaps it is the ubiquitous nature of water that means drinking enough each day is not at the top of many people’s lists of priorities.

Fast facts on drinking water

  • Adult humans are 60 percent water, and our blood is 90 percent water.
  • There is no universally agreed quantity of water that must be consumed daily.
  • Water is essential for the kidneys and other bodily functions.
  • When dehydrated, the skin can become more vulnerable to skin disorders and wrinkling.
  • Drinking water instead of soda can help with weight loss.

Share on PinterestPossible benefits of drinking water range from keeping the kidneys healthy to losing weight.

To function properly, all the cells and organs of the body need water.

Here are some reasons our body needs water:

1. It lubricates the joints

Cartilage, found in joints and the disks of the spine, contains around 80 percent water. Long-term dehydration can reduce the joints’ shock-absorbing ability, leading to joint pain.

2. It forms saliva and mucus

Saliva helps us digest our food and keeps the mouth, nose, and eyes moist. This prevents friction and damage. Drinking water also keeps the mouth clean. Consumed instead of sweetened beverages, it can also reduce tooth decay.

3. It delivers oxygen throughout the body

Blood is more than 90 percent water, and blood carries oxygen to different parts of the body.

4. It boosts skin health and beauty

With dehydration, the skin can become more vulnerable to skin disorders and premature wrinkling.

5. It cushions the brain, spinal cord, and other sensitive tissues

Dehydration can affect brain structure and function. It is also involved in the production of hormones and neurotransmitters. Prolonged dehydration can lead to problems with thinking and reasoning.

6. It regulates body temperature

Water that is stored in the middle layers of the skin comes to the skin’s surface as sweat when the body heats up. As it evaporates, it cools the body. In sport.

Some scientists have suggested that when there is too little water in the body, heat storage increases and the individual is less able to tolerate heat strain.

Having a lot of water in the body may reduce physical strain if heat stress occurs during exercise. However, more research is needed into these effects.

7, The digestive system depends on it

The bowel needs water to work properly. Dehydration can lead to digestive problems, constipation, and an overly acidic stomach. This increases the risk of heartburn and stomach ulcers.

8. It flushes body waste

Water is needed in the processes of sweating and removal of urine and feces.

9. It helps maintain blood pressure

A lack of water can cause blood to become thicker, increasing blood pressure.

10. The airways need it

When dehydrated, airways are restricted by the body in an effort to minimize water loss. This can make asthma and allergies worse.

11. It makes minerals and nutrients accessible

These dissolve in water, which makes it possible for them to reach different parts of the body.

12. It prevents kidney damage

The kidneys regulate fluid in the body. Insufficient water can lead to kidney stones and other problems.

13. It boosts performance during exercise

Some scientists have proposed that consuming more water might enhance performance during strenuous activity.

More research is needed to confirm this, but one review found that dehydration reduces performance in activities lasting longer than 30 minutes.

14. Weight loss

Water may also help with weight loss, if it is consumed instead of sweetened juices and sodas. “Preloading” with water before meals can help prevent overeating by creating a sense of fullness.

15. It reduces the chance of a hangover

When partying, unsweetened soda water with ice and lemon alternated with alcoholic drinks can help prevent overconsumption of alcohol.

Water helps dissolve minerals and nutrients, making them more accessible to the body. It also helps remove waste products.

These two functions make water vital to the kidneys.

Every day, the kidneys filter around 120-150 quarts of fluid.

Of these, approximately 1-2 quarts are removed from the body in the form of urine, and the rest is recovered by the bloodstream.

Water is essential for the kidneys to function.

If the kidneys do not function properly, waste products and excess fluid can build up inside the body.

Untreated, chronic kidney disease can lead to kidney failure. The organs stop working, and either dialysis or kidney transplantation is required.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. They account for around 8.1 million visits to health care providers in the U.S. every year.

If infections spread to the upper urinary tract, including the kidneys, permanent damage can result. Sudden, or acute, kidney infections can be life-threatening, particularly if septicemia occurs.

Drinking plenty of water is a simple way to reduce the risk of developing a UTI and to help treat an existing UTI.

Kidney stones interfere with how the kidneys work. When present, can complicate UTIs. These complicated UTIs tend to require longer periods of antibiotics to treat them, typically lasting 7 to 14 days.

The leading cause of kidney stones is a lack of water. People who report them often do not drink the recommended daily amount of water. Kidney stones may also increase the risk of chronic kidney disease.

In November 2014, the American College of Physicians issued new guidelines for people who have previously developed kidney stones. The guidelines state that increasing fluid intake to enable 2 liters of urination a day could decrease the risk of stone recurrence by at least half with no side effects.

Dehydration happens if we use and lose more water than the body takes in. It can lead to an imbalance in the body’s electrolytes. Electrolytes, such as potassium, phosphate, and sodium, help carry electrical signals between cells. The kidneys keep the levels of electrolytes in the body stable when they function properly.

When the kidneys are unable to maintain a balance in the levels of electrolytes, these electrical signals become mixed up. This can lead to seizures, involving involuntary muscle movements and loss of consciousness.

In severe cases, dehydration can lead to kidney failure, which can be life-threatening. Possible complications of chronic kidney failure include anemia, damage to the central nervous system, heart failure, and a compromised immune system.

Some of the water required by the body is obtained through foods with a high water content, such as soups, tomatoes, oranges, but most come through drinking water and other beverages.

During everyday functioning, water is lost by the body, and this needs to be replaced. We notice that we lose water through activities such as sweating and urination, but water is lost even when breathing.

Drinking water, whether from the tap or a bottle, is the best source of fluid for the body.

Milk and juices are also good sources of fluid, but beverages containing alcohol and caffeine, such as soft drinks, coffee, and beer, are not ideal because they often contain empty calories. Drinking water instead of soda can help with weight loss.

It was previously thought that caffeinated beverages had diuretic properties, meaning that they cause the body to release water. However, studies show that fluid loss because of caffeinated drinks is minimal.

The amount of water needed each day varies from person to person, depending on how active they are, how much they sweat, and so on.

There is no fixed amount of water that must be consumed daily, but there is general agreement on what a healthy fluid intake is.

According to the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the average recommended daily intake of water from both food and drink is:

This would be around 15.5 cups for men and just over 11 cups for women. However, around 80 percent of this should come from drinks, including water, and the rest will be from food.

This means that:

  • Men should drink around 100 ounces, or 12.5 cups of fluid
  • Women should drink around 73 ounces, or just over 9 cups

Fresh fruits and vegetables and all non-alcoholic fluids count towards this recommendation.

Times when it is most important to drink plenty of water include:

  • when you have a fever
  • when the weather is hot
  • if you have diarrhea and vomiting
  • when you sweat a lot, for example, due to physical activity

Here are some facts about water:

  • Babies and children have a higher percentage of water than adults. When babies are born, they are about 78 percent water, but this falls to 65 percent by the age of 1 year.
  • Fatty tissue has less water than lean tissue.
  • Men have more water than women, as a percentage.

Do we drink enough water?

A study carried out by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2013 analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey.

Out of a sample of 3,397 adults, the researchers found:

  • 7 percent of adults reported no daily consumption of drinking water
  • 36 percent of adults reported drinking 1-3 cups of drinking water a day
  • 35 percent of adults reported drinking 4-7 cups of drinking water a day
  • 22 percent of adults reported drinking 8 cups or more a day

People were more likely to drink less than 4 cups of drinking water daily if they consumed 1 cup or less of fruits or vegetables a day.

