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Candidal intertrigo | DermNet NZ

Author: Hon A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2003. Updated by Dr Thomas Stewart, General Practitioner, Sydney, Australia, November 2017.

What is candidal intertrigo?

Candidal intertrigo refers to superficial skin-fold infection caused by the yeast, candida.

Candida intertrigo

See more images of candida intertrigo.

What causes candidal intertrigo?

Candidal intertrigo is triggered by a combination of the following factors:

  • The hot and damp environment of skin folds, which is conducive to the growth of candida species, particularly Candida albicans[1] 
  • Increased skin friction [2]
  • Immunocompromise [3].

Who gets candidal intertrigo?

Factors that increase an individual’s risk of developing candidal intertrigo include:

What are the clinical features of candidal intertrigo?

Candidal intertrigo classically presents as erythematous and macerated plaques with peripheral scaling. There are often associated superficial satellite papules or pustules [2,5,6].

Affected areas may include: 

  • Skin folds below the breasts or under the abdomen
  • Armpits and groin
  • Web spaces between the fingers or toes (erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica) [2,5,6]. 

How is candidal intertrigo diagnosed?

Diagnosis of candidal intertrigo requires recognition of consistent clinical features. In cases of uncertainty, confirmation can be sought by way of fungal microscopy and culture of skin swabs and scrapings [7]. Skin biopsy is usually not necessary.

What is the differential diagnosis for candidal intertrigo?

Other forms of intertrigo should be considered, including:

How is candidal intertrigo treated?

  • Predisposing factors should be addressed primarily, such as weight loss, blood glucose control and avoidance of tight clothing [8,9].
  • Patients should be advised to maintain cool and moisture-free skin. This may be aided by regular use of a drying agent such as talcum powder, especially if infection is recurrent [7,10].
  • Topical antifungal agents such as clotrimazole cream are recommended as first-line pharmacological treatments [10–12].
  • Severe, generalised and/or refractory cases may require oral antifungal treatments such as fluconazole or itraconazole[10–12].

Intertrigo: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology


Intertrigo (intertriginous dermatitis) is an inflammatory condition of skin folds, induced or aggravated by heat, moisture, maceration, friction, and lack of air circulation.

Intertrigo frequently is worsened by infection, which most commonly is with Candida species. Bacterial, viral, or other fungal infection may also occur.

Intertrigo commonly affects the axilla, perineum, inframammary creases, and abdominal folds. Uncommonly, it can also affect the neck creases and interdigital areas.

Signs and symptoms of intertrigo

Intertrigo usually is chronic with an insidious onset of itching, burning, pain, and stinging in the skin folds.

Intertrigo initially presents as mild erythematous patches on both sides of the skinfold. The erythematous lesions may progress to weeping, erosions, fissures, maceration, or crusting.

Worsening erythema or inflammation could suggest the development of a secondary cutaneous infection.

Etiology of intertrigo

Intertrigo develops from mechanical factors and secondary infection. Heat and maceration are central to the process. Opposing skin surfaces rub against each other, at times causing erosions that become inflamed.

Secondary cutaneous infections can be caused by a variety of gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria or fungi, including various yeasts and dermatophytes.

Diagnosis of intertrigo

Basic microbiologic diagnostic studies can be performed to identify a potential causative agent of intertrigo and guide antimicrobial therapy.

Potassium hydroxide (KOH) test, Gram stain, or culture is useful to exclude primary or secondary infection and to guide intertrigo therapy.

A skin biopsy generally is not required unless the intertrigo is refractory to medical treatment.

Treatment of intertrigo

Simple intertrigo may be treated with drying agents

Infected intertrigo should be treated with a combination of an appropriate antimicrobial agent (antifungal or antibacterial) and low-potency topical steroid. 

Prevention of intertrigo

During patient instruction, emphasize topics such as weight loss, glucose control (in patients with diabetes), good hygiene, and the need for daily care and monitoring. Additionally, preventative measures to reduce skin-on-skin friction and moisture can help in the management of current intertrigo and prevent future episodes.


Since intertrigo frequently is colonized or secondarily infected, secondary cutaneous infections and acute cellulitis can occur.

Intertrigo in Adults: Condition, Treatments, and Pictures – Overview


Information for

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Images of Intertrigo


Intertrigo is irritation of touching skin surfaces in body fold regions (armpits, under the breasts, belly, buttocks, groin, and sometimes between fingers or toes). Intertrigo can be worsened by any conditions causing increased heat, wetness, and friction. Intertrigo may be complicated by superficial skin infection with yeast or bacteria.

Who’s at risk?

Intertrigo can affect people of all ages. Intertrigo is most frequently seen in overweight people, diabetics, people spending a lot of time in bed, diaper users, or anyone with incontinence problems. It can also occur in individuals wearing or using anything that causes friction or holds moisture against the skin surface.

Signs and Symptoms

Intertrigo is most commonly seen in skin fold areas. In people who are obese, the skin my become inflamed in neck creases, on the skin behind the knee or in front of the elbows, in the thigh and groin folds, or, less commonly, under the breast or belly folds. Redness and breaks in the skin (erosions) of opposing skin surfaces may be noted. The area may ooze or be sore or itchy.

