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Yeast infection in groin female: Antifungal Creams and Medication | Types, Uses and Side Effects | Patient


Antifungal Creams and Medication | Types, Uses and Side Effects | Patient

What are antifungal medicines and how do they work?

There are several types of antifungal medicines. They come as creams, sprays, solutions, tablets designed to go into the vagina (pessaries), shampoos, medicines to take by mouth, and injections. Most work by damaging the cell wall of the fungus, which causes the fungal cell to die.

Antifungal creams, liquids or sprays (also called topical antifungals)

These are used to treat fungal infections of the skin, scalp and nails. They include clotrimazole, econazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, tioconazole, terbinafine, and amorolfine. They come in various different brand names.

Sometimes an antifungal cream is combined with other creams when two actions are required. For example, an antifungal cream is often combined with a mild steroid cream, such as hydrocortisone, to treat certain rashes. The antifungal cream clears the infection, and the mild steroid cream reduces the inflammation caused by the infection.

There are also separate leaflets in this series that deal with Candidal Skin Infection (Yeast Infection), Fungal Scalp Infection (Scalp Ringworm) and Fungal Nail Infections (Tinea Unguium).

Antifungal shampoo

A shampoo which contains ketoconazole is sometimes used to help treat scalp fungal infections and certain skin conditions.

Antifungal pessaries

Pessaries are tablets which are designed to be put into the vagina. Some antifungal medicines are used as pessaries to treat vaginal thrush, particularly clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole, and fenticonazole

Antifungal medicines taken by mouth

There are various types. For example:

Miconazole is available as an oral gel, and nystatin as a liquid. They are applied to the mouth. They are used to treat thrush (candidal infection) of the mouth and throat.

Terbinafine, itraconazole, fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole are available as tablets, which are absorbed into the body. They are used to treat various fungal infections. The one chosen depends on what type of infection you have. For example:

  • Terbinafine is commonly used to treat nail infections which are usually caused by a tinea type of fungus.
  • Fluconazole is commonly used to treat vaginal thrush, as an alternative to using antifungal cream. It is also used to treat and prevent certain fungal infections within the body.

There are also separate leaflets in this series dealing with athlete’s foot, ringworm and fungal groin infection.

Antifungal injections

These may be used if you have a serious fungal infection within the body. Amphotericin, flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin are medicines that are sometimes used in this way. The one chosen depends on the type of fungus causing the infection. These are specialist medications that are used for people who are usually quite ill in hospital.

Note: antifungal medicines are different to antibiotics, which are antibacterial medicines. Antibiotics do not kill fungi – they kill other types of germs (called bacteria). In fact, you are more prone to getting a fungal infection if you take antibiotics. For example, many women develop thrush after taking a course of antibiotics. This is because the antibiotic may kill the normal harmless bacteria that live on your skin or vagina and make it easier for fungi to flourish.

There are several types of antifungal medicine

What are the possible side-effects of antifungal medication?

You should read the information leaflet that comes with your particular brand for a full list of cautions and possible side-effects. As a general rule:

  • Antifungal creams, sprays, liquids and shampoos. These usually cause no side-effects and are easy to use. Occasionally some people get a little bit of itch, burning or redness where the antifungal preparation has been applied. If this is severe, you should stop using it. Occasionally, some women develop irritation around the vagina after applying vaginal antifungal products.
  • Antifungal medicines by mouth. The most widely used are terbinafine for nail infections, miconazole, and nystatin for oral thrush, and fluconazole for vaginal thrush. These usually cause no side-effects. You can even buy fluconazole without a prescription at pharmacies, as it is considered a medicine which is unlikely to cause problems. Some antifungal preparations cause liver problems or more serious side-effects in a small number of people. A few common possible side-effects of some of the more widely used antifungal medicines are as follows:
    • Terbinafine sometimes causes tummy aches, loss of appetite, feeling sick (nausea), tummy upsets, diarrhoea, headache, rash, taste disturbance and muscle or joint pains.
    • Fluconazole may cause nausea, tummy ache, diarrhoea, wind, headache, or a rash.
    • Miconazole may cause nausea or sickness (vomiting), or a rash.
    • Nystatin may cause soreness of the mouth.
  • Antifungal injections. These have more risk of causing side-effects and sometimes serious problems. However, these are used to treat serious fungal infections and the risk of side-effects needs to be balanced against the need for treatment.

What is the usual length of treatment with antifungal medication?

  • Fungal skin infections like athlete’s foot or ringworm: a cream is usually used for two weeks as a minimum. Sometimes up to six weeks’ treatment is needed with a cream.
  • Fungal nail infections: if taking an antifungal pill like terbinafine, treatment is usually used for two months.
  • Fungal infections in lungs: this is a more serious condition and the duration of treatment will be decided by a specialist in that field.

Who cannot take or use antifungal medication?

  • Generally everybody can use the antifungal creams without a problem: if in doubt, take advice from your doctor.
  • The antifungal pills are stronger than the creams and can interact with any other pills you are taking. You must check with a doctor before taking an antifungal pill, if you take other medicines.
  • Generally young children should not take antifungal tablets, but are OK to use the creams.
  • Elderly people should ask their doctor before using an antifungal pill, but are generally fine to use the antifungal creams.

Can I buy antifungal medication?

Yes – there a number of antifungal creams you can buy at your pharmacy (for example, clotrimazole, and terbinafine). In addition, you can also buy oral fluconazole from your pharmacy, to treat vaginal thrush. Be aware though that if you use the wrong cream then it can make fungal skin infections worse. For example, steroids should not be used on athlete’s foot: only terbinafine cream by itself. If you put steroid cream on athlete’s foot it usually makes it worse.

How to use the Yellow Card Scheme

If you think you have had a side-effect to one of your medicines you can report this on the Yellow Card Scheme. You can do this online at www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

The Yellow Card Scheme is used to make pharmacists, doctors and nurses aware of any new side-effects that medicines or any other healthcare products may have caused. If you wish to report a side-effect, you will need to provide basic information about:

  • The side-effect.
  • The name of the medicine which you think caused it.
  • The person who had the side-effect.
  • Your contact details as the reporter of the side-effect.

It is helpful if you have your medication – and/or the leaflet that came with it – with you while you fill out the report.

Terbinafine for topical use (Lamisil). Antifungal drugs

About terbinafine

Type of medicine Antifungal
Used for Fungal skin infections in adults
Also called Lamisil®
Available as Cream, topical solution, gel, and spray

Although many types of fungi live harmlessly on our skin, some can cause infections. The most common fungi to cause skin infections are the tinea group of fungi. For example, tinea pedis (athlete’s foot) is a common fungal infection of the toes and feet, and tinea cruris (fungal groin infection) is a fungal infection which affects the groin area. Infections caused by a fungus or a yeast (a type of fungus) can affect other parts of the body too.

Terbinafine is an antifungal medicine which is applied to the skin (topically) as a cream, gel, solution, or spray. It works by killing the fungus causing the infection. Although terbinafine is available on prescription, you can also buy some preparations without a prescription at pharmacies and other retail outlets.

If your fungal infection is widespread, or if it is in a place that is difficult to treat (such as a nail infection), it may require treatment with tablets prescribed by a doctor. There is a separate medicine leaflet called Terbinafine tablets which gives more information about this.

Before using terbinafine

To make sure this is the right treatment for you, before you start using terbinafine it is important that your doctor or pharmacist knows:

  • If you are pregnant or breastfeeding. This is because, while you are expecting or feeding a baby, you should only take/use medicines on the recommendation of a doctor.
  • If you are taking any other medicines or using any other creams. This includes any medicines which are available to buy without a prescription, as well as herbal and complementary medicines.
  • If you have ever had an allergic reaction to a medicine or cream.