The study only measured the intake of drinking water. Fluid can be gained from other beverages, but water is best because it is calorie-free, caffeine-free, and alcohol-free.

Seven percent of respondents reported drinking no water at all daily, and those who drank a low volume of water also consumed less fruit and vegetables. This suggests that a certain number of people are risking their health by not getting enough fluid.

Even if the respondents reporting low levels of water intake were obtaining enough fluid, it is likely that they would be obtaining it from sources that could potentially compromise their health in other ways.

“The biologic requirement for water may be met with plain water or via foods and other beverages,” write the study authors. “Results from previous epidemiologic studies indicate that water intake may be inversely related to volume of calorically sweetened beverages and other fluid intake.”

Importance of water and human health


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“I’m dying of thirst!”

Well, you just might. It sounds so simple. h3O – two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. This substance also known as water, is one of the most essential elements to health and is so important that your body actually has a specific drought management system in place to prevent dehydration and ensure your survival. Water might be everywhere, but one must never take it for granted.

Water makes up more than two thirds of human body weight, and without water, we would die in a few days. The human brain is made up of 95% water, blood is 82% and lungs 90%. A mere 2% drop in our body’s water supply can trigger signs of dehydration: fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on smaller print, such as a computer screen. (Are you having trouble reading this? Drink up!) Mild dehydration is also one of the most common causes of daytime fatigue. An estimated 75% of Americans have mild, chronic dehydration. Pretty scary statistic for a developed country where water is readily available through the tap or bottle water.

Water is important to the mechanics of the human body. The body cannot work without it, just as a car cannot run without gas and oil, or EV without electricity. In fact, all the cell and organ functions that make up our entire anatomy and physiology depend on water for their functioning.

Water serves as a lubricant to your body

Water serves as a lubricant in digestion and almost all other body processes. The water in our saliva helps facilitate chewing and swallowing, ensuring that food will slide easily down the esophagus. Water also lubricates our joints and cartilages and allows them to (pardon the pun) move more fluidly. When dehydrated, the body rations water away from the joints. Less lubrication equals greater friction and that can cause joint, knee and back pain potentially leading to injuries and arthritis. Even our eyeballs need plenty of lubrication to work well and remain healthy.

Water regulates your body temperature

Our bodies can control over-heating through perspiration from sweat glands in the skin and from evaporation which produces a cooling effect. Blood is also routed into areas close to the surface of the skin where it can be cooled and then carried back to the interior of the body. Conversing in a cold environment, the skin maintains proper body temperature by shunting the blood away from the exterior surface thereby conserving heat within the body. The movement of water within our cellular systems also transports vital blood plasma which is 92% made of water. Blood plasma play a critical role in buffering the body’s pH, circulating antibodies from the immune system, and regulating osmotic balance which all helps to maintain proper body temperature. Moreover, dehydration limits cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses. This could lead to an increase of core temperature.

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Read Next:
Are You Drinking Enough Water?


Water and Healthier Drinks | Healthy Weight, Nutrition, and Physical Activity

Water and Nutrition

Getting enough water every day is important for your health. Drinking water can prevent dehydration, a condition that can cause unclear thinking, result in mood change, cause your body to overheat, and lead to constipation and kidney stones.

Water helps your body:

  • Keep a normal temperature
  • Lubricate and cushion joints
  • Protect your spinal cord and other sensitive tissues
  • Get rid of wastes through urination, perspiration, and bowel movements

Your body needs more water when you are:

  • In hot climates
  • More physically active
  • Running a fever
  • Having diarrhea or vomiting

Most of your fluid needs are met through the water and beverages you drink. You can get some fluids through the foods that you eat – especially foods with high water content, such as many fruits and vegetables.

Tips to Drink More Water

  • Carry a water bottle with you and refill it throughout the day.
  • Freeze some freezer safe water bottles. Take one with you for ice-cold water all day long.
  • Choose water over sugary drinks.
  • Opt for water when eating out. You’ll save money and reduce calories.
  • Serve water during meals.
  • Add a wedge of lime or lemon to your water. This can help improve the taste and help you drink more water than you usually do.
  • Make sure your kids are getting enough water too. Learn more about drinking water in schools and early care and education settings pdf icon[PDF-3.68MB].

Healthier Drink Options

Of course there are many other beverage options besides water, and many of these can be part of a healthy diet.  Beverages vary in their nutrient and calorie content.

Low or no calorie beverages
Plain coffee or teas, sparkling water, seltzers, and flavored waters, are low calorie choices that can be  part of a healthy diet.

Drinks with calories and important nutrients
Low fat or fat-free milk, fortified milk alternatives such as unflavored soy or almond milks, or 100% fruit or vegetable juice contain important nutrients such as calcium, potassium, or vitamin D. These drinks should be enjoyed within recommended calorie limits.

Other Beverages

Sugary drinks: Regular sodas, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, sweetened waters, and sweetened coffee and tea beverages, contain calories but little nutritional valuepdf iconexternal icon. Learn how to rethink your drink.

Alcoholic drinks: If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation.

Caffeinated drinks: moderate caffeine consumption (up to 400mg per day) can be a part of a healthy dietpdf iconexternal icon. That’s up to about 3-5 cups of plain coffee.

Drinks with sugar alternatives: Drinks that are labeled “sugar-free” or “diet” likely contain high-intensity sweeteners, such as sucralose, aspartame, or saccharine. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, “replacing added sugars with high-intensity sweeteners may reduce calorie intake in the short-term…yet questions remain about their effectiveness as a long-term weight management strategypdf iconexternal icon.” Learn more about high-intensity sweetenersexternal icon.

Sports drinks: these are flavored beverages that often contain carbohydrates, minerals, electrolytes, and sometimes vitaminsexternal icon. The average person should drink water, not sports drinks, to rehydrate.

Biological Roles of Water: Why is water necessary for life?

by Molly Sargen
figures by Daniel Utter

Water makes up 60-75% of human body weight. A loss of just 4% of total body water leads to dehydration, and a loss of 15% can be fatal. Likewise, a person could survive a month without food but wouldn’t survive 3 days without water. This crucial dependence on water broadly governs all life forms.  Clearly water is vital for survival, but what makes it so necessary?

The Molecular Make-up of Water

Many of water’s roles in supporting life are due to its molecular structure and a few special properties. Water is a simple molecule composed of two small, positively charged hydrogen atoms and one large negatively charged oxygen atom. When the hydrogens bind to the oxygen, it creates an asymmetrical molecule with positive charge on one side and negative charge on the other side (Figure 1). This charge differential is called polarity and dictates how water interacts with other molecules.

Figure 1: Water Chemistry. Water molecules are made of two hydrogens and one oxygen. These atoms are of different sizes and charges, which creates the asymmetry in the molecular structure and leads to strong bonds between water and other polar molecules, including water itself.

Water is the “Universal Solvent”

As a polar molecule, water interacts best with other polar molecules, such as itself. This is because of the phenomenon wherein opposite charges attract one another: because each individual water molecule has both a negative portion and a positive portion, each side is attracted to molecules of the opposite charge. This attraction allows water to form relatively strong connections, called bonds, with other polar molecules around it, including other water molecules. In this case, the positive hydrogen of one water molecule will bond with the negative oxygen of the adjacent molecule, whose own hydrogens are attracted to the next oxygen, and so on (Figure 1). Importantly, this bonding makes water molecules stick together in a property called cohesion. The cohesion of water molecules helps plants take up water at their roots. Cohesion also contributes to water’s high boiling point, which helps animals regulate body temperature.

