Ibuprofen for eye pain: Eye Pain Causes, Treatment & Diagnosis
Eye Pain – What You Need to Know
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WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
What causes eye pain?
Eye pain may be caused by a problem within your eye. A problem or condition in another body area can also cause pain that travels to your eye. Eye pain may be caused by any of the following:
- Dry eyes
- An abrasion on your cornea (the surface of your eye)
- A foreign body in your eye
- Inflammation of a nerve, gland, or muscle in your eye
- Certain types of glaucoma (increased pressure inside your eye that can cause vision loss)
- A sinus infection or jaw pain
- Headaches, including migraine or cluster headaches
How is the cause of eye pain diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will examine your eyes and ask when your pain began. He will also ask if you have other symptoms, such as sensitivity to light. Tell him if you ever had eye surgery or an eye injury. Tell him if you wear glasses or contact lenses. Also tell him the names of medicines you take, and if you have allergies or health conditions. You may need the following tests:
- A visual acuity test checks your vision in both eyes. You will be asked to read letters and numbers from a chart.
- A slit-lamp exam uses a microscope to check every part of your eye for inflammation or injury. A dye may be used to look for damage to your cornea.
- A fluorescein stain test uses dye to show if you have a foreign body in your eye. It can also reveal damage to your cornea.
- A tonometry test measures the pressure inside your eye to check for glaucoma. Your healthcare provider will numb your eyes with eyedrops before he checks your eye pressure.
How is eye pain treated?
- Artificial tears are eyedrops that can help moisturize your eyes and relieve your pain. Ask your healthcare provider how often to use artificial tears.
- NSAIDs , such as ibuprofen, help decrease swelling, pain, and fever. This medicine is available with or without a doctor’s order. NSAIDs can cause stomach bleeding or kidney problems in certain people. If you take blood thinner medicine, always ask if NSAIDs are safe for you. Always read the medicine label and follow directions. Do not give these medicines to children under 6 months of age without direction from your child’s healthcare provider.
When should I contact my healthcare provider?
- You have a fever.
- Your eye pain gets worse when you move your eyes.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
When should I seek immediate care or call 911?
- You have any vision loss.
- You have sudden vision changes such as blurred vision, double vision, or seeing halos around lights.
- You develop severe eye pain.
You have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your healthcare providers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.
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What is pink eye and how can I treat it?
Conjunctivitis, commonly known as “pink eye,” often stirs a sense of panic in many people, who think that they are extremely contagious and will be banned from school/classes or that their vision will somehow be forever altered.
However, there really is no need for panic or fear. Please read the following information to fully understand the cause, treatment, and spread of Pink Eye (medically known as Conjunctivitis).
Pink Eye refers to the inflammation of the outer covering of the eye and inner covering of the eyelids, called the conjunctiva.
The two most common causes of inflammation of the conjunctiva are infection and allergies.
Infections of the conjunctiva can be either viral or bacterial in nature.
» Viral infections are responsible for approximately 70 to 80 percent of infections and many times will accompany cold symptoms, but not always. The infection often occurs in one eye and then spreads to the other eye. Symptoms include watery clear to yellowish discharge which may cause crusting of the eyelashes upon awakening in the morning. The eyelids and skin surrounding the eye may appear puffy and reddened. The conjunctiva appears pink and injected with vessels (commonly known as bloodshot in appearance). Other symptoms may include itching and a feeling of grittiness or irritation with blinking. Vision should be undisturbed. Whenever large numbers of people develop pinkeye within a specific population, viral infection is usually the cause. Antibiotics have no effect on viral infections.
» Bacterial infections are less common as the cause of pink eye. The symptoms are very similar to viral infection symptoms. Often the infection may only affect one eye and later spread to the other. The conjunctiva is usually pink and injected (bloodshot). The eyelid and surrounding skin of the eye may be slightly swollen and reddened. The eye may feel gritty or irritated and/or itchy. A difference, compared to viral pink eye, may be the fact that the discharge is often more abundant and thicker. In the mornings the eyelids may be completely matted together with thick yellow to green drainage. However, depending upon the responsible bacteria, the discharge may be no different than that of viral pinkeye.
Allergies can also produce symptoms of pink eye. Typically, both eyes will be involved. The conjunctiva is pink and injected. Discharge is usually clear and watery or stringy mucus-like in nature. The eyelids and surrounding skin of the eye may be swollen and reddened.
Symptoms and Treatment
With the symptoms of all three causes so similar, how is a diagnosis made and how is treatment decided?
First, keep in mind that 70 to 75 percent of all cases of Pink eye, regardless of cause, will go away without treatment within 3 to 5 days and without any residual problems. The use of antibiotic drops is not necessary in most cases. Even bacterial pink eye will usually resolve without any treatment in 3 to 5 days. Our society has become obsessed with the use “and need” for medicine — a quick fix. This is not to say that antibiotic drops are never necessary. They do have their place in the treatment of some cases. If a pink eye does not resolve with self care in 3 to 5 days, antibiotics may then be considered.
To determine the exact cause of pink eye [if the exact cause must be known], cultures of the eye could be done. However, cultures tend to be costly and require up to 48 hours to identify the cause. Since most viral and bacterial pink eye will resolve, without treatment in 3 to 5 days, culturing is considered a necessary expense/use of resources.
What can be done to stop the spread?
The number one, most important thing to stop the spread of pink eye (from infection) is good hand washing. Whenever hands touch the eye, they must be washed. Tissues used to cleanse the eye should be discarded directly into the trash and not held in pockets or purses for future use — and again, hands should be cleansed. Use of hand sanitizer is also appropriate. People with pink eye can certainly continue with their day to day activities and go to classes — just be diligent about preventing the spread.