How to use terbinafine

  • Before you start this treatment, read the manufacturer’s printed information leaflet from inside your pack. The leaflet will give you more information about terbinafine and how to apply it.
  • Wash and dry the infected area of skin before you apply terbinafine.
  • If you are using cream or gel, apply a thin layer once or twice daily and then rub it in gently. You will need to use it regularly for one to two weeks. Once all signs of your infection have gone, continue to use it for a further two or three days to prevent the infection from coming back.
  • If you are using spray, use it once each day for a week and be careful to make sure that all of the infected area has been covered by the spray.
  • If you are using solution, this is applied once only. Treat both of your feet at the same time by applying a thin layer of solution, making sure you apply it between your toes, on the soles of your feet and up the sides of your feet for about 1.5 cm. The solution will dry to form a film. Do not wash your feet for 24 hours after you’ve applied the solution.

Getting the most from your treatment

  • Remember to wash your hands carefully after using terbinafine, as this will help to prevent the infection from spreading to other parts of your body. Also, use a separate towel to other people until your infection clears up.
  • Fungal infections often occur in warm, moist areas of the body. After washing or showering, make sure that all areas of your skin are dried well, particularly areas such as skin folds and between your toes.
  • As a guide, athlete’s foot usually clears up within a week of treatment, and infections affecting the groin area within two weeks of treatment. If there are no signs of improvement after these times, you should make an appointment to see your doctor for further advice.

Can using terbinafine cause problems?

Along with their useful effects, all medicines can cause unwanted side-effects although not everyone experiences them. The table below lists some of the most common ones associated with topical use of terbinafine. You will find a full list in the manufacturer’s information leaflet supplied with your medicine. The unwanted effects often improve over the first few days of using a new medicine, but speak with your doctor or pharmacist if any of the following side-effects continue or become troublesome.

Possible terbinafine side-effects What can I do if I experience this?
Irritation, redness, or itching If this continues or becomes troublesome, speak with your doctor

If you experience any severe skin reactions or other symptoms which you think may be due to this medicine, speak with your doctor or pharmacist.

How to store topical terbinafine

  • Keep all medicines out of the reach and sight of children.
  • Store in a cool, dry place, away from direct heat and light.

Important information about all medicines

This preparation is for use on the skin only. If someone swallows some of it, go to the accident and emergency department of your local hospital. Take the container with you, even if it is empty.

This medicine is for you. Never give it to other people even if their condition appears to be the same as yours.

Do not keep out-of-date or unwanted medicines. Take them to your local pharmacy which will dispose of them for you.

If you have any questions about this medicine ask your pharmacist.

Jock Itch (Tinea Cruris) in Adults: Condition, Treatments, and Pictures – Overview


Information for

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Images of Tinea Cruris


Jock itch (tinea cruris) is a surface (superficial) fungal infection of the skin on either side of the body where the thigh joins the abdomen, known as the groin. It is often spread to the groin from tinea infection on the feet (tinea pedis or athlete’s feet).

Who’s at risk?

Jock itch is very common around the world and is more of a problem in warm, moist regions, as the fungus thrives in these conditions.

People who wear tight clothing for extended periods, share clothing, participate in athletics, or are overweight or diabetic are more often affected with jock itch. It is common in adult men.

Signs and Symptoms

Large round, red patches with bumpy, scaling edges occur in the groin and may extend down the inner thigh or onto the belly or buttocks areas. Jock itch is usually not present on the genitals. It is usually very itchy.

Self-Care Guidelines

Check your feet and treat athlete’s foot if it is present, as it can often spread from there.

Over-the-counter antifungal creams such as miconazole (eg, Monistat®), clotrimazole (Lotrimin®), or tolnaftate (Tinactin®) are very effective. Apply it twice a day until a few days after the rash seems to be gone, which usually takes about 2–3 weeks. You may still see flat, brown areas of discoloration for several weeks, but these do not need to be treated as long as there is no longer itching or bumps and scales in the area.

Reinfection can be prevented. Keep the area cool and dry by drying the body thoroughly after bathing and wearing loose cotton clothing. Wash your clothing and linens in hot water. If you think you also have athlete’s foot, use a separate towel for your feet and try to keep your feet dry as well, by avoiding wearing shoes for long periods or wearing loose-fitting shoes. Clean your bath/shower with bleach and floors with an appropriate cleaner to kill any fungal spores. You should also avoid sharing clothing and wear footwear in public bathrooms/showers and gyms. Skin folds can be a continually moist environment that aids growth of this fungus. If this is a recurrent problem for you, it may help to lose weight.

When to Seek Medical Care

If you see no improvement after 2 weeks of self-care, see your doctor.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

Your doctor may do a scraping to look for fungus under the microscope or a biopsy if your diagnosis is uncertain.

Antifungal creams or pills may be prescribed.

Trusted Links

MedlinePlus: Tinea InfectionsClinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Tinea Cruris


Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.1174-1185. New York: Mosby, 2003.

Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed. pp.1999, 1102. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Tinea cruris | DermNet NZ

Authors: Created 2003; Updated Katrina Tan, Medical Student, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; Dr Martin Keefe, Dermatologist, Christchurch, New Zealand. Copy edited by Gus Mitchell. June 2021

What is tinea cruris?

Tinea cruris, also known as ‘jock itch’, is a specific form of tinea due to a dermatophyte fungus affecting the groin, pubic region, and adjacent thigh. It presents as an acute or chronic asymmetrical rash.

Tinea cruris

Who gets tinea cruris?

Tinea cruris affects both sexes, with a male predominance (3:1). All ages can develop tinea cruris, adolescents and adults more commonly than children and the elderly. Tinea cruris can affect all races, being particularly common in hot humid tropical climates. 

Predisposing factors for tinea cruris include:

What causes tinea cruris?

Tinea cruris is caused by a dermatophyte fungus, most commonly Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum.

Spread of the infection to the groin is commonly from the feet (tinea pedis) or nails (tinea unguium) by scratching or use of contaminated towels or bed sheets.

What are the clinical features of tinea cruris? 

  • Tinea cruris usually begins in the inguinal (groin) skin fold on one side which can evolve to become a bilateral but characteristically asymmetrical rash.
  • The rash can extend down the inner aspect of the thigh or to the lower abdomen and pubic area.
  • Involvement of the buttocks and perineum may be seen but there is typically sparing of the penis, scrotum, and vulva.
  • Acute tinea cruris may present as a moist and exudative rash.
  • Chronic tinea cruris presents as a large well-demarcated scaly plaque with a raised border and central clearing.
  • Scale is most prominent at the leading edge of the plaque.
  • Dermatophytic folliculitis may present as papules and pustules along the border.
  • Tinea cruris is usually itchy.
  • Wood lamp examination does not demonstrate fluorescence.

Tinea cruris

How do clinical features vary in differing types of skin?

Tinea cruris often causes marked hyperpigmentation in skin of colour.

Dermoscopy of tinea cruris

  • Diffuse erythema
  • Brown spots with white/yellow halo
  • Follicular micropustules
  • Morse code hairs — indicate invasion of vellus hairs

What are the complications of tinea cruris?

  • Maceration and secondary infection with bacteria or candida
  • Secondary excoriation, lichenification, and pigmentation
  • Tinea incognita due to use of topical steroids

How is tinea cruris diagnosed?

Tinea cruris should be considered in the clinical setting of an asymmetrical scaly rash in the groin and confirmed on a skin scraping for mycology [see Laboratory tests for fungal infections].

Skin biopsy may be performed, usually to exclude other flexural skin conditions [see Skin diseases and conditions affecting body folds]. Histology demonstrates branching septate hyphae on special stains [see Tinea corporis pathology].

What is the differential diagnosis for tinea cruris?

Differential diagnosis of tinea cruris

What is the treatment for tinea cruris?

General and preventative measures

  • Careful towelling after washing to avoid transfer of fungi from the feet
  • Loose fitting clothing
  • Treatment of triggers such as hyperhidrosis or obesity
  • Topical antifungal powder after bathing

Specific measures

  • Topical antifungal medication such as imidazoles or terbinafine
  • Oral antifungal medication for extensive or recalcitrant infection, particularly in immunosuppressed patients eg, griseofulvin, terbinafine, itraconazole
  • Treatment of tinea at other sites such as tinea pedis or tinea unguium
  • Mild topical steroid can be used short-term to reduce itch, but is not appropriate as a monotherapy or long-term

What is the outcome for tinea cruris?

