About all

Will nystatin cure ringworm: Symptoms, Treatment, Causes & Pictures

Содержание

Topical imidazoles, Topical pyridones, Topical allylamines, Topical benzylamines, Oral antimycotics, Dermatological agents

  • Pellizzari C. Recherche sur Trichophyton tonsurans. G Ital Mal Veneree. 1888. 29:8.

  • Lopez-Martinez R, Manzano-Gayosso P, Hernandez-Hernandez F, Bazan-Mora E, Mendez-Tovar LJ. Dynamics of dermatophytosis frequency in Mexico: an analysis of 2084 cases. Med Mycol. 2009 Nov 3. [Medline].

  • Nigam PK, Saleh D. Tinea Pedis. StatPearls [Internet]. 2020 Jan. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  • Kutlubay Z, Yardımcı G, Kantarcıoğlu AS, Serdaroğlu S. Acral manifestations of fungal infections. Clin Dermatol. 2017 Jan – Feb. 35 (1):28-39. [Medline].

  • Goto T, Nakagami G, Takehara K, Nakamura T, Kawashima M, Tsunemi Y, et al. Examining the accuracy of visual diagnosis of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in aged care facilities. J Wound Care. 2017 Apr 2. 26 (4):179-183. [Medline].

  • Zhan P, Ge YP, Lu XL, She XD, Li ZH, Liu WD. A case-control analysis and laboratory study of the two feet-one hand syndrome in two dermatology hospitals in China. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009 Oct 23. [Medline].

  • Leyden JJ. Progression of interdigital infections from simplex to complex. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993 May. 28(5 Pt 1):S7-S11. [Medline].

  • Gentles JC. The isolation of dermatophytes from the floors of communal bathing places. J Clin Pathol. 1956 Nov. 9(4):374-7. [Medline].

  • Gentles JC, Evans EG. Foot infections in swimming baths. Br Med J. 1973 Aug 4. 3(5874):260-2. [Medline].

  • Gul U, Cakmak SK, Ozel S, Bingol P, Kaya K. Skin disorders in patients with hemiplegia and papaplegia. J Rehabil Med. 2009 Jul. 41(8):681-3. [Medline].

  • Bristow IR, Spruce MC. Fungal foot infection, cellulitis and diabetes: a review. Diabet Med. 2009 May. 26(5):548-51. [Medline].

  • Tsunemi Y. Dermatophyte Antigen Kit. Med Mycol J. 2017. 58 (2):J51-J54. [Medline].

  • Kara Polat A, Akın Belli A, Göre Karaali M, Koku Aksu AE. The attitudes, behaviors, and opinions about non-pharmacological agents in patients with tinea pedis. Dermatol Ther. 2020 Jul 21. e14041. [Medline].

  • Salehi Z, Fatahi N, Taran M, Izadi A, Badali H, Hashemi SJ, et al. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activity of novel triazoles with available antifungal agents against dermatophyte species caused tinea pedis. J Mycol Med. 2020 Jun. 30 (2):100935. [Medline].

  • Parish LC, Parish JL, Routh HB, Fleischer AB Jr, Avakian EV, Plaum S, et al. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled efficacy and safety study of naftifine 2% cream in the treatment of tinea pedis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 Nov 1. 10(11):1282-8. [Medline].

  • Weinberg JM, Koestenblatt EK. Treatment of interdigital tinea pedis: once-daily therapy with sertaconazole nitrate. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 Oct 1. 10(10):1135-40. [Medline].

  • Carrillo-Muñoz AJ, Tur-Tur C, Cárdenes DC, Estivill D, Giusiano G. Sertaconazole nitrate shows fungicidal and fungistatic activities against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum, causative agents of tinea pedis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Sep. 55(9):4420-1. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  • Luzu (luliconazole topical cream 1%). [package insert]. Bridgewater, NJ: Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LCC. February, 2018. Available at [Full Text].

  • Gupta AK, Cvetkovic D, Abramovits W, Vincent KD. LUZU (luliconazole) 1% cream. Skinmed. 2014 Mar-Apr. 12(2):90-3. [Medline].

  • Stein Gold LF, Parish LC, Vlahovic T, Plaum S, Kircik L, Fleischer AB Jr, et al. Efficacy and safety of naftifine HCl Gel 2% in the treatment of interdigital and moccasin type tinea pedis: pooled results from two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trials. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013 Aug. 12(8):911-8. [Medline].

  • Kircik LH, Onumah N. Use of naftifine hydrochloride 2% cream and 39% urea cream in the treatment of tinea pedis complicated by hyperkeratosis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2014 Feb. 13(2):162-5. [Medline].

  • Gupta AK, Baran R, Summerbell R. Onychomycosis: strategies to improve efficacy and reduce recurrence. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2002 Nov. 16(6):579-86. [Medline].

  • Matricciani L, Talbot K, Jones S. Safety and efficacy of tinea pedis and onychomycosis treatment in people with diabetes: a systematic review. J Foot Ankle Res. 2011 Dec 4. 4:26. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  • Elewski BE, Vlahovic TC. Econazole nitrate foam 1% for the treatment of tinea pedis: results from two double-blind, vehicle-controlled, phase 3 clinical trials. J Drugs Dermatol. 2014 Jul 1. 13(7):803-8. [Medline].

  • Savin R, De Villez RL, Elewski B, et al. One-week therapy with twice-daily butenafine 1% cream versus vehicle in the treatment of tinea pedis: a multicenter, double-blind trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Feb. 36(2 Pt 1):S15-9. [Medline].

  • Chen S, Ran Y, Dai Y, Lama J, Hu W, Zhang C. Administration of Oral Itraconazole Capsule with Whole Milk Shows Enhanced Efficacy As Supported by Scanning Electron Microscopy in a Child with Tinea Capitis Due to Microsporum canis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2015 Oct 8. [Medline].

  • Schreuder MF, van de Kar NC, Brüggemann RJ. Drug-Drug Interactions in Treatment Using Azole Antifungal Agents. JAMA. 2016 Jun 21. 315 (23):2622. [Medline].

  • Yamada T, Maeda M, Alshahni MM, Tanaka R, Yaguchi T, Bontems O, et al. Terbinafine Resistance of Trichophyton Clinical Isolates Caused by Specific Point Mutations in the Squalene Epoxidase Gene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Jul. 61 (7):[Medline].

  • Weidman FD. Laboratory aspects of epidermophytosis. Arch Dermatol. 1927. 15:415-50.

  • Tinea cruris – an overview

    Tinea cruris

    Tinea cruris (‘jock itch’) is an extremely common superficial fungal infection of the groin and upper thighs. It is seen primarily in male adolescents and adults, and occurs less commonly in females. Tinea cruris is most symptomatic in hot, humid weather and is most frequently noted in obese individuals or those subject to vigorous physical activity and chafing. Tight-fitting clothing such as athletic supporters, jockey shorts, wet bathing suits, and panty hose may contribute to this condition as well. The three most common dermatophytes to result in tinea cruris are E. floccosum, T. rubrum, and T. mentagrophytes. Tinea pedis is a common co-existing condition, possibly related to autoinoculation of the dermatophyte with clothing that comes into contact with the feet.

    Tinea cruris presents as sharply marginated, erythematous plaques with an elevated border of scaling, pustules, or vesicles. It is usually but not always bilaterally symmetric, and involves the intertriginous folds near the scrotum, the upper inner thighs (Fig. 17.20), and occasionally the perianal regions, buttocks and abdomen. The scrotum and labia majora are usually spared, and if they are involved or satellite papulopustules are present, the diagnosis of candidiasis (Fig. 17.21) should be considered. The lesions of tinea cruris may vary in color from red to brown, and central clearing may be present. In chronic infection the redness and scaling may be slight, the active margin may be subtle or ill defined, and lichenification may be present.

    Tinea cruris must be differentiated from intertrigo, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis (generally due to therapy), or erythrasma (a superficial dermatosis caused by the diphtheroid Corynebacterium minutissimum). A characteristic coral-red fluorescence under Wood’s light examination is helpful in distinguishing erythrasma (see Ch. 14). The diagnosis of tinea cruris can be confirmed by a potassium hydroxide wet-mount microscopic examination of cutaneous scrapings or by fungal culture.

    Topical therapy (as discussed for tinea corporis) usually suffices for tinea cruris, and is applied for 3–4 weeks. Other useful measures include reducing excessive chafing and irritation by the use of loose-fitting cotton underclothing, drying thoroughly following bathing or perspiration, and weight loss. The use of an absorbent antifungal powder (i.e., Micatin, Tinactin, or ZeaSorb-AF) is sometimes helpful, and oral antifungal therapy is occasionally indicated for severe or recalcitrant disease. Tinea pedis, if present, should also be adequately treated as a preventative measure.

    Will Nystatin treat ringworm? – AnswersToAll

    Will Nystatin treat ringworm?

    Ketoconazole cream and nystatin are antifungal medications prescribed to treat different types of fungal infections. Ketoconazole cream is a topical (for the skin) medication used to treat ringworm, jock itch, athlete’s foot, dandruff, and tinea versicolor.

    How long does it take for antifungal to work on ringworm?

    Most ringworm infections of the skin can be treated at home with nonprescription antifungal creams. The rash will usually improve within 2 weeks.

    How long does it take to cure ringworms?

    A four-week course is common , but the time can vary. With treatment, a ringworm infection on a part of the body without hair (glabrous skin) is likely to clear up within two to four weeks of the start of treatment. More serious cases, and infections in the scalp, can require oral antifungal pills.

    When do you know ringworm is healing?

    Most mild cases of ringworm usually clear up in 2 to 4 weeks. But treatment might be needed for up to 3 months if the infection is more serious, or affects the nails or the scalp.

    Is ringworm still contagious during treatment?

    Is ringworm contagious during treatment? Ringworm is contagious as long as lesions are present. It stops being contagious about 24-48 hours after treatment begins.

    What triggers ringworm?

    Causes. Ringworm is caused by a type of fungus that eats keratin. These are called dermatophytes. Dermatophytes attack the skin, scalp, hair, and nails because those are the only parts of the body with enough keratin to attract them.

    How do I know if my ringworm is getting worse?

    If your child’s ringworm is worsening, he or she will have these signs and symptoms:

    1. Fever.
    2. Pus or drainage.
    3. Rash is warm to the touch.
    4. Red streaks.
    5. Swelling.
    6. Worsening and spreading redness.

    Do ringworm marks go away?

    They may cover large or small patches of skin. Some scarring caused by ringworm can be permanent. Scarring isn’t necessarily harmful, and scars usually fade over time. But some people may want to reduce the appearance of their scars.

    What is the best cream to cure ringworm?

    For a mild case of ringworm, try these self-care tips. Keep the affected area clean and dry. Apply an over-the-counter antifungal lotion, cream or ointment such as clotrimazole (Lotrimin AF) or terbinafine (Lamisil AT) as directed on the packaging.

    Topical antifungal medications | DermNet NZ

    Author: Hon A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2003.


    What is a fungal skin infection?

    Fungal skin infections are caused by:

    What is a topical antifungal medication?

    A topical antifungal medication is a cream, solution, lotion, powder, gel, spray or lacquer applied to the skin surface to treat a fungal infection. 

    Many antifungal medications are suitable for both dermatophyte and yeast infections. Others are more specific to one or the other type of fungus. Those unsuitable for dermatophyte fungal infections are marked with an asterisk (*) in the list that follows.

    • Whitfield ointment (3% salicylic acid, 6% benzoic acid in petrolatum)
    • Undecylenic alkanolamide
    • Ciclopirox olamine  
    • Polyenes *
    • Imidazoles
      • Bifonazole 
      • Clotrimazole  
      • Econazole 
      • Efinaconazole
      • Ketoconazole 
      • Luliconazole
      • Miconazole
      • Sulconazole
      • Tioconazole
    • Allylamine  
    • Thiocarbamates
    • Benzoxaborole

    How are topical antifungal agents used?

    Topical antifungals can be obtained over the counter without a doctor’s prescription. They are generally applied to the affected area twice daily for two to four weeks, including a margin of several centimetres of normal skin. Treatment should continue for one or two weeks after the last visible rash has cleared. They can often cure a localised infection, although recurrence is common so repeated treatment is often necessary. 

    Scalp antifungal agents

    Antifungal shampoos are mainly used to treat dandruff / seborrhoeic dermatitis but are used as an adjunct for tinea capitis and scalp psoriasis.

    The most effective ingredients are ketoconazole, miconazole and ciclopirox (Stieprox® liquid), but many other shampoos marketed for dandruff have antifungal properties.

    Preparations for nail fold infections

    There are many antiseptic and antifungal preparations to control nail fold infections (paronychia). They should be applied two or three times daily for several months.

    • Clotrimazole solution 
    • Econazole solution  
    • Miconazole 
    • Sulfacetamide 15% in spirit

    Preparations for nail plate infections

    Distal onychomycosis can be treated with an antifungal lacquer applied once or twice weekly. The medication should be applied to the surface of the cleaned nail plate after it has been roughened using an emery board. Extra lacquer should be applied under the edge of the nail.

    These can be expected to reduce and sometimes cure the infection, provided that:

    • No more than 50% of the nail plate is infected
    • The growing part of the nail plate (the matrix) is not involved
    • There is no complicating internal disease (such as diabetes) or skin condition (such as psoriasis).

    Available preparations are:

    • Amorolfine 
    • Ciclopirox 
    • Bifonazole cream + urea ointment 
    • Efinaconazole solution
    • Tavaborole solution.

    Treatment needs to be undertaken for long periods (a year or longer) because nails take a long time to grow, especially in older individuals. Nail polish is not recommended, in case it interferes with the efficacy of the product, although this is not proven.

    Preparations for oral infections

    Oral candidiasis can be treated with:

    • Nystatin * 
    • Amphotericin B *  
    • Miconazole.  

    Note: miconazole oral gel should not be used in patients who are taking warfarin because it has been reported to cause a dangerous interaction, which could result in serious bleeding.

    Preparations for a vaginal infection

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis can be treated with:

    • Nystatin * 
    • Clotrimazole 
    • Econazole 
    • Isoconazole
    • Miconazole
    • Tioconazole.

    * Unsuitable for dermatophyte fungal infections

    Combination products

    Topical antifungals may be sold with an oral antifungal medication, for example, fluconazole capsule in combination with clotrimazole cream.