Self-care treatment is easy:
- Try to avoid touching affected eyes. If hands do touch the eye(s), cleanse them immediately.
- Alternate applications of moist heat and cold. Heat will stimulate increased blood flow to the eye which will speed the delivery of the body’s defense and repair mechanisms. Cold compresses are very soothing and help to calm an eye that may be itchy.
- The use of decongestants (example: Sudafed) may help to reduce nasal and sinus congestion and subsequently congestion in the eye (decongestants are often Central Nervous System stimulants which may prevent sleep). Antihistamines will also relieve congestion and also calm itching but they have the tendency to cause drowsiness. The Health Center advises using Sudafed during the day and Benadryl at bedtime.
- Ibuprofen is an anti-inflammatory/fever-reducing medication. Use of this medication may help to reduce irritation/inflammation of the eye. Ibuprofen 2 to 3 tablets (400 to 600 mg) taken 3 times daily is the recommended dosing and can be combined with Sudafed or Benadryl. If you have any pregnancy concerns or if you are taking other medications for chronic conditions, consult a health care provider before taking any medication.
- If you wear contacts, keep them out until your eyes are back to normal. New contacts should be resumed if disposable are used. If not, contacts should be thoroughly cleaned before re-use. Eye make-up should also be avoided.
- The use of over the counter saline drops may be used as needed.
- Eye make-up, especially eyeliner and mascara can harbor viruses or bacteria and could potentially re-infect the eyes. If these products were used when the eyes were infected, they should be discarded.
Symptoms of Concern
If you have Pink eye and develop the following symptoms, you should seek a medical evaluation:
- Pain in or around the affected eye
- Difficulty keeping the affected eye open
- Severe sensitivity to bright light
- Changes in vision: decreased acuity, blurring, spots
- Symptoms that do not clear within 3 to 5 days
- Or any other symptoms of personal concern
If you have any questions, feel free to contact the Student Health Center to speak with one of the Triage Nurses: 570-389-2722, or 570-389-3800, or 570-389-5055
Causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and more
Below, we list some possible causes of eye pain.
Healthy eyes produce tears that help lubricate the eye. Tears also help wash away dust and other irritants. Eyes that do not produce enough tears may become dry and itchy and vulnerable to infection.
Some possible symptoms of dry eyes include:
- redness and soreness
- a sensation of grit in the eye
- watery eyes
- blurred vision
- sensitivity to light
Dry eyes are not usually a cause for concern, and a person can typically manage symptoms using artificial tears.
However, some medical conditions and medications may cause chronically dry eyes, so it is important to discuss dry eye symptoms with a doctor.
An eye allergy, or ocular allergy, is an allergic reaction to something that comes into contact with the eyes. Such allergies usually affect both eyes.
Some potential allergens that can trigger an eye allergy include:
- mold spores
- dust mites
- ingredients in skin care products and other cosmetics
Typical symptoms of an eye allergy include:
- redness and swelling of the eyelids
- grittiness or itchiness of the eyes
- watery eyes
- sensitivity to light
The treatment for an eye allergy involves identifying and then avoiding the allergen that triggers the allergy.
People may also find relief using over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamines and eye drops. If a person experiences severe or persistent symptoms, their doctor may prescribe corticosteroid eye drops or immunotherapy to suppress the allergic reaction.
Conjunctivitis is the medical term for a group of conditions that cause swelling, redness, and inflammation of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is a thin transparent tissue that covers the white part of the eye.
Conjunctivitis typically causes the whites of the eyes to become red or pink. Hence, many people refer to conjunctivitis as pink eye.
Viruses, bacteria, and allergens cause most cases of conjunctivitis. It can also develop in response to irritants, such as:
- air pollution
- ameba and parasites
- a foreign object in the eye
- contact lenses
Other possible symptoms of conjunctivitis include:
- itching, irritation, or burning
- feeling as if there is a foreign body in the eyes
- feeling the urge to rub the eyes
- swollen eyelids
- increased tear production
- discharge from the eyes
- crusting of eyelids or eyelashes, particularly in the morning
- feeling discomfort when wearing contact lenses or feeling that they do not stay in place
The treatment for conjunctivitis depends on the cause:
- Viral conjunctivitis (VC): Most cases of VC are mild and clear up within 7–14 days without the need for medical treatment. A doctor may prescribe antiviral medications for severe viral infections.
- Bacterial conjunctivitis (BC): Mild BC often improves in 2–5 days without treatment. However, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics for more severe bacterial infections.
- Allergic conjunctivitis (AC): The treatment for AC involves identifying and avoiding the allergen that triggers the condition. Other treatment options include topical antihistamines and eye drops.
Blepharitis is the medical term for inflammation of the eyelids. The condition can occur as a result of a bacterial infection or a skin condition, such as dandruff or rosacea.
The symptoms of blepharitis include:
- red, swollen, itchy eyelids
- scaly or flaky skin on the eyelids
- crusting of the eyelids
- a gritty or burning sensation in the eyes
- excessive tear production
- dry eyes
Severe symptoms may include:
- blurred vision
- losing eyelashes
- inflammation of the cornea
The treatment for blepharitis involves keeping the eyelids clean and free of crusts. This typically involves applying warm compresses to the eyes and gently cleansing the eyelids using a baby shampoo or an OTC eye cleansing product.
Some people need to use eye drops or eyelid washes. If the blepharitis is due to a bacterial infection, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics to help clear up the infection.
A stye or chalazion
Styes and chalazia are among the most common eye problems.
A stye is a small bump that forms on the outer edge of the eyelid. It develops when an oil gland in the eye becomes blocked and clogged, causing a small, localized infection. A stye may be very painful or sensitive to the touch.