Tinea cruris clears with appropriate treatment in 80–90% of cases. However, recurrence is common, especially if predisposing factors are not addressed or antifungal treatment is stopped before mycological cure. Residual hyperpigmentation may persist in skin of colour.



  • Andrews MD, Burns M. Common tinea infections in children. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(10):1415–20. Journal
  • Bhat YJ, Keen A, Hassan I, Latif I, Bashir S. Can dermoscopy serve as a diagnostic tool in dermatophytosis? A pilot study. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2019;10(5):530–5. doi:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_423_18. Journal
  • Bhatia A, Kanish B, Badyal DK, Kate P, Choudhary S. Efficacy of oral terbinafine versus itraconazole in treatment of dermatophytic infection of skin – a prospective, randomized comparative study. Indian J Pharmacol. 2019;51(2):116-19. doi:10.4103/ijp.IJP_578_17. Journal
  • El-Gohary M, van Zuuren EJ, Fedorowicz Z, et al. Topical antifungal treatments for tinea cruris and tinea corporis.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(8):CD009992. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009992.pub2. Journal
  • Ely JW, Rosenfeld S, Seabury Stone M. Diagnosis and management of tinea infections. Am Fam Physician. 2014;90(10):702–10. Journal
  • Patel GA, Wiederkehr M, Schwartz RA. Tinea cruris in children. Cutis. 2009;84(3):133–7. PubMed
  • Sahoo AK, Mahajan R. Management of tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis: a comprehensive review. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016;7(2):77–86. doi:10.4103/2229-5178.178099. Journal
  • Thakur R, Kalsi AS. Updates on genital dermatophytosis. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2020;13:743–50. doi:10.2147/CCID.S262704. Journal
  • Zhao D, Chen B, Wang YT, Jiao CH. Topical clotrimazole cream for the treatment of tinea cruris: a retrospective study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(47):e23189. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000023189. Journal

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Why People Are Experiencing Jock Itch More Often Right Now

Thanks to the pandemic, we’re all at home way more than usual — and that’s a good thing, from a public health perspective. But all that sitting around at home isn’t without risk, especially if you’re not, uh, airing things out on a regular basis.

David Kim, a board-certified dermatologist in California, tells Allure a sedentary lifestyle puts people at a higher risk than ever for jock itch, which is an uncomfortable, itchy rash that thrives in warm, sweaty areas of the body, like the groin and under the breasts. “Constantly sitting traps heat and moisture in the groin, which increases the risk for jock itch,” he says. “Anything that’s tight-fitting and not as breathable can put you at a risk for an infection.”

Wondering if you’re at risk, or if your existing rash might be related to a fungal infection? Here’s everything you need to know about jock itch, according to dermatologists and an OB-GYN.

What is jock itch?

According to Apple Bodemer, a dermatologist in Madison, Wisconsin, jock itch — also called tinea cruris – is a condition caused by a fungal infection of the skin. Because fungus thrives in warm, moist environments, jock itch usually occurs in areas where skin touches skin, such as the groin. In spite of the name, jock itch doesn’t only affect athletes, and it doesn’t only happen in the groin. Heather Beall, an OB-GYN in Crystal Lake, Illinois, says the condition can also occur under the breasts, usually in people with larger chests. A similar fungal rash — tinea pedis, also known as athlete’s foot — can happen between people’s toes.

The main symptom of jock itch, Kim says, is an itchy, red rash. “The classic rash is a ring-shaped red rash with red borders,” he explains. “The edges are red and scaly, and the middle part is usually clear.” According to Kim, another classic feature of fungal infection is that it’s symmetrical — usually, it occurs on both the left and right sides.

Jock itch can be uncomfortable, but Kim says it’s usually nothing to worry about, especially if it’s treated right away. “It can definitely spread to the genitals but typically it does stay limited within the groin because people will notice it and start to treat it before it gets any worse,” he says.

How do you get jock itch, and who is most likely to experience it?

According to Bodemer, jock itch can happen anytime sweat and moisture stay on the body for a long time and cause fungus or yeast overgrowth — like if a person is sitting down for a long period while wearing tight-fitting undergarments or pants, or continues wearing sweaty underwear after working out.

Jock Itch (for Teens) – Nemours Kidshealth

What Is Jock Itch?

Jock itch is a skin infection caused by a fungus. It’s called jock itch because it’s commonly seen in active people who sweat a lot while playing sports. But anyone can get this infection.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Jock Itch?

Jock itch (or tinea cruris) usually causes redness, flakiness, peeling, or cracking of the skin in the groin, thigh, and buttocks area. The rash can look circular, with well-defined or even elevated edges. It can also spread to the area around the anus (where poop comes out). It may itch, sting, or burn, or simply feel uncomfortable.

What Causes Jock Itch?

A fungus is a microscopic plant-like organism that thrives in damp, warm environments. Fungi usually aren’t dangerous. But when they infect the skin, they cause mild but annoying rashes (also known as tinea infections).

Jock itch is caused by fungi that normally live on the skin, hair, and nails, called dermatophytes. When the groin, upper thighs, and buttocks area gets warm and moist, they can grow out of control and start to cause symptoms.

Is Jock Itch Contagious?

Yes. Jock itch can spread from one person to another by skin-to-skin contact, especially in warm, damp environments. It can also spread to other areas of the body if someone touches the affected area and touches other body parts. Jock itch often spreads from a fungal infection on the feet, known as athlete’s foot.

Who Gets Jock Itch?

Jock itch can affect anyone who tends to sweat a lot. It most often affects guys, but girls can get it too.

Things that can make jock itch more likely include:

  • lots of sweating while playing sports
  • hot and humid weather
  • friction from wearing tight clothes (like bathing suits) for long periods
  • sharing clothes or towels with others
  • not drying the skin well after sweating, bathing, or swimming
  • some health conditions (such as diabetes, obesity, or immune system problems)

How Is Jock Itch Diagnosed?

A doctor can often diagnose jock itch just by looking at it and asking about symptoms and a person’s lifestyle. Sometimes the doctor will scrape off a small sample of the flaky infected skin to look at under a microscope or to test in a laboratory.

How Is Jock Itch Treated?

Over-the-counter (OTC) antifungal creams, sprays or powders may solve the problem if it is mild. More serious infections may need prescription medicine, either topical (applied to skin) or in pill form.

You should use the medicine as long as is recommended, even if the rash seems to be getting better. If not, the infection can come back. Some people regularly use medicated powders and sprays to prevent this from happening.

To help heal the skin, it’s important to keep the affected area clean and dry. Be sure to:

  • Wash and then dry the area with a clean towel. (Use a separate clean towel for the rest of your body.)
  • Apply the antifungal cream, powder, or spray as directed on the label.
  • Change clothing, especially underwear, every day.
  • Treat any other fungal infections, such as athlete’s foot.

How Long Does Jock Itch Last?

Jock itch is usually less severe than other tinea infections. If it’s not treated, though, it can last for weeks or months.

Can Jock Itch Be Prevented?

Jock itch often can be prevented. To avoid it:

  • Keep the groin area clean and dry. Wash daily and dry off completely, particularly after showering, swimming, and sweaty activities.
  • Use clean towels and avoid sharing clothing and towels.
  • Wash athletic supporters (jock straps) as often as possible.
  • Avoid tight-fitting clothing.
  • Change clothing, especially underwear, every day.
  • Treat any other fungal infections, such as athlete’s foot. If you have athlete’s foot, dry your feet with a separate towel. Then, put socks on before underwear so that fungus from your feet doesn’t get on the underwear.
  • Use a powder in the groin area every day to help reduce sweating.