    Antifungal creams are sometimes combined with:

    • Hydrocortisone or another topical steroid 
    • Antibacterial agent
    • Both topical steroid and antibacterial agent.

    A strong topical steroid can mask the fungal infection, and, as they are not curative, they can result in more extensive infection (tinea incognita) and adverse effects such as cutaneous atrophy.

    When should an oral antifungal medication be used?

    Oral antifungal medications may be required for a fungal infection if:

    • It is extensive or severe
    • It resists topical antifungal therapy
    • It affects hair-bearing areas (tinea capitis and tinea barbae).

    New Zealand approved datasheets are the official source of information for these prescription medicines, including approved uses and risk information. Check the individual New Zealand datasheet on the Medsafe website.

    Why has this red, itchy rash worsened despite treatment?

    Case: A 10-year-old girl is brought for evaluation of an itchy, red, enlarging rash on the left eyelid. When the rash first appeared 4 weeks earlier, she presented to her pediatrician who prescribed a topical combination nystatin and triamcinolone acetonide cream. The mother applied the cream for 2 weeks and noted improvement in the redness initially; however, over the next 2 weeks, the lesion persisted and rapidly enlarged.

    The 5-cm, well-demarcated, erythematous, annular, scaly plaque involves the entire left eyelid and extends onto the nasal bridge. Physical examination findings are otherwise normal.

    Why did this rash persist and worsen despite treatment?

    (Answer on next page.)

    Answer: The patient has tinea faciei, which requires treatment with a topical allylamine or azole antifungal agent.

    Potassium hydroxide examination of skin scrapings under microscopy revealed branching hyphae, confirming the diagnosis of tinea faciei.

    Tinea faciei is a dermatophyte infection of the face that most commonly affects children. It is often misdiagnosed and may mimic other diseases, including eczema, contact dermatitis, bacterial and candidal infections, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, and lupus.1

    Inappropriate use of antifungals and corticosteroids (or a combination of these agents) frequently occurs when the diagnosis of a dermatophyte infection is unclear and can lead to treatment failure. Accurate diagnosis and knowledge of the agents used in combined preparations can improve treatment efficacy.

    Use of topical corticosteroids in combination with antifungal agents is thought to reduce inflammation and related symptoms, such as itching. However, depending on the local immunologic effects and the duration and strength of the topical agent used, corticosteroid therapy may lead to exacerbation of infection and further invasion of the dermatophyte into surrounding hair follicles and dermis.2-4

    Use of antifungals with a limited clinical spectrum, such as nystatin, can also lead to inadequate treatment. Nystatin, a polyene antifungal, is indicated only for the treatment of mucocutaneous candidiasis and, therefore, is not effective against dermatophyte infections.5 Topical allylamine and azole antifungal agents are the first-line treatment of localized dermatophyte infections, such as tinea faciei, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis. 6

    In this case, the application of a combination topical corticosteroid and nystatin preparation was ineffective because neither agent is a primary therapeutic option for dermatophyte infection. Because of concern for deeper invasion into the hair follicle after use of the topical corticosteroid, this patient was treated with oral terbinafine, 125 mg daily for 3 weeks. 


    Unilateral Nature Key Clue to Dermatophyte Infection

    KIRK BARBER, MD, FRCPC—Series Editor
    Alberta Children’s Hospital

    Drs Kuppalli and Wilson discuss a typical presentation that each of us should imprint on our memory banks. The unilateral nature is striking and is the most important clue that demands the consideration of a dermatophyte infection. The serpiginous border and the active periphery are the other morphologic features that separate this from other papulosquamous eruptions.

    I share the authors’ concerns about the involvement of the eyebrow and lashes. To prevent scalp
    infection, I would add ketoconazole shampoo for the patient and her family members.

    The point that is not discussed is the origin of the infection, which is sometimes revealed by determining the exact dermatophyte by culture. In my experience, in an urban setting, it is a caged “rodent” at home or at school that is the source.

    Ringworm of the Skin | Cigna

    Condition Basics

    What is ringworm?

    Ringworm is an infection caused by a fungus. It causes a rash that can appear on many different parts of the body. It is called ringworm because it sometimes looks like a ring.

    What causes it?

    Ringworm is caused by a fungus. It’s not caused by a worm. The kinds of fungi that cause ringworm live and spread on the top layer of the skin and on the hair. They grow best in warm, moist areas, such as locker rooms and swimming pools, and in skin folds.

    Ringworm is contagious. It spreads when you have skin-to-skin contact with a person or animal that has it. It can also spread when you share things like towels, clothing, or sports gear.

    What are the symptoms?

    Ringworm usually causes an itchy rash. It often makes a pattern in the shape of a ring, but not always. The rash may be peeling, cracking, scaling, and red. It can affect the face, groin, hands, and other parts of the body.

    What happens when you have ringworm?

    Ringworm of the skin can start as a small patch of itchy, red, or scaling skin. The rash can spread and cover a large area.

    Clothing that rubs the skin can irritate the rash. Sweat, heat, or moisture in the air (humidity) can make the itching and infection worse.

    As the infection becomes worse, the ring-shaped pattern and red-brown color may become more visible. If not treated, the skin can become irritated and painful. Skin blisters and cracks can become infected with bacteria and require antibiotics.

    Ringworm can also spread to other parts of the body, including the feet, nails, scalp, or beard.

    After treatment, the rash will go away. But ringworm can return unless you follow steps to prevent it. The tendency to get fungal skin infections or to have them return after treatment seems to run in families.

    How is it diagnosed?

    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and examine your skin and the rash. The doctor may diagnose ringworm based on this exam. He or she may look at a scraping from the rash under a microscope to check for the ringworm fungus.

    How is ringworm treated?

    In most cases, you can treat ringworm of the skin with antifungal creams or ointments. Many are available over-the-counter.

    • Wash the rash with soap and water, and dry it well. For large areas of blistered sores, use compresses such as those made with Burow’s solution (available over-the-counter) to soothe and dry out the blisters.
    • Apply antifungal cream beyond the edge of the rash.
    • To avoid spreading it, wash your hands well after treating or touching the rash.
    • Follow the directions on the package. Don’t stop using the medicine just because your symptoms go away. You most likely will need to keep doing the treatment for 2 to 4 weeks or longer.
    • If symptoms do not improve after 2 weeks, call your doctor.

    If your rash does not clear after you have tried different topical antifungals, or if the infection is widespread, you may need prescription antifungal pills.

    How can you prevent ringworm?

    To help prevent ringworm, keep your skin clean and dry, wear slippers or sandals in locker rooms and public bathing areas, and change your socks and underwear at least once a day. And don’t share clothing, sports gear, towels, or sheets.

    (PDF) Antifungal agents of use in animal health

    Roller, J.A. & Westblom, T.U. (1986) Microsporum nanum infection in hog

    farmers. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology,15, 935–939.

    Rosell, J.M., Paya, J. & Ramos, C. (1985) Dermatofitosis del conejo

    domestico ensayos clinicos con enilconazole. 10th Symposium of the

    association Espanola de cunicultura. pp. 167–178. 19–20 November,

    Barcelona, Spain.

    Rush-Munro, F.M., Woodgyer, A.J. & Hyater, M.R. (1977) Ringworm in

    guinea-pigs. Mykosen,20, 292–296.

    Rybnikar, A., Vrzal, V. & Chumela, J. (1998) Protective efficacy of vac-

    cines against bovine dermatophytosis after double and single vacci-

    nation. Mycoses,41, 83–86.

    Ryland, L.M., Bernard, S.L. & Gorham, J.R. (1983) A clinical guide to

    the pet ferret. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing

    Veterinarian,5, 25.

    Saif, Y.M. & Refai, M. (1977) The use of thiabendazole to control moulds

    in poultry farm. Castellania,5, 185–187.

    Sarkisov, A.Kh. & Nikiforov, L.I. (1981) Specific prevention of tricho-

    phytosis in fur bearing animals. Veterinaria,7, 37–38.

    Schall, H. (1995) Kaninchen. In Krankheiten der Heimtiere. Eds Gabrisch,

    K. & Zwart, P. pp. 1–46. Schlu

    ¨tersche Verlaganstalt und Druckerei,

    Hannover, Germany.

    Schallibaum, M., Nicolet, J. & Konig, H. (1980) Aspergillus nidulans and

    Aspergillus fumigatus as causal agents of bovine mastitis. Sabouraudia,

    18, 33–38.

    Schepens, M. & Spanoghe, L. (1981) Dermatomycosis in cattle. A review

    of literature and experimental treatment with enilconazole. Vlaams

    Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift,50, 201–206.

    Schro¨ der, E. & Bernhard, D. (1979) Thibenzole (thiabendazol) zur

    Beka¨ mpfung der Trichophytie beim Rind. Der Praktische Tiera¨rzt,9,

    759–761.

    Schubach, T.M.P., Valle, A.C.F., Gutierrez-Galhardo, M.C., Monteiro,

    P.C.F., Reis, R.S., Zancope

    ´-Oliveira, R.M., Marzochi, K.B.F. & Schu-

    bach, A. (2001) Isolation of Sporothrix schenckii from the nails of

    domestic cats (Felis catus). Medical Mycology,39, 147–149.

    Schulman, J. (1985) Ketoconazole for succesful treatment of cryptococ-

    cosis in a cat. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association,

    187, 508–509.

    Schulz, W. (1984) Vergleichende Behandelungsversuche bei der enzoo-

    tischen Rindertrichophytie mit Mycophyt

    –Gru

    ¨ntex und einem neuen,

    antimykotisch wirksamen Pra¨ parat (Bay-Ve 7294). Deutsche Tiera¨rz-

    tliche Wochenschrift,91, 364–366.

    Schutte, J.G. & van den Ingh, T.S. (1997) Microphthalmia, brachyg-

    nathia superior, and palatocheiloschisis in a foal associated with gri-

    seofulvin administration to the mare during early pregnancy.

    Veterinary Qquarterly,19, 58–60.

    Schweigart, G. (1995) Chinchilla – Heimtier und Patient, p. 148. Gustav

    Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.

    Scott, F., de La Hunta, A., Schultz, R., Bistner, S. & Riis, R. (1975)

    Teratogenesis in cats associated with griseofulvin therapy. Teratology,

    11, 79–86.

    Scott, D., Miller, W. & Griffin, C. (1995) Muller & Kirk’s Small Animal

    Dermatology, 5th edn, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA.

    Sharp, N., Harvey, C. & O’Brien, J. (1991) Treatment of canine nasal

    aspergillosis ⁄penicillosis with fluconazole (UK-49, 858). Journal of

    Small Animal Practice,32, 513–516.

    Sharp, N., Sullivan, M., Harvey, C. & Webb, T. (1993) Treatment of

    canine nasal aspergillosis with enilconazole. Journal of Veterinary

    Internal Medicine,7, 40–43.

    Smith, J.M.B., Aho, R., Mattsson, R. & Pier, A.C. (1992) Progress in

    Veterinary Mycology. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology,30

    (Suppl. 1),307–316.

    Smith, S., Andrews, G. & Biller, D. (1998) Management of nasal asper-

    gillosis in a dog with a single, noninvasive intranasal infusion of

    clotrimazole. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association,34,

    487–492.

    Smith, D.A. & Burgmann, P.M. (1997) Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents In

    Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Eds Hillyer, E.V. & Quesenberry, K.E.

    pp. 392–403. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA.

    Spanoghe, L. & Oldenkamp, E.P. (1977) Mycological and clinical

    observations on ringworm in cattle after treatment with natamycin.

    The Veterinary Record,101, 135–136.

    Sparkes, A., Robinson, A., MacKay, A. & Shaw, S. (2000) A study of the

    efficacy of topical and systemic therapy for the treatment of feline

    Microsporum canis infection. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery,2,

    135–142.

    Stankushev, K., Aleksandrov, M., Duparinova, M., Enchev, S. & Vranska,

    T. (1978) Candida infections in farm animals and birds (article in

    Bulgarian). Veterinarno Meditsinski Nauki,15, 11–18.

    Stankushev, K. & Duparinova, M. (1976) Dermatophyte and Candida genus

    fungal carrier state in piglets. Veterinarno Meditsinski Nauki,13, 75–80.

    Sweeney, R.C., Sweeny, R.W., Roby, K.A.W. & Irby, N. (1984) Corrneal

    stromal abscess in two horses. The Compendium of Continuing Education

    of the Practicing Veterinarian,6, S595–S599.

    Sykes, J., Torres, S., Armstrong, P. & Lindeman, C. (2001) Itraconazole for

    treatment of sporotrichosis in a dog residing on a christmas tree farm.

    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association,218, 1440–1443.

    Tack, T. & Zwart, P. (1988) De hamster. Diergeneeskundig Memorandum,

    35, 218.

    Thianprasit, M., Chaiprasert, A. & Imwidthaya, P. (1996) Human

    pythiosis. Current Topics in Medical Mycology,7, 43–54.

    Thienpont, D., Van Cutsem, J. & Borgers, M. (1980) Ketoconazole in

    experimental candidosis. Review ofs of Infectious Diseases,2, 570–577.

    Thienpont, D., Van Cutsem, J., Van Gerven, F., Heeres, J. & Janssen, P.A.

    (1979) Ketoconazole – a new broad spectrum orally active antimy-

    cotic. Experientia,35, 606–607.

    Tiches, D., Vite, C., Dayrell-Har, T.B., Steinberg, S., Gross, S. & Lexa, F.

    (1998) A case of canine central nervous system cryptococcosis:

    management with fluconazole. Journal of the American Animal Hospital

    Association,34, 145–151.

    Tiel, H.M. (1990) Ziekten van sierwatervogels. Diergeneeskundig Memo-

    randum,37, 88–89.

    Van Cutsem, J. (1983) Antifungal activity of enilconazole on experi-

    mental aspergillosis in chickens. Avian Diseases,27, 36–42.

    Van Cutsem, J. & Rochette, F. (1991) Mycoses in Domestic Animals, Vol.

    226. Janssen Reasearch Foundation,Beerse Belgium.

    Van Cutsem, J., Van Gerven, F., Geerts, H. & Rochette, F. (1985)

    Treatment with enilconazole spray of dermatophytosis in rabbit farms.