Self-Care Guidelines

  • Gently cleanse the affected areas daily with mild soap substitutes.
  • Keep the areas dry and exposed to the air. If this is not easy to do, using absorbent cotton or fabric, as well as absorbent powders, may help (as long as fabrics are changed if they become damp). Mild antiperspirants may help, but these can cause further irritation in some individuals.
  • Barrier creams, such as zinc oxide paste, may be helpful for individuals wearing diapers or having incontinence problems.
  • If overweight, weight loss is recommended.
  • For persistent irritation, 0.5–1.0% hydrocortisone cream twice daily may help. Discontinue if you are no better after 2 weeks of use. Adding a topical antifungal to the hydrocortisone, such as clotrimazole cream, may help if yeast infection is suspected. Apply the barrier paste (if used) after application of these creams.

When to Seek Medical Care

Seek medical evaluation when intertrigo does not respond to self-care measures.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

  • Low-potency topical steroid creams.
  • Calcineurin inhibitors (pimecrolimus cream and tacrolimus ointment), which are non-steroid topical agents, can be helpful in difficult cases.
  • Coexisting infection should be treated if present. In cases with limited yeast involvement, topical miconazole, clotrimazole, or ciclopirox olamine may be used. If more severe yeast involvement is noted, oral antifungal agents, such as fluconazole, may be used. Topical or oral antibiotics may be needed for bacterial infections.
  • A biopsy may be recommended if the diagnosis is uncertain.

Trusted Links

MedlinePlus: Skin Conditions
MedlinePlus: Skin Infections
Clinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Intertrigo


Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.263-264. New York: Mosby, 2003.

Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed, pp.1394-1395, 1848, 2010-2012. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Chronic Fungal Skin Infection Treatment and Prevention


It doesn’t matter where exactly I am educating, I see it everywhere: the vicious cycle of chronic intertrigo and/or candida infections (candidiasis) of the skin in the long-term care arena. Skin and soft tissue infections are the third most common infection in long-term care.

This ongoing problem is now receiving more attention due to state surveyors becoming certified in wound care. State surveyors will be up-to-date on skin and wound care management. Law firms are also advertising any type of skin breakdown as a negligence issue. Moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and fungal skin infections are preventable. Fungal skin infections that lead to further skin breakdown equal poor quality of care.

I observe health care provider orders time and time again for antifungal powders/creams, numerous types of ointment/creams, and even nurses whipping up their own concoctions to treat fungal infections of the skin. Nurses should protect their license and remember that compounding is the pharmacist’s job. I have also observed antifungal treatment orders in place for up to two years! Why? Recurring fungal rash/infections, due to gaps in nursing education. We as wound care clinicians must help to close these gaps.

Intertrigo and Yeast or Candida Skin Infections

Intertrigo is caused by moisture being trapped in skin folds. A dark warm area along with skin on skin friction will harbor bacteria, fungus and yeast. The symptoms typically include odor, itching and burning. Commonly affected areas include under the breasts, skin folds on the belly or thighs, the armpits and groin. However, it can happen anywhere there is moisture against the skin with a lack of air circulation.

Most people suffer from yeast (candida) skin infections in the perineal, buttock, and groin area. Some of the common symptoms of yeast infection are red, pimple-like bumps, with severe itchiness.

Skin Care 101: How to Prevent Fungal Skin Infections

  1. Cleanse skin with a pH balanced skin cleanser, no-rinse cleanser, or mild soap/water, then rinse.
  2. Dry the skin thoroughly. Soft cloth or pat dry technique.
  3. Incontinence care: Apply a skin sealant or barrier cream containing zinc oxide. All steps must be repeated after each incontinence episode. (Follow your policy and procedures for incontinence care. Check and change every 2 hours, etc.)
  4. Other locations: Moisturize with lotions containing lanolin or a petrolatum base. This will serve as a protective barrier.

Nurses and nursing assistants should be provided with ongoing skin care regimen education. While it may seem to be a simple skill or task, skin care regimen steps are not followed through on. So how can we help? When I go inside facilities, I recommend the Wound Nurse, Charge Nurse, or Unit Manager follow all nursing staff periodically to check skills with skin care, brief changing, and offloading techniques. Nurses must apply creams and ointments that cannot be kept at the bedside. This also shows monitoring of the affected skin sites. Prevention measures should be in place for fungal skin infections, especially for the obese patient. Bed linens, paper towels, or dressings should not be used to separate skin folds. There are many moisture-wicking fabrics impregnated with antimicrobial properties available for skin moisture management.

Black JM, Gray M, Bliss DZ, et al. MASD part 2: incontinence-associated dermatitis and intertriginous dermatitis: a consensus. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2011 Jul-Aug;38(4):359-70; quiz 371-2.
Gould D. Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fungal infections. Nurs Stand. 2011 Apr 20-26;25(33):38-47; quiz 48.
Lowe JR. Skin Integrity in Critically Ill Obese Patients. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2009 Sep;21(3):311–v.
Mouton CP, Bazaldua OV, Pierce B, Espino DV. Common infections in older adults. Am Fam Physician. 2001 Jan 15;63(2):257-68.

About the Author
Cheryl Carver is an independent wound educator and consultant. Carver’s experience includes over a decade of hospital wound care and hyperbaric medicine. Carver single-handedly developed a comprehensive educational training manual for onboarding physicians and is the star of disease-specific educational video sessions accessible to employee providers and colleagues. Carver educates onboarding providers, in addition to bedside nurses in the numerous nursing homes across the country. Carver serves as a wound care certification committee member for the National Alliance of Wound Care and Ostomy, and is a board member of the Undersea Hyperbaric Medical Society Mid-West Chapter.