A chalazion is similar in appearance to a stye, but it is usually larger. Like styes, chalazia develop as a result of a blocked oil gland in the eye. Unlike styes, chalazia are usually not due to an infection and do not typically cause pain unless they grow very large.
Styes often clear on their own. Applying warm compresses to the affected eye can help drain the stye and speed up the healing. Very large or painful styes may require antibiotic treatment.
Warm compresses can also help clear a chalazion. However, a doctor may need to surgically remove a persistent chalazion or one that grows very large.
A physical injury to the eye may cause pain, swelling, or excessive tear production. Examples of such injuries include:
- being poked in the eye
- receiving a blow to the eye
- having a foreign object stuck in the eye
The treatment for an eye injury depends on various factors, including:
- type of injury
- severity or extent of damage to the eye
- whether there is damage to surrounding tissues
- whether an infection is present
If a person has received a poke in the eye or a blow to the eye, their doctor may recommend the following:
If a person has an eyelash or other foreign object stuck in their eye, they can try to remove it using a damp cotton pad or swab. If this is not possible, they should seek help from a doctor.
A doctor will remove the object and may prescribe anesthetic eye drops to alleviate any pain, and antibiotics to prevent infection.
Glaucoma is a progressive disease that damages the optic nerve of the eye. This causes increasing pressure in the eye, which can severely damage vision.
Possible symptoms of glaucoma include:
According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, eye damage that results from glaucoma is permanent and irreversible. However, medications and surgery can help prevent the condition from worsening.
In most cases, an eye specialist, such as an ophthalmologist or optometrist, will prescribe eye drops to lower pressure in the eye.
In some cases, the ophthalmologist may recommend laser surgery or another type of eye surgery to help improve fluid drainage from the eye.
A cluster headache causes sudden and excruciating pain on one side of the head. Many people also experience the pain around their eyes.
Cluster headache pain is typically sharp, burning, or piercing and may last between 15 minutes and 3 hours at a time.
Other possible symptoms of a cluster headache include:
A person who experiences cluster headaches will need to contact their doctor for a diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
A doctor will prescribe pain treatments that a person can take as soon as they feel a headache coming on. These may include:
- sumatriptan injections
- sumatriptan or zolmitriptan nasal spray
- oxygen therapy
An aneurysm is an enlargement in a blood vessel. It occurs as a result of a weakness within the blood vessel wall.
An aneurysm can occur anywhere in the body, including the brain. If a brain aneurysm ruptures, a person may experience pain above or behind one eye.
A ruptured brain aneurysm is a medical emergency and needs immediate treatment. People must call 911 if someone is experiencing the symptoms listed below.
Some other signs and symptoms of a ruptured brain aneurysm include:
- a sudden and very severe headache
- a dilated pupil
- a drooping eyelid
- numbness, especially on one side of the body
- vomiting and nausea
- changes in personality or awareness
- loss of consciousness
The treatment for a brain aneurysm depends on several factors, including:
- the person’s age and overall health
- the size, shape, and location of the aneurysm
- whether the aneurysm is ruptured or unruptured
- the risk of the aneurysm rupturing
In some cases, a doctor may simply recommend monitoring the aneurysm for signs of growth. In other cases, they may recommend surgery to prevent the aneurysm from rupturing or to prevent further blood leakage.
Rarely, eye pain may be a sign of eye cancer. Some types of eye cancer are actually skin cancers that start in the eyelid or surrounding skin. Others begin in the eye itself.
Eye cancer usually only causes pain if the tumor has grown extensively outside the eye. Some earlier signs and symptoms of eye cancer can include:
- blurred vision
- a growing dark spot on the iris of the eye
- a change in pupil size or shape
- a change in the position of the eyeball within its socket
- a change in the way the eyeball moves within its socket
- bulging of the eye
- partial or complete loss of vision
The treatment for eye cancer will depend partly on the size and location of the cancer, as well as on the likelihood of saving vision in the eye.
Some possible treatment options for eye cancer include:
7 causes and when to see a doctor
1. Debris in the eye
Many people experience sharp pain when debris, such as dirt or dust, becomes lodged in an eye.
The pain usually subsides once a person flushes the debris from their eye. They can do this by splashing water or saline solution on the affected eye.
If a person continues to experience eye pain, they may have a corneal abrasion, which is a small scratch on the eye. In this case, it is best to contact an optometrist or ophthalmologist for further evaluation.
Uveitis is inflammation of the eye’s middle layer — the uvea.
This inflammation can also affect the eye’s lens, retina, optic nerve, and vitreous fluid. It can occur in one or both eyes.
Uveitis can cause the following symptoms:
- eye pain and redness
- dark spots in the vision
- blurred vision
- sensitivity to light
Uveitis can damage tissue in the eye, which may result in reduced vision or vision loss.
Medical professionals who specialize in eye health can use chart exams and evaluate the pressure inside the affected eye to diagnose uveitis. They may also dilate the pupil to inspect the back of the eye.
Treatments for uveitis focus on reducing inflammation and pain, preventing tissue damage, and counteracting vision loss. A doctor may recommend:
- corticosteroid injections or drops
- oral immunosuppressive medication
- anti-inflammatory eye drops or oral medication
Scleritis is severe inflammation of the sclera — the outermost membrane of the eye.
People can develop scleritis as a result of an infection or autoimmune disease, or as a side effect of medication. In some cases, doctors cannot identify the cause.
A person with scleritis may experience mild-to-severe eye pain that gets worse at night or with eye movement. Other symptoms include:
- sensitivity to light
- watery eyes
- reduced vision
Doctors may perform multiple tests to diagnose scleritis. These include:
The right treatment will depend on the underlying cause of scleritis, as well as the type and severity of symptoms.