Tinea Cruris (Jock Itch) – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

The Facts

Tinea cruris, commonly referred to as jock itch, is a fungal infection in the groin area. It affects mostly adult men. It’s caused by a type of fungus called dermatophytes. It grows in a circle on your skin and often looks like a ring. Due to irritation, the skin becomes red.

Some people think the infection looks like there is a worm under the skin. Because of this, this infection is often referred to as “ringworm,” although no worm is actually involved. The fungi are commonly found on the skin surface and nails and are usually quite harmless. Under certain conditions, however, they can multiply dramatically, causing irritation and surface tissue damage.

You don’t have to be athletic to get jock itch. Infections caused by these organisms go by the medical name tinea. Tinea pedis is athlete’s foot; tinea capitis is ringworm of the scalp. Jock itch is tinea cruris, from the Latin word for leg. They are all caused by dermatophytes – only the infected area differs.

Classic jock itch affects the inner thighs, groin, and lower buttocks, not the genitalia themselves. If the scrotum is inflamed, it’s probably due to a different yeast condition called candidiasis, and a physician should be consulted.


Dermatophytes like to grow on skin that’s moist and warm and thrive in areas where skin comes into contact with other skin, such as the groin or between the toes. Overweight men are more likely to develop jock itch if they sweat a lot or have folds of touching skin. Tight clothing and hot, humid weather are other risk factors.

Men who play sports and use a male athletic guard are particularly prone to tinea infection. Sweaty equipment left in a locker makes an ideal environment for tinea to grow. The fungi can live on towels, floors, carpets, and toilet seats. Sharing towels, combs, and shoes can easily transmit fungal infections.

Since the same dermatophytes can cause different types of tinea, it is not uncommon for someone with athlete’s foot to get jock itch by towelling his feet before his groin.

Symptoms and Complications

Tinea is often painful or itchy, but not in every case. There are visual clues to help identify a fungal infection. These include:

  • inflammation of the groin, anal area, and upper thigh – not including the genitals themselves
  • slightly raised patch
  • sharp borders
  • expanding or spreading, with clearing in the centre
  • dry or scaly blisters (occasionally oozing or crusting)
  • abnormally dark or light skin
  • skin redness or inflammation

Fungal infections often spread out in a circle, leaving normal-looking skin in the middle. At the leading edge of the infection the skin is raised, red, and scaly.

Making the Diagnosis

Any number of conditions (e.g., eczema, lice, candidiasis, scabies, and seborrhea) can make the groin area itch, but a doctor can determine what is causing the problem. A doctor may scrape a small piece of irritated skin and examine it under a microscope. Sometimes, a doctor may send a skin sample to a laboratory to determine what is causing the skin irritation.

When a man sees his doctor about jock itch, he may be asked what sort of exercise he does, or what clothes he wears, or if he has any pets. Tinea can easily recur after treatment if the source of infection is not removed, so it’s important to know where it came from.

Treatment and Prevention

Tinea cruris is considered a mild condition and is usually treated with medications that often do not require a prescription. It should easily clear up after 2 to 4 weeks with an antifungal cream, powder, or lotion applied to the affected area 2 or 3 times a day.

Antifungal creams and powders such as clotrimazole* or miconazole, available without prescription at the pharmacy, are effective against most dermatophytes. It’s important to continue use after the infection has disappeared for as long as the instructions recommend. If athletes foot is also present it is important to treat it at the same time as well, otherwise the groin infection will likely recur.

If the inflammation persists for much more than 2 or 3 weeks despite antifungal medication, see a doctor. The doctor may prescribe a different antifungal cream or possibly an antifungal medication taken by mouth to treat the infection.

Follow these tips to help to relieve and prevent jock itch:

  • Wear loose-fitting clothing and underwear.
  • Change underwear often, especially after sweating.
  • Shower as soon as possible after exercising.
  • Wash exercise clothes after each use.
  • Don’t sit around in a wet bathing suit.
  • Don’t use another person’s towel or clothes.
  • After showering, put socks on first. If underpants are put on first, foot fungus can rub off into the underwear, and cause jock itch.
  • Use corn starch in areas more likely to become infected to keep them free of moisture.
  • Take your pet to the vet if it has a rash or is missing patches of hair. This could be a possible sign of a tinea infection.
  • All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/condition/getcondition/Tinea-Cruris-Jock-Itch

90,000 Itching in the intimate area in women 🙍♀️ Causes and treatment

We decided to discuss this problem with our specialist, an obstetrician-gynecologist of the highest category, Alevtina Mikhailovna Harichkova.

She will help us deal with the causes and diseases that irritate the intimate area. Will talk about modern diagnostic methods. Explain by what principles the treatment of itching in the intimate area is formed. It guides what you should pay attention to in order not to miss the disease hiding behind it.

Very often patients come to see me with a simple, at first glance, but painful problem: itching in the intimate area. And most often their first question is: “How to treat? How to remove itching in the intimate area? “

Most of them have already undergone examinations, tried to heal on their own, some have already become desperate and withdrawn into themselves. Their medical histories are roughly similar, and I often hear the same complaints:

? I have been suffering for several years.Was examined many times. I passed all the tests. There is no infection, but the intimate itching remains!

? I am suffering, I cannot sleep. The itching in the intimate area is tortured, it becomes especially unbearable at night. How to remove it? How to recover? Where to run?

? Alevtina Mikhailovna, help! I have a climax, and then itching appeared. She just stopped feeling like a woman, and there can be no question of any intimacy with her husband. All somersaults.

? Could it be nerves? Tell me what to do so that the itching in the intimate area goes away, how to treat it?

There is no universal answer to all these questions, because treatment, first of all, depends on the cause of the disease.

We decided to discuss this problem with our specialist, an obstetrician-gynecologist of the highest category, Alevtina Mikhailovna Harichkova.

She will help us deal with the causes and diseases that irritate the intimate area. Will talk about modern diagnostic methods. Explain by what principles the treatment of itching in the intimate area is formed. It guides what you should pay attention to in order not to miss the disease hiding behind it.

Harichkova Alevtina Mikhailovna

Make an appointment

Very often patients come to see me with a seemingly simple but painful problem: itching in the intimate area.And most often their first question is: “How to treat? How to remove itching in the intimate area? “

Most of them have already undergone examinations, tried to heal on their own, some have already become desperate and withdrawn into themselves. Their medical histories are roughly similar, and I often hear the same complaints:

? I have been suffering for several years. Was examined many times. I passed all the tests. There is no infection, but the intimate itching remains!

? I am suffering, I cannot sleep. The itching in the intimate area is tortured, it becomes especially unbearable at night.How to remove it? How to recover? Where to run?

? Alevtina Mikhailovna, help! I have a climax, and then itching appeared. She just stopped feeling like a woman, and there can be no question of any intimacy with her husband. All somersaults.

? Could it be nerves? Tell me what to do so that the itching in the intimate area goes away, how to treat it?

There is no universal answer to all these questions, because treatment, first of all, depends on the cause of the disease.

Non-medical causes of itching in the perineal region

I want to start with the simplest and most common reasons. They are easily corrected and do not require additional specialist intervention. Therefore, first of all, I exclude the so-called exogenous (external) causes of itching in the intimate area in patients.

In these cases, special treatment of intimate itching in women is not required. It is enough only to eliminate external irritating factors. The most common causes of discomfort in the genital area can be:

Mechanical damage during shaving, depilation, sexual intercourse.Scuffs, cracks and irritation cause not only pain, but also itching in the intimate area. That is why it is necessary to observe precautions: use lubricant during sex and special products that moisturize the skin during or after shaving and hair removal.

Uncomfortable underwear made of synthetic materials. It is one of the most common and easily corrected exogenous causes of genital itching. You just need to replace synthetic and uncomfortable underwear with comfortable ones made from natural breathable materials.Irregular or lack of hygiene. It is unacceptable to neglect the rules of personal hygiene. It is because of its absence that the groin area can itch. You should wash your genitals regularly and change your pads and tampons frequently during your period.

Reaction to care products. Dryness and flaking along with itching can occur due to the use of the wrong products with high acidity levels. You can avoid such a reaction if you buy only proven intimate hygiene gels.