Furthermore, since most biological molecules have some electrical asymmetry, they too are polar and water molecules can form bonds with and surround both their positive and negative regions. In the act of surrounding the polar molecules of another substance, water wriggles its way into all the nooks and crannies between molecules, effectively breaking it apart are dissolving it. This is what happens when you put sugar crystals into water: both water and sugar are polar, allowing individual water molecules to surround individual sugar molecules, breaking apart the sugar and dissolving it. Similar to polarity, some molecules are made of ions, or oppositely charged particles.  Water breaks apart these ionic molecules as well by interacting with both the positively and negatively charged particles. This is what happens when you put salt in water, because salt is composed of sodium and chloride ions.

Water’s extensive capability to dissolve a variety of molecules has earned it the designation of “universal solvent,” and it is this ability that makes water such an invaluable life-sustaining force.   On a biological level, water’s role as a solvent helps cells transport and use substances like oxygen or nutrients. Water-based solutions like blood help carry molecules to the necessary locations. Thus, water’s role as a solvent facilitates the transport of molecules like oxygen for respiration and has a major impact on the ability of drugs to reach their targets in the body. 

Water Supports Cellular Structure

Water also has an important structural role in biology. Visually, water fills cells to help maintain shape and structure (Figure 2). The water inside many cells (including those that make up the human body) creates pressure that opposes external forces, similar to putting air in a balloon. However, even some plants, which can maintain their cell structure without water, still require water to survive. Water allows everything inside cells to have the right shape at the molecular level. As shape is critical for biochemical processes, this is also one of water’s most important roles.

Figure 2: Water impacts cell shape. Water creates pressure inside the cell that helps it maintain shape. In the hydrated cell (left), the water pushes outward and the cell maintains a round shape. In the dehydrated cell, there is less water pushing outward so the cell becomes wrinkled.

Water also contributes to the formation of membranes surrounding cells. Every cell on Earth is surrounded by a membrane, most of which are formed by two layers of molecules called phospholipids (Figure 3). The phospholipids, like water, have two distinct components: a polar “head” and a nonpolar “tail.” Due to this, the polar heads interact with water, while the nonpolar tails try to avoid water and interact with each other instead. Seeking these favorable interactions, phospholipids spontaneously form bilayers with the heads facing outward towards the surrounding water and the tails facing inward, excluding water. The bilayer surrounds cells and selectively allows substances like salts and nutrients to enter and exit the cell. The interactions involved in forming the membrane are strong enough that the membranes form spontaneously and aren’t easily disrupted. Without water, cell membranes would lack structure, and without proper membrane structure, cells would be unable to keep important molecules inside the cell and harmful molecules outside the cell.

Figure 3: Phospholipid bilayers. Phospholipids form bilayers surrounded by water. The polar heads face outward to interact with water and the hydrophobic tails face inward to avoid interacting with water.

In addition to influencing the overall shape of cells, water also impacts some fundamental components of every cell: DNA and proteins. Proteins are produced as a long chain of building blocks called amino acids and  need to fold into a specific shape to function correctly. Water drives the folding of amino acid chains as different types of amino acids seek and avoid interacting with water. Proteins provide structure, receive signals, and catalyze chemical reactions in the cell. In this way, proteins are the workhorses of cells. Ultimately proteins drive contraction of muscles, communication, digestion of nutrients, and many other vital functions. Without the proper shape, proteins would be unable to perform these functions and a cell (let alone an entire human) could not survive. Similarly, DNA needs to be in a specific shape for its instructions to be properly decoded. Proteins that read or copy DNA can only bind DNA that has a particular shape. Water molecules surround DNA in an ordered fashion to support its characteristic double-helix conformation. Without this shape, cells would be unable to follow the careful instructions encoded by DNA or to pass the instructions onto future cells, making human growth, reproduction, and, ultimately, survival infeasible . 

Chemical Reactions of Water

Water is directly involved in many chemical reactions to build and break down important components of the cell. Photosynthesis, the process in plants that creates sugars for all life forms, requires water. Water also participates in building larger molecules in cells. Molecules like DNA and proteins are made of repetitive units of smaller molecules. Putting these small molecules together occurs through a reaction that produces water. Conversely, water is required for the reverse reaction that breaks down these molecules, allowing cells to obtain nutrients or repurpose pieces of big molecules. 

Additionally, water buffers cells from the dangerous effects of acids and bases. Highly acidic or basic substances, like bleach or hydrochloric acid, are corrosive to even the most durable materials. This is because acids and bases release excess hydrogens or take up excess hydrogens, respectively, from the surrounding materials.  Losing or gaining positively-charged hydrogens disrupts the structure of molecules. As we’ve learned, proteins require a specific structure to function properly, so it’s important to protect them from acids and bases. Water does this by acting as both an acid and a base (Figure 4). Although the chemical bonds within a water molecule are very stable, it’s possible for a water molecule to give up a hydrogen and become OH–, thus acting as a base, or accept another hydrogen and become h4O+, thus acting as an acid. This adaptability allows water to combat drastic changes of pH due to acidic or basic substances in the body in a process called buffering. Ultimately, this protects proteins and other molecules in the cell.

Figure 4: Water acts as a buffer by releasing or accepting hydrogen atoms.

In conclusion, water is vital for all life. Its versatility and adaptability help perform important chemical reactions. Its simple molecular structure helps maintain important shapes for cells’ inner components and outer membrane. No other molecule matches water when it comes to unique properties that support life. Excitingly, researchers continue to establish new properties of water such as additional effects of its asymmetrical structure. Scientists have yet to determine the physiological impacts of these properties. It’s amazing how a simple molecule is universally important for organisms with diverse needs. 

Molly Sargen is a first-year PhD Student in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program at Harvard Medical School.

Dan Utter is a fifth-year PhD student in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. 

For More Information:

  • To learn more about the importance of drug solubility see this article. 
  • Check out these articles for more information about proteins and how water impacts their folding.
  • Learn more about phospholipids here. 
  • Learn more about water affects DNA structure here.
  • Learn more about acids and bases here. 
  • Check out the unique properties of water at this page or recently discovered properties of water at this article.

This article is part of our special edition on water. To read more, check out our special edition homepage!

90,000 Water Facts

Water itself has no nutritional value, but it is an indispensable part of all living things. None of the living organisms on our planet can exist without water.

All living plant and animal creatures consist of water:
fish – by 75%; jellyfish – by 99%; potatoes – by 76%; apples – by 85%; tomatoes – 90%; cucumbers – by 95%; watermelons – by 96%.

In general, the human body consists by weight of 50-86% of water (86% in a newborn and up to 50% in the elderly).The water content in different parts of the body is: bones – 20-30%; liver – up to 69%; muscles – up to 70%; brain – up to 75%; kidneys – up to 82%; blood – up to 85%.

This circumstance allowed the science fiction writer V. Savchenko to declare that a person “has much more reason to consider himself a liquid than, say, a forty percent solution of caustic soda”.

Throughout his life, a person deals with water every day. He uses it for drinking and food, for washing, in summer for rest, in winter for heating.
For humans, water is a more valuable natural resource than coal, oil, gas, iron, because it is irreplaceable.