In general, treatments for scleritis include:
- corticosteroid eye drops, oral tablets, or injections
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or naproxen
- immunosuppressive medications
- biologics, including infliximab and rituximab
4. Cluster headaches
Cluster headaches can cause severe pain. People often describe the pain as searing, burning, or stabbing, and it tends to occur above the eye or near the temple.
In this context, a “cluster” refers to a group of headaches. They usually occur during the day, and one cluster commonly lasts from 15 minutes to 2 hours.
Clusters may occur frequently for several days or weeks, with pain-free periods in between.
Other symptoms of cluster headaches include:
- intense pain on one side of the head
- red or watery eyes
- a runny or stuffy nose
- pupil constriction
- drooping eyelids
- restlessness or agitation
Migraine is a common neurological disease that can cause headaches and episodes of other symptoms. It affects about 29.5 million people in the United States.
A migraine headache can cause severe, throbbing pain behind one or both eyes, and a person may also experience:
- sensitivity to light and sound
- vision changes, such as seeing flashing lights or partial vision loss
- loss of coordination
- nausea and vomiting
- mood changes
- difficulty concentrating
Symptoms of a migraine headache or episode typically last for 4–72 hours.
Doctors and researchers still do not fully understand what causes migraine. However, certain factors can trigger symptoms. Among them are:
- emotional triggers, including stress or anxiety
- physical stress, due to lack of sleep, poor posture, or overexertion
- certain foods, such as chocolate, aged cheeses, and processed meats
- beverages that contain alcohol or caffeine
- hormonal changes, such as those that occur during menstruation or menopause
- overuse of certain medications, such as over-the-counter pain relievers
Glaucoma is a group of diseases that damage the optic nerve. Without treatment, glaucoma can cause vision loss and blindness.
There are three types of glaucoma: open-angle, normal-tension, and angle-closure.
In the U.S., open-angle glaucoma is the most common form, and most people who have it do not experience symptoms right away.
Angle-closure glaucoma occurs when fluid quickly builds up in the front of the eye, causing a sudden increase in pressure and intense eye pain. Another name for this disease is narrow-angle glaucoma.
Other symptoms include:
- a sudden, severe headache
- blurred vision
- seeing halos around bright lights
The symptoms of angle-closure glaucoma develop rapidly.
This condition is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. A doctor can drain the excess fluid and prescribe medication that reduces the pressure in the eye.
7. Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare medical condition that causes sudden, severe eye pain.
It usually affects one eye, and moving the eye may be particularly painful. Some people also experience temporary paralysis in the eye.
Other symptoms include:
The symptoms of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome often clear up without medical intervention and recur sporadically.
The exact cause of the syndrome remains unknown. However, some researchers believe that it arises from the inflammation of certain areas behind the eye and that this relates to an abnormal autoimmune response.
Asthenopia (Eye Strain): Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
Asthenopia (eye strain) is a feeling that your eyes are tired, sore, or achy. You can feel this way after reading or looking at a computer or phone screen for a long time. This sensation develops due to prolonged use of the muscles that control your eye movements and your pupils (the dark circles of your eyes).
You may also be more prone to eye strain if you have dry eyes or if you have a vision problem but don’t use corrective lenses. Most of the time, resting your eyes and making sure your eyes are in good health should alleviate eye strain.
When it is a problem for you, however, you can try a number of practical solutions, such as adjusting the glare on your computer screen or changing light levels in the room.
Alex Dos Diaz / Verywell
Anyone can experience eye strain. It is a fairly common problem in children and adults of all ages. You might feel the effects while you are still reading or looking at a screen, but sometimes you may not notice them until you take a break from what you are doing.
The effects of eye strain usually last for a few minutes, but at times they can persist for several hours. If you frequently experience eye strain without taking breaks, you can start to develop the symptoms earlier and more often—instead of beginning after hours of using your eyes, the symptoms may start right away
Eye strain produces a number of symptoms, including:
- Eye pain
- Dry eyes
- Itching or burning eyes
- Headaches, especially around your eyes and forehead
- Blurred or doubled vision
- Poor concentration
- Eye twitching
- Photophobia (light sensitivity)
Eye strain is generally a temporary condition that improves on its own. It does not permanently harm your eyes or affect your vision. Nevertheless, it is bothersome, so it is a good idea to avoid eye strain whenever you can.
You may also experience neck pain and shoulder pain when you have eye strain. This is because the physical positions that lead to eye strain can also cause muscle strain in your body.
Eye strain occurs after long periods of intensely focusing your eyes. Activities such as reading, driving, or working on a tiny craft or project can lead to eye strain.
Frequent use of smartphones and other handheld electronic devices may lead to asthenopia symptoms. Surfing the Internet or reading text messages and emails can be extremely taxing to the visual system, as the eyes must strain to read the small fonts and the blue light can be bothersome.
People who are especially prone to digital eye strain include:
- Students who spend hours reading or working on a computer
- People who work at a computer all day
- People in professions that involve daily intensive reading, including radiologists, lawyers, and accountants
It isn’t just working that leads to eye strain, though. Playing video games can cause it, too, both because you’re intensely focusing your eyes and rapidly moving them back and forth.
Anyone can get eye strain, but vision deficits (farsightedness, nearsightedness, presbyopia, etc.) can increase the risk of eye strain. Some eye conditions can make the effects of eye strain more of a problem.
Vision deficits make it harder for you to focus your eyes, so your eye muscles will literally strain as you concentrate on a small font or print. When one eye is worse than the other, the effort it takes to focus both of them can cause eye strain, as well.