And now I have to scare you a little.We turn to gynecological diseases in which this seemingly harmless symptom manifests itself.

Diseases and conditions causing itching in the intimate area

Kraurosis vulva

First of all, let’s talk about such a disease as Lichen sclerosus of the vulva (in our country, its old name Krauroz has taken root more). I put it first on purpose. Over the years of existence in our clinic of the Department of treatment of vulvar kraurosis , we drew attention to how often patients suffering from this ailment began to contact us.How many of them are young, hormonally active women. How the disease is diagnosed and “started” out of time. As a result, it takes more effort and time for the treatment to bring the expected result.

Itching in the perineal region with this disease is most often not accompanied by discharge, as is the case with an infection. It occurs against the background of atrophic processes in the mucosa. And if you do not carry out treatment, over time, sclerosis and deformation of the external genital organs will develop.

A characteristic feature of itching with kraurosis of the vulva is a constant character with an increase at night, after physical exertion, a hot shower. This condition exhausts the woman so much that it forces her to talk about the desire to commit suicide in order to get rid of this “hell”. Fortunately, our clinic is equipped with all the necessary modern equipment, including a CO2 laser, and the accumulated experience combined with professional skills allows us to successfully treat this pathology.The main thing I always ask for is, please, do not self-medicate, do not delay the appointment for a consultation.

Itching in the intimate area is a very serious symptom that requires examination and mandatory treatment.

Leukoplakia of the vulva

Vulvar leukoplakia is similar in clinical symptoms to kraurosis. It is often confused even by clinicians, because outwardly, the foci of atrophy in leukoplakia and kraurosis are similar. But if with kraurosis sclerotic and atrophic processes are more pronounced, then with leukoplakia, epithelial hyperplasia occurs.Common to the two diseases is a complaint of debilitating itching in the intimate area. It is also worse at night and is not accompanied by a discharge. Although it is worth noting that with kraurosis, itching is more pronounced. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis with kraurosis is carried out according to the results of histology and extended vulvoscopy. Unfortunately, vulvar leukoplakia, as well as kraurosis, is difficult to cure, so our main goal in treatment is to rid the patient of unbearable itching and create a stable, long-term remission.In the future, patients with kraurosis and vulvar leukoplakia should be under constant dispensary supervision by a gynecologist, since in some cases these pathologies can degenerate into cancer.

Itching with menopause

Similar complaints of itching in the perineal region without discharge and odor often appear in women in menopause. It arises as a result of hormonal changes in the body and estrogen-progesterone deficiency formed against the background of menopause.Mucous intimate zone reacts to it is one of the first and not for the better. Lacto- and bifidobacteria, which are the basis of normal vaginal microbiocenosis, suffer. Since in nature “a holy place is never empty”, they are replaced by another, often pathogenic microflora. Vaginitis and vulvovaginitis develop, which I will discuss below. Among other things, against the background of menopause, regenerative processes slow down, atrophy of the mucous membrane is formed, and the production of natural secretions decreases. This leads to complaints of dryness, tightness, itching in the perineum.Fortunately, atrophic vulvovaginitis, unlike lichen sclerosus, does not lead to deformity of the vulva. The modern arsenal of pharmaceuticals allows you to easily carry out treatment and relieve the patient from obsessive itching in the intimate area.


Infectious vaginitis, vulvovaginitis and colpitis, and the problems caused by them, are the most common in gynecology. Both young and old patients suffer from them. At the appointment, they usually complain of itching in the intimate area with discharge and an unpleasant odor.Depending on the infectious agent, the discharge is cheesy, whitish, serous and purulent. Microorganisms causing this symptomatology can be:


Staphylococcus aureus;


Yeast-like fungi;


Our task is to identify the pathogen and carry out etiotropic treatment. With this approach, it is possible to alleviate the condition quickly enough. In addition to the standard examination, our clinic uses the method of laboratory diagnostics by the method of CMS (chromatography-mass spectrometry).Thanks to her, we are able to identify more than 20 microorganisms in one study, to determine the biocenosis of the vagina and vulva. Choose a rational antibiotic therapy that can heal without disturbing the normal microflora.

Sexually transmitted diseases

The development of laboratory diagnostics, especially the introduction of PCR methods into widespread practice, has led to the identification and study of infectious agents that become infected during sexual intercourse. STDs can be almost asymptomatic, and can cause discomfort and itching of the perineum.Itching in this case is accompanied by a discharge with a characteristic unpleasant odor. It is necessary to prescribe the treatment of genital infections for two sexual partners at once. In this case, we will achieve the desired result and will not allow complications. After all, sexually transmitted infections can be one of the factors of male and female infertility.


During pregnancy, a woman’s body undergoes a number of certain changes, including hormonal ones. But even this is not a reason to endure itching, which often occurs in women who are expecting a baby.The most common cause is thrush. By the way, this infectious disease can occur outside of pregnancy. Vaginal candidiasis is caused by the rapid spread of yeast. It causes not only a constant desire to scratch, but also a white or milky cheesy discharge, sometimes this condition is accompanied by a burning sensation and pain.

Genital infections, typical for pregnant dermatitis, excessive consumption of protein, spicy or salty foods very often leads to severe burning sensation in the perineum during pregnancy.


Itching in such cases is not the main symptom. Most often, it occurs in the later stages or with the addition of a secondary infection. We, gynecologists, are always in a certain vigilance on cancer in order to be able to identify the disease in time and provide the necessary assistance in a timely manner. Therefore, my standard examination is always accompanied by the taking of scrapings for cytological examination, allowing at an early stage to identify atypia and dysplasia of cells.

Other causes of itching in the intimate area

Perhaps I have listed the main gynecological causes of itching in the perineum. She spoke a little about the tactics of managing and treating such patients. I would like to note that this symptom can also occur with somatic diseases.

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes is a serious disease characterized by an increase in blood glucose levels, impaired microcirculation and tissue trophism. All this creates a favorable environment for the growth and development of yeast fungi, which are very often the main cause of itching in the intimate area during diabetes.

Due to frequent scratching, ulcers and cracks are formed, including on the external genital organs. At the first stage of development, they cause severe itching, which is subsequently accompanied by acute pain.

The skin of diabetic patients often becomes dry, hypersensitive, microcracks form on it, causing the desire to scratch the intimate area.

To remove itching and relieve suffering, such patients require treatment by an endocrinologist and gynecologist. Only by making joint efforts will it be possible to stop the condition.


Allergic dermatitis can also cause itching of the vulva. It is difficult to confuse it with something else, because most often it is accompanied by characteristic rashes. There is no odorless and odorless discharge with it. Usually, a gynecologist can easily diagnose an allergic nature from the clinical picture and prescribe an alleviating therapy. But to find out the reason, that is, to find the allergen, only an examination will help. Treatment in this case will consist, first of all, in eliminating the factor that caused such a reaction.

Side effects from taking medications. Therefore, before you start taking medications, be sure to carefully read the instructions. Usually, manufacturers warn in advance about the side effects and drug interactions of the active substance.

Pubic lice

The defeat of the pubic area with parasites occurs during close contact with an infected partner or even at home. Pubic lice are not a big danger. But they require timely treatment, otherwise the itching caused by their presence will become unbearable.

Diagnosis and identification of the cause

In most cases, we can easily diagnose the cause of genital itching. The only thing I always ask the patients about is not to delay visiting the gynecologist.

A diagnostic search always begins with the collection of complaints and anamnesis. Next, I move on to the examination and form an examination algorithm that will help determine the cause of the scratching and make the correct diagnosis.

When making an appointment with me, be prepared for the following manipulations.

I will carry out a collection of secretions from the genitals to determine the flora and the degree of purity of sexually transmitted infections. Samples of tissue, secretions and other biomaterials are applied to sterile glass or placed in a test tube, after which they are examined in the laboratory. With their help, it is possible to obtain data on the presence of organisms that caused infection and inflammation, antibiotic therapy is selected.