A person can live without food for about 50 days, if during a hunger strike he drinks fresh water, without water he will not live even a week – death will come in 5 days. According to medical experiments, with a loss of moisture in the amount of 6-8% of the body weight, a person falls into a semi-faint state, with a loss of 10%, hallucinations begin, with 12% a person cannot recover without special medical care, and with a loss of 20%, inevitable death occurs. …

In the human body, water:

  • humidifies breathing oxygen;
  • regulates body temperature;
  • helps the body absorb nutrients;
  • protects vital organs;
  • lubricates joints;
  • helps convert food into energy;
  • participates in the metabolism;
  • removes various wastes from the body.

A person begins to feel thirsty when the amount of water in his body decreases by 1-2% (0.5-1.0 liters).Loss of 10% moisture from body weight can lead to irreversible changes in the body, and the loss of 20% (7 – 8 liters) is already fatal.

An ordinary person loses 2-3 liters of water per day. In hot weather, with high humidity, water consumption increases during sports. Even through breathing, a person loses almost half a liter of water every day.

The correct drinking regime implies the preservation of the physiological water balance – this is the balancing of the intake and formation of water with its release.

The daily need for an adult in water is 30-40 grams per 1 kg of body weight. Approximately 40% of the body’s daily need for water is met with food, the rest should be taken in the form of various drinks. In the summer, you need to consume 2 – 2.5 liters of water daily. In hot regions of the planet – 3. 5 – 5.0 liters per day, and at an air temperature of 38-40C and low humidity, those working in the open air will need 6.0 – 6.5 liters of water per day. At the same time, you cannot be guided by whether you are thirsty or not, since this reflex occurs too late and is not an adequate indicator of how much water your body needs.
It is interesting to know that cereals contain up to 80% water, bread – about 50%, meat – 58-67%, vegetables and fruits – up to 90% water, i.e. “Dry” food consists of 50-60% water.

And about 3% (0.3 l) of water is formed as a result of biochemical processes in the body itself.
According to some estimates, over 60 years of life, a person drinks about 50 tons of water – a whole cistern!
By participating in the metabolism, water helps to reduce fat accumulation and weight. Many of those who want to lose weight believe that their body retains water and try to drink less of it.However, water is a natural diuretic and, if you drink it, you will lose weight.

If the body receives a sufficient amount of water, then a person becomes more energetic and resilient. It is easier for him to control his weight, since digestion is improved, and when you are drawn to snack, it is often enough to just drink water to reduce your appetite. Symptoms of dehydration are dry skin (may be itchy), fatigue, poor concentration, headaches, increased blood pressure, poor kidney function, dry cough, back and joint pain.

Research has already proven that drinking enough water can minimize back pain, migraines, rheumatic pains, and lower blood cholesterol and blood pressure, thereby reducing the likelihood of a heart attack. Drinking enough water is one of the best ways to prevent kidney stones. Since water does not contain salts, fat, cholesterol and caffeine, it is eliminated from the body in a different way.

German scientists, after conducting tests on student volunteers, came to the conclusion that those who drink more water and drinks show more endurance and a penchant for creativity than those who drink less.

Regular water intake improves thinking and brain coordination. The brain and the entire body will be sufficiently charged with the necessary substances if the water we drink is of high quality, that is, it is rich in minerals. A healthy person should not limit himself to drinking, but it is much more beneficial to drink often and little by little.It is harmful to drink a lot of liquid at once, since all the liquid is absorbed into the bloodstream, and until its excess is excreted from the body by the kidneys, the heart receives an excessive load.

Thus, we can conclude that the role of water for humans is enormous. Today, each person can create for himself the conditions for maintaining priceless water balance through the correct organization of the drinking regimen.

Water | Tervisliku toitumise informatsioon

Water is the main element of the human body, vital for the functioning of organs and thermoregulation.More substances dissolve in water than in any other solvent.

Water is the main element of the human body, vital for the functioning of organs and thermoregulation. More substances dissolve in water than in any other solvent. Most of the chemical reactions that take place in our cells require water. Water is needed to transport nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body. It helps convert food into energy and assimilate nutrients.Water maintains a stable body temperature and protects vital organs, is involved in maintaining the shape of cells and organs, and is important for skin health. Water helps the body get rid of waste: with sweat and urine, many toxins come out, water (tears, saliva) washes away and dilutes caustic substances. Water also promotes breathing.

Water makes up about 2/3 of our body weight. The amount of water in the body depends on age, in infants it is 75%, in adolescents 65%, in adults 60% and in the elderly 55% of body weight.

The amount of water in the body is inversely proportional to the amount of adipose tissue; with severe obesity, its amount even drops to 40% of the body weight. Approximately 2/3 of all water in the body is contained inside cells and 1/3 outside them. The regulation of water balance is closely related to electrolytic balance. If there is too much water in the body, more liquid urine is excreted, and if the concentration of electrolytes in body fluids becomes too high, the center of thirst in the brain is stimulated, which leads to a feeling of thirst, and the excretion of water by the kidneys decreases.Fluid loss occurs in urine and feces, and it also evaporates through the skin and respiratory tract. In a healthy adult, the daily amount of urine exceeds 600 ml and is normally 1–2.5 liters. With feces, 100-200 ml per day is usually excreted, but this amount increases markedly with diarrhea. Due to evaporation in a temperate climate, a person loses an average of 300-500 ml of water per day per 1 m 2 of body surface. Sweat losses are usually small, but they increase to several liters per day in hot and humid environments or even in moderate conditions with hard physical work.

Water requirement

Most healthy people satisfy their daily water requirement, focusing on the feeling of thirst. For healthy people, there are no precise recommendations regarding water consumption, since the need for water has noticeable individual differences and is determined by physical activity and climatic conditions.

The need for water depends on many physiological and activity-related circumstances:
  • age,
  • nature of work and activities,
  • health conditions,
  • local climate,
  • excessive sweating (hot weather, hard physical work),
  • increased salt intake.

Thirst, as a rule, occurs in a person when the body does not get enough water, loses a lot of fluids or gets too much mineral salts, especially table salt, from food. The water requirement of an adult is 28–35 ml per kilogram of body weight (approximately 1 ml per 1 kcal of food energy). Almost all foods contain more or less water.

With a normal diet, most of the water comes from food (approx. 1–1.2 liters):
  • from fruits and vegetables,
  • soups,
  • tea,
  • coffee,
  • juices and other drinks.

In the course of metabolism, an additional 300–350 ml of water is formed. Thus, an adult who observes dietary recommendations can drink an additional 2-3 glasses of water per day (according to the international standard, the volume of a glass is 220 ml).

Drinking water without additives should always be preferred to quench your thirst. The need for water in infants and children is relatively higher, since the water content in their bodies is also higher. If children and adolescents, regardless of age, are thirsty, they should always be given a drink, since the desire to drink the body already signals thirst.

Caffeine removes water primarily from those who do not consume it (coffee, cola drinks, energy drinks) regularly. Alcohol (with the exception of moderate amounts of beer and wine) also removes water from the body.

Moderate dehydration, which is defined as a loss of 1-2% of body weight due to fluid loss, is accompanied by headache, feeling of weakness, loss of appetite and dizziness. Dehydration by 3-5% of body weight lowers resistance and strength and leads to severe exhaustion.Dehydration by 15–25% of body weight is fatal. Acute poisoning is described when a large amount of liquid is taken in a short time, exceeding the maximum rate of its excretion by the kidneys: 0.7-1 liter / hour.

Water content in products:

• in vegetables on average 93% (for example, in cucumbers 97%),
• in juices and milk 89%,
• in fruits 86%,
• in potatoes 79%
• in meat 68%,
• in bread, cheese, butter, flour, nuts less than 50%.