If you are prone to headaches, photophobia, or if you have dry eye syndrome, your eyes may be more sensitive to the discomfort of eye strain.
A number of muscles help you focus your eyes. Like any muscles, they can become exhausted and lead to eye fatigue.
Ciliary muscles move your pupils—constricting them (making them smaller) for close vision and dilating them (making them larger) for far away vision.
Moving your eyes back and forth rapidly, such as when playing a video game, exhausts your extraocular muscles that move your eyes from side to side and up and down.
Looking at small print or font is exhausting for anyone, and it is even more strenuous on your eye muscles if your vision is impaired (and you aren’t using corrective lenses).
If your symptoms are obviously caused by focusing on screens, small print, or other small objects, and then is relieved with a few minutes of rest, then you probably have eye strain. If it’s common, you might have a vision deficit and your vision can improve with correction.
If you have other symptoms, such as nausea or severe eye pain, your doctor may need to run some diagnostic tests to check for other problems. An eye exam includes vision testing and involves a detailed examination of the structure of your eyes using non-invasive devices, such as an ophthalmoscope.
Several conditions can produce symptoms similar to those of eye strain, including:
- Migraines: If you have eye pain, fatigue, headaches, photophobia (light sensitivity), and irritability, you could have migraines. While migraines can be triggered by eye strain, they tend to last longer than the effects of eye strain and don’t improve with eye rest.
- Tension headaches: These headaches feel like pressure on your forehead and around the back of your head and they can lead to pain behind your eyes. Tension headaches can be accompanied by eye strain. These headaches typically improve with over-the-counter pain relievers like Advil (ibuprofen) and Tylenol (acetaminophen), but eye strain usually does not.
- Fatigue: Exhaustion, sleepiness, and feeling worn out can make you want to just close your eyes. Usually, these symptoms are relieved by rest and sleeping, while eye strain is relieved by resting your eyes.
- Viral conjunctivitis: Also referred to as pink eye, this common condition is highly contagious. With viral conjunctivitis, the white part of your eyes appear pink, you develop crustiness around your eyes and eyelids, and your eyes feel very itchy and possibly painful.
No medication or procedure can relieve eye strain, but you can learn useful strategies for managing it, such as:
- Resting your eyes: When you feel eye strain coming on, or even if it is at its worst, just close your eyes for a few seconds. Additionally, give your eyes a break by looking at something that isn’t so small or detailed.
- Lighting changes: Use proper lighting when you are reading or working. Even if you feel comfortable in dim light, you could suffer from eye strain later on.
- Computer and phone screens: Set your screens just bright enough so there’s a comfortable amount of contrast for reading.
- Sit back farther: You should be an arm’s length away from your computer screen.
- Font sizes: Adjust the font size on your phone or computer. A font that is too small can be hard to see, while large font fills up too much space on the screen, making it cumbersome to read large documents. Use a clear font without too many hard-to-read squiggles whenever possible.
- Taking breaks: If you perform tasks that require prolonged reading or looking at tiny objects, look away every 20 minutes or so. You can close your eyes or look at something far away to give your eye muscles a rest. You might worry that it’ll slow your productivity, but it will likely increase the amount of time your eyes can stay on the task.
- Correction for vision problems: If eye strain is a major problem for you, it could be due to a vision problem. Make an appointment to have your eyes checked.
A Word From Verywell
Eye strain is fairly common, but you may benefit from adopting habits that give your eyes a rest. Remember that your vision can change over the years, so regular eye exams can identify and correct vision problems and be another way to relieve eye strain.
Eye Injury: First Aid for a Black Eye
A black eye is a type of bruise. Simple bruises are treated with ice and by elevating the head. The bruise should be gone in 2 to 3 weeks.
- Apply ice or cold packs for 15 minutes 3 or 4 times a day during the first 48 hours to help reduce swelling. Place a cloth between the ice and the skin. The sooner you apply a cold pack, the less swelling will occur.
- Do not use chemical cooling packs. If the pack leaks, the chemicals could cause more eye damage. Do not use a raw piece of meat on a black eye.
- Keep the head raised to help reduce swelling.
- Be sure to look at the eyeball for possible injury.
- After the swelling is gone, warm compresses may relieve pain.
Be sure to follow these safety tips when you use an over-the-counter medicine:
Current as of:
February 26, 2020
Author: Healthwise Staff
William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Current as of: February 26, 2020
Medical Review:William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Do you want a Tylenol or an Aleve?
My husband had a headache and I asked him if he wanted a Tylenol or an Aleve. “What’s the difference?” he asked. Beats me. I’ve always wondered which tablet worked for what ailment. Here is what I’ve learned.
They are not interchangeable. They target different ailments and have different side effects so this is NOT a one-size-fits all situation.
Aspirin, the first over-the-counter pain reliever to be mass-produced, treats headaches and minor aches and pains. Some people use a low dose to prevent blood clots with a doctor’s supervision. Aspirin can cause heartburn and/or stomach pain. It is also the slowest acting of the pain relievers.
Naproxen is sold as Aleve. It is effective at reducing inflammation, swelling and fever and is used to treat migraines. It’s very popular for menstrual cramps. It is non-steroidal and longer acting than ibuprofen and needs to be taken less frequently. The most common side effects are stomach ulcers and pain, but that usually occurs if it’s taken for three months or longer. It’s recommended that it be taken on a full stomach or with a glass of milk.
Ibuprofen is sold as Advil and Motrin. It is also a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication. It is good for pain relief and fever. It is also effective for soft-tissue injuries like sprains or strains. It is popular for dental pain. It has the same side effects as Naproxen, primarily stomach pain and/or ulcers but is gentler on the stomach than aspirin.