    Mycosen,28, 400–407.

    Van Cutsem, J., Van Gerven, F. & Janssen, P.A.J. (1988) In vitro activity

    of enilconazole against Aspergillus spp. and its fungicidal efficacy in a

    smoke generator against Aspergillus fumigatus.Mycoses,31, 143–147.

    Van Cutsem, J., Van Gerven, F. & Janssen, P.A.J. (1989) Le traitement de

    l’aspergillose expe

    ´rimentale par l’enilconazole et par itraconazole.

    Bulletin of the de la Socie

    ´te

    ´Franc¸aise de Mycologie Me

    ´dicale,18, 55–59.

    Van Cutsem, J., Van Gerven, F., van de Ven, M.A., Borgers, M. & Janssen,

    P.A.J. (1984) Itraconazole, a new triazole that is orally active in

    aspergillosis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy,26, 527–534.

    Van Gestel, J. (1986) The vapour phase activity of antifungal com-

    pounds: a neglected or a negligible phenomen? In In Vitro and In Vivo

    Evaluation of Antifungal Agents. Eds Iwata, K. & Vanden Bossche, H. pp.

    207–218. Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam.

    Van Gestel, J., Van Cutsem, J. & Thienpont, D. (1981) Vapour phase

    activity of imazalil. Chemotherapy,27, 270–276.

    Van Gestel, J.F.E. & Van de Ven, M.-A.A.P. (1984) Observations on the

    antisporulant activity of imazalil (enilconazole). Pesticide Science,15,

    215–220.

    52 F. Rochette et al.

    2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 26, 31–53

    90,000 Question: How to get rid of ringworm naturally? – Health

    Contents of the article:

    How to cure lichen in humans

    Video taken from the channel: Notes of the Doctor


    HOW TO QUICKLY GET RID OF ALL KINDS OF LIVING. FOLK RECIPES.

    Video taken from the channel: 1000 RECIPES FOR HEALTH and BEAUTY


    HOW TO TREAT PERSONAL EXPERIENCE in the treatment of microsporia

    Show Description

    How we treated and cured lichen in ourselves, a cat, a cat, a kitten in 10 days personal experience how to treat lichen, microsporia.
    Ie THE SCHEME IS:
    People:
    1. Antifungal antibiotic according to the instructions (we had itraconazole).
    2. smear the stains with ointment on birch tar (to order at the pharmacy), you can before this iodine.
    For cats:
    1. The antifungal antibiotic according to the instructions for the weight of the cat is the same as for itself.
    ITRAKONAZOLE 100 I gave like this :.
    a) kittens – 1/4 capsule once a day.
    b) adult cats 1/2 capsule once a day !!!
    To eat, stir the contents of the capsule with soft food….
    2. You can close it in the bathroom (we closed it, some do not close it).
    3. A couple of times a week wash with nezopharm (or other antifungal shampoo), at the end of washing, you can also smear it with tar ointment (if not at least with iodine) or first with iodine and then ointment with ointment, where the lichen is visible, BUT IT IS NECESSARY TO WEAR A SPECIAL COLLAR TO DON’T LOOSE …
    Apartment or house:
    clean as usual, places where cats walked / walk with a disinfectant (again, watch so that cats do not get into the water, etc. , so as not to get poisoned) or steam (iron), you can turn on a quartz lamp, etc.THE IMPORTANT THING IS NOT TO EXPERIENCE, JUST THE CLEANING SHOULD BE MORE THOROUGHT.
    IF THERE ARE OTHER ANIMALS:
    Give them an antibiotic along with the sick: you will be sure that in 10 days everyone will be healthy and no one new will be infected, we did so.
    AND THE MOST IMPORTANT: DEPRIVING IT IS NOT SCARY, IT IS NOT NECESSARY FOR IT TO REFUSE YOUR FUNNY FRIENDS !!!

    Video taken from the channel: Dacha of the cat Matroskin


    How to cure lichen

    Video taken from the channel: USEFUL TIPS


    ✅How to get rid of ringworm on your own.

    Video taken from the channel: Info Life


    Amazing Treatment for Ringworm! Light!

    Show Description

    If there was a nuisance in the form of lichen, you can use this method … ..
    https://youtu.be/3xKGoHlDBtI Will the Mask on the nose help … from the virus? Who should….
    https://youtu.be/SAh2kG0lnKo Aspic and Jelly the same thing? Differences… oh….
    https://youtu.be/x_syajKnpr0 Hair and coat lifespan. Why not grow in any way….
    https://youtu.be/0xP_cmhiSyg Mountain air, Clean water and everyday work next….
    https://youtu.be/ag30anyTSp8 Nihonshu or Sake is this beer or vodka? Drink warm….
    https://youtu.be/TWY9iwnp3fM Why do bumps appear on the skin of Goose bumps….
    https://youtu.be/Bo9IzbCLWuI Switzerland’s strange traditions … they eat Cats! Them….
    https://youtu.be/tXljjkt-aOY Why is the outsole Red? Shoes from Christian Lab….
    https://youtu.be/cQS4MK-eEhU Light language flashing headlights do not violate traffic rules, medium….
    https://youtu.be/rCaRNGpDtkc Beetle cocktail, delicious grasshopper cutlet….
    Information and entertainment channel with the most useful information concerning nutrition, health, cooking, sports and fitness, diet, women’s health, food, beauty, life hacks for an apartment and at home, animals, useful tips, women’s secrets.
    Join now!
    Do not forget to subscribe and like!))

    Video taken from the channel: I will know


    Ringworm on the head treatment, causes, symptoms, folk remedies, recipes, photo

    Show Description

    More details https: // www.dermatit.net/lishaj/strigushhij-lishaj-u-cheloveka/.
    Perhaps the most famous lichen among many is ringworm, which appears everywhere on the body (on the head, face, hands, feet, nails, and even in the groin).
    Causes of ringworm.
    Ringworm is contagious – it can be picked up from animals and humans. With such a deprivation, even a strong immunity will not be able to cope with pathogenic fungi.
    Diseases are susceptible to people with skin lesions, not observing hygiene, wearing other people’s things, as well as with worms in the body.It often infects children who come into contact with street animals and receive regular injuries and abrasions.
    Types of ringworm.
    Let’s divide the disease into 3 forms: It occurs on the head (or other smooth part of the body). If left untreated, the disease develops into a chronic one. On the surface of the nails. Launched – supplemented by infections ..
    Ringworm symptoms.
    Symptoms (signs) of ringworm: Formation of round spots on the scalp in the hair area, which leads to hair loss in this part and rashes (can be seen in the photo).On smooth parts of the body, the appearance of flaky spots. Damage to the nail plate, which darkens and crumbles over time. When the form is neglected, scarlet plaques appear, the state of health worsens ..
    Treatment of ringworm.
    For a positive dynamics of ringworm, it is worth going to an appointment with a doctor, who will examine the patient, and then prescribe treatment after examining the test results. At the same time, you need to check pets at the veterinarian for the presence of pathogenic fungi in order to avoid re-infection….
    If ringworm occurs in children, then the treatment will differ from the course for adults (for example, it is enough to treat the focus with iodine). For adults, ointments and tablets are usually prescribed. How you can cure ringworm with folk remedies (at home) – there is a lot of information about this on the net ..
    Prevention of ringworm.
    As a preventive measure, it is necessary to strengthen the immune system with a balanced diet. It is worth having a conversation with children about the risk of contracting ringworm from animals, because it is better to prevent the disease than to treat it.All family members need to maintain good hygiene. There are other measures to prevent this infection, available in the Internet ..
    Keywords:
    ringworm.
    ringworm treatment.
    ringworm how to treat.
    Ringworm on a person’s head.
    Ringworm in the groin.
    ringworm is contagious or not.
    ringworm how to treat at home.
    Ringworm iodine treatment.
    ringworm treatment in children.
    ringworm on the leg.
    ringworm signs.
    ringworm symptoms.
    ringworm photo.
    how to treat ringworm

    Video taken from the channel: All about skin diseases types, causes, symptoms


    90,000 treatment of fungus in cats

    treatment of fungus in cats

    Search requests:
    foot fungus elena malysheva, order the treatment of fungus in cats, ointment for foot fungus, which is better.

    treatment of fungus in cats

    toenail fungus iodine reviews, treatment of nail fungus on the hands at home, photos of toenail fungus, ointment from fungus 5, laser treatment of nail fungus in St. Petersburg reviews

    home treatment of skin fungus

    ointment for fungus 5 The skin is the largest organ in area that performs a large number of functions.But the main function is to protect the body from various harmful factors, including fungal infection. It is important to know the main reasons for development. Which can lead to the formation of fungus. Fungus in cats and its complications. The manifestation of the disease in a pet. Fungus diagnostics and treatment. Types of infections and features of their treatment. Trichophytosis is a fungal skin disease or simply lichen. An infectious disease of animals, as well as humans, caused by imperfect fungi of the genus Trichophyton.How to treat fungus in cats. Fungus in cats: symptoms, types, treatment. The skin is the first barrier that protects the body of a living being. It is the skin that is most susceptible to various infections, including fungi. This article describes the reasons. Fungus in cats and its complications. The manifestation of the disease in a pet. Fungus diagnostics and treatment. Fungus in cats – 110 photos of symptoms, advice from veterinarians how to treat and how to prevent the development of the fungus. Varieties and treatment of fungus in cats. Fungus in a cat is a generalized definition of diseases of the skin and internal organs caused by the activity of pathogenic microorganisms of dermatomycetes (dermatophytes) on the body of an animal.Parasitizing in the upper layers of the skin, fungi cause. The necessary treatment of fungus in cats is determined only by a specialist. In order to identify the type of fungus that has affected the cat, the veterinarian takes a skin scraping at the site of the lesion. What kind of infection takes place is determined. Rhinosporidiosis is a fungus in cats that is similar in treatment and symptomatology to cryptococcosis, but is slightly easier to tolerate in cats. The skin and nasal passages are affected by the formation of ulcerative nodules. Treatment for a fungal infection depends on the type of fungus and the degree of damage to the body.Fungus in cats is a common disease, the occurrence of which does not depend on living conditions and diet. Fungus in cats – symptoms that appear in the form of areas of the skin where the coat looks like a short-cut, reflected in a more common disease – ringworm. laser treatment of nail fungus in St. Petersburg reviews tincture from nail fungus spray from toenail fungus price

    cream mycolic and fungus prices reviews
    home treatment of skin fungus
    what the initial stage of nail fungus looks like
    fungus on the foot elena malysheva
    ointment for foot fungus which is better
    toenail fungus with iodine responses
    Treatment of nail fungus on the hands at home
    pictures of toenail fungus

    On thematic forums, people are actively discussing methods of treating mycoses. They also suggest using Micenil, the fungicidal effect of which allows you to get rid of a dermatological problem in 1 course of therapy. On the forum, you come across disgruntled users who claim that the antifungal drug does not work, and you should not waste time on such therapy. Today we have the following picture in dermatology: people in the city do not find time for full skin care, and rarely pay attention to early manifestations of fungal infection. And if they found the initial signs, then they drink the first pills offered in pharmacies.Often the pills give complications. When such a patient comes to our clinic, the specialist’s goals become the following: not only to cure a progressive disease, but also to explain to the patient how he should take care of his health. In case of mycosis, I advise Mycenil ointment. This product has been proven to be effective and safe in numerous clinical trials. It is worth taking a full course of therapy to forget about the fungus forever. Composition Mycenil is a natural substance with a fungicidal effect. Due to the natural composition of the medicinal product, the drug can be used without restrictions, at any age. In contact with. Facebook. Twitter. Google+. Classmates. Contents: 1 Introduction. 2 Who is prone to infection? 2.1 Causes of infection. 3 The first signs of mycosis under the nail plate on the leg. 4 Complications. 5 What is the best treatment? What is toenail fungus afraid of? In case of itching and burning of the skin, a cosmetic defect of the nail plate is required. In case of fungal infections, the attending physician must prescribe antifungal drugs internally and externally.Otherwise, there is no positive dynamics at all. Diseases of toenails develop at different ages. To successfully cure nail fungus, you should first of all determine its type, the severity of the pathology and the type of skin. And toenails, as a rule, grow 3 times slower than on hands. Therefore, in order to completely heal your legs, you need to be patient. Usually in a package, in addition to a jar of varnish. Treatment of nails affected by fungus. Who is predisposed to fungal nail infections?Fighting voids under the nails. It is possible to eliminate pronounced voids under the nail. How to treat toenail fungus with vinegar. 5 2.5k. Comparison of drugs for nail fungus. Nail fungus is a folk remedy. Folk remedies for treating toenail fungus are quite numerous. There are a number of fairly effective natural remedies that can treat fungal infections and act as safe fungicides for internal and external treatment. Toenail fungus is treated by a dermatologist.At the initial stage of the disease, external treatment may be sufficient, but if the moment is missed and the fungi have sprouted in the bed of the nail plate, more serious therapy will be required. In this case, the process of treating nail fungus will take 3-6 months and will be. How does nail fungus start? The initial stage of toenail fungus does not cause physical discomfort, the changes concern. If the toenail fungus is not treated at the initial stage, then the progression of the disease will begin. How to cure nail fungus. Currently, there are many ways to treat large toenail fungus.Many are interested in how to treat a nail fungus on the big toe. For these purposes, special ones are widely used. The clinical picture of the disease. Depending on the degree of development of the disease, several stages of fungal infection are distinguished: Initial – when only a slight change in color is noticeable and the appearance of stripes or spots. Treatment of advanced forms of toenail and toenail fungus. Nail fungus is not only an aesthetic flaw. This is a dangerous pathology that, if detected, should be treated as soon as possible: it is much more difficult to get rid of its neglected form.1. Types and symptoms. The main stages of manifestation.