The views and opinions expressed in this blog are solely those of the author, and do not represent the views of WoundSource, Kestrel Health Information, Inc., its affiliates, or subsidiary companies.

Skin Candidiasis – an overview

Cutaneous candidiasis

Cutaneous candidiasis is an infection of the skin that is generally caused by the yeast-like fungus C. albicans and that can be either acute or chronic in nature. C. albicans is part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract, rather than that of the skin, although it can be found on the skin on occasion. This organism can grow as either yeast cells or filamentous forms, with mixtures of the two phases generally seen in tissue infections. Cutaneous candidiasis on occasion may be caused by other species of this genus, including Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, or Candida glabrata, but these are unusual.

Acute cutaneous candidiasis may present as intertrigo, producing intense erythema, edema, creamy exudates, and satellite pustules within folds of the skin. Other infections may be more chronic, as in the feet where there can be a thick white layer of infected stratum corneum overlaying the epidermis of the interdigital spaces. Candida paronychia is marked by infection of the periungual skin and the nail itself, resulting in the typical swelling and redness of this type of candidal infection.

Superficial candidiasis is common in otherwise healthy neonates and young infants, and mainly manifests as either oropharyngeal candidiasis (oral thrush) or candidal diaper dermatitis. In the latter case, moist macerated skin in the diaper area appears to be particularly susceptible to candida invasion. The infection usually starts in the perianal region and may spread to involve the perineum and perhaps the lower abdomen and upper thighs. The lesions are typically scaly papules that progress to weeping eroded lesions that often have satellite pustules. Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a more severe infection of neonates wherein the disease presents within 6 days of birth; there is generally widespread desquamating and/or erosive dermatitis and a significant risk of systemic and sometimes fatal candida infection. The affected neonates require systemic antifungal therapy.

In some cases, superficial C. albicans infections may be particularly severe, persistent, and recalcitrant to treatment, producing the uncommon disorder known as chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. This condition consists of persistent and recurrent infections of the mucous membranes, skin, and nails, along with a variety of other manifestations. The superficial infections last for years in affected patients unless they are properly treated, although deep candida infections are very rare in this situation. Oral thrush and candida vaginitis are fairly common in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. There is often infection of the esophagus, although further extension into the viscera is unusual. Epidermal neutrophilic microabscesses, which are common in acute cutaneous candidiasis, are rare in the lesions of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. The oral lesions are generally tender and painful.

A number of other disorders are associated with the syndrome of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, including endocrine dysfunction, vitiligo, dysplasia of the dental enamel, congenital thymic dysplasia, thymomas, and certain other infections. The term autoimmune polyendocrinopathy–candidiasis–ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) has been used to describe this type of syndrome, and a particular gene, called the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), has been found to be responsible. Otherwise, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis no doubt represents a group of related syndromes with a variety of predisposing or secondary abnormalities in host defense function, most commonly deficient cell-mediated immune responses against candida antigens.

The diagnosis of superficial candidiasis is usually suspected on clinical grounds and can be confirmed in skin scrapings by demonstrating the organism using potassium hydroxide preparations and/or culture on appropriate antifungal media. Long-term (3–9 months) treatment with azole antifungal drugs can produce good results in chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, although occasional failures have occurred due to the development of resistant strains of C. albicans. Patients who present with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis should be evaluated for the presence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and, if presenting as adults, for the possibility of thymoma.

Rashes and Candida – The Connection between Skin and Gut: A Path to Natural Health: Naturopathic Doctors

Missed parts 1–3? Catch up:

In last week’s blog we looked at how Candida overgrowth, or yeast infection, causes chronic intestinal bloating and embarrassing gas. This week we turn our attention to the effect that Candida has on the skin, the frontline role your skin plays in defending you from unwanted bugs and bacteria, and the surprising relationship between your skin and your digestive system.

Did you know that the skin and the digestive system originated from the same cell type and develop at the same time in embryos? Now what does this little piece of embryology have to do with Candida and skin rashes? Let me explain.

We all start out as the fusion of two cells, one from our mother and one from our father. From the moment of conception these two cells start to divide again and again and again, creating more and more cells that will eventually specialize and turn into all the elements that make up our human bodies: internal organs, digestive system, skin, hair etc.  Before our digestive system develops, our cells are laid out flat like a fried egg – at this stage they are all the same. Then, the cells roll into each other forming a tube within a tube. At this stage the cells start to specialize, turning into three different kinds of cells: endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm. These three different kinds of cells form different parts of our bodies as we develop into the baby we will become. The interesting bit is that the cells that develop from the same origin often behave in similar ways and the cells of the skin and the cells of the lining of the digestive system were originally from the same cell typeInteresting isn’t it?

Armed with this knowledge it makes sense if we have red, hot, irritated skin on the outside of our body, to ask what is happening to the cells inside the body. It is for this reason that Naturopaths consider the health of the cells inside the digestive system whenever we are treating someone for skin symptoms. To understand this connection better we need to take a closer look at the role of the skin.

The Skin and Candida

The skin is an important part of our immune system, providing the first line of defense against foreign invaders – stopping them getting into our bodies and causing infections – but what happens when our digestive system is infected with Candida? How does that affect our skin?