Acetaminophen is sold as Tylenol and Anacin Aspirin-Free. It does very little for inflammation and swelling, but is good for headaches, back pain and fever. It should not be combined with alcohol. Acetaminophen has almost no adverse side effects on the stomach and does not need to be taken on a full stomach.
All of the above pain relievers will reduce pain and lessen a fever but they have very different side effects that should be paid attention to. Some are better for some ailments than others.
Aspirin – best for headaches and minor aches and pains. Tough on the esophagus and stomach.
Advil is very similar to aspirin but is less irritating to esophagus and stomach.
Aleve is primarily an anti-inflammatory agent and should be used for inflammatory-based pain like arthritis, sprains and sunburns for example. It lasts 8 – 12 hours instead of 4 – 8 hours like Tylenol, aspirin and Advil.
Tylenol – best for headaches and fevers and ineffective for inflammations. Less irritating on the stomach than other pain relievers but if taken with alcohol it can damage the liver.
Note: For the fastest pain relief, take the medication in liquid-filled caplet form. Taking any drug on an empty stomach will also allow it to work faster but some of these are harsh on the stomach.
Do not combine Advil and Aleve because they work in the same way and you risk overdose. Acetaminophen can be combined with either Advil or Aleve.
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Treatment of pain associated with operations
This patient guide is based on the Estonian treatment guide “Perioperative management of acute pain”, approved in 2016. Treatment guidelines were compiled from a literature review based on scientifically proven evidence. The aim of the patient guide is to help patients manage postoperative pain and to provide answers to questions related to acute pain. Knowledge of pain management options helps patients actively participate in treatment. The importance of the topics covered in the patient guide, as well as the accessibility of its text, were assessed by patients with acute postoperative pain. The patient guide explains the following topics: what is acute postoperative pain, why is it important to treat acute pain, and how to evaluate it.Different chapters describe options for treating acute postoperative pain. The reader will receive an answer to the following questions: why the use of oral drugs is preferred for the treatment of pain, whether it is possible to take different pain relievers together, and what else can be done in addition to drugs to relieve pain. It also provides guidance on how to manage postoperative pain at home. The topics covered in the patient guide can be read in more detail on the web pages at the end of the guide (see.Attachment 1).
What is acute postoperative pain?
Pain is a subjective and unpleasant sensation that affects consciousness and impairs well-being. Acute pain is short-term, it most often has a well-defined area, a certain time of onset, as well as subjective and objective physical signs: heart rate and breathing become more frequent and blood pressure rises.Severe pain interferes with sleep and creates feelings of fear and anxiety. Acute postoperative pain occurs due to a surgical procedure or surgery. The severity of pain depends both on the severity of the operation and the size of the surgical wound, and on the pain threshold of a person. People feel and react to pain in different ways. Pain can also be influenced by the patient’s early pain experience, age, gender, cultural background, and psychological factors. In the case of children, pain can also be influenced by their parents’ attitude towards pain.
Why treat acute postoperative pain?
Postoperative pain should not be tolerated, as pain may increase the incidence of postoperative complications: recovery from surgery will be slower and therefore may increase the length of hospital stay. If pain is left untreated, chronic postoperative pain is more likely to occur. Effective treatment of postoperative pain relieves heart and lung function, reduces the risk of venous thrombosis, and helps normalize digestion.
How is the intensity of pain assessed?
Assessing the severity of pain after surgery is a routine part of patient follow-up work. Pain is assessed regularly, and the frequency of the assessment depends on the patient’s condition and the severity of the surgery. Since the sensation of pain is individual and subjective, only you yourself will be able to assess the intensity of the pain experienced. The nurse will assess your pain regularly, both before and after taking pain relievers, both during rest and while moving. Based on the information received, it will be possible to draw up a pain treatment scheme that suits you personally.
Different pain scales are used to assess pain. For example, the scale for the numerical rating is used in adults. It is used to assess the severity of pain on a ten-point scale, where zero means there is no pain, and 10 means the most severe pain you can imagine. The patient is asked to rate pain experienced in the past 24 hours using three different methods.
- force of existing pain,
- the weakest feeling of pain and
- the most intense feeling of pain.
The arithmetic mean of the scores received will show the strength of the patient’s feeling of pain during the last 24 hours. Sometimes you are asked to choose words that would describe your pain. These words can be:
- no pain
- slight pain
- moderate pain
- severe pain
- very severe pain
- unbearable pain
Numeric Pain Scale Sometimes the face scale (FPS-R) is used to assess pain (see Figure 1).Figure 2) or the so-called face scale. This scale can be used, for example, in older children. The child will need to explain the face scale so that he can use it to assess his pain. The child will need to explain the scale as follows: “This face (point to the leftmost face) shows that there is no pain at all. Other faces (point to each face from left to right) show that the pain is getting worse and worse. The face on the far right shows that he is in great pain. ” After the explanation, the child can be asked which face shows how much it hurts now?
According to the person chosen by the child, the assessor will be able to give the indicated pain a score of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 points, counting from right to left: 0 = not painful at all. 10 = very painful. You cannot use the words “sad” or “joyful” in your assessment. It is imperative to clarify that we are talking only about how the child feels, and not about the external expression of the face.
Figure 2. Facial scale for assessing the severity of pain ( FPS-R )
The above scales are used not only to assess pain in older children, but also for patients with mild to moderate mental disorder. For young children, infants and patients with severe mental disorders, a behavior scale is used, in which the nurse assesses the intensity of pain. Patient vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen and behavior (facial expression, anxiety, sleep) are taken into account for pain assessment scales.
| To achieve the best result in the treatment of pain immediately
inform the nurse if you feel pain – even when the pain is mild or if it started at night.