    treatment of fungus in cats

    What does the initial stage of nail fungus look like

    Recently I drew attention to the drug Mycenil. It really has a unique composition, and the ingredients enhance each other’s properties. Hence such a high efficiency. Now I recommend it to my patients for the treatment of a fungal infection. It is important that the ointment copes with all types of fungus and does not cause allergic reactions.In any case, I have not heard negative reviews about the action of this remedy. In the author’s program About the most important thing, Dr. Myasnikov spoke about the fungus of toenails, talked about the mechanisms of development, the causes and treatment of the disease. The main danger is represented by dermatophyte fungi that live in a humid environment and penetrate the epithelial layer. Dr. Myasnikov is already a fairly well-known person. Sometimes I even come across sites and even articles on Zen, where those who are hiding behind his name.And I also draw attention to his words that nail fungus cannot be cured quickly. He is being treated for several months (at least. Dr. Myasnikov talked about toenail fungus in one of the issues of his program About the most important thing. About the most important thing – Duration The topic of the video Fungus of the foot and toenails – the right treatment. The doctor says that eczema is serious, it can be aggravated. Therefore, when the first signs of the disease appear. Doctor Myasnikov speaks only positively about nail fungus with iodine – it can be eliminated, but patience and time are required. Toenail fungus can be eliminated by applying an iodine solution to them daily, before steaming them in water with the addition of soap and soda. Make gadgets from the dining room. Dr. Myasnikov on the treatment of toenail fungus. Doctor Myasnikov talked about nail fungus in one of the episodes of the program About the most important thing.According to the physician, onychomycosis is the most common disease of an infectious origin. The doctor recommends treating the fungus. Dr. Myasnikov on nail fungus. L. Myasnikov is a representative of a well-known medical dynasty. In the author’s TV show about the treatment of toenail fungus, Dr. Myasnikov cites a number of causal-consecutive processes that provoke the appearance of an infectious focus. In a program about toenail fungus, Dr. Myasnikov notes that the threads of onychomycosis penetrate deep into the skin and live in a latent form for decades.With a weakened immune system, chronic stress and improper nutrition, the infection comes out. Expert advice: nail fungus. Dr. Myasnikov prefers a more sensible approach to treatment, even if it will not be as fast as we would like, but also not as radical. I suffered for a long time because of toenail fungus. How many ointments I tried, nothing helped. True, I did not go to the doctor, but self-medicated. What does Dr. Myasnikov say about nail fungus? In one of the episodes of the program About the most important, the doctor talked about the fungus: how to diagnose it on his feet and gave advice on how to get rid of the disease.Alexander Myasnikov is a highly qualified doctor of the highest category with extensive experience behind him. He is one of the best medical specialists in the field of fungal diseases. Doctor Myasnikov talked about toenail fungus more than once on a TV show, gave advice and recommendations. Onychomycosis is an infection of the nail plate with a dermatophyte fungus. As a result, there is a deformation and discoloration of the nail phalanges, inflammation, edema of others. treatment of fungus in cats .tincture for nail fungus. Reviews, instructions for use, composition and properties. Nystatin is an antifungal agent that is specially designed to combat this type of fungus. The symptoms of toenail and toenail fungus usually begin to disappear immediately after the first use of Nystatin Ointment. Note! Nystatin in the form of an ointment can. Onychomycosis is a serious and common disease today. To combat it, many drugs with a fungicidal effect have been created, but synthetic medicines for local and internal use are most effective.One of those. Fungus is a serious medical condition that affects thousands of people. It is very difficult to cure it, and in order to get rid of the fungus, people resort to various methods. It is recommended to start treatment with Nystatin for nail fungus from the first day of the onset of infection in the human body. In this case, it is possible to cope with the disease in a short time, without the formation of severe complications. Composition and release form of the drug. Pos. Content. 1 Forms of release. 2 How to use Nystatin for nail fungus.2.1 Indications. 2.2 Analogs. 2.3 Reviews. 2.4 Nystatin tablets. 3 Active ingredient. 4 Contraindications. 5 Method of application. 5.1 Forms of release. Forms of release. Nystatin is the Content. Forms of release. Active substance. Pharmacological properties. Indications. Mode of application. Overdose. Side effects. Contraindications Pregnancy and lactation. Analogs. Nystatin for nail fungus is used quite often. It helps to cope with the main symptoms of foot fungus (itching, thickening of the nail, yellowing), but the recovery period is long.Most often, the fungus affects the nail plates on the legs – about 80%, in 20% of cases the nails on the hands are affected. Nystatin is an excellent antibiotic that shows excellent results in the fight against candidal fungi such as Candida albicans. This common pathogen is the main one. An effective and cheap ointment against foot fungus. Developed on the basis of the active substance terbinafine. The main active ingredient in this agent is nystatin, which can have a depressing effect on infection cells, completely destroying them.It should be noted that.

    90,000 Side effects of antibiotics

    Side effects of antibiotics

    Irrational use of antimicrobial agents often using maximum doses, an unjustified increase in the course of treatment and the frequency of use of drugs, without taking into account the species and age sensitivity of animals, as well as the characteristics of the pharmacokinetics of medicinal substances – all this leads to the development of adverse reactions in animals, often of a severe nature.

    Adverse reactions that occur during antimicrobial therapy can be divided into three groups depending on the mechanism of action of the drug on macroorganisms.

    1. Reactions due to increased individual or species-age sensitivity of animals to antimicrobial drugs (allergic reactions) caused by idiosyncrasy or sensitization of the body to a drug compound. This type of reaction is usually not related to the amount of drug administered, and the severity of the lesions varies widely from mild skin reactions to fatal anaphylactic shock.

    2. Direct toxic reactions associated with the amount of the injected drug and due to the organotropicity and specificity of the action of the drug on the macroorganism. Most often, this type of reaction affects the kidneys, liver, nervous and hematopoietic systems, as well as the gastrointestinal tract.

    3. Reactions due to biological changes in a microorganism or in a microbial agent. This type of reaction includes: the formation of drug-resistant strains of pathogens, superinfection, dysbiosis, suppression of immune reactions, disorders of vitamin and electrolyte metabolism, etc. p.

    Many adverse reactions with similar clinical signs develop as a result of exposure to various causes. So, diarrhea can occur both from the direct effect of the drug on the mucous membrane or the neuromuscular apparatus of the intestine, and with the development of supernfection or dysbiosis. Reversible reactions associated with inhibition of the hematopoietic system (agranulocytosis, hypoplastic anemia) are usually directly proportional to the amount of the drug administered. Their genesis is based on the reactions of sensitized elements of blood and hematopoietic organs with newly emerging antigens, which are formed when the drug binds to blood plasma proteins.Thus, the division of side reactions into groups is rather arbitrary.

    ALLERGIC REACTIONS

    Various components of blood plasma, especially albumin, have a strong ability to fix substances that temporarily circulate in the blood after their introduction into the body. In this regard, many medicinal substances, including antibiotics, sulfonamides and nitrofurans, are capable of causing first sensitization, and then allergic reactions in animals, regardless of the chemical nature and method of their administration.When combined with plasma proteins, they form artificial, but complete antigens that cause the formation of specific antibodies.

    In contrast to direct toxic reactions, allergic phenomena are not associated with the direct pharmacological properties of the medicinal substance. Allergy occurs as a result of the release of biologically active substances from body tissues, especially those rich in mast cells; histamine, heparin, serotonin, etc. The release of these substances occurs under the influence of antigen-antibody complexes formed on mast cells in the absence of sufficient concentration of specific antibodies in the circulating blood.The released biologically active substances have a corresponding effect on the nervous system, smooth muscles of blood vessels, bronchi and other organs, on blood clotting, vascular permeability, etc. This largely explains the fact that allergic reactions retain a certain stereotype, regardless of the nature of the substance that caused this reaction. The presence in animal tissues of fixed antibodies acquired against any antigen creates conditions for the formation of an antigen-antibody complex in the event of a new supply of a complete antigen or hapten in the absence of a sufficient amount of the corresponding antibody in the circulating blood.The appearance of an antigen-antibody complex in tissues has a harmful effect on cellular elements, as a result of which an arginine-containing polypeptide is released, which causes the destruction of mast cells with the release of a significant amount of these biologically active substances.

    According to the classification of X.X. Planelles (1960), allergic reactions caused by antibacterial drugs (antibiotics), by their nature, are divided into three types:

    1. Reactions with a predominant lesion of the skin and mucous membranes: rashes of various kinds, urticaria, angioedema.

    2. Reactions of a generalized nature, such as serum sickness or anaphylactic shock.

    3. Allergic reactions from the blood and hematopoietic organs: eosinophilia, leukopenia, hemorrhagic syndrome.

    The insignificant number of reported cases of allergic reactions caused by antibacterial drugs in animals compared to humans is not evidence that animals are less prone to allergies.than a person. So, for example, reactions with a predominant skin lesion can occur in animals, especially with a dark coat, unnoticed or disguised as dermatitis of various etiologies. Allergic reactions such as serum sickness and anaphylactic shock, even if they lead to the death or forced slaughter of animals, are not always diagnosed correctly, since the drug that caused the reaction could not be used in its pure form, but as part of a complex dosage form, vaccine, sperm diluent etc.n. Allergic reactions with damage to the blood and hematopoietic organs, which do not lead to death, are also practically not detected in agricultural (use) animals.

    Nevertheless, there are a number of reports on the occurrence of allergic reactions in farm and domestic animals when using antibiotics, sulfonamides and nitrofurans.

    Of all types of allergic reactions for the life of an animal, the most dangerous is anaphylactic shock, which develops very quickly: fatal reactions of this type occur within a few seconds or minutes after drug administration, and therefore it is often impossible to take emergency measures to save the animal.It should be borne in mind that anaphylactic shock can occur not only with parenteral administration of the drug, but also with any method of its use, including oral and topical administration.

    The largest number of reactions of this type was recorded when streptomycin preparations were used in cattle, and seasonal (reactions occur more often in spring) and age-related (calves react more often) fluctuations in the sensitivity of animals of this species to an antibiotic. A few minutes after the administration of the antibiotic, the animals noted shortness of breath, anxiety, a weak rapid (to a threadlike) pulse, cyanosis of the mucous membranes, loss of skin sensitivity, effusion of a frothy bloody liquid from the nose, swelling of the eyelids, muzzle, and udder nipples. Body temperature remains within normal limits. In the absence of emergency treatment, animals may die with symptoms of asphyxia and increasing cardiac weakness.

    Similar reactions were observed in cattle and dogs when drugs of the penicillin group were administered, and in addition to the above-described phenomena in dogs, muscle tremors, severe salivation and vomiting were observed.Chinchillas and guinea pigs often die with symptoms of anaphylactic shock with parenteral administration of any antibiotics.

    A milder form of allergy – reactions such as serum sickness (rash, fever, angioedema, swollen lymph nodes, etc.) – can occur in all species of animals with the introduction of many antibiotics, sulfonamides and nitrofurans. In dogs and cats, pharyngitis in the absence of inflammation of the tonsils is a characteristic symptom of an allergic reaction to antimicrobial drugs, in horses – stomatitis.In animals of white or light color, skin rashes, blisters, urticaria are possible. So, tylosin in some cases in pregnant and lactating sows causes edema and hyperemia of the skin of the abdomen, perineum and external genital organs.

    Usually, allergic reactions occur with repeated administration of medicinal substances, however, cases of their manifestation are also known with a single administration of the drug, in particular penicillin. This congenital sensitivity may be due to intrauterine sensitization, since penicillin crosses the placenta into the fetal bloodstream.Since the placental barrier is permeable to many antibacterial substances, this type of sensitization is not excluded for other antimicrobial agents. An allergic reaction can also be caused by previous sensitization to other allergens. Thus, some pathogenic fungi form penicillin-like substances that can cause hypersensitivity to penicillin after the first administration of the antibiotic.

    In cases of allergic reactions, antihistamines are indicated (diphenhydramine, suprastin, tavegil, pipolfen, etc.), in severe cases – vascular drugs (ephedrine, epinephrine, norepinephrine), 10% solution of calcium chloride intravenously, corticosteroid drugs (prednisolone, hydrocortisone).

    Hypersensitivity to antibacterial drugs and the possibility of an allergic reaction to them can be established by instilling one or two drops of a weak solution of the test drug into the conjunctival sac. In the case of increased sensitivity of the animal to the investigated drug compound, the conjunctiva becomes hyperemic, edematous.The drug that caused such a reaction is not prescribed to this animal in any dosage form. Cutaneous and intradermal reactions to determine the increased sensitivity of animals to antimicrobial drugs are not widespread due to the complexity of their implementation and the complexity of recording the results.

    TOXIC REACTIONS

    Direct toxic reactions in veterinary practice are observed more often than allergic ones, although certain difficulties also arise in their diagnosis.These reactions are due to the pharmacological action of the antimicrobial agent on the organs and tissues of the macroorganism; they are not associated with the antibacterial effect of the drug and are directly dependent on the amount of the substance administered. Toxic reactions are characteristic for each individual group of antibacterial agents (penicillins, aminoglycosides, polymyxins, nitrofurans, etc.). They are detected, as a rule, only in case of drug overdose, that is, when drugs are used at maximum doses for a long period of time, or when a single dose of an antimicrobial substance is significantly overestimated, as well as when using a drug to which this type of animal is especially sensitive.

    Usually, toxic reactions are divided into groups due to the selective tropism of each drug with certain tissues of the body (neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic reactions, etc. ). However, this division is also largely arbitrary, since no medicinal substance acts strictly specifically in relation to one or two specific systems of the body, but affects, to one degree or another, the functions of all systems and organs. For practical use, it is more acceptable to describe toxic reactions for each group of antimicrobial substances.Such a subdivision characterizes the effect of the drug on the body as a whole and allows one to take into account in advance the possibility of a whole complex of certain symptoms when using specific drugs.

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are low-toxic substances and do not cause adverse reactions in any clinical application to animals, with the exception of bicillin, when administered intramuscularly, inflammatory infiltrates and tissue necrosis at the injection site can sometimes form, especially in small pets.Under the experimental conditions, with the introduction of doses significantly exceeding the maximum therapeutic doses, the neuro- and nephrotoxic effect of drugs of this group (methicillin, cephalothin, cephaloridin) was established, but these phenomena were reversible and disappeared after drug withdrawal.

    Tetracyclines are relatively non-toxic substances: their main side effect is a strong local irritating effect on tissues during parenteral (intramuscular, subcutaneous) administration; however, most dosage forms of tetracyclines on an organic (polymer) basis are free from this drawback.When administered orally, tetracyclines in rare cases can cause complications from the gastrointestinal tract: loss of appetite, vomiting, atony of the proventriculus in ruminants, diarrhea; however, such reactions occur with the use of maximum doses of antibiotics and usually disappear soon after the drug is discontinued or the course of treatment ends.