As we have discussed in previous articles in this series, Candida is a fungus that loves warm, damp conditions. When our immune system is functioning optimally and there is a healthy balance of ‘good’ intestinal bacteria people tend to have clear healthy skin. However, when we have too many ‘bad’ bacteria in our intestines (Candida or yeast infection) we find ourselves susceptible to a whole raft of seemingly unconnected symptoms including skin problems.

Candida generally shows up on the skin as a rash. In babies this is most commonly known as diaper rash – a baby’s bottom will become red, hot and irritated if a wet diaper has been left on too long, especially when it is hot out (creating those warm, damp conditions that Candida loves so much!). However, remembering the connection between the skin and the digestive system it’s significant that food reactions in babies often show up as skin issues in their diaper area as well. And if, as adults we suffer from skin rashes with no apparent cause that won’t heal, or chronic Candida on the skin, then we need to look beyond the symptoms and delve a bit deeper. This is why, when we treat skin conditions, Naturopaths always look to the health of the digestive system, specifically for intestinal yeast overgrowth (or Candida) and food sensitivities.

What Does a Candida Rash Look Like?

The classic Candida rash will be red hot and may have some raised areas rather like hives and there might be white ‘tissue flecks’ on the skin. A Candida rash can show up anywhere on the body but, as we have seen, it particularly likes warm, damp areas such as feet and skin folds around the belly, under the breasts (especially in larger-breasted women) and in the genital area (in both men and women). Many females struggle with chronic vaginal yeast infection (even if they haven’t taken any recent antibiotics). The rash may spread down the legs and, when the weather is hot, cause real irritation. Yeast infections can also occur around the nipple of the breast but this most frequently occurs with nursing a baby.

Sun is often a good anti-fungal (anti-yeast) agent so it is notable that these are all areas that aren’t generally exposed to natural sunlight.

The exception to the general rule that Candida tends to occur in skin folds and warm damp areas of the body is the chest and neck. This type of yeast infection shows up as a flat red rash that can have a speckled appearance. These rashes tend to come and go, and flare up after you have consumed a lot of sugar.

How Do I Know If My Rash Is Caused By Candida?

There are a couple of tests we can do to determine if you have Candida overgrowth in your intestines:

*A simple IgG blood test can tell if you are reacting to yeast; if the body is irritated by yeast it will show up as a positive reaction on the test results.
*Stool testing can also be done to look for the species of yeast that is causing your problems and the quantity of overgrowth.
*In addition to these two tests, if you have a rash skin scraping and lab analysis can be used to determine if there is yeast overgrowth on the skin.

However in my experience, the best way to determine if Candida overgrowth is causing your symptoms is to do a Candida cleanse.

How Do We Treat a Candida Rash?

If you have a skin rash that does not resolve with topical steroids (steroid cream) and anti-fungals, there is a good chance that Candida is the culprit. As we have seen, a warm, damp environment is a breeding ground for Candida, so if you suspect that your rash is caused by Candida, make sure to keep the skin dry. If your skin is severely painful then a short course of an anti-fungal and/or a topical steroid cream may be used to minimize symptoms but the rash will often return after a course of steroids is done.

For chronic symptoms the only way to really clear it up is to do a Candida cleanse to rid your gut of the ‘bad’ bacteria that have infected your digestive system. Remember our embryology lesson at the beginning of this post?

The skin and the digestive system have the same embryological origin so when we treat our gut, our skin gets better.

NB: It is important to note that people with skin rashes caused by Candida should also be evaluated for diabetes as Candida thrives on high sugar content.

As Candida is so often the cause of stubborn rashes, I have designed a special Yeast and Candida Detox Program – a three-tiered treatment that:

*Eliminates the foods that cause the yeast to grow
*Kills off the yeast
*Repopulates the intestines with healthy bacteria

When you treat the Candida, persistent skin rashes can finally clear up. In addition, chronic gas & bloating, vaginal yeast infections, toe nail fungus, brain fog, food allergies and leaky gut should all disappear too.

If you suspect you might have Candida overgrowth and would like to find out more about my specially designed Yeast and Candida Detox Program, please book an appointment today.

I love to read your comments; if you have any thoughts or experiences you would like to share, or if you have any questions, please use the comments box below.

Next time we will look at the connection between Candida and inability to lose weight, we will ask “Is Candida the cause?” To be sure you don’t miss it you can subscribe to this blog on this page and have it sent directly to your inbox.


Intertrigo | Rash | Henry D McKinney Skin Care Center

An Inflamed Red Rash Between Skin Folds

Intertrigo is an uncomfortable, red, and inflamed rash caused by infections and inflammatory skin conditions, most commonly found within the flexural skin and in skin folds, such as between the buttocks, fingers, toes, behind the knees, under excess skin, in the groin, underarms, neck folds, and behind the ears. It may affect one or more areas at the same time and may also have multiple causes. Anyone can be affected by intertrigo. Individuals who are overweight, obese, or who otherwise have excess skin areas are particularly vulnerable, as are those who sweat excessively. There may also be a genetic predisposition to experiencing this skin disease.

Raw, Moist Skin Peeling With Cracks Leads to Infections

The onset of intertrigo can happen suddenly or become a chronic and recurrent condition. If left untreated, the condition tends to worsen significantly, and may result in secondary infections. The inflamed skin may eventually become raw, moist, and macerated. The skin may peel, wear off, and develop cracks. The underlying cause must be identified to stop the cycle.