Do not endure pain!
How to treat pain after surgery?
In the treatment of postoperative pain, different medications are used with different routes of administration.In addition, the use of alternative methods is allowed, which can be used in case of mild to moderate pain.
It is important to know which medications (including pain relievers) you have already used, if you are allergic to medications and if you have any side effects, in order to prescribe the appropriate treatment for pain. When prescribing a medicine, modern principles from the medical field are taken into account regarding the operation performed to you and painkillers.
The choice of a suitable pain reliever, the dose of medication and the duration of treatment depends on both the severity of the pain (mild, moderate or severe pain), the type of pain (whether there has been, for example, wound pain or nervous pain), the person himself (elderly, child, pregnant and dr. ), as well as from concomitant diseases.
Take medication regularly (at regular intervals) to achieve the best effect of pain relievers. Pain relievers of different effects are often combined.
Groups of painkillers
As pain relievers, drugs are used, which are divided according to the type of mechanism of action into three main groups:
- Simple pain relievers. For example, paracetamol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac.
- Opioids. Medicines in this group are divided into weak opioids – for example, tramadol, codeine, and strong opioids – for example, morphine.
- Supportive medicines. They are used, for example, to treat nervous pain.
Paracetamol is often the first choice for mild to moderate pain. Paracetamol differs from other pain relievers (for example, from ibuprofen and diclofenac) primarily in that it does not have an irritating effect on the mucous membrane of the digestive tract. Side effects are rare when taking paracetamol. The most severe possible side effect is liver damage, which is rare and occurs most often due to drug overdose. Paracetamol should be used with caution in liver and kidney failure, chronic malnutrition, or alcoholism. The child should be prescribed paracetamol according to his age and weight.
If medications are additionally used (for example, the so-called teas for influenza), which include paracetamol in combination with an anesthetic, you need to ensure that the amount of paracetamol taken per day does not exceed the permitted daily dose (for adults, 4 grams per day).
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs (ibuprofen, diclofenac, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, naproxen, etc.)
If the analgesic effect of paracetamol is too weak (an hour after taking paracetamol, the pain intensity is still more than five points), then in case of mild or moderate pain, for example, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac or other drugs from the same group should be taken according to the instructions for use the medicine listed on the medicine information sheet.
These drugs have analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects, but their use is contraindicated in case of gastrointestinal ulcers. These medicines should be used with caution by patients who have cardiovascular diseases. The risk of side effects in the digestive tract is greater in older people and in those who take large amounts of NSAIDs. The occurrence of side effects in the digestive tract does not depend on the way the medication is taken – medicinal suppositories with NSAIDs and injectable forms of drugs are also not suitable for patients with ulcers in the digestive tract.The strength of the harmful effect on the digestive tract differs for different drugs of the NSAID group. Ibuprofen is believed to be the least harmful to the digestive tract.
Depending on what concomitant diseases you have, some pain relievers belonging to this group may be more suitable for you than others, and this must be taken into account when prescribing treatment. For children, ibuprofen is most often used, it is prescribed according to the age and weight of the child.
Opioids or narcotic pain relievers (codeine, tramadol, morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, pethidine, etc.)
In the case of severe pain, opioids are used in addition to the aforementioned groups of drugs. Common side effects of opioid use are nausea and vomiting. The nausea-inducing effect of opioids is weakened by long-term use. Constipation is another common side effect.
Supportive medicines such as gabapentin, pregabalin.
Supportive drugs are drugs that were not originally developed as pain relievers but were later discovered to be useful in relieving certain types of pain. For example, gabapentin and pregabalin were originally used to treat epilepsy. These medications are often used to treat chronic nerve pain. They are also effective in treating postoperative pain, reducing pain and the need for other pain relievers.
|If you experience any side effects, notify your nurse or doctor right away!|
After surgery, pain relievers can be taken:
- by injection into a vein or muscle
- via epidural catheter
- with medicinal candle
Oral pain relievers are preferred after surgery. Oral medication is as effective as injected medication without pain or injection-related complications such as hemorrhage, inflammation of the injection site. Oral pain relievers are suitable for all types of pain relief, but you must be able to eat and drink.
If you cannot take the pills by mouth because of the operation, the nurse will inject your medicine through a cannula into a vein.The pain relieving effect will come within a few minutes. Once you start eating and drinking, you can return to your pill medication again.
After a major and painful operation, pain relievers can be taken using a special pain pump, with which you yourself can adjust the dose of the pain reliever (opioids) in the vein. This is called Patient Controlled Pain Relief or PCA (short for Patient Controlled Analgesia).
For taking painkillers, use a special pump that will allow you to receive painkillers as soon as you feel the need. The doctor will calculate the appropriate dose of the medicine for you and enter it into the pump’s memory. If you feel pain, press the button and the pump will inject the appropriate amount of medication through the cannula into the vein. There is no danger of medication overdose as the pain pump is programmed according to your needs.
The pump button must be pressed by yourself, you must not let anyone else do it.If the dose of the medication calculated for you is not sufficient and does not relieve pain, inform your nurse or doctor, who will adjust the dose of the medication given according to the severity of the pain. The PCA pump is also used for children if the child’s age allows it to be used and is able to understand how the pump works.
Figure 3. PCA pump
Muscle drug administration
The administration of painkillers by injections is tried to be avoided, since, due to heterogeneous absorption, the effect of anesthesia may be less than the expected effect. In addition, the injection can be painful.
Drug administration with medicinal suppositories
Sometimes, if it is impossible to take painkillers by mouth for some reason, medications can also be taken through the rectum. Medicated suppositories are often used to relieve pain in young children.