I’ll take a scraping for cytology. This mandatory study is done to exclude the oncological process.I will conduct an extended vulvo- and colposcopy with staining the affected areas with special preparations that help to identify a particular problem. If during this procedure I find pathological formations that require histological examination, I will carry out a tissue biopsy. In the future, this fragment (or fragments) will be sent for histology. This type of diagnostics is one of the most reliable in medicine and is used in all specialties.

In some cases, I will need data from general and biochemical blood tests to exclude somatic problems.After all, the cause of scratching in the groin can be: diabetes mellitus, renal failure, cholestasis, blood diseases, etc.

Based on the results of these routine studies, I get the opportunity to draw up a clinical picture of the disease, make a diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

The specialization and equipment of our clinic allows me to carry out treatment by all methods available to medicine, including high technologies. We were one of the first Moscow clinics to use CO2 laser for the treatment of gynecological diseases and achieved some success in this.Our gynecological clinic on Trubnaya is known not only in Moscow, but also far beyond its borders.

In conclusion, I would like to say once again, please, be attentive to your health. Do not ignore such a symptom as itching in the intimate area and contact a specialist in a timely manner. Remember that any disease diagnosed at an early stage can be successfully treated! On my own behalf, I want to wish you eternal youth and strong women’s health!

Obstetrician-gynecologist Harichkova Aleftina Mikhailovna

Make an appointment

In conclusion, I would like to say once again, please, be attentive to your health.Do not ignore such a symptom as itching in the intimate area and contact a specialist in a timely manner. Remember that any disease diagnosed at an early stage can be successfully treated! On my own behalf, I want to wish you eternal youth and strong women’s health!

Obstetrician-gynecologist Harichkova Aleftina Mikhailovna

Make an appointment

In conclusion, I would like to say once again, please, be attentive to your health. Do not ignore such a symptom as itching in the intimate area and contact a specialist in a timely manner. Remember that any disease diagnosed at an early stage can be successfully treated! On my own behalf, I want to wish you eternal youth and strong women’s health!

Harichkova Aleftina Mikhailovna


Diagnosis and treatment of intimate itching in women
  • Appointment of an obstetrician-gynecologist, a leading specialist of the Clinic’s CTD, diagnostic and treatment, primary3 500
  • Appointment of an obstetrician-gynecologist, a leading specialist of the Clinic of CTD, diagnostic and treatment, repeated 2 700
  • Vulvovaginoscopy2 600
  • Getting a vaginal swab 340
  • Vaginal sanitation 650
  • Removal of genital warts by NPO apparatus “Surgitron” up to 3 pieces2 200
  • Removal of genital warts by NPO apparatus “Surgitron” from 3 to 10 pieces3 900

Doctors of the clinic, you can also contact on this issue:

Colpitis – Symptoms and Treatment – Make an Appointment

From the metro station Nakhimovsky Prospekt (5 minutes walk)

From the Nakhimovsky Prospekt metro station, exit to Azovskaya Street, then after 250-300 meters turn left onto Sivashskaya Street, then after 40-50 meters turn right into the courtyard.

From the children’s clinic and maternity hospital in Zyuzino (10 minutes walk)

From the children’s clinic and the maternity hospital in Zyuzino, you need to go to Azovskaya street, then turn to Bolotnikovskaya street and, before reaching the narcological clinical hospital N17, turn left into the courtyard.

From the metro station Nagornaya (15 minutes)

From the Nagornaya metro station you can reach our medical center in 15 minutes, having traveled 1 metro stop.

From Varshavskaya metro station (19 minutes walk)

From the Varshavskaya metro station, it is convenient to take trolleybuses 52 and 8 from the stop “Bolotnikovskaya ulitsa, 1” to the stop Moskvoretsky market, then 550 meters on foot

From metro Kakhovskaya (19 minutes walk)

From the Kakhovskaya metro station, go to Chongarsky Boulevard, follow Azovskaya Street, turn right onto Bolotnikovskaya Street, then after 40-50 meters (behind house number 20, turn to the left into the courtyard)

From the metro Chertanovskaya district Chertanovo (20 minutes)

From Chertanovo district to our medical center can be reached from Metro Chertanovskaya in 20 minutes or on foot in 35-40 minutes.

From the Profsoyuznaya metro station (25 minutes)

Exit from the Profsoyuznaya metro station to Profsoyuznaya street. Further from Nakhimovsky Prospekt, from the Metro Profsoyuznaya stop, drive 7 stops to the Metro Nakhimovsky Prospekt stop. Further along Azovskaya street 7 minutes on foot.

From Kaluzhskaya metro station (30 minutes)

From the Kaluzhskaya metro station, you can take trolleybus 72 in 30 minutes. Exit from the metro to Profsoyuznaya street, from the Kaluzhskaya metro stop proceed to the Chongarskiy boulevard stop, then 7 minutes walk along Simferopol boulevard

From the prefecture of the SOUTH-WEST (YUZAO) district (30 minutes on foot)

From Sevastopolsky Avenue, turn onto Bolotnikovskaya Street, not reaching the narcological clinical hospital N17 100 meters, turn left into the courtyard.

From the metro station Novye Cheryomushki (40 minutes)

Exit from the Novye Cheryomushki metro station on the street. Gribaldi, then at the stop on Profsoyuznaya Street “Metro New Cheryomushki” by trolleybus N60 proceed to the stop Chongarskiy Boulevard, then 7 minutes walk along Simferopol Boulevard

Antibiotics for the treatment of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and non-pregnant women

Review question

This systematic review assessed the microbiological and clinical efficacy and safety of antibiotic therapy for genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in men and non-pregnant women from a microbiological and clinical perspective.


CT is the most common cause of urinary tract and genital infections in women and men. However, women often do not show symptoms of infection. CT infection can lead to complications or further reproductive health problems in women (infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease) and men (prostatitis (swollen prostate gland)), or chronic pelvic pain. The clinical guidelines for the treatment of CT do not indicate the preferred antibiotic therapy.This Cochrane Review evaluated all randomized controlled trials (in which participants were randomly assigned to receive one treatment option) that used the antibiotics for the treatment of genital CT infection specified in the most current clinical practice guideline.

Search date

We searched for studies published prior to June 2018 that reported the following outcomes: failed CT clearance or symptom improvement, adverse events, antibiotic resistance, and reinfection.

Characteristics of research

We recruited 14 studies involving 2,715 men and non-pregnant women with CT infection who were treated with any antibiotic specified in clinical guidelines (2,147 (79.08%) men and 568 (20.92%) women). Women had no symptoms or had cervicitis, and men had non-gonococcal urethritis (inflammation of the urethra not caused by gonorrheal infection). All participants tested positive for CT. The studies lasted from 7 to 84 days after completion of treatment, with an average of 28 days.Most of the research was conducted in sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States. Studies have compared the antibiotics doxycycline with azithromycin and doxycycline with ofloxacin.

Sources of research funding

One study reported funding from academic grants and the other four reported sponsorships or grants from pharmaceutical companies. Other studies reported funding from their own sources or did not mention funding at all.

Main results (statistics)

We performed a meta-analysis (method of combining research results) for two comparisons: azithromycin 1g once versus doxycycline 100mg 2 times a day for 7 days, and doxycycline 100mg 2 times a day for 7 days versus ofloxacin 300 -400mg 1 or 2 times a day for 7 days.

We found that unsatisfactory microbiological treatment outcomes were less common in men receiving doxycycline than in those receiving azithromycin, and there were slightly fewer adverse events (side effects) with azithromycin in men and women. There were no differences in poor clinical outcomes for women or men taking doxycycline versus those taking azithromycin. The same is true for the comparison of doxycycline with ofloxacin. This means that with the available evidence, doxycycline would be the first treatment option in men with urethritis. In non-pregnant women with CT infections, none of the included antibiotics showed any benefit. However, doctors might consider a single dose of azithromycin as a treatment option, as it caused slightly fewer adverse events.