    The hepatotoxic effect of tetracyclines (in the form of fatty degeneration of the liver) was established only under experimental conditions with prolonged administration of antibiotics to laboratory animals at doses significantly higher than therapeutic ones, and these phenomena are usually reversible. Tetracyclines do not have a direct nephrotoxic effect, but in animals with renal failure, they can complicate the course of the disease, causing azotemia, acidosis, and an increase in the level of urea in the blood.

    When tetracyclines are used in pregnant animals, especially during the formation of the fetal skeleton, a slowdown in the growth of fetal bones, pigmentation of bones and teeth, and damage to tooth enamel (especially in carnivores) are observed. The teratogenic effect of antibiotics of this group (syndactyly, absence of the lower jaw) was observed only in laboratory animals (white mice and rats) with prolonged administration of toxic doses of tetracyclines.

    Macrolides in rare cases cause minor complications from the gastrointestinal tract – vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite. In poultry, with the simultaneous administration of antibiotics of this group with coccidiostatics, in particular with monensin, myopathies may occur.

    Aminoglycosides. The main side effect of this group of antibiotics is their neurotoxic effect, which is most pronounced with the intravenous administration of aminoglycosides and is manifested by a sharp decrease in blood pressure and respiratory depression, often leading to death.This effect of aminoglycosides is due to their inhibitory effect on the vasomotor and respiratory centers. Antibiotics of this group in high concentrations (with rapid intravenous administration) have a curariform and ganglion-blocking effect, which can lead to respiratory arrest by blocking the transmission of impulses in the nerve fibers of the respiratory muscles. With prolonged use, aminoglycosides have a toxic effect on the vestibular apparatus and the VIII pair of cranial nerves, which is manifested by hearing and movement disorders and is more often diagnosed in carnivores (dogs, cats).

    Parenteral administration of antibiotics of the aminoglycoside group can damage the cells of the proximal renal tubule, resulting in decreased glomerular filtration, albuminuria and microhematuria develop.

    The side effects of aminoglycosides can be minimized by avoiding, if possible, their intravenous administration, and if necessary, injections into a vein should be carried out slowly, prescribe accurate therapeutic doses and do not prolong the course of treatment, and also do not use antibiotics of this group in combination with other medicinal substances that have neuro- and nephrotoxic effects.

    Levomycetin (chloramphenicol) acts toxicly mainly on the blood and hematopoietic system, but this effect is observed only with prolonged use of the drug. So, long-term administration of chloramphenicol in doses exceeding therapeutic ones can cause inhibition of the function of the bone marrow of a hypoplastic nature (agranulocytosis, leukopenia, a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in erythrocytes, etc.), but these phenomena are reversible and are observed only under experimental conditions.The most serious complication with the use of this drug, registered in medical practice, – irreversible aplastic anemia, leading to a fatal outcome, has not been registered in veterinary medicine. Treatment with chloramphenicol in veterinary practice is shorter than in medicine, and therefore the manifestation of its toxic effect on the blood and hematopoietic organs in agricultural and domestic animals is unlikely, especially with a carefully established dosage during the treatment of an acute infectious disease.In all other cases, chloramphenicol does not cause negative gastrointestinal, neurotoxic or skin reactions.

    Polymyxins can have nephrotoxic and neurotoxic, as well as (with parenteral administration) local irritating effect. The nephrotoxic effect of polymixins is caused by damage to the glomerular apparatus of the kidneys and is characterized by albuminuria, hematuria, swelling and degeneration of tubular cells. In most cases, the renal tubular epithelium is completely restored after drug withdrawal.The neurotoxic effect of polymyxins is usually associated with their overdose and is manifested by ataxia, nystagmus, and loss of sensitivity. These symptoms usually resolve quickly, especially with the administration of antihistamines. The local irritating effect of plimixin B can be avoided by prescribing it in concentrations not exceeding 1-2%.

    Antifungal antibiotics. Nystatin has extremely low toxicity and does not cause side effects when applied to farm animals.

    When using levorin and griseofulvin, complications from the liver, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract are possible, but they are usually not severe and disappear after the end of the course of treatment.

    Sulfonamides are low-toxic compounds, however, with increased sensitivity of the body, an excessive increase in dosage or a long course of treatment, they can also cause side effects, mainly in the hematopoietic system and kidneys.

    Lesions of the hematopoietic system are characterized by symptoms of anemia, cyanosis, methemoglobinemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, and a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin. With the appointment of overestimated doses of sulfapylamides and with their prolonged use, the number of leukocytes first decreases, mainly due to segmented, then the amount of hemoglobin decreases, the resistance of erythrocytes decreases, and methemoglobin appears. The blood composition changes most strongly under the influence of streptocide, norsulfazole.

    Due to the fact that sulfonamides are eliminated from the body mainly by the kidneys, their concentration in the kidney often exceeds the limits of solubility and the drugs crystallize into a precipitate. The occurrence of crystalluria and associated renal complications is facilitated by a high concentration of the drug in the urine, a decrease in urine output, an acidic reaction of urine, and the degree of solubility of the acetylated form of the drug in urine. As a rule, acetylated compounds have no antimicrobial effect and dissolve much worse.In herbivores, due to the alkaline reaction of urine, the phenomena of crystalluria do not pose a great danger. The degree of acetylation of sulfonamides increases with prolonged use, decreased urine output, and kidney disease accompanied by renal failure. Damage to the kidneys and urinary tract is more often observed in carnivorous and omnivorous animals directly prescribing large doses of streptocide, sulfapyridazine.

    In rare cases, with prolonged use of sulgin, streptocide and norsulfazole, hepatitis can develop, which sometimes progresses and becomes life-threatening to animals.

    With the correct appointment of sulfonamides, toxic effects are very rare. They disappear soon after the drug is stopped. If primary signs of side effects of sulfonamides are detected, it is necessary to reduce the dose of the drug or completely cancel it. If the toxic effects are more pronounced, an abundant alkaline drink and diuretics should be given. With changes in the blood (agranulocytosis, leukopenia, etc.), the use of nucleic acid, iron preparations, feeds rich in proteins and vitamins is effective.

    Nitrofurans. White mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, cattle (especially calves) are highly sensitive to nitrofurans. The administration of nitrofurans in dogs and pigs is easily tolerated. The bird occupies an intermediate position, however, in chickens up to 10 days of age, nitrofurans, even at a dose of 5 mg per 1 kg of body weight, sometimes cause toxic effects. According to toxicity, nitrofurans can be arranged in the following order: furacilin, furadonin, furacrilin, furazolidone, furagin. LD 50 with a single oral administration of furacilin and furadonin to white mice is 166.7 mg / kg, furazolin – 720, furazolidone – 1758, furacrilin – 1922, furagin – 2813 mg / kg.

    The toxic effect of nitrofurans is detected only when the therapeutic dose is overestimated by more than 5 mg per 1 kg of body weight for cattle and over 10 mg per 1 kg of body weight for pigs and poultry, as well as with prolonged (more than 7-10 days) administration of therapeutic doses. At the same time, polyneuritis develops, metabolism is disturbed, kidneys and liver are affected, dyspeptic phenomena are observed. The natural immunological reactivity of the body decreases, but the formation of artificial immunity and the activity of the reticular system are not disturbed.

    Low molecular weight of nitrofurans promotes their penetration through the walls of blood vessels, lymphatic capillaries, placental barrier, therefore they can have a negative effect on the fetus, reduce the number and activity of sperm in the ejaculate. In this regard, they should not be administered to pregnant animals and producers.

    To stop the toxic effect of nitrofurans, animals are injected intravenously with 0.1-0.15 ml per 1 kg of weight of 1% methylene blue solution, inside – cysteine ​​at a dose of 5 mg per 1 kg of weight, intravenously – unitiol at a dose of 0.01 g per 1 kg of mass of a 5-10% solution in isotonic sodium chloride solution. To restore the vitamin balance, vitamins of group B are injected – thiamine bromide intramuscularly in the form of a 2.5-3% or 6% solution at the rate of 0.06-0.5 g of dry matter for horses and cattle and 0.005-0, 06 g small ruminants and pigs; inside – nicotinic acid for horses and cattle, 0.1-0.4 g each; calcium pantothenate subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously in the form of a 20% solution at the rate of 0.001-0.002 g dry matter per 1 kg of weight. To reduce the porosity of blood vessels, intravenous calcium chloride or intramuscular calcium gluconate is administered.As an antihistamine, diphenhydramine is used intramuscularly in horses and cattle, 0.1-0.5 g each

    Due to possible complications, the use of nitrofurans should be rational. Do not administer drugs for more than 5-7 days. To prevent the irritating effect of nitrofurans on the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, they are prescribed after feeding with plenty of water. 5 minutes before the introduction of nitrofurans, you can give a 0. 5% solution of novocaine at the rate of 1.5-2 tablespoons per 100 kg of animal weight, as well as rectally use drugs (in the form of suppositories).Neurotoxic reactions (anxiety, impaired movement and vision, paresthesia of the extremities, muscle weakness and soreness, etc.) can be prevented by shortening the time of drug administration to 3 days. and dose reduction (for pigs up to 5 mg, for ruminants – up to 3 mg per 1 kg of body weight). To control the negative effect of nitrofurans on the blood (the occurrence of leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia), hematological tests should be performed at least once every three days.

    REACTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PREPARATIONS

    This type of reactions caused by the biological effect of an antimicrobial drug on macroorganisms or microbial cells (including non-pathogenic) include: the emergence of drug-resistant strains of pathogens, superinfection, dysbacteriosis, the Yarish-Herxheimer bacteriolysis reaction, suppression of immune reactions, disorders of vitamin metabolism . ..

    Drug resistance of pathogens and factors contributing to its occurrence are described in the section “Resistance of microorganisms and ways to overcome it”.

    Superinfection. The effect of antimicrobial drugs introduced into the body is not limited to suppressing the vital activity of pathogenic pathogens only, but simultaneously applies to other, sensitive to them, representatives of various microflora of the body. The disappearance of sensitive bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract under the influence of antimicrobial agents does not lead, as a rule, to a change in the total number of microorganisms, since only the replacement of the disappeared bacteria with others that are resistant to the deists of this drug occurs.These resistant apathogenic or conditionally pathogenic microorganisms begin to multiply rapidly and, under certain conditions, can spread to neighboring tissues, and then throughout the body, becoming a source of a new disease. Such diseases (superinfections) can be of endogenous and exogenous origin.

    Staphylococci, E. coli, protai, anaerobes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pathogenic fungi can serve as a source of endogenous superinfection. For example, in the treatment of colibacillosis of lambs with large doses of chloramphenicol, antibiotic inhibition of the intestinal microflora can lead to increased reproduction of the virulent strain of Proteus, which, in turn, causes acute gastroenteritis, as well as seeding of internal organs.Exogenous superinfection can be caused by secondary infection with a new pathogen or by a resistant microflora of the same species as the causative agent of the original disease. This type of superinfection includes the most common candidiasis that develop with increased reproduction of yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida on the mucous membranes and skin and rarely in the internal organs of weakened animals that were treated with antimicrobial drugs (usually tetracyclines or combined drugs).

    Dysbacteriosis is a qualitative and quantitative change in the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract under the action of an antimicrobial drug. Dysbacteriosis is noted with the oral administration of many antibiotics, sulfonamides and nitrofurans, especially with their long-term administration. In most cases, the disturbed ecological balance of the intestinal microflora is restored after the termination of treatment or even during its period, however, in rare cases, a stable qualitative change in the microflora, including the microflora of the ruminant proventriculus, is observed, leading to dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract.The appointment of probiotics (bacterial preparations that restore the normal composition of the microflora of the digestive tract) has a high therapeutic effect in such cases.

    The Jarisch-Herxheimer bacteriolysis reaction (“exacerbation reaction”, “therapeutic shock”) is characterized by a rapid deterioration of the clinical condition of a sick animal or a temporary intensification of tissue lesions typical of this disease. This reaction occurs, as a rule, at the beginning of treatment and in all cases completely retains the specific pathomorphological features of the corresponding infection.Exacerbation reactions are usually observed with the introduction of large doses of bactericidal drugs. They are due to the rapid decay of microbes with the release of a significant amount of endotoxins. The latter form Salmonella, Escherichia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, Pasteurella and some other pathogens.

    The development of severe bacteriolysis reactions can be prevented with the correct use of antibacterial drugs with the obligatory use of intensive pathogenetic therapy.

    Effects on the immune system. Antimicrobial therapy has a definite effect on various aspects of the relationship between macro and microorganisms. Antimicrobial drugs can affect the antigenic structure of infectious agents, the amount of antigenic irritation, the activity of phagocytes (macro- and microphages) and the immunological reactivity of the macroorganism.

    Under the influence of low subbacteriostatic concentrations of some drugs (mainly bacteriostatic type of action), the immunizing ability of some infectious agents decreases due to changes in their antigenic and immunogenic structure.Under the influence of high bactericidal concentrations of drugs that cause rapid death of bacteria, significant changes in their antigenic composition are not detected.

    The effect of antimicrobial drugs on phagocytosis largely depends on the dose and duration of use, as well as on the properties of the drug used. Most antimicrobial agents administered in therapeutic doses during the usually prescribed course of treatment do not adversely affect the phagocytic activity of leukocytes, and sometimes increase the absorption and digestion activity of phagocytes.However, these same drugs, used in maximum doses, inhibit phagocytosis. Antibacterial agents act in a similar way on the functions of cells of the reticuloendothelial system, lymphoid tissue and other immunocompetent organs.

    Thus, the effect of antimicrobial drugs on immunogenesis depends on the dose, duration of use, and the route of administration of the drug. When prescribing drugs in therapeutic doses, especially when administered orally, their immunosuppressive properties are very weak, and often completely absent.At the same time, when using antimicrobial drugs in overestimated doses and for a long time, the development of the humoral immune response, the activity of phagocytes are sharply suppressed, and antigenic irritation decreases.