Determining the Cause to Treat Intertrigo

It is important to determine precisely what the cause of the intertrigo is to best treat it, take any necessary corrective lifestyle measures, and prevent further damage to the skin. As flexural skin has an inherently higher temperature (and retains moisture), it is more readily susceptible to infection from bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and viruses. These areas also experience more movement, and the friction may lead to chafing. Intertrigo is classified as inflammatory or infectious (although causes tend to overlap in many cases.) Skin swabs, scrapings, and biopsies may be performed to identify the presence of any pathogens.

Infections That Cause Intertrigo

When intertrigo is caused by an infection, the condition tends to affect a specific area. The rash will likely be on one side of the body and asymmetrical. Some of the most common infections associated with intertrigo include:

  • Thrush
  • Erythrasma
  • Boils
  • Folliculitis
  • Tinea
  • Tinea Cruris
  • Athlete’s Foot
  • Impetigo

Inflammatory Conditions That Cause Intertrigo

If intertrigo is the result of an inflammatory condition, the rash tends to be more widespread. It will likely affect both sides of the body equally. Inflammatory intertrigo is commonly found on the neck and in knee and elbow creases (atopic dermatitis), as well under the breasts, armpits, groin, and abdominal folds. We treat inflammatory conditions that cause intertrigo:

  • Seborrheic Dermatitis
  • Flexural Psoriasis
  • Contact Dermatitis
  • Atopic Dermatitis
  • Hidradenitis Suppurativa
  • Fox-Fordyce Disease
  • Granular Parakeratosis
  • Hailey-Hailey Disease

Intertrigo Medical Treatment and Home Care

A variety of treatments and home care options are used to combat intertrigo. You may be prescribed an oral or topical anti-fungal, antibiotic, steroid, calcineurin inhibitor, or other prescription medication or cream to help combat any active infection present and provide symptom relief. Ultimately, any environmental condition present that is contributing to the rash formation should be corrected. The reduction of sweat production, body mass, and other contributing factors can result in rapid improvement.

Contact Henry D. McKinney Skin Care Center to schedule an appointment. Call: (814) 944-7109.


Mushrooms can be divided into 4 main groups based on their morphology: yeast, mold, dimorphic and yeast. A group of single-celled fungal species is known as yeast. According to the form about

Key Difference – Candida vs. Yeast Infection

Fungi can be divided into 4 main groups based on their morphology: yeast, mold, dimorphic and yeast.A group of single-celled fungal species is known as yeast. They can be spherical or ovoid in shape. Yeast reproduces by budding. They do not form branched chains. Malassezia furfur, which causes versicolor versicolor, and Candida, which causes candidiasis fall under the category of yeast. Therefore, it is clear that yeast infection is a broad term used to refer to a group of diseases caused by unicellular, ovoid / spherical fungi. while Candida infection is the term used to refer to diseases caused by only Candida species . Thus, the key difference between Candida and yeast infections lies in their pathogen.

1. Overview and main differences
2. What is Candida
3. What is yeast infection
4. Similarities between Candida and yeast infection
5. Side by side comparison – Candida versus yeast infection in tabular form

What is Candida?

Candida infection or candidiasis caused by fungi Candida species, which are yeast. The most common pathogens belonging to this group are b Fungal microorganisms albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrate, and C. krusei . Candida is a member of the normal flora, mainly the skin, vagina and intestines. Factors such as steroids, pregnancy, AIDS, cancer, obesity, diabetes, and antibiotics can predispose to candidal infection.In a normal host, Candida can cause skin infections, and in immunocompromised patients, skin infections and systemic diseases.

Clinical course

Oral candidiasis, vaginitis, and diaper rash are common in normal hosts. With thrush, you can see creamy white exudate spots that cannot be removed with a tongue blade. These spots are mainly found on the erythematous mucosa. Treatment includes oral fluconazole, nystatin, and clotrimazole lozenges.

Vaginitis is most commonly seen in women taking antibiotics, oral contraceptive pills, during pregnancy or during menstruation. Thick, profuse vaginal discharge and vaginal itching are the main symptoms of vaginitis. When examining the vagina with a speculum, you can see inflamed vaginal walls and creamy white spots on the vaginal walls.

Vaginal suppositories with imidazole and oral fluconazole are useful for treatment.This disease of the penis can also affect men. It can be transmitted during intercourse.

Diaper rash can occur in warm, moist areas under diapers, as well as between skin folds in adults. The skin becomes reddened, soft and flaky.

Intertrigo is a superinfection of C. albicans with bacteria. It mainly affects the submammary, axillary and groin folds of the body, giving them a shiny and macerated appearance.

Paronychia caused by C. albicans . This is usually seen in wet workers who do not dry their hands and feet properly. The cuticle of the nail is lost. The nail plate becomes uneven and faded. Coexisting gram-negative bacteria can give the nail a blue-green color. This condition can be treated with topical imidazole. Precautions should be taken to keep your hands dry.

Figure 01: Culture C.albicans on agar plates

Candida is mainly excreted in urine, stool and sputum as it is a member of the normal flora. But isolation of Candida from blood is not normal. In immunocompromised patients Candida can spread into the bloodstream, causing infections in many organs such as cystitis, pyelonephritis, endocarditis, and sepsis. Treatment is with amphotericin B, fluconazole, or intravenous caspofungin.