What else is useful to know about water:

• Pure water and mineral water do not provide energy, but with flavoring or vitamin additives, they may contain a small amount of sugar and thus provide energy. Read on the packaging!
• Long-term excessive water intake puts stress on the heart and kidneys.
• When drinking mineral water, it is important to monitor the content of minerals in it.
• In case of perspiration, slightly salty water is an ideal drink that also replenishes the body’s salt supply.
• Caffeinated coffee, tea and cola drinks, and alcoholic beverages increase the excretion of water from the body, speeding up kidney function and increasing sweating.

The role of water in human life

It is well known that water is the source of life.

For human life, water, along with air, occupies one of the most important places in maintaining life and health. A person (like any living organism) consisting of more than 70% water, can live without it for a very short time. Water is needed for all living things – animals, birds, plants and even microorganisms. If there is no water, there will be no life on Earth; including due to lack of food, tk. plants without water will not grow and survive, farm animals, birds also need water, not to mention the fact that fish only live in water.Thus, a person needs water not only by itself, but also as a means for the production of food.

On the surface of our Earth, as well as in the atmosphere, there is a huge amount of water; and most of it is not land, but water. But, unfortunately, there is not so much water suitable for drinking purposes (water in the oceans and seas contains a large amount of salt and it is almost impossible to drink it without desalination, and desalination is very costly), and it is distributed unevenly around the globe.Fortunately, the territory of the Russian Federation has sufficient supplies of fresh water (potable) water.

Water is essential for the normal functioning of the body, as it delivers oxygen and nutrients to the cells; allows you to process food into energy, removes toxins and waste from our body; participates in the regulation of body temperature.

Water helps the food we eat to be quickly digested and absorbed by the body.Water serves as a lubricant for our joints and also regulates and maintains our body temperature.

Despite the fact that water has no energy value (it contains no proteins, fats and carbohydrates), it is necessary to dissolve vitamins necessary for normal human life, including:

C- participates in redox reactions, the functioning of the immune system, promotes the absorption of iron.Deficiency leads to looseness and bleeding of the gums, nosebleeds due to increased permeability and fragility of the blood capillaries.

B1 (thiamine) – in the form of thiamine diphosphate formed from it, it is a part of the most important enzymes of carbohydrate and energy metabolism, which provide the body with energy and plastic substances, as well as the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. Lack of this vitamin leads to serious disorders of the nervous, digestive and cardiovascular systems.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) – in the form of coenzymes, participates in redox reactions, increases the color sensitivity of the visual analyzer and dark adaptation. Insufficient intake of vitamin B2 is accompanied by a violation of the condition of the skin, mucous membranes, impaired light and twilight vision.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) – in the form of its coenzymes, it participates in the conversion of amino acids, the metabolism of tryptophan, lipids and nucleic acids, participates in the maintenance of the immune response, participates in the processes of inhibition and excitation in the central nervous system, contributes to the normal formation of red blood cells, maintenance of a normal level of homocysteine ​​in blood.Insufficient intake of vitamin B6 is accompanied by a decrease in appetite, a violation of the condition of the skin, the development of homocysteinemia, anemia.

Niacin as a coenzyme is involved in the redox reactions of energy metabolism. Insufficient vitamin intake is accompanied by disruption of the normal state of the skin, gastrointestinal tract and nervous system.

B12 plays an important role in the metabolism and conversion of amino acids.Folate and vitamin B12 are interrelated vitamins and are involved in hematopoiesis. Lack of vitamin B12 leads to the development of partial or secondary folate deficiency, as well as anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.

Folates – as a coenzyme are involved in the metabolism of nucleic and amino acids. Folate deficiency leads to disruption of the synthesis of nucleic acids and protein, resulting in inhibition of cell growth and division, especially in rapidly proliferating tissues: bone marrow, intestinal epithelium, etc.Insufficient consumption of folate during pregnancy is one of the causes of prematurity, malnutrition, congenital malformations and developmental disorders of the child. A strong association has been shown between folate and homocysteine ​​levels and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Pantothenic acid – participates in protein, fat, carbohydrate metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, the synthesis of a number of hormones, hemoglobin, promotes the absorption of amino acids and sugars in the intestine, supports the function of the adrenal cortex.Lack of pantothenic acid can lead to damage to the skin and mucous membranes.

Biotin – participates in the synthesis of fats, glycogen, the metabolism of amino acids. Insufficient intake of this vitamin can lead to disruption of the normal state of the skin.

About 2 liters of fluid are excreted from our body every day. Moisture is released through the skin, urinary system, intestines and lungs; therefore, water supplies must be replenished in a timely manner, including so that dehydration does not occur (manifested by fatigue, muscle and headaches, thirst, in severe cases, loss of consciousness).

Drink water evenly throughout the day. You should not compensate for the loss of water with tea or coffee, because they have diuretic properties. It is necessary to drink without waiting for dry mouth, thirst (at this time dehydration has already occurred), do not drink a glass or a mug of water in one gulp – it is better to drink several times at regular intervals (including during breaks in work) sips. During heavy physical exertion, in hot climates and other conditions, there may be a need for increased consumption of drinking water, therefore, if there is no free access to drinking water, then during sports, in hiking conditions, when staying in conditions of high air temperature, etc. …it is necessary to have a sufficient amount of drinking water with you (do not use sugary carbonated drinks for this purpose, which supply the body with unnecessary additional amount of sugar and contribute to dehydration).

In nature, water plays an essential role. The water of oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and others (including artificially created reservoirs) plays a very important role in creating the global climate, as well as the climate of a particular area. Water plays a key role in the process of photosynthesis.Without water, plants would not be able to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen, which means that the air would be unfit for breathing.

Water is needed to provide a person with food (growing crops and animals, birds), for domestic needs, for personal hygiene, for the production of electricity, for heat supply (central heating) of residential, public buildings and industrial enterprises, for pest control / x crops, pathogens of infectious diseases (for disinfection), harmful insects (disinsection), to increase soil fertility when applying mineral fertilizers, etc.

Access to water resources is an important factor in the life support of any state, and sometimes leads to conflicts (tribal, interstate – especially in deserts).

It is important for humanity not only to have access to drinking water, the waters of the world’s oceans, but also to preserve this priceless wealth!

FBUZ “Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Voronezh Region”. 2019

Based on materials from the site: korotoyak.ru

Water is the source of life!

The importance of water for humans can hardly be overestimated, since each of us knows that the body of an adult is 70% water, which is present in all his tissues. This figure varies depending on the age of the person. If this is a newborn baby, then 80%, but over the years the figure drops to 75%. And by the end of life, the volume is 65-60%. Since ancient times, people have appreciated water, for its useful, unique, healing abilities , using baths , rubdowns, mineral baths, they worshiped it, giving it a special mysterious, magical meaning.In addition, a person without water, at the usual temperature of (16-23 degrees), will not be able to live even for 10 days.

This is the second after oxygen component necessary for the survival of all living things.

What is the role of water in the human body

Regular fluid intake has a beneficial effect on overall health and has a very important role for the normal functioning of all body systems:

  • improves digestion , food assimilation
  • regulates body temperature and blood circulation
  • the supply of nutrients and oxygen to cells is normalized
  • excreted toxins

In addition, it improves joint mobility and helps protect tissues and organs in the body.

What useful functions does water perform in the body

  • Normalizes the digestive process

Drinking water plays an important role in the digestion of solid food .