    Consequently, the effect of antimicrobial drugs on the formation and intensity of post-vaccination immunity consists of two factors; the effect of drugs on the immune system of a macroorganism and their effect on the administered antigen. With the correct, rational use of antibacterial agents, their adverse effects on the body’s immune system can be minimized or completely eliminated.Violation of immunogenesis during antibiotic therapy due to a decrease in the antigenic stimulus is completely excluded during immunization with killed vaccines and other non-bacterial antigens. When using live vaccines, one should take into account the sensitivity of vaccine strains of pathogens to the drug used, as well as the characteristics of the pharmacokinetics of the drugs used and the possibility of their interaction with the antigen in the body. For example, antimicrobial drugs that are not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract do not affect the formation of post-vaccination anti-swine immunity; penicillins due to their insensitivity to them Salmonella and Escherichia do not reduce immunogenesis in the vaccine prevention of salmonellosis and colibacternosis.

    Disorders of vitamin metabolism during antimicrobial therapy are mainly associated with inhibition of the normal microflora of the gastrointestinal tract, which synthesizes vitamins of group B. vitamins of this group, or vitamin therapy.

    90,000 drug search, prices and availability of drugs in pharmacies null and Ukraine

    About the project – My Pharmacy

    My Pharmacy is the fastest and most convenient way to find the necessary medicines in any pharmacy throughout Ukraine. We provide up-to-date information on prices and availability
    medicines in pharmacies in Ukraine. Here you can buy medicines at low prices by comparing prices or making an online reservation.

    Our database contains data on more than 11,000,000 product offerings of medicines and related products in 3,000 pharmacies in Kiev and other settlements of Ukraine.

    Updating the database of the assortment of goods every 20 minutes allows you to always provide the most up-to-date and reliable information about medicines.

    In addition, the user can get acquainted with the work schedule and contacts of each pharmacy point presented on our resource, find the addresses of 24-hour pharmacies 24 hours and build to them
    route on the map.

    The goal of this project is to provide an opportunity for each user to search for medicines as simply and efficiently as possible, and ordering pills online quickly and conveniently.

    User benefits

    My Pharmacy has a number of advantages that distinguish us favorably from competitors, thanks to which clients choose us.

    We offer:

    • Ability to quickly search for drugs in pharmacies in Kiev and other cities of Ukraine;
    • Inquire about the availability of drugs in pharmacies in Ukraine;
    • View current prices for medicines in various pharmacies;
    • Comparison of prices in pharmacies for the drug of interest and find out where it can be purchased at the most profitable;
    • We provide an opportunity to get an additional discount when ordering drugs online;
    • Find analogs of expensive drugs by comparing drugs by active ingredient;
    • Read the manufacturer’s instructions for use;
    • Find out about the availability of medicines in the nearest pharmacies, and independently build a route on the map online;
    • On our website you can find out the exact address, contact numbers and working hours of any pharmacy and find the nearest pharmacy to you.
    • Read useful publications about health, find out the latest news from the field of medicine;
    • Share your feedback on the quality of service of a particular pharmacy;

    Ordering and searching for medicines in pharmacies on the website

    On the main page of the site there is a line for quickly finding the necessary medicines. By the full name or its fragment, the resource will offer you a list of found drugs with the current ones.
    prices.To purchase a drug at the lowest cost, you just need to compare prices in pharmacies or make a reserve for it to receive an additional discount.

    Using filters by price, distance, schedule will make your search results more targeted and useful.

    The functionality of the service will be useful not only for ordinary users, but also for employees of medical institutions. Selection is available on the advanced search pages
    medicines according to specialized indicators:

    For each medicinal product, the site contains the original instructions for use from the manufacturer, which indicates everything about the product: active ingredients, purpose, contraindications
    and side reactions. Please read this information carefully before purchasing. On the same page, you can quickly find drug analogues by simply clicking the Analogues button. Here you will see everything
    options that can replace the drug of interest. And to order pills online, you need to click on the green button next to the price.

    DEAR USER!

    THE “MY PHARMACY” SERVICE ADMINISTRATION WARNS: SELF-TREATMENT CAN BE DANGEROUS FOR YOUR HEALTH! THE INFORMATION ON THIS RESOURCE IS PROVIDED ONLY FOR INFORMATION PURPOSES AND NOT
    CAN REPLACE THE DOCTOR’S CONSULTATION.

    Shepherd ringworm

    Ringworm in dogs: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

    Ringworm (dermatomycosis) is an infectious disease of the skin and its derivatives caused by pathogenic fungi – dermatophytes.

    Ringworm can be infected by a person who has contact with a sick dog (trichophytosis in humans, human microsporia).

    The causative agents of ringworm in dogs are imperfect fungi of the genera Trichophiton, Microsporum, Ashorion from the Dermatophites group.On the hair and skin of a dog, dermatophytes parasitize in the form of a septic mycelium, which breaks down into spores of various shapes. In the affected hair, scales and crusts, ringworm pathogens persist for up to 6-10 years. In the soil, on the surface of the floors and walls of the kennel – 2-3 months.

    Ringworm affects all dog breeds, with younger dogs being more susceptible to ringworm.

    Fungi of the genus Microsporum in the pathological material have a branched, septic mycelium, which disintegrates, forms round, unicellular spores.A cover or clutch is formed around the affected hair, consisting of fungal spores. The spores are arranged randomly in the form of a dense mosaic.

    Trichophytons on nutrient media (wort – agar, Sabouraud’s medium, etc.) grow slowly, forming colonies (smooth, leathery, folded, etc. ) with branches in the substrate for 10-20 days under aerobic conditions.

    Fungi of the genus Ashorion in the pathological material have a mycelium consisting of branching hyphae with dense plexus in the form of felt. The mycelium is thin, septate.The shape of the spores is round or multifaceted. Disputes are arranged in chains or groups.

    The causative agent of the favus dome-shapedly rises above the level of the nutrient medium Sabouraud in the form of a yellow-white colony, which then becomes wrinkled, waxy.

    Dermatophytes are very resistant to external factors – they remain in the affected hair for up to 2-5 years, in the soil – up to 2 months. The vegetative forms of the pathogen are killed by the action of a 1-3% formaldehyde solution in 15 minutes, a 5-8% alkali solution in 20-30 minutes.

    Epizootological data. Ringworm affects all types of domestic animals, regardless of age, however, young animals are more susceptible in the autumn-winter period. Trichophytosis also affects rodents, which often have contact with stray dogs. In dogs, trichophytosis is accompanied by the formation of limited foci (naked or with remnants of hair) on the skin in the region of the head, neck, trunk, base of the tail and limbs, inflammation of the skin and follicles.

    The microsporic form of ringworm in dogs is accompanied by inflammation of the skin and its derivatives.Young dogs, especially stray dogs, are susceptible to microsporia. Affected dogs infect the environment with loose scales, crusts, and affected hair. Infection of healthy dogs occurs during a walk as a result of direct contact with animals sick with microsporia (cats, dogs, rodents, etc.). A healthy dog ​​can become infected through infected care items, bedding, clothing and shoes of people who have been in contact with sick animals.

    Favus (scab) in a dog is accompanied by lesions of the skin, hair, claws.Infection of a dog occurs from patients with ringworm of dogs, through direct contact through damaged skin. A variety of care items for sick animals, as well as contaminated feed, are a factor in the transmission of the disease.

    Pathogenesis.
    Once on the dog’s skin, the spores or mycelium of the fungus grow and multiply in tissues containing the horny substance-kerotin, grow into hair follicles and multiply in them, the reproduction of spores and mycelium also occurs in the epidermis under the layer of keratinized cells.During their growth and reproduction, fungi release toxins and proteolytic enzymes, which lead to the development of a superficial inflammatory reaction on the skin and loosening of the stratum corneum. In the presence of conditions favorable for development, the pathogen penetrates to the mouth of the hair follicles and into the hair neck, destroys the cuticle, internal hair sheath, and cortex, which ultimately leads to disruption of hair nutrition and its subsequent loss. The dermis of the skin thickens, the follicle orifices expand, and pus accumulates in the follicles. Hair breaks when leaving the follicle, numerous scales and crusts form on the surface of the skin. At the site of the skin lesion, the dog develops hyperkeratosis. The severity of the inflammatory reaction in a dog depends on the type of pathogen, skin condition and body resistance.

    Inflamed areas of the skin itch, dogs itch, causing the ringworm pathogen to spread to other parts of the body. With ringworm, the pathogen can be transferred through the blood and lymphatic vessels, followed by the formation of multiple lesions in the breeding sites.As a result of this, metabolic disorders in the dog’s body occur and, ultimately, exhaustion of the sick animal may occur. During the period of pronounced clinical signs of ringworm, the dog develops an allergy and specific serum antibodies appear in the blood.

    Clinical picture. Ringworm symptoms do not appear immediately in a dog. The incubation (latent) period with ringworm, depending on the resistance of the dog’s body, can last up to 30 days or more. The disease itself in a dog lasts from 3-9 weeks to 9 months or more.

    According to the degree of lesions, superficial, deep, erased and hidden forms of ringworm are distinguished. In adult dogs, ringworm most often occurs in a latent form, in young dogs all forms of the disease are observed. The disease in dogs is accompanied by itching.

    For the superficial form of ringworm, hair loss and breakage are characteristic, the formation of hairless, scaly patches of a round shape on the skin.Signs of exudation (the presence of an inflammatory focus on the skin) with this form are hardly noticeable. Lesions can be focal and disseminated.

    With a deep (follicular) form, the inflammatory process in the skin is pronounced, crusts of dried exudate form on the surface of the dog’s skin. Small spots may coalesce to form large, crusted foci. The deep form of ringworm in dogs is rare and only in advanced cases.

    The atypical form is characterized by the appearance of hairless or sparsely hairy areas of the coat. There is no pronounced skin inflammation. On visual inspection, such areas to dog owners resemble scratches and injuries.

    The latent form (subclinical) is accompanied in dogs by the defeat of individual hairs on the head, neck, trunk and limbs. Hair loss, the formation of scales, crusts with this form of ringworm is not observed. By visual examination, the affected hair in a dog is not possible to identify, they can only be detected using the luminescent method in a veterinary clinic.

    With trichophytosis in dogs, on the scalp, neck, trunk, base of the tail and extremities, limited foci with broken hair and a flaky surface appear, or we observe inflamed areas of the skin and its follicles.

    Scab (favus) in dogs usually occurs sporadically. During clinical examination, veterinarians in such dogs find lesions of the base of the claws, scalp, less often hairless areas of the abdomen, thighs, and chest. The resulting spots are covered with gray-white crusts, which gradually take the shape of a saucer. The crusts in a sick dog can stick together into continuous layers, from which a characteristic putrid smell emanates.

    The diagnosis of ringworm is made by specialists of the veterinary clinic in a comprehensive manner, taking into account epizootological data, clinical signs, as well as taking into account the cultural microscopic and luminescent methods for determining the pathogen. For laboratory research, scrapings (scales, hair, crusts) are taken from the periphery of the affected areas of the sick dog’s body that have not undergone medical procedures.This pathological material for research can be sent in test tubes, Petri dishes, vials with a ground stopper, in a plastic bag to a veterinary laboratory or a diagnostic room.

    For diagnostic research (microcopying), the pathological material is placed in a Petri dish, poured with 10% sodium hydroxide solution and placed in a thermostat for 20-30 minutes or slightly heated over a burner flame. Then, with a dissecting needle, it is transferred onto a glass slide, enclosed in a 50% aqueous solution of glycerin, covered with a cover glass and viewed under a microscope at low and medium magnification. With ringworm, straight mycelium hyphae with septa lying along the periphery of the hair are visible. Spores 3-6 microns in size are unicellular, round and oval arranged in clutches or chains. Hair affected by microspore fungi are covered with spores (mycelium is straight, septate, branched).

    Luminescent method examines pathological material and dogs suspicious for the disease. The pathological material is examined in Petri dishes in a dark room under a portable mercury-quartz lamp PRK-2, PRK-4 (USFFS light filter), and a sick animal using a MiG, Wood lamp.Hair affected by microsporum fungi glows emerald green under the influence of ultraviolet rays.

    Differential diagnosis. Dog ringworm veterinary specialists on the basis of laboratory and clinical and epizootic data differentiate from dermatitis (dermatitis in dogs), hypovitaminosis (hypovitaminosis A in dogs, hypovitaminosis C in dogs, hypovitaminosis B2 in dogs), scabies (sarcoptic mange in dogs, treatment and prevention demodicosis in dogs), ectoparasites (fleas in dogs), zinc deficiency (zinc deficiency in animals), staphylococcal infection in dogs, streptococcosis (streptococcosis in dogs and cats).

    Treatment. There are currently several highly effective treatments for ringworm. Treatment of a dog with ringworm should be carried out under the direct supervision of a veterinarian and a veterinarian – dermatologist. When treating, dog owners must strictly adhere to personal preventive measures. Before applying the medicinal product to the affected skin areas, wash them with warm water and soap.

    Of the early methods of treating ringworm, the following are known – the use of 5-10% salicylic ointment, 10% salicylic alcohol, 10% tincture of iodine, sulfone, sulfurous anhydride, 3-10% solution of carbolic and benzoic acids, iodoform, iodine monochloride, “Yam” ointment, etc.The above drugs have a strong irritant and cauterizing effect on the skin. They were used for quite a long time, although this did not always lead to the recovery of the animal.

    Antibiotics – nystatin and griseofulvin are widely used for the treatment of ringworm. Griseofulvin is administered to the dog by mouth during feeding, 1 tablet 4 times a day for two weeks. Nystatin is also given orally at 500,000 units. 3-4 times a day, the course of treatment is two weeks. When using these drugs, the owners of a sick dog should keep in mind that they have strong side effects, and they must be used with great care.

    Of the imported drugs, the oral antifungal drug nizoral (Hungary) is very effective. This drug is administered orally once a day, 1-2 tablets, the course of treatment is 2-8 weeks.

    With ringworm, the use of the following ointments is also effective – undecin, zinkundan, mycoseptin, mycozolone, clotrimazole. They must be used according to the instructions.

    Effective for ringworm is the use of Wilkinson’s ointment, which is rubbed into the lesions 2 times a day, the course of treatment is 7-14 days.If the need arises, then after 5 days the course of treatment is repeated.