The spread of thrush into the esophagus can cause: esophagitis in immunocompromised patients.This can be treated with fluconazole.


  • Direct swab in 10% KOH
  • Culture on Saburod Dextrose Agar

What is yeast infection


Yeast infection is a broader term used to describe a group of diseases caused by yeast (unicellular, ovoid / spherical fungi). This mainly includes versicolor versicolor and candidiasis.

Pityriasis versicolor (Tinea) multicolored Caused by unicellular fungi Malassazia fur .Infection occurs mainly in humid and tropical conditions. It affects only the superficial keratin layer of the skin. In young people, mainly the trunk and proximal parts of the limbs are affected. People with fair skin develop pinkish spherical spots. Sun exposure gives the skin around the patch a tan. People with dark skin may develop hypopigmented spots.

Diagnosis is made primarily with KOH. Basically, spherical yeast cells are found with scattered short, curved, thick, unbranched filaments, giving the typical appearance of spaghetti and meatballs.


Topical application of imidazole, an anti-dandruff shampoo containing selenium sulfide.

What are the similarities between candidiasis and yeast infections?

  • Both are caused by fungi.
  • Both are caused by the morphological type of yeast.
  • Can be diagnosed with KOH preparations

What is the difference between candidiasis and yeast infection?

Candida against yeast infection

Candida infection is a fungal infection caused by any type of Candida. Yeast infection is a broad term used to describe a group of diseases caused by yeast.
Candida is a type of yeast infection. Yeast infections mainly include versicolor versicolor and candidiasis.
Causative agent
It is caused by any type of Candida. Malassezia furfur, Candida are common pathogens.

Summary – Candida versus yeast infection

Both Candida and yeast infections are caused by fungi. Although candida is considered a type of yeast infection, the difference between candida and yeast infection depends on the pathogens; Candida is caused only by types of Candida, whereas a yeast infection is caused by any type of fungal yeast, including Candida.

With the increase in the number of immunocompromised individuals, the incidence of fungal infections increases rapidly.Therefore, it is important to maintain personal hygiene and maintain a clean environment to protect yourself from these pathogens.

Download PDF Version of Candidiasis vs. Yeast Infection

You can download a PDF version of this article and use it offline according to the citation notes. Please download the PDF version here. Difference Between Candida and Yeast Infection


1. Carroll, Karen K., Jeffrey A. Hobden and Steve Miller. Medical Microbiology of Yavets, Melnik and Adelberg . New York: McGraw Hill, 2016. Print.

Image Credit:

1. “Candida albicans PHIL 3192 lores” By CDC / Dr. William Kaplan – From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Image Library (public domain) via Commons Wikimedia 2. Sarachrosenau’s “Tinea versicolor1” on Flickr.com (CC BY-SA 2.0) via Commons Wikimedia

90,000 Eczema. Symptoms – News

Eczema, also called atopic dermatitis, is a common allergic skin disorder that usually begins in early childhood.It can be due to an infection (bacteria, fungi, yeast, and viruses) of the skin.

The main symptom is itchy skin. The skin is also often dry. Scratching makes the skin red, frayed and thick.

It is now believed that eczema is caused by a leaky skin barrier. This allows the water to flow out, leaving the skin dry. Skin leak can be caused by genes inherited from parents or environmental factors:

  • Disorders in the Filaggrin gene cause moderate to severe eczema in nearly a third of people of North European and East Asian descent.
  • Exposure to soaps, detergents, house dust mites, pollen, animal dander and certain bacteria that contain proteins called “proteases” can cause an outbreak of eczema. Proteases break down the bonds between skin cells and make the skin barrier leaky.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

  • In infants and children, rash usually occurs on the scalp, knees, elbows and cheeks
  • In adults, rash may occur on the folds of the wrists, elbows, knees, ankles, face and neck

The rash is usually itchy, red and scaly.Scratching is often due to the itchy nature of the rash. If you have a rash for an extended period of time, the affected skin may become thicker. Dry skin can worsen itching and rashes. “Scratch-cycle” can occur when the skin is rubbed or scratched, causing more irritation and therefore additional itching.

The rash may get worse after eating certain foods. In the case of eczema, this is usually a delayed reaction. However, other reactions to food can happen more quickly, including hives (itchy sores) and swelling.Allergy testing may be done with a blood draw or skin allergy injection by an allergist or immunologist to determine if an immediate food allergy may be present. Allergy tests are often positive even in patients who tolerate food in their diet, so foods should not be excluded from their diet based solely on the results of these tests.

Half of patients with moderate to severe eczema also suffer from asthma, hay fever and food allergies.Other types of rashes, such as psoriasis and contact dermatitis (poison ivy), may look like an eczema rash. In addition, people with various other immune problems, such as immunodeficiency and vitamin deficiencies, may have a similar rash.

It is important to talk to an allergist or immunologist about your rash.

Pass the analysis: Microscopic examination of biomaterial for pathogenic fungi

Description of the analysis:

Microscopic examination of biomaterial (hair, nails, scraping) for pathogenic fungi – laboratory analysis that allows examining the skin and its appendages for superficial mycoses (diseases caused by fungi).They are most often caused by fungi from the genus Dermatophytes, but colonization by fungi from the genera Candida, Trichosporon, Malassezia, Hortaea, etc. is possible.