Quality of evidence

The included studies used unsatisfactory methods, which could lead to bias in the results (wrong choice in favor of one drug over another). This means that the evidence for poor microbiological treatment outcomes in men and adverse events in men and women when comparing azithromycin to doxycycline was of moderate quality, and the evidence for all outcomes when comparing doxycycline to ofloxacin was very low quality.

Discomfort in the urethra in women

Urethral Syndrome in Women is a condition that affects the urethra (the tube that drains your urine outside). Urethral syndrome indicates inflammation or damage to the urethra.

The symptoms of urethral syndrome are similar to urethritis, which is caused by infection and inflammation of the urethra. These include lower abdominal pain and frequent and painful urination.

Both conditions only increase the irritation of the urethra. Urethritis develops against a background of bacterial and viral infections, while the cause of urethral syndrome is often unclear.

Causes, symptoms and risk factors for urethral syndrome

Urethral syndrome can have many causes. This should include physical abnormalities in the structure of the urethra – for example, narrowing or irritation that appeared after injury or surgery.

The cause of urethral irritation can be:

  • fragrant products, perfumes,

  • soap, bubble bath or sanitary napkins,

  • diabetes mellitus or disharmonious conditions;

  • spermicidal lubricant,

  • certain drinks and foods containing caffeine,

  • chemotherapy and radiation.

The cause of an injury to the urethra may be:

  • sexual activity,

  • using a diaphragm,

  • using tampons,

  • cycling, horses.

Urethral syndrome can also be observed in postmenopausal women , in whom a lack of estrogen (female sex hormones of the first 14 days of the cycle) and vaginal dryness contribute to urethral injury.

Deficiency of estrogen in women is accompanied by impaired blood supply to the bladder and urethra, as well as a sharp decrease in the barrier function of the urothelium.

The formation of a barrier (protective) layer in the urethra and bladder in women is mainly a hormone-dependent process, where estrogens affect its synthesis, and progesterone affects its release by epithelial cells

If during the examination a bacterial or viral infection was detected, then we are talking about urethritis, and not about urethral syndrome.

Symptoms of urethral syndrome in women include:

  • lower abdominal pain,

  • feeling of pressure in the abdomen

  • a regular urge to urinate,

  • frequent urge to urinate,

  • problems with urination,

  • pain while urinating,

  • discomfort in the vulva area,

  • pain during sex

  • blood in the urine.

It is very difficult to diagnose urethral syndrome – for this you need to exclude other possible causes of the above symptoms, in particular, infections caused by viruses and bacteria.

Treatment of vulvovaginitis in girls and women in Moscow

Vulvovaginitis is accompanied by inflammation of the vaginal mucosa and external genitalia. The disease can be infectious and non-infectious in nature.Most often, pathology is diagnosed in young girls and women during menopause and postmenopause. Nonspecific bacterial flora can enter the genital mucosa from the anus and nearby organs. Vulvovaginitis is caused by E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, chlamydia and other infectious pathogens.

Causes of vulvovaginitis

Vulvovaginitis develops due to acute or chronic infection. In women in active reproductive age, the disease develops in half of the cases due to prolonged candidiasis.

Other possible causes:

  • sexually transmitted diseases;
  • genital tuberculosis;
  • the use of low-quality lubricants and foreign objects that irritate the vagina;
  • chronic diseases of the endocrine glands, metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus and obesity;
  • urinary tract infection;
  • decrease in the activity of beneficial microorganisms in the intestine against the background of dysbiosis;
  • aggravation of allergies;
  • complications after menopause, when atrophic processes occur in the vagina.

In children, vulvovaginitis may be associated with the close location of the rectum and the transition of Escherichia coli to the genital mucosa with improper intimate hygiene. In some women, the disease progresses due to the frequent use of antiseptics, vaginal douching.

Symptoms of vulvovaginitis

Vulvovaginitis can have various clinical manifestations, and for successful treatment it is necessary at the first symptoms to consult a specialist and conduct a diagnosis.The severity of the signs of the disease depends on the nature of the course of the inflammatory process.

Types of vulvovaginitis

Vulvovaginitis can be acute and chronic, traumatic, allergic, bacterial, parasitic, candidal. The exact type of the disease will be determined by the gynecologist, having studied the examination data, symptoms and determining further treatment tactics.

Acute vulvovaginitis

Acute vulvovaginitis is accompanied by severe symptoms of the inflammatory process:

  • acute pain in the genital area, which increases with urination, physical exertion and sexual intercourse;
  • Marked swelling of the genitals;
  • redness of the vulva;
  • Itching of the genitals and perineum, which may progress to the skin of the thighs.

A severe form of vulvovaginitis causes the formation of erosions, significantly reduces the quality of life of a woman. With an exacerbation of the disease, leucorrhoea often appears, which can be both watery and purulent, and cheesy, depending on the infectious agent that causes the inflammatory process. Often, the discharge takes on a fetid odor.

In the absence of effective treatment, acute vulvovaginitis becomes chronic. In this case, the main symptoms are scant or moderate discharge from the genital tract against the background of constant itching of the external genital organs.

Bacterial vulvovaginitis

Bacterial vulvovaginitis can occur in both acute and chronic forms. It is accompanied by profuse discharge, which may have a serous-purulent character. With a pronounced infectious process, intoxication syndrome is observed. A woman’s body temperature may rise, and regional lymph nodes often increase. Due to the constant itching in the perineal region, the risk of a secondary infection increases.

Allergic vulvovaginitis

Allergy often provokes an exacerbation of chronic vulvovaginitis or the appearance of a primary inflammatory process. In the first place in clinical manifestations is intense itching in the genitals and perineum, which is combined with swelling and redness of the labia. Due to constant scratching, the skin of the perineum can be damaged with the formation of inflamed foci and erosions.

Treatment of vulvovaginitis

Professional treatment of vulvovaginitis necessarily includes a preliminary comprehensive examination.Specialists must establish all possible etiological factors in order to select an effective drug therapy and develop a scheme for the prevention of future relapses. It is important to determine the form of the disease. The choice of drugs depends on this.

For the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis, specialists use antifungal drugs, prescribe drugs that restore the microflora of the vagina and intestines. It is necessary to act on the causative agent of the disease. With the bacterial nature of vulvovaginitis, local and systemic antibiotics must be prescribed.Most often, gynecologists use multicomponent drugs that can destroy microbial associations, reduce colonies, including opportunistic microorganisms, and prevent further development of the inflammatory process.

Specialists make the main emphasis on local treatment. It improves overall well-being, protects healthy tissues from infection. It is recommended to do sitz baths using warm antiseptics. Additionally, vaginal suppositories with anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects are used.

How much does the treatment cost

Vulvovaginitis is treated by gynecologists at the Medline-Service clinic. The specialist will name the exact cost of medical procedures after examination, making an accurate diagnosis. We have affordable prices for all services, while the quality of medical care is of a consistently high level.

Read also:

Treatment of female infertility

Vaginal candidiasis

Bacterial vaginosis

Pubic hair removal increases the risk of sexually transmitted diseases

Photo author, Thinkstock

Women and men who regularly cut or completely get rid of pubic hair have a greater risk of getting a sexually transmitted disease. than those who don’t.

Physicians indicate that as a result of shaving or waxing, micro-cuts remain on the skin, through which infection can easily penetrate. In addition, according to the supervision of specialists, most often those who regularly remove hair in the intimate area are also more active in their sexual life.

Sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted through unprotected sex or genital contact.

The study was conducted at the University of California at San Francisco with 7,500 adults and is published in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.

The report states that the two most likely explanations for the relationship between shaving bikini hair and venereal diseases are micro-cracks in the skin, which increase the risk of genital viral infections, and the fact that people who pay more attention to their private parts of the body tend to have sex more often and with more partners.

Zero hairstyle

It was found that men use an electric razor to shave this area most often, while women prefer a regular shaving machine.

One in five adults (of either gender) uses scissors.

Photo author, Thinkstock

Photo caption,

Any method of hair removal increases the risk of a venereal disease, scientists warn

no traces of infection were found on them.