    In recent years, highly effective, reliable and low-toxic live and inactivated vaccines Vakderm, polivac-TM, trimvac, microderm and others have been used for the treatment and prevention of ringworm. Owners of a sick dog should remember that the treatment and prevention of ringworm is developed, carried out and monitored by the veterinarian of the clinic.

    Prevention. General prevention of ringworm in dogs is based on the observance of veterinary and sanitary rules by the owners of the animal in the premises, creating normal conditions of keeping, providing the dog with full-fledged food and carrying out regular disinfection.Dog owners need to remember that a balanced diet, including vitamins and macro-microelements, helps to increase immunity and can increase the body’s overall resistance to various diseases (the basics of feeding dogs, feeding puppies, feeding pregnant females, feeding lactating females, feeding aging dogs, golden rules for rational feeding of dogs).

    vetvo.ru

    Ringworm in a dog: signs and treatment

    Ringworm is the household name for a dermatological infection. This disease is common in dogs, affecting the skin, hair and nails. It progresses rapidly and is transmitted to humans, so owners of these animals need to know how to identify and treat ringworm in dog .

    Reasons for infection

    The causative agent of infection is fungal microorganisms of the genus Trychophiton and Microsporum, therefore in medicine these types of the disease are denoted by the terms trichophytosis and microsporia. They are distinguished only in laboratory conditions, and the external signs and methods of treatment are similar.

    Fungi reproduce by spores, which, in a favorable environment, remain viable for up to 18 months, easily tolerate temperature fluctuations. Getting on the skin and coat of the dog, spores damage the epidermis and hair follicles. The fungus multiplies and the disease progresses.

    Any dog, regardless of breed and age, can become infected, but the individual resistance of the animal to the pathogen is important. Risk factors are:

    • weakened immunity;
    • concomitant diseases;
    • poor quality food;
    • stress;
    • parasites: worms, fleas.

    The source of infection is more often a sick animal, items for caring for him – bowls, combs, bedding, toys. Often, spores end up in the soil, so they enter the house on the soles of shoes along with street dirt and dust.

    Signs of ringworm in dogs

    The incubation period of the disease lasts from 8 to 40 days. Before the first signs of appear, the pet’s behavior may change: it becomes lethargic, refuses to eat. First, lesions appear on the head, behind the ears, at the base of the tail, in the lower extremities.At the first stage, ringworm looks like rounded spots measuring 2 – 3 cm with clear contours, on which:

    • hairs break off or hair completely falls out;
    • skin peels off;
    • oily scales appear;
    • the color of the epidermis changes.

    Over time, other symptoms appear : the affected areas become inflamed, bubbles with fluid appear, abscesses, the skin becomes crusty and becomes bumpy.Ringworm is accompanied by itching, after scratching, the lesions bleed, in the future an additional infection may join. If lichen appears on the claws, then they change shape and exfoliate.

    Diagnostics

    The external manifestations of lichen are similar to other dermatological diseases, therefore, before how to treat the disease, the dog is taken to the veterinarian. It is not recommended to independently treat the affected areas with medicines before visiting a doctor – this will complicate the diagnosis of the disease.First, the veterinarian examines the animal, finds out the general health of the dog. Then he uses three methods to detect the disease:

    1. Microscopic examination . In scrapings of diseased areas of skin and wool, the pathogen is sometimes found.
    2. Diagnosis with Wood lamp . Places affected by the fungus glow in the dark with a bright green color under the influence of rays, but only some types of pathogen give such an effect.
    3. Cultivation of mushrooms .Scrapings of skin and wool are placed in a nutrient medium and its changes are monitored: over time, colonies of fungi are formed, which are clearly visible under a microscope.

    The accuracy of the first two methods for detecting ringworm in dogs is 50 – 70%: if the pathogen is not found, this does not mean that the dog is not infected. The latter method is the most accurate, but also the longest – it takes up to 3 weeks.

    Medicines

    After confirming the diagnosis, contacts of a sick pet with children and other animals are limited and, if possible, placed in a separate room.They carry out wet cleaning, disinfect animal care items. Treatment of ringworm in dogs with drugs varies depending on the severity of the lesion: for this they use external and oral medications, vaccination. In addition to special medications, if necessary, the dog is prescribed additional medications:

    • multivitamins;
    • liver protection agents – hepatoprotectors;
    • immunomodulators;
    • probiotics for the normalization of the digestive tract;
    • Antihistamines.

    Local preparations

    External agents are prescribed at an early stage of the disease. These include ointments, sprays, gels, creams, shampoos, solutions containing antifungal components. Before using them, the wool near the affected area is cut off, sore spots are treated with warm water and an antiseptic solution. Crusts are carefully removed before application. Rubbing medications, capturing healthy areas of the skin by about 2 cm. If necessary, the pet is put on a protective collar so that he does not lick the medicine.

    According to the reviews of dog breeders, ringworm in a dog the following preparations are good:

    • cream “Sanoderm”;
    • Clotrimazole ointment;
    • Fucoricin solution;
    • Miconazole: spray, ointment, gel;
    • “Thermikon”: spray, solution, gel, ointment;
    • “Fungin”: drops, spray;
    • YAM BK ointment;
    • Nizoral shampoo.

    Important. It is forbidden to wash dogs with ordinary shampoos: together with water, the spores of the pathogen move to healthy parts of the body.

    Oral preparations

    Antifungal antibiotics are prescribed if the infected lesions are large or topical agents do not help. Before treating pets with tablets, you need to consult your doctor, because they have side effects. Most often, the following drugs are prescribed for dogs:

    • “Intraconazole”;
    • “Griseofulvin”;
    • “Ketoconazole”;
    • “Fluconazole”.

    These tablets are produced for humans, therefore the doctor prescribes the dosage and duration of administration for dogs individually, depending on the age, weight and general condition of the animal.

    Vaccination

    Russian veterinarians use vaccines Vakderm-F, Microderm, Polivak TM, in other countries they are considered useless. The drugs are used both for the treatment of lichen and for prophylaxis in order to accelerate the course of the disease. The funds are injected twice into the hind legs, observing a break of 2 weeks: first in one limb, then in the other. The dosage depends on the weight of the dog. A lump sometimes appears at the injection site, which eventually dissolves on its own. The effect appears within 30 days after the second injection.

    The duration of treatment ranges from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the severity of the disease and general health. When the dog recovers, its skin is restored and new coat begins to grow.

    Home remedies

    Folk remedies are used when it is not possible to purchase antifungal drugs in pharmacies. The owners say that can cure ringworm in dog with iodine: the infected areas are treated 3 times a day.Another popular remedy, apple cider vinegar, is rubbed on sore spots 5 times a day. Some traditional medicines do not remove the fungus, but they help to improve the condition of the epidermis: they eliminate inflammation, itching, dryness. These include:

    • celandine juice;
    • onion juice;
    • calendula tincture;
    • birch tar;
    • lemon juice with vegetable oil;

    The selected drugs are rubbed into the affected areas 3-4 times a day.

    Important.In severe cases, folk remedies will only benefit in combination with medication.

    Prevention and disinfection

    We must not forget that the spores of the causative agent ringworm remain in all places where the sick pet is staying, therefore it is important to regularly take measures to destroy them:

    • the apartment is often vacuumed, the garbage is burned;
    • the floor and other surfaces in the house are treated with disinfectants;
    • The pet’s bedding is periodically washed in a disinfectant solution;
    • disinfect animal care items with antifungal solutions;
    • the dog is treated with protective gloves and special clothing, which you do not mind throwing away later.

    The contacts of a sick dog are limited. It is unacceptable to let your pet go for a walk without supervision. It is possible to avoid lichen in dogs , but for this you need to take preventive measures:

    • regularly examine the coat, skin;
    • do not let go of the street unattended;
    • wash paws after walking;
    • periodically decontaminate the dog’s residence in the house;
    • Limit contact with unfamiliar animals.

    Ringworm in dogs is a dangerous disease, but if it is recognized in time and the right medicines are chosen, then this infection can be easily treated.

    kozhainfo.ru

    Microsporia (ringworm). Central Asian Shepherd Dog

    Microsporia (ringworm)

    This disease belongs to the group of dermatomycosis caused by imperfect dermatomycetes fungi. In addition to microsporia, this group of diseases also includes trichophytosis and scab.

    All diseases caused by dermatomycetes are infectious to humans, their pathogens persist in the external environment for a long time and are extremely resistant to disinfectants.So, a 2-3% formalin solution destroys them in 30 minutes, heating to 90 ° C in a humid environment kills the pathogen in 6 minutes, and in dry heat at a temperature of 100-110 ° C, the death of the fungus occurs within 20 minutes … Direct sunlight kills dermatomycetes within a few hours, and quartzization takes 30 minutes.

    Like all other fungi, microsporia and scab pathogens multiply by spores. Infection occurs through the scales of the epithelium and wool, on which in the external environment the spores of dermatomycetes persist for up to 1.5 years.

    In addition to direct contact, the animal can also get sick when using care items for a dog affected by microsporia or scab. Also, the vectors of infection are blood-sucking parasites: fleas, ticks, lice.

    There are frequent cases of manifestation of microsporia for no apparent reason. This may indicate that the Central Asian Shepherd Dog was in contact with a source of infection in the external environment.

    After infection, microsporia does not appear from 8 to 30 days, then spots of a regular rounded shape with signs of baldness or rare hairs broken off at the root, covered with crusts and scales, form on the skin.

    The skin under the crusts is hyperemic, there is a slight itching. When pressing on the affected area, a pus-like fluid may be released from the hair follicles, although this symptom is not necessary.

    Over time, the rounded shape of the spots becomes oval, and then the spots, merging with each other, form areas of baldness of various types and sizes.

    At this stage, the itching intensifies, the dog constantly combes the affected skin, scattering scales and broken hairs infected with spores into the external environment.

    It is at this stage that ringworm is especially dangerous for humans and other animals, since infection can occur even through the smallest particles of the epithelium suspended in the air of the room where the sick Central Asian Shepherd Dog is kept.

    Ringworm is most often affected by animals whose coat and skin are not properly cared for.

    In order to prescribe the correct treatment, laboratory tests are necessary. The first part is microscopic examination.To carry it out, scraping scales and broken hairs are taken from the affected area of ​​the skin for testing.

    Treatment of microsporia is a rather lengthy process. First, it is necessary to ensure the isolation of the animal and constant cleaning of the room where it is kept in order to prevent infection of family members and the formation of new foci of the disease on the pet’s skin.

    Secondly, it is necessary to treat the affected areas with antifungal drugs for a long time with the capture of externally healthy tissues by at least 1 cm.

    A 10% salicylic acid solution in a 5% iodine tincture is well suited for this purpose. You can also apply 1% juglone ointment. In both cases, therapy is continued until recovery.

    This text is an introductory fragment.

    Read the whole book

    Share on the page

    pets.wikireading.ru

    Lichen in dogs: treatment, complications, types, prevention

    Lichen (trichophytosis, scab) in dogs is a disease of the skin of an animal, of an infectious nature, caused by a certain virus or pathogenic fungus.There are several types of infections, each with distinctive symptoms. If you timely detect lichen in dogs , treatment is not difficult to carry out at home.

    Lichen in dogs: signs and varieties

    Usually, most dog owners only develop lichen in later stages of development. However, for such an infection to understand that a pathogen has appeared on the skin, it is quite simple to determine at the initial stage:

    • on the skin of the nose, muzzle and in the area of ​​\ u200b \ u200bthe ears and tail, a slightly noticeable rash forms;
    • hair gradually begins to fall out in the places of its formation;
    • since the animal will comb the sore spots, a crust will inevitably appear.

    It must be said that scab in pets occurs for several reasons. The main one is contact with roaming dogs, as well as bowls, toys and other things of an infected animal.

    There are five types of this disease .

    1. Pink . It is considered the most harmless species. It is a viral infection. Paints the foci of inflammation pinkish. On its own, the animal’s immune system copes with the pathogen within about 6 weeks.
    2. Weeping (eczema). Allergic in nature. The causes of eczema can be endocrine system disorders, any chronic ailments. The disease is also inherited. First, a woolen cover falls out at the site of infection, the skin becomes loose and gradually acquires a reddish tint.
    3. Ringworm (claw). It is considered one of the most common types of scab. Caused by a pathogenic fungus. Externally ringworm looks like spots of various sizes.After infection, the fungus infects the entire body of the animal as soon as possible. If treatment is not started in a timely manner, the infection will lead to complete baldness of the affected areas and the appearance of characteristic scales on the body.
    4. Pityriasis . It occurs as often as cut versicolor and is characterized by the appearance of small patches of pink color on the skin. As a rule, spots are formed on the legs, back, and also the neck of the animal. If treatment is not started on time, the affected skin will turn yellowish-brown in color.
    5. Shingles . Caused by the herpes virus. At the first stage of the disease, liquid bubbles appear in the area between the ribs and in the abdomen. The dog begins to constantly scratch the affected area, which causes the bubbles to burst and form a crust.

    Lichen in dogs: home treatment and possible complications

    If scab is found, treatment procedures should be carried out only after consulting a veterinarian. Since there are several types of trichophytosis, a remedy that has helped one pet can only harm another.For treatment, veterinarians usually recommend special ointments, shampoos, antiseptics (salicylic acid, iodine). In case of complications, pills and antibiotics are prescribed.

    Before how to treat lichen in dogs , you should initially perform a few simple manipulations:

    • carefully and carefully get rid of the hair around the lesion;
    • make the crusts on the skin soft and pliable with a warm solution and soap;
    • remove the crust layer;
    • Treat the exposed areas with iodine or any other anti-fungal agent.

    IMPORTANT! All manipulations must be carried out with gloves. The trimmed wool and rind are not thrown away, but burned.

    Depending on the type of scab identified, treatment procedures without the use of medications are carried out with ointments and shampoos prescribed by a veterinarian.

    1. The ointment is used when there are bald patches and with clear localization of spots. Mainly used ointments such as “ Miconazole “, “Tiabendazole”, “Exoderil”, “Ointment Yam”, “Clotrimazole”.Processing should be carried out approximately two to three times a day. It is advisable to apply a thin layer of the agent not only to the lesion, but also to the skin around it.
    2. If the pet already has a lot of bald patches or they are completely absent, use special shampoos. Each of them has its own instructions for use, in which the frequency of processing is clearly spelled out.