The digestive system depends on an adequate amount of liquid to process food. The acids and enzymes in the stomach require a balance of water to turn the incoming food into a homogeneous liquid. Lack of fluid can lead to frequent symptoms such as heartburn and constipation. Drinking prevents these symptoms and normalizes the digestive process.

  • Improves blood circulation

Drinking plenty of fluids maintains a normal amount of fluid and promotes good blood circulation . In addition, water allows a variety of nutrients and oxygen to be transported to cells and toxins removed.

Moreover, it affects the process of thermoregulation and allows you to retain heat.For normal life, all systems must function correctly.

  • Protects joints and organs from destruction

Drinking water improves joint mobility and protects other organs and tissues. There is cartilage between the joints. It acts as a cushion between the bones, allowing normal movement.

  • Prevents dehydration

Drinking plentiful allows you to maintain a normal amount of fluid in the body.Dehydration is devastating. A lack of fluid in the body (dehydration) can cause the following side effects :

  • joint pain
  • stomach problems, ulcers
  • back pain
  • dizziness
  • feeling disorientated and confused

With insufficient water intake, the body begins to consume it. If you do not maintain a constant water balance , many physiological functions are at risk.Dehydration is not always easy to recognize and may not show up most of the time. Many people remember this only in a state of thirst . However, this is not an accurate indicator of water demand. It is very important to drink more than is required to quench your thirst.

How much water should a person drink per day?

The norm for an average person is 2-3 liters per day, considering that 15 kg body weight should account for 0. 5 L . Therefore, the more a person weighs, the more he needs to drink H 2 O, for the normal functioning of all body systems. For example, a person weighing 75 kg must drink at least 2.5 liters , and a person weighing 90 kg is no less than 3 liters .

Thus, the rate of human water consumption will depend on:

  1. Body weight (everything is simple, the more a person’s weight, the more water you need to drink)
  2. Energy expenditures (the active population of the planet, which regularly engages in sports, physical activity, as well as the working class of the population doing hard work in harsh, hot conditions, needs much more water consumption)
  3. Climatic conditions (in countries with hot climates, as well as in conditions of high temperatures outside, a person through sweat, loses a significant amount of fluid, in order to avoid disruption in the functioning of the body, it is necessary to increase the daily water intake)
  4. The state of the body (when a person is sick, doctors often recommend him to drink more fluids, so that the water removes as much toxins, metabolic products as possible, naturally and through sweat from the body)

It is important to learn to listen to your body , he himself will tell you how much and in what quantity you need to consume liquid.Usually the body needs water even when there is no thirst.

As for temperature of water, it is better to give preference to warm , since it is absorbed much better than cold water. Another way to determine your water intake is to check the color of urine . The lighter the shade, the better.

Drinking water is the key to a healthy lifestyle. Otherwise, the body will begin to collapse . It is needed for various functions of the body, so keeping track of the rate is extremely important.

Drinking plenty of water on a regular basis will help improve your health and make you feel much better.

When is the best time to drink water?

Hiromi Shinya in his book “The book about the dangers of healthy eating, or How to live up to 100 years without getting sick”, tells how to drink water.

If you drink water BEFORE EATING, your appetite decreases as the stomach fills with fluid.

But if you drink water WHILE EATING, the process of assimilation of food becomes difficult, since food enzymes in the stomach turn out to be diluted with water.

If you do not want fluid to travel up your esophagus, do not drink BEFORE BREAKING. Once in the stomach, water mixes with gastric juice. When a person takes a horizontal position, this mixture rises up the esophagus, enters the trachea and is inhaled along with the air. So there is a risk of getting pneumonia.

It is best to drink water in the MORNING, immediately after waking up, and also 1 hour before each meal – this is the best way to satisfy the body’s need for fluid.

Water is essential for the body. Nothing grows in the desert precisely because there is no water – every plant needs sunlight, earth, and water. The nutrients of the most fertile soil can only be absorbed by plants with water.

Get into the habit of quenching your thirst not with beer, tea, Coca-Cola or coffee, but with GOOD CLEAN WATER and live a long and disease-free life.

Prepared by Galina Mikhalchenko

based on materials from websites

Water in human life

Water – at first glance, the simplest chemical compound of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom – is, without any exaggeration, the basis of life on Earth.It is no coincidence that scientists, in search of life forms on other planets of the solar system, devote so much effort to finding traces of water.

In our daily life, we are constantly faced with water. At the same time, paraphrasing a song from an old movie, we can say that we “drink water” and “pour water”. We will talk about these two aspects of human water use.

Food water

Household water

Food water

By itself, water has no nutritional value, but it is an indispensable part of all living things.Plants contain up to 90% water, while the body of an adult consists of about 60 – 65% of it. Having gone into the details, it can be noted that bones contain 22% water, the brain 75%, while blood consists of it as much as 92%.

The primary role of water in the life of all living beings, including humans, is due to the fact that it is a universal solvent for a huge amount of chemicals. Those. in fact, it is the environment in which all life processes take place.

Here is just a small and far from complete list of the “duties” of water in our body.


  1. Regulates body temperature.

  2. Humidifies the air.

  3. Provides the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to all cells of the body.

  4. Protects and buffers vital organs.

  5. Helps convert food into energy.

  6. Helps nutrients to be absorbed by the organs.

  7. Disposes of slags and waste of vital processes.

A definite and constant water content is a necessary condition for the existence of a living organism. When the amount of water consumed and its salt composition changes, the processes of digestion and assimilation of food, hematopoiesis, etc. are disrupted. Without water, it is impossible to regulate heat exchange between the body and the environment and maintain body temperature.

A person is extremely acutely aware of the change in the water content in his body and can live without it for only a few days. With a loss of water in an amount of less than 2% of body weight (1-1.5 l), a feeling of thirst appears, with a loss of 6-8%, a semi-fainting state occurs, with 10% – hallucinations, impaired swallowing. Loss of 10-20% of water is life-threatening. Animals die when 20-25% of water is lost.

Excessive consumption of water leads to an overload of the cardiovascular system, causes exhausting sweating, accompanied by loss of salts, weakens the body.

Depending on the intensity of work, external conditions (including climate), cultural traditions, a person in total (together with food) consumes from 2 to 4 liters of water per day and the same amount of water is excreted from the body (for more details see “Drinking regime and the balance of water in the body “and the article” To drink or not drink – that is the question “from the magazine” Health “in our” Digest “). The average daily consumption is about 2-2.5 liters. It is from these figures that the World Health Organization (WHO) proceeds when developing recommendations for water quality (See.”Water quality parameters”).

The mineral composition of the water is of no small importance. For constant drinking and cooking, fresh water with a total mineralization of up to 0.5 – 1 g / l is suitable. Although, of course, in limited quantities it is possible (and sometimes even useful, for example, for medicinal purposes) the use of mineral water with high salt content (about which water is “suitable” for which diseases, see the article “Each disease has its own water” in our “Digest “). The human body quickly adapts to changes in the salt composition of drinking water.However, the process of getting used to it takes some time. Therefore, with a sharp (and even more frequent) change in the characteristics of water, disturbances in the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, popularly known as the “disease of travelers”, are possible.

In general, the question of what nutrients and in what quantities should be contained in water in the media is given a lot of attention. This problem is really very important, but, unfortunately, there is too much speculation and profanation around it.