The authors of the report recommend that doctors advise those who regularly shave their pubic hair not to do this constantly or not to have sex until all microcracks have healed.

Three quarters of those who took part in the study (84% of women and 66% of men) reported that such a hygiene regimen is normal for them, and they have shaved, cut or removed hair in the intimate area with wax before.

Among them, 17% called themselves “extreme” in this matter: they remove all their hair at least once a month; 22% do it “very often”, that is, daily or weekly.

Lice protection

A study found that any method of hair removal increases the risk of a sexually transmitted disease, and the more often and more drastically hair removal is performed, the higher the risk.

Thus, the risk of extreme people increases by 3-4 times, especially those infections that are transmitted through direct skin contact, such as herpes and human papillomavirus.

However, there is good news for genital dandies: hair removal in the intimate area protects against the spread of pubic lice, and for those who have an increased risk of getting them, doctors may advise getting rid of the hairline.

What are venereal diseases ?

  • These include, in particular, gonorrhea, herpes, syphilis and genital warts
  • The most common sexually transmitted disease is chlamydia, which is very easy to get infected
  • Young heterosexual people under the age of 25 are most often infected with venereal diseases years and homosexual men
  • Most of these diseases can be successfully treated, but it is better to start treatment as soon as possible

How to reduce the risk of contracting ?

  • Get into the habit of using condoms regularly and correctly
  • Get tested at a sexual health clinic, venereal disease clinic or consult your family doctor
  • Tell your sexual partner about your sexually transmitted disease in order not to spread the infection further

90,000 Symptoms of candidiasis in men and women

Symptoms of candidiasis in men and women are different.Candidiasis or thrush is an extremely unpleasant fungal disease that often appears on the mucous membrane of the genital organs and indicates the fact of a reduced human immunity.

Candidiasis, otherwise referred to as “mucosal thrush”, mainly manifests itself in the form of isolated or solid areas of white plaque. The places that are affected by thrush are usually painless, but with the formation of cracks or thickening of the plaque, mild pain may appear.With the development of candidiasis, redness, skin maceration, itching in and around the anus appears.

Symptoms of candidiasis in men

In representatives of the male half, thrush, as a rule, manifests itself as candidal balanoposthitis – an inflammatory lesion of the non-external layer of the foreskin, as well as the skin of the head of the penis, caused by yeast-like fungi of the “Candida” type. Balanitis or lesion of the glans penis with candidiasis and balanoposthitis (this term refers to the lesion of the foreskin) are the most common types of genitourinary candidiasis.

Among the most obvious symptoms of this disease in men, the following can be distinguished:

  • soreness,
  • itching and redness around the head of the penis
  • edema of the foreskin and glans
  • curdled white coating on the head of the penis
  • soreness during intercourse.

As for the incubation period of the disease, it ranges from two to fourteen days.

The development of this disease is mainly promoted by congenital phimosis or elongated foreskin, which creates favorable conditions for both decomposition and accumulation of smegma.Candidiasis manifests itself in men in the form of a red rash (often with a bloom), accompanied by a burning sensation and very severe itching.

Symptoms of candidiasis in women

Speaking about vaginal candidiasis, first of all, it should be noted that the disease has a considerable number of symptoms, and therefore a woman can notice in herself as only one symptom, or all the symptoms at once. The most common symptoms of candidiasis in women are:

  • Redness of the vagina and genital organs;
  • Acute burning sensation, severe itching in the genitals is perhaps the most unpleasant and common manifestation of this type of disease, which can sometimes be so severe and sudden that nervous irritation can develop due to it;
  • Painful sensation in the vulva.If the mucous membrane of the delicate vaginal membrane becomes inflamed, the woman will begin to feel pain;
  • Vaginal discharge, of course, is a small discharge in every healthy woman. However, with the onset of the disease, they become much more, as a rule, they are white, resemble curd, not sticky mass, do not have an unpleasant odor;
  • Disturbance and pain during urination. With the ingress of urine on the inflamed area of ​​the vagina, there is an excessive burning sensation;
  • Soreness during intercourse.With inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, the act becomes unpleasant and painful.

All overt symptoms of thrush in women usually appear one week before the onset of the menstrual cycle. In women who are prone to allergies, the symptoms of burning and itching with this disease are more pronounced. The burning sensation usually becomes more intense in warmth (for example, after a bath) and in the late evening, making it difficult to fall asleep. Due to such unpleasant painful sensations, sexual intercourse may become impossible.

Often, women themselves diagnose candidiasis if they notice whitish discharge. But you should also take into account the factor of normal discharge for a healthy woman, the amount of which is associated with how many days remain before menstruation. They are colorless and odorless. Discharge during thrush disease, as already mentioned, is thick and cheesy, usually white, rarely greenish or gray.

The discharge does not have a strong specific odor. Although it should be noted that the presence of all these signs still does not indicate that a woman is developing thrush.These symptoms can also be a manifestation of such diseases as trichomoniasis, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, bacterial vaginosis, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, genital herpes, etc. In addition, thrush very often accompanies all these infections.

Therefore, when a woman is worried about any of the above, there is no need to self-medicate. You must immediately go for a medical examination and find out the causes and pathogen. It is possible to reliably establish candidiasis for thrush only with the help of special tests.

Treatment of candidiasis in men and women

Today, candidiasis is one of those well-studied physiological conditions, in the treatment of which there is accumulated practical experience in medicine.

Since thrush almost always develops in humans against the background of a decrease in the body’s resistance to viruses, increasing immunity will be one of the main tasks in the practice of complex therapy. If the cause of the active reproduction of the pathological fungus is not eliminated, then it will reappear.That is why, in combination with the antifungal drugs used during the treatment of thrush, physiotherapy and immunomodulatory are also included.

Very often, in parallel with antifungal (or immediately after their use), medications of lactic acid bacteria are prescribed. During the period of acute candidiasis, the choice falls on bifidobacteria, since lactobacilli are both not entirely effective and unsafe – they contribute to the creation of a favorable environment for the reproduction of yeast fungi.

In addition, candidiasis can be a consequence of such serious diseases as diabetes or tuberculosis. Therefore, one cannot ignore the accompanying signs and manifestations that are observed along with certain symptoms of candidiasis.

Today, for the treatment of candidiasis, pharmacological medications are widely used. Methods for treating candidiasis include taking different pills, setting vaginal suppositories, sitz baths, washing away douches, and using “medicated” tampons.

Suppositories and tablets for intravaginal use are prescribed for women, but in the treatment of this disease of candidiasis in men, they mainly resort to antifungal creams and ointments. The course of treatment usually lasts from four to seven days and it depends on the severity of the signs of the disease, as well as the drug used.

With candidiasis in women and men, sitz baths with different medicinal solutions are also very popular.

However, many doctors point out that this method only helps to eliminate the unpleasant manifestations of the disease that have appeared, without affecting the very cause of development and without killing pathogenic fungi from the inside.

For relatively mild manifestations of the disease, local treatment may be sufficient. However, there are times when a systematic approach is needed. Often, preparations of the so-called broad spectrum of action are recommended for use.

High-class professional doctors work in the “Diamed” medical centers. In the course of their work, our doctors use the most advanced and modern methods of diagnosing diseases and their treatment. The staff follows the leading European standards and examination protocols.

If you notice symptoms of candidiasis, make an appointment with a doctor at the nearest clinic by phone:

  • Clinic on Shchelkovskaya 8 (495) 221-21-14
  • Clinic in Tekstilshchiki 8 (499) 322-23-97
  • Clinic in Maryina Roshcha 8 (495) 221-21-16
  • Clinic in Mitino 8 (495) 212-90-47

We work for you seven days a week. Our administrators will select a convenient time and date for your appointment.If necessary, you can undergo all additional diagnostic tests in our clinics.

During the existence of our clinics, we have collected an extensive practice of curing this disease. Our doctors not only treat illnesses, but also try to support their patients and do everything necessary for their speedy recovery.