    The disease must be cured on time, strictly following the recommendations of the veterinarian. When the first signs are found, it is worth considering what looks like in dogs on photo , identify signs on it and you can already roughly imagine what kind of infection the pet is sick with.With a complex form of the disease, there is a great chance that it will be impossible to get rid of it at all. In case of complications, the following remedies are used:

    • tablets for lichen – are prescribed when most of the skin is affected in the animal; the most common drugs are “Fluconazole”, “Intraconazole”, “Ketoconazole”, “Griseofulvin” – they are not able to negatively affect the state of the body, but they should be taken together with drugs to protect the liver;
    • immunostimulants – they will never be superfluous during the use of absolutely any drugs: thanks to the strengthened immune system, the animal will quickly recover;
    • antibiotics – they are prescribed in the event that a secondary pathogen has joined the main pathogen, for example, staphylococcus, streptococcus, which can settle on the affected skin areas that are regularly combed by animals.

    If we talk about vaccinations, unfortunately, there is still no effective vaccine against trichophytosis. All vaccines developed to date are at the experimental stage and have not passed the appropriate certification.

    A few tips on the prevention of lichen in dogs

    To reduce to a minimum, try to prevent the onset and development of this disease, it is enough to regularly carry out a number of preventive actions:

    • after each walk, not only wash the paws, but completely bathe the pet;
    • if during a walk on the street stray dogs or cats are found, it is better to put on a leash so that the pet does not come into contact with potential carriers of the pathogen;
    • regularly conduct a thorough examination of the body;
    • after leaving for nature, it is necessary to treat the animal’s things with special compounds designed to combat parasites;
    • to visit a veterinarian periodically;
    • daily in each room of an apartment or house to carry out wet cleaning using special disinfectants;
    • Develop a complete diet for your beloved animal containing trace elements and vitamins to strengthen the immune system.

    Despite the fact that there are effective vaccinations at the moment, it will not be superfluous to get vaccinated. Unfortunately, new viruses and strains of fungi that are resistant to the above drugs appear regularly. That is why the owners of their pets must carefully look after them, give only the recommended food for food and keep them clean.

    www.petstopdog.info

    fungus of the respiratory tract treatment

    fungus of the respiratory tract treatment

    Dolgar Application

    terbinafine ointment from skin fungus price, treatment of fungus clinic Moscow
    fungus on nails treatment is cheap
    is it possible to cure nail fungus with ointment
    mycozoral ointment reviews from fungus
    means of combating toenail fungus

    URT – upper respiratory tract.GERD is a gastroesophageal reflux disease. LM – laryngomycosis To diagnose mycotic lesions of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, it is recommended to use two diagnostic methods: Microscopy of stained smears from the affected areas of the mucous membrane. Sowing the discharge of the affected areas of the mucous membrane on nutrient media [5, 6, 7, 8]. Fungal infection is manifested by a strong cough with scanty sputum, hemoptysis, low-grade fever, shortness of breath, chest pain, weakness, the development of bronchospasm, pleurisy, and respiratory failure.To confirm the diagnosis, chest x-ray, sputum microscopy, culture and serological studies are shown. Criteria for fungal infection of the respiratory tract in immunocompromised individuals: 1) Symptoms of the upper respiratory tract (discharge from the nose, complaints of suffocation, mucus discharge, ulceration of the nasal mucosa), epistaxis, periorbital swelling, sensitivity of the upper jaw, necrotic lesion, perforation of the hard palate. 2) Symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection (cough, chest pain, hemoptysis, shortness of breath), pleural involvement, new infiltration site in the lungs.3) Infiltrates of the lungs with computed tomography of the lungs. Fungal spores are easily carried in the air, from where they get to the mucous surfaces of the respiratory tract, and then to the lungs. For this reason, only the normal functioning of the immune system helps to protect against fungal infections. The risk of developing pneumonia of this etiology also increases with unfavorable factors – foci of mycosis on the skin, nail plates, mucous membranes.However, this does not mean that the disease does not require treatment. Fungal pneumonia: symptoms.The severity of signs of fungal pneumonia, its symptoms depend on the form of the disease. Where to treat fungal infections of the ear, pharynx, tonsils, maxillary sinuses. Effective treatment of mycoses in adults and children in the Echinacea clinic. Otomycosis, pharyngeal mycosis (pharyngomycosis) with reduced immunity. Fungal infections of the ear, pharynx, tonsils, maxillary sinuses. What and how is it called. Symptoms and causes of fungal infections of the ears, tonsils, pharynx, nose. Why are mycoses of the tonsils, pharynx, ear dangerous for children? Where to treat fungal infections of the ear, pharynx, tonsils, maxillary sinuses.Effective treatment of mycoses in adults and children in the Echinacea clinic. URT – upper respiratory tract. GERD is a gastroesophageal reflux disease. LM – laryngomycosis When carrying out treatment, it is necessary to take into account previous episodes of fungal infection and treatment with antimycotics. Strength of recommendation A (evidence level I). It is recommended to start treatment of catarrhal and atrophic forms of FM with the use of local forms of antifungal drugs: Aqueous suspensions of polyene antimycotics (nystatin, amphotericin B).Imidazole derivatives administered as aerosols, solutions, drops, chewable tablets. Respiratory system. Drugs for diseases of the eyes and ears. Immune system Treatment of skin fungus – a wide range of drugs. Are broad-spectrum antifungals prescribed for pregnant and lactating women? What are broad-spectrum antifungals for? Treatment – external formulations together with tablets of antimycotic activity. Some common names for diseases that destroy the skin are multicolored, shingles, ringworm or pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, seborrheic eczema, etc.e. Treatment of fungus in the throat. Potential complications. Prevention. Fungus in the throat accounts for approximately 30-40% of all cases of infectious diseases in otolaryngology. It causes inflammation in the pharyngeal mucosa. The causative agent is a saprophytic fungus. It is important to recognize the pathology in time and seek medical help – until the infection has managed to affect other important organs and structures.This infectious disease is provoked by fungal flora that enters the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract.In most cases, these are yeast-like fungi of the Candida family, less often molds. The risk factors are Causes, Symptoms and Treatment. Airways. bronchi. mild Symptoms and diagnosis. Treatment. 1. General information. The term candidiasis means damage to a tissue or organ with a saprophyte yeast of the genus Candida. More than 80 species of this fungal culture are known; more than a dozen of them (in particular, the widespread Candida albicans) are pathogenic or opportunistic to humans.In most cases, the treatment of pharyngomycosis begins with the appointment of local therapy, and then, if necessary, systemic therapy with azoles derivatives is connected: fluconazole (diflucan, mycosist, flucostat, flumicon) at 100 mg / day, ketoconazole (nizoral) at 200 mg / day, and also itraconazole at 100 mg / day, etc. The antimycotic effect of these drugs is based on a violation of the synthesis of ergosterol (mycostatic) or its binding (mycidal) with ergosterol – the main component of the cell membranes of fungi.Preparations for local etiotropic therapy are divided into antiseptics and antimycotics.

    nail fungus treatment cheap airway fungus treatment

    terbinafine ointment for skin fungus price
    fungus treatment clinic moscow
    nail fungus treatment cheap
    can nail fungus be cured with ointment
    mycozoral ointment reviews from the fungus
    means of combating fungus of toenails
    salicylic ointment for nail fungus
    neglected toenail fungus

    respiratory tract fungus treatment can nail fungus be cured with ointment

    salicylic ointment for nail fungus
    neglected toenail fungus
    Treatment of nail fungus than possible
    terbinafine treatment course for nail fungus tablets
    Treatment of toe fungus with vinegar
    foot fungus drugs for treatment photo

    Spray “Dolgar” is the result of many years of development and research.Its formula, containing Cordyceps extract, is unmatched, which makes the drug more effective. Dolgar price drug customer reviews Dolgar

    90,000 6 main reasons and what to do

    Itching in the body occurs when a reaction stimulates nerve endings in the skin, which can occur for several reasons, the main ones being allergies or skin irritations such as dryness, sweat, or insect bites.

    However, persistent itching can be associated with diseases that can be dermatological, infectious, metabolic, or even psychological, such as dermatitis, ringworm, psoriasis, dengue, Zika virus, diabetes or anxiety, for example.

    Depending on the cause, itching from loneliness or accompanied by other symptoms such as redness, bumps, spots, blisters or sores, and these may be caused by a disease or caused by frequent scratching. Finding and fixing the cause is important to cure it, but the symptom can be alleviated with an anti-allergic agent, moisturizer, or anti-inflammatory ointment prescribed by a physician or dermatologist.

    So, some of the main causes of itching and what to do in each case include:

    1.Allergic reactions.

    Any type of skin irritation can cause itching, characteristic of allergies. Some of the more common causes include:

    • Excessive heat or sweat;
    • Beetle sting;
    • Textiles, cosmetics, eg soaps, creams and shampoos, or cleaning products;
    • Hair of animals or plants;
    • Food;
    • Allergic reaction to medications;
    • Dust or dust mites from clothing, books and upholstery.

    Allergies can occur in an isolated situation or can often occur in people prone to allergies, and the episodes can be mild or severe and may require treatment by a dermatologist.

    What to do : Walk away and avoid contact with the allergenic substance. In some cases, you may need to use antiallergic drugs such as dexchlorpheniramine, loratadine, hydroxyzine, or corticosteroid ointments. Learn more about how to identify and treat skin allergies.

    2. Dry skin.

    Dry skin, a condition known as cutaneous xerosis, is caused mainly by excessive use of soap or very hot and prolonged baths, which causes constant itching due to irritation and flaking of the skin.

    Other causes of this dry skin may include the use of certain medications, such as cholesterol-lowering drugs, opioids, or diuretics, in addition to situations of dehydration, living in cold regions with low humidity, and even certain medical conditions that can cause changes keratinization of the skin.

    What to do : During the treatment, moisturizing creams containing, for example, ceramides, glycolic acid, vitamin E or urea are used.It may also be necessary to use anti-allergic drugs such as loratadine or dexlorpheniramine to relieve symptoms more quickly. Check out our recipe for a great homemade moisturizer for very dry skin.

    3. Dermatitis.

    Dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease, usually with a genetic or autoimmune cause, in which a chronic allergic process occurs, which causes persistent and severe itching and may be accompanied by other skin changes.

    Some of the more common forms of dermatitis include:

    • Atopic dermatitis : Most often in folds, accompanied by redness, flaking, or swelling of the skin;
    • Seborrheic dermatitis : Causes redness or flaking of the skin, especially on the scalp, where this can be known as dandruff;
    • Contact dermatitis : Causes severe itching, accompanied by blistering and redness, in places on the skin that have been in direct contact with an irritating substance, such as jewelry or cosmetics;
    • Dermatitis herpetiformis : Causes an inflammatory response that forms small, itchy blisters on the skin, similar to herpetic lesions, which is more common in people with celiac disease;
    • Psoriasis : This is a chronic skin condition that causes inflammation and overgrowth of cells in its most superficial layer, causing scaly lesions.

    Other rarer examples of itchy skin changes include light or bullous dermatitis, as well as other dermatological conditions such as bullous pemphigoid, fungal mycosis and lichen planus. Read on for more information on the main types of dermatitis.

    What to do : A dermatologist should accompany a person with dermatitis, who will assess the characteristics of the lesions and prescribe treatment on a case-by-case basis, which may include, for example, urea-based moisturizers, corticosteroids, or antiallergens….

    4. Skin infections.

    Infectious diseases affecting the skin caused by fungi, bacteria or parasites usually cause lesions and inflammatory reactions that cause itching. Some of the most common infections are:

    • Skin mycoses : characterized by rounded, reddish, or whitish lesions on the skin caused by certain types of fungi, some examples are ringworm, onychomycosis, diaper rash and tinea versicolor;
    • Cutaneous candidiasis : Infection with Candida and causes red and moist lesions, most often in the folds of the body, such as under the breast, groin, underarms, nails, or between the fingers, although it can appear anywhere on the body;
    • Scabies : This disease, also known as scabies, is caused by the mite Sarcoptes Scabiei , which causes severe itching and reddish growths and is quite contagious;
    • Herpes : Infection with the herpes virus causes redness and small blisters that may be itchy or painful, usually on the lips and genitals;
    • Impetigo : A skin infection caused by bacteria that cause small wounds that contain pus and form scabs.

    These infections can be spread from one person to another and usually occur in conditions of poor hygiene or a weakened immune system.

    What to do : Treatment is under the direction of a physician with medication, usually ointments, to eliminate the microorganisms causing it, antifungal agents such as nystatin or ketoconazole, antibiotics such as neomycin or gentamicin, permethrin or ivermectin solutions for scabies, and antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir, for herpes.Itching can also be relieved with allergy medications.

    5. Systemic diseases

    There are several diseases that reach the bloodstream and can manifest themselves as one of the symptoms of itching. Some diseases in which this situation can occur are as follows:

    • Viral infections , such as dengue, Zika virus, chickenpox or causing circulatory and immune disorders, causing itching;
    • Bile duct diseases , caused, for example, by diseases such as hepatitis B and C, primary biliary cirrhosis, bile duct carcinoma, alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and autoimmune hepatitis;
    • Chronic renal failure ;
    • Neuropathies , caused, for example, by diabetes, stroke or multiple sclerosis;
    • Endocrinological diseases such as hyperthyroidism, diabetes, or mastocytosis;
    • HIV , caused by both skin infections and possible changes in the immune system;
    • Hematologic diseases such as anemia, polycythemia vera or lymphoma;
    • Cancer .

    These conditions can cause itching with varying frequency and intensity in each person.

    What to do : In these cases, your doctor will prescribe treatment for the underlying condition that may be causing itching. In the meantime, the use of antiallergic drugs such as hydroxyzine may be recommended to control symptoms to relieve discomfort.

    6. Psychological illnesses

    Psychological pruritus, also called psychogenic pruritus, is suspected when the cause of the pruritus cannot be found even after a detailed and lengthy medical examination with physical examination and examination.

    This type of itching can occur in people with conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, drug addiction, or personality disorders. Sometimes the symptoms are so severe that a person can live with itchy skin lesions.

    What to do : Once confirmed that it is not a dermatologic or systemic disorder, psychiatric supervision may be required, which may indicate psychotherapy or treatment of the underlying disorder, such as anxiolytics or antidepressants.