Dermatophytosis, the most common fungal infection of the skin (dermatomycosis), can develop on the scalp, nail plates, hands and feet, in areas of large skin folds and simply on the surface of the body. All dermatophytes are capable of degrading keratin, which consists of hair, nails and the stratum corneum of the epidermis.

With excessive reproduction of the yeast Candida on the skin, usually provoked by a decrease in immunity or metabolic disorders, candidiasis of the skin develops. Damage to the skin by the Malassezia fungus causes the development of pityriasis versicolor, by the Trichosporon fungi – white piedra (nodular trichosporia or trichosporosis), by the Hortaea fungus – black mycosis.

Mycoses of smooth skin are characterized by the appearance of merging rashes, which are covered with scales, flaky and itchy. If the fungus affects the scalp, then redness, flaking, dandruff, hair loss, and the affected areas may itch.When the nail plate is damaged, it thickens, deforms and changes color, in the future, the nail exfoliates and collapses.

Examination by a dermatologist allows one to suspect fungal diseases of the hair, nails or skin, but the final diagnosis can only be made based on the results of microscopic laboratory research. This is due to the fact that the symptoms of many skin diseases are similar: for example, the manifestations of nail fungus (onychomycosis) can be similar to onychodystrophy (degradation of the nail plate due to malnutrition) and nail psoriasis.

Study of samples taken from a patient using direct microscopy, allows you to identify hyphae and yeast cells of fungi, and by their type and shape to determine the genus to which they belong.

Indications for appointment

The test is usually ordered by a dermatologist, possibly also by a general practitioner, and the indications are usually:

  • symptoms of mycosis of smooth skin;
  • 90,093 manifestations of onychomycosis;

  • fungal infection of the hair.

Interpretation of results

The analysis is qualitative and determines the presence or absence of fungus in the sample taken. A positive result means that one of the fungi that can cause ringworm has been identified. A negative result means that none of the fungi was found.

A positive result can be in the so-called “healthy carrier”, when the fungus is on the skin without causing harm (Candida, for example, is part of a conditionally pathogenic microflora that can cause disease only if the body is weakened).

Preparation for the examination: No special preparation is required, it is advisable not to externally treat the areas from which a sample will be taken for analysis a few days before the examination.

Material for research: nails, hair, skin scraping.

Research method: microscopy.

Research period: 1 working day.

Registration for analyzes

90,000 Fungal diseases on the skin of the body

Full description

Unfortunately, the ailments caused by fungi are not always treated with due responsibility, preferring to ignore the characteristic symptoms of pathology and hope for self-elimination of the problem that has arisen.

Fungal infections most often occur on the outer cover of the body, which makes it easier to identify the type of disease and the fungus that parasitizes in the body. The main source of nutrition for fungi is the protein keratin, which is found in large quantities in our skin and its derivatives (hair and nails), which explains the localization of pathogenic microflora on the surface of the epidermis.

Particular attention should be paid to places where the skin is the thinnest, most delicate and vulnerable, since too dense skin makes it difficult for the fungi to feed, acting as an obstacle to the production of keratin.Fungi most commonly appear in the armpits, under the knees, chest, groin, and hairline.

Dermatologists divide the types of pathogenic fungi that can parasitize on humans into several genera.

Fungi of the genus Microsporum, which include fungal microorganisms such as Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, are the most common human fungal parasites. They cause different types of diseases, which are combined into a general group of diseases called dermatomycosis.

They constantly inhabit the human body, but usually do not detect their presence, since they are part of the microflora of the body. Their pathological effect on the cells of the skin and on the general state of health in general is manifested in the case of a decrease in the strength of the immune defense, which can be influenced by various external and internal factors.

Fungi of the genus Candida, which are a genus of yeast-like microorganisms, are the second most common fungi on the human skin after fungi of the genus Microsporum.Yeast-like fungi can cause a number of diseases, which doctors combine into the general group of candidomycosis. Candida affects the upper layers of the skin, hair follicles, nail plates and ridges, as well as the mucous membranes of external and internal organs, therefore, these microorganisms can cause both local and systemic diseases of the Candidomycosis class.

The fungus of the genus Malassezia furfur is a classic yeast-like causative agent of diseases such as keratomycosis, which most often occurs on the surface layer of the skin called the epidermis, and this yeast-like fungus can also affect hair follicles in the deeper layers of the skin.Malassezia furfur is a pathogenic microorganism, the activation of which leads to the development of diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis and pityriasis versicolor.
Molds Mucor, Thamnidium, Rhizopus, Sclerotina, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, as well as Alternaria are recorded by our dermatologists on the human skin rather rarely, since these microorganisms are more typical for countries and areas with a tropical type of climate. They mainly affect the integumentary tissues of the nail plates of the hands and feet, as well as the surface layers of the skin.

The presence of a fungus on human skin is rarely detected immediately from the moment of infection, since in fungal infections the initial period of development is characterized by the absence of any external manifestations, which makes it difficult to establish an accurate diagnosis. When the symptoms of parasitizing the fungus begin to appear, it is necessary to immediately seek the advice of a dermatologist in order to prevent further development of the pathological process, since infectious diseases are difficult to treat at later stages of the course.

Symptoms of diseases that cause different genera of pathological fungi are quite similar to each other, but an experienced doctor is able to conduct a high-quality medical examination, which will help to establish the type of pathogen of the disease, as well as take the necessary tests to detect the source of the pathology. For a more reliable and effective elimination of fungal infection, it must be remembered that self-medication can be not only ineffective, but also lead to unpredictable consequences, aggravating the problem of fungal infection.