Even very reputable publications allow themselves to publish somewhat irresponsibly information such as: “a person gets up to 25% of useful minerals from water” and other, to put it mildly, information that does not fully correspond to reality. A classic of the genre “I heard the ringing, but I don’t know where it is” – article “Capital water …” by Mrs. Ekaterina Bychkova in “AiF-Moscow” №37’99.

Our point of view on this issue can be found in the section “Water and useful minerals”.

We also recommend a series of articles from the magazine “Health”: “To drink or not to drink – that is the question”, “Every disease has its own water”, “Five facts about water that you did not know”, as well as materials “Both heals and cripples “and” Stone waterfall “, also presented in our” Digest “.

Household water

It is well known that the use of water for domestic purposes in Russia is far from rational (we tactfully keep silent about the industry for lack of reliable data).There are two main reasons:

  1. Abundance of water resources.

  2. Their cheapness.

In its issue of August 31, 1999, devoted to water problems, the journal “Itogi” presented illustrative data characterizing these two parameters and their relationship.

It can be seen that the cheaper water is in a particular country, the more generously it is poured. It is also not surprising that in Russia, where until recent years there was no practice of installing water-measuring devices in every apartment, there are no reliable statistics on water consumption in everyday life.

We will therefore use mid-80s published English data. Of course, in the UK, the daily water consumption per capita was already 140 l / day at that time, and we still have it in the region of 400 l / day, but the data collected by the meticulous British are so interesting that we should study them and take note of them. … In any case, the market economy dictates its own laws, it is likely that soon water will rise in price and the economy of the aforementioned Englishmen will no longer seem unfounded to us.

So. According to English data / 15 /:

The main item of household water consumption is a toilet. The “gentle contralto of a water tank tool” accounts for 35% of the water consumption per head per day (50 liters). This is followed by personal hygiene (taking a bath and shower, washing, etc.) – 32% of the consumption (45 liters), washing – 12% (17 liters), washing dishes – 10% (14 liters), drinking and cooking – 3% (4 liters), other expenses (pets, watering flowers, etc.) – 8% (11 liters).

It is clear that these figures are averaged and reduced to one day (for example, a person does not take a bath and wash every day).However, they also provide food for thought and comparison with our reality.

It is unlikely that we eat much more than the same Englishmen and, accordingly, we also spend about 4 – 4.5 liters per head per day on cooking. Yes, they will forgive us for such a conclusion, but from the previous one it directly follows that we should not use the toilet more often (or are there other opinions?). Considering that we have a single European standard for flush tanks, this gives the same 50 liters.

By the way, the meticulous British have calculated that a family of two adults and three children uses the toilet on average 25-40 times a day.If there is a habit of flushing food and other waste into the toilet, then the number of “flushes” even in a family of 4 people can reach 60. Here, by the way, one should look for the origins of the now fashionable in Europe (especially in Scandinavia) ecological initiative “Give us a brick in the toilet cistern!” All jokes aside, they put a brick in the tank, thus reducing the volume of water in it by almost 2 liters. Multiply by the number of flushes per day and you get “net” savings. And if we are talking about such an interesting sphere of human life as a toilet, then the future belongs to vacuum units (like those installed in airplanes), which consume only 1 (one) liter of water per session.

But back to our rams. We would also venture to assume that in terms of the level of washing automation, we have nevertheless reached the level of England 15 years ago, and for these purposes the average per capita consumption is 17 liters.

Where, then, as our first president used to say, “the dog rummaged”? Why do we use 2 times more water?

To do this, let’s see what items of water consumption are left: personal hygiene, washing dishes and so on. Here, probably, lies the key. Not that we washed ourselves more and washed the dishes more thoroughly.The difference is rather that we do not have the habit of turning off the tap when, for example, brushing our teeth, and we also wash dishes in running water. It would seem – a trifle, but keep in mind that 10-15 liters of water flows out through an open tap per minute. And the second powerful “reserve” is the position “Other”. The fact is that “they” have practically no such article as leaks in this section. It’s just their life that makes them quickly fix the current plumbing – not only water is flowing, money is flowing. We can say with good reason that in our conditions the lion’s share of leaks occurs precisely in houses, so to speak, “after the meter.”And that’s why.

The British pay great attention to leaks, but for the reasons stated above, their main leaks occur in the municipal water supply network. In Moscow, according to experts, 15-16% of water is also lost between the water intake station and the apartment (see the article “Moskovskie Vodokhlyobi”, Zh-l “Itogi”, 31.08.99). And now, attention, the most important thing. This is not just bad, but just a great result! In England, losses are on average 25% and their specialists, admitting the inevitability of leaks, believe that the realistically achievable result to which one should strive for leaks is 15%. Which, as they say, was required to be proved. Honor and praise to Mosvodokanal. We suspect, however, that on average the situation in the country is closer to the English one. Nevertheless, even if this is so, it still shows once again where we are suffering losses. Unfortunately, we are used to blaming everything on the water supply, but it turns out that “there is nothing to blame on the mirror …”. It’s time to understand that after the pipes have entered the building (be it a residential building, office center or industrial facility), the responsibility already lies with the owners and users.

So, you look – in the near future, a brick in the toilet cistern and other “bourgeois” tricks will come in handy. As the same English say: “The warned one is already armed.”

90,000 15 facts about the role of water in human life

Water makes up the bulk of your body and is involved in many important processes, including:

  • removal of harmful substances from the body
  • regulation of body temperature
  • Delivery of nutrients to cells
  • protection of tissues and internal organs
  • improve metabolism

You get most of your water from a variety of drinks.It can be tea and coffee, but for the most part, on the contrary, they dehydrate the body. You can also drink juices, but due to their high sugar content, they are very high in calories. So it is best to drink pure mineral water. Food also contains small amounts of water. Below we will discuss how water can help improve your well-being. So, let’s begin…

1. Formation of saliva

Water is the main component of saliva. Saliva also contains small amounts of electrolytes, mucus, and enzymes.This is important for breaking down solid food and keeping your mouth healthy.

2. Water regulates body temperature

Since water has the ability to transfer heat, it plays an important role in maintaining body temperature. During exercise or heat, you sweat, losing water. Sweat keeps your body from overheating, but your body temperature can rise if you don’t replenish the water you are losing. If you sweat more than usual, make sure you drink plenty of water to stay hydrated.

3. Water protects joints

Water is found in large quantities in the joint fluid. This prevents friction between the surfaces of the bones during joint work and distributes the stress on the joints correctly. And also water performs the protective function of a shock absorber in case of minor injuries and falls.

4. Water removes harmful substances from the body through sweat, urination and defecation

Your body uses water to make sweat, urine, and bowel movements.

Sweat regulates body temperature, so you need to drink water to replenish the fluid lost in sweat.

It is also necessary to consume enough water for normal bowel function and prevention of constipation.

Adequate water intake affects the efficiency of the kidneys, which remove waste and toxins from the body.

5. Water improves exercise endurance

It is very important to drink plenty of water while exercising.Athletes can lose up to 6-10 percent of their body weight during physical activity. Your body water content also affects your strength and endurance. You may be more susceptible to the effects of dehydration if you participate in endurance training or high-intensity sports such as basketball.

The negative effects of exercising without enough water can seriously affect health, such as dropping blood pressure and raising fever.

6. Water helps prevent constipation

Fiber isn’t the only way to prevent constipation. Drinking soda water can help relieve symptoms of constipation.

7. Water helps in digestion

Drinking water before, during and after meals helps you digest food better and get the most out of it.