The following characteristic signs may indicate the pathological activity of the fungus on the skin: a general deterioration in the condition and appearance of the skin, the appearance of areas devoid of pigmentation on the epidermis, the appearance of round or oval zones with bright red edges, which are slightly raised above the relief of the skin, a constant burning sensation and itching, suddenly appearing peeling zones on the skin, covering the epidermis with a crust, the appearance of vesicles filled with liquid that burst and leave behind open wet wounds, frequent separation of pieces of skin from the surface of the integumentary tissues, sudden thinning of the hair, dry hair fibers, white flour-like plaque on delicate areas of the skin, for example, in the folds between the skin of the fingers.

The presence of a fungus in the body can also be evidenced by frequent damage to the skin that occurs for no apparent reason, for example, scratches, microcracks, abrasions and wounds. This indicates that the protective function of the epidermis is impaired, and the skin has become more susceptible to mechanical, chemical and biological influences. Ignoring the symptoms of the pathological activity of the skin fungus can lead to a decrease in the strength of the protective barrier of the skin, which is fraught with infection with various infections and diseases.

The specific influence of pathogenic fungal microorganisms can be determined by varicose veins, but this symptom is often classified as secondary, so it can act as a confirmation of the main characteristic signs.

The fungus can spread to nearby areas of the skin, therefore it is important to limit and prevent the development of fungal infection. Areas of constant friction, such as the inner thighs and armpits, are especially at risk, so it is best to wear clothing that does not completely encircle the body and restrict movement during treatment.

Treatment of fungal diseases of the skin is classified by dermatologists as local or external, general or systemic, as well as combined. After eliminating the infection itself, it is often necessary to also remove its consequences, that is, the waste products of the skin fungus, which includes antifungal treatment of personal belongings, bed linen and wardrobe items to prevent re-infection with mycelium of fungal microorganisms that they leave on the things of an infected person.

Treatment with external agents is prescribed by the attending physician if a fungal disease is detected at the initial stages of development, when the parasitic fungus on the human body has not yet acquired a destructive character. For this purpose, fungicidal or antifungal agents are used for external treatment of the integumentary tissues affected by the fungus, for example, ointments, suspensions, creams, gels, emulsions, drops, powders and lotions.

The advantage of using antifungal agents for external use is that the active ingredients and chemicals in the composition of the drug do not interact with the whole body and do not penetrate into the bloodstream, respectively, they have a very limited number of contraindications and side effects.

General treatment is prescribed by a dermatologist in case of significant progression of a fungal disease, for example, when a person suffering from a skin fungus see a doctor at a later stage of the infection. General treatment includes oral medication (immunostimulating therapy with antifungal drugs). It is more dangerous and unpredictable than treatment with local remedies, since it can affect the hormonal background and the general condition of the internal organs of a person, since the medicine is carried with the bloodstream throughout the body.

Treatment of a skin fungus can take from several weeks to several months. It is very important to complete the course of treatment, even if the visible signs of the disease have disappeared, since fungal infections are recurrent diseases and can come back again and again. For effective treatment, you must first eliminate the inflammatory process, and then proceed directly to the removal of the fungal infection itself.

Canespor 10 mg / g cream once a day – Panipraha


Canespor cream 10 mg / g for the treatment of dermatitis caused by fungi in the folds of the arms, legs, body and skin.

The active ingredient in Canespor Cream, once a day, is a topical broad-spectrum antifungal medicine for the topical treatment of skin infections caused by yeast, mold and other fungi. Bifonazole penetrates well into the layers of the skin affected by infections and kills pathogens or prevents their growth.
Canespor is used once a day for fungal diseases (mycoses) caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and other fungi.
Infections susceptible to Canespor once a day include, for example, mycosis of the feet and hands (tinea pedum, tinea manus), mycosis of the skin in the skin folds (tinea corporis, tinea inguinalis).Other indications include tinea versicolor (scaly patches usually on the front of the torso or back), superficial candidiasis (well-defined, usually red itchy patches that often appear in the folds or between the toes), erythrasma (reddish-brown, non-itchy patches in areas sweating and friction). Can be used by children from 3 years old and adults.

Fungal infections of the skin; interdigital fungal erosion; mycoses complicated by secondary infection; versicolor versicolor; erythrasma.

Fungal diseases (dermatomycosis) , most often occurring in the folds: between the toes (tinea pedum), in the groin (tinea inguinalis), on the trunk (tinea corporis), on the arms (tinea manuum). They are manifested by redness, itching, sometimes peeling of the skin, painful cracks in the skin are possible.
Versicolor versicolor – usually appears on the chest or back with scaling, itchy patches.
Erythrasma – manifests itself as brownish-red, slightly scaly, sharply demarcated, non-itchy spots in areas in the area of ​​folds or between the fingers.

Method of application and dosage
The cream is applied once a day to the affected areas in a thin layer, preferably in the evening before bedtime (usually about half an inch of cream is enough for an area the size of a palm).

Duration of treatment
Disease Duration of treatment
In case of fungal diseases of the skin (dermatomycosis) 3 weeks
In case of erythrasma 2 weeks
In case of multi-colored lichen 2-4 weeks.