8. Water dissolves and delivers nutrients to cells

Water dissolves vitamins, trace elements and other nutrients that come from food.Then she is involved in the delivery of these substances to the cells of your body.

9. Water improves oxygen circulation in the blood

Water carries beneficial nutrients and oxygen to the entire body. Adequate daily water intake will improve your blood circulation, which means it will have a positive effect on the overall health of your body.

10. Water helps fight disease

Drinking water can help treat and prevent certain conditions, such as:

  • constipation
  • urinary tract infection
  • intoxication during viral infections and influenza.

Water also helps the body absorb vitamins, minerals and nutrients from food, which boosts immunity and increases your chances of fighting off various infections.

11. Water helps to increase energy

Drinking water can activate your metabolism. Increased metabolism has been linked to positive effects on energy levels.

One study found that drinking 500 milliliters of water increased metabolic rate by 30 percent in both men and women.These effects lasted over an hour.

12. Water affects mental performance

The amount of fluid you drink is a key factor in keeping your brain active. Several studies have shown that not drinking enough water can negatively affect concentration and short-term memory.

13. Water cheers up

Lack of water can also affect your mood.Dehydration can lead to fatigue, anxiety, and confusion.

14. Water keeps skin youthful

Adequate water intake will help keep your skin firm by promoting collagen production. However, water alone will not help protect against age-related changes, you need regular care and protection from the sun.

15. Water prevents general dehydration

Dehydration results from not getting enough water into the body.And since water is essential for so many bodily functions, dehydration can be very dangerous.

Make sure you drink enough water to make up for water lost.

How much water should you drink?

You need to consume 1.5 – 2 liters of liquid daily.

Thus, regular use of high-quality water will give you vigor, improve your mood and increase your efficiency.You will not only feel better, but also look better.

Water is an amazing substance! She participates in all processes in our body. And mineral water will help you restore the balance of trace elements. Mineral water Bracca has a beneficial effect on digestion and metabolism, and tastes good. You can find a wide range of Bracca water and lemonades based on it on the virtual shelves of our online store!

90,000 Your well-being depends on the amount of water you drink – Baltic Medical Center


my name is Alla Ragauskienė, I am a general practitioner at the Baltic Medical Center.Have you ever wondered how important, irreplaceable and vital water is for our life and health? A person can survive without food for several weeks or even months, but without water – only a few days. Water is freshness, health, energy. Water is at the heart of our metabolism and vitality. Drinking water is the best way to maintain health and strength in our body. This is especially important on hot summer days, because at higher ambient temperatures, the body sweats and loses a lot of fluid.Therefore, today I invite you to learn more about our body’s need for water.

How is water good for our body?

Water, like air, is the main source of life and health. The body of an adult consists of about 70% of water, its content in blood is 98%, in muscles – about 75%, and in bones – about 28%. Water influences all vital processes of the human body. Thanks to water, many metabolic reactions take place in the body, which ensure a continuous process of decay and regeneration of living tissues.

Almost all chemical, physiological and colloidal processes in the human body take place in aqueous solutions or together with water. In a liquid aqueous medium, the processes of digestion and assimilation of food in the stomach and intestines, the synthesis of living material in the cells of the body take place. Together with water, harmful substances or metabolic products are excreted from the body. In case of untimely withdrawal of these products from the body, a person can get severe poisoning and even die. Water also plays an important role in the thermoregulation of the body.

Here are some more examples of the benefits of water:

Water slims. Oftentimes, people tend to confuse hunger with thirst. Therefore, at the first sign of hunger, drink water first. This will help you feel fuller. Drink a glass of water before every meal. The feeling of fullness will come faster, and therefore you will eat less food and replenish your body with water.

Water not only suppresses hunger, but also activates metabolism.The colder the water, the more the metabolism accelerates. to warm the water, the body must work while burning calories.

Water gives more strength. If you feel fatigue, drink water and it will restore your strength. When dehydrated, you feel tired. The right amount of water will help your heart pump blood, and your blood will help carry oxygen and other nutrients to your cells.

Water reduces stress. Water makes up approximately 70% to 80% of the volume of the human brain.If you are dehydrated, your body and mind are stressed. To keep stress low, keep a glass of water on your work desk or carry a bottle of water with you, and sip regularly.

Water strengthens muscle tone. Drinking water helps prevent muscle cramps and lubricates the joints in our body. If there is a lack of water, the workout will take longer and be more intense to achieve the desired result.

Water improves digestion.Fiber, along with water, play a very important role in good digestion. Water helps dissolve waste particles and facilitates their transfer to the digestive tract. When dehydrated, your body absorbs all the water and the process of transferring waste becomes more difficult.

Thus, water is necessary for almost every function of the body, and drinking water is a healthy and simple thing that we can do for the body.

How much water does a person need?

According to the Food Pyramid prepared by the Ministry of Health, 8 glasses of water a day is the vital amount of water needed for cells that perform extremely important physiological functions.To calculate the individual amount of water, you can use a simple formula: for every centimeter of growth, 10 ml of water is required. So, if your height is 1.75 m, then you need to drink about 1.75 liters of water per day. The amount of water you need also depends on age, climatic conditions, your general health, diet, and physical activity. If you exercise or sweat a lot, you will need more water. Do not be afraid that there will be too much water.In case of consuming an excessive amount of water, the body of a healthy person will safely remove the excess water.

The lack of even a small amount of water in the body affects our well-being: blood flows more slowly, the supply of cells with oxygen decreases, the general physical condition worsens – concentration of attention is disturbed, irritability appears, headache, memory begins to change, the reaction slows down. If there is a shortage of at least 1% of water in the body, there is a danger to the cardiovascular, respiratory systems, and if about 15% of water is lost, the body can be poisoned by the products of its metabolism.With a loss of 6-8% of its mass due to lack of water, the human body’s metabolism is disturbed, oxidation processes slow down, blood viscosity increases, the temperature rises, the pulse quickens, the skin turns red, the muscles and the whole body become flabby, and dizzy. With a loss of 10% of water, irreversible pathological processes begin: the skin cracks, the eyeballs fall in, vision is impaired, cramps in the throat begin, anuria develops (the kidneys stop excreting urine), the mind becomes cloudy. When 21% of water is lost, a person dies.The lack of water for a person is much more dangerous than food: without food, a person can live up to 40 days, and without water only about 8 days.

The human body does not have water reserves that it could use when a large amount of water is lost, therefore we must replenish the lost amount of water every day. Together with drinking water, we get about half of the daily intake of essential minerals.

Should I drink water only when I feel thirsty?

It is necessary to drink water earlier, before the feeling of thirst arises, i.e.because it indicates a lack of about one liter of water in the body. Dehydration can cause serious physiological reactions, such as urethral infections and constipation, fatigue, headaches, and migraines. For example, if you are working in hot conditions or have a headache, drink two glasses of water. If the headache is due to dehydration, it should go away within an hour. Dehydration can affect mental performance as well. According to studies, the ability to concentrate on mathematical problems in children worsened when their body was dehydrated from 1% to 2%, although this figure is not enough even for the appearance of a feeling of thirst.Despite the fact that we get water together with various food products (the mass of vegetables and fruits accounts for approximately 90% of water, bread – 40%, meat – 45-65%), this amount is not enough to meet the needs of the body. Therefore, you need to drink water even if you are not thirsty.

Can you quench your thirst with tap water?

The quality of the tap water in our country is very good. Lithuania is the only one of the Baltic and European countries that uses exclusively ground (ground) water for public water supply.