Medication via epidural catheter
Using local anesthesia, if necessary, the anesthesiologist will place a thin plastic tube (epidural catheter) in the epidural space surrounding the spinal canal before the operation.The epidural space is located in the spinal canal, where the roots of the nerves that transmit the feeling of pain pass. The medicine injected there affects the roots of the nerves and thus prevents the spread of the pain pulse. Therefore, the introduction of drugs into the epidural space is one of the most effective methods of pain relief.
Opioids and local anesthetics – a mixture for local anesthesia – are continuously injected into the epidural catheter through an automatic syringe throughout the day. The analgesic effect begins no later than 20 minutes after the start of the medication.
Figure 4. Inserting an epidural cutter
Epidural pain relief can cause:
- Nausea and vomiting – these are relieved by anti-nausea medication
- Weakness and numbness of the legs – they go away on their own
- Urinary disorders – if necessary, a catheter is placed in the bladder
- Decrease in blood pressure – blood pressure is monitored regularly
- Head or back pain – tell your nurse or doctor.If a headache occurs after surgery while undergoing home treatment, contact your doctor immediately.
Nerve plexus block
Nerve plexus blocks are used most often for anesthesia of the extremities. Blockages are done both with a single injection and with the use of a catheter, which is placed next to the nerve plexus, and is needed for the constant administration of medication (local anesthesia). Medicines are injected through the plexus catheter either with a single injection or with an automatic syringe.
The effect of alternative pain treatment methods on postoperative pain is small, so you should not use such methods separately, but only in conjunction with pain relievers. Alternative methods reduce anxiety and feelings of tension throughout the hospital stay. Most methods, such as music therapy or distraction, are safe and can be used without special training or additional tools.If the pain is mild or moderate, then in addition to pain relievers, you can use the methods from the list below. For more information on the different methods, ask your ward nurse.
Cold leads to constriction of blood vessels and bleeding in the damaged area slows down. If you have no contraindications, you can use a cold compress to reduce swelling and pain in the area of the operation. As a cold compress, you can use special gel packs sold in pharmacies, any packaging from the freezer is also suitable. Wrap the cold bag in a towel and then place it on the damaged area and fix the compress if necessary. The towel will protect fabrics from possible local exposure to cold. Keep the cold compress in place for 20-30 minutes in a row, then pause for 10-15 minutes and repeat the procedure if necessary.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or TENS
TENS, or transdermal electrical nerve stimulation, is a pain management method in which electrical impulses are used to relieve postoperative pain.
Physiotherapy is recommended to be added to the postoperative treatment regimen, as it reduces the risk of complications and facilitates the recovery of the body after surgery. Physiotherapy is carried out by a specialist. He will explain to you why you need to start moving as quickly as possible after the operation, teach you how to take the most comfortable and relaxed posture after the operation, how to prop your body with pillows or the operating area with a bandage. In addition, he will teach you breathing techniques, as well as movement exercises.
Listening to music reduces anxiety, slightly reduces the severity of postoperative pain, and the stress response associated with pain is less common with music. Therefore, the need for opioids is also reduced.
If you enjoy listening to music and it relaxes and calms you down, then we recommend that you take your favorite music with you to the hospital with you.You just need to remember that your favorite music may not be liked by other patients, so we recommend that you use headphones when listening to music.
This includes various relaxation techniques, daily self-activity training, distraction, and positive visualization techniques.
Using a variety of psychological methods throughout your hospital stay can help reduce feelings of tension and anxiety. With the help of them, you will more easily cope with the situation that has arisen. Both the severity of pain and the need for pain relievers will decrease to a small extent.
For distraction, you can solve crosswords, put puzzles, play electronic games, etc. You can also use relaxation techniques to relax specific muscles or to reduce general feelings of anxiety and tension.
In the case of children, it is also important to use different psychological techniques to reduce feelings of anxiety and pain, and to do this throughout the entire hospital stay.The child becomes more calm if he is already explained to him what awaits him before admission to the hospital.
Play is an effective method of distracting attention for a child: both during the postoperative period and during procedures. Games in which the child will be an active participant (for example, electronic games) are more effective than the usual distraction.
Listening to your favorite music is particularly good at reducing pain and anxiety in older children. For newborns, physical contact is important (being on the breast of mom or dad), the benefits for reducing pain during procedures and after surgery will be from massage, and from breastfeeding, and from sucking the nipple.
When you are discharged from the hospital, you will be given recommendations on how to treat pain at home: what painkillers you may need, how much and how often you will need to take them. They will also tell you about possible side effects and what to do if they occur.Pain relievers for home use may not necessarily be the same as those you received at the hospital.
Ask your doctor where you can go if you have a problem. Make sure your doctor is aware of which medications have previously caused you problems. This will help avoid possible complications associated with medications.
Take pain relievers regularly as directed by your doctor. You can always check information about the prescribed prescriptions, including the regimen for taking the medicine prescribed by your doctor, in the prescription center of the state portal (www.eesti.ee → Services → Citizen → Health and healthcare → Prescriptions).
Get enough rest. If you have trouble sleeping, tell your doctor.
While sleeping or doing deep breathing exercises, prop your body with pillows.
To reduce pain, you can use alternative methods approved by your doctor: cold or warm compresses, listening to music, massage, substitution therapy (being in a position that relieves pain, supporting the body with pillows, etc.)
If you must use opioids at home to treat acute postoperative pain, then driving will be prohibited, and you will not be able to use devices / mechanisms that require special attention.
If the pain relievers prescribed by your doctor do not relieve your pain (the pain is still greater than five on a ten-point scale), then contact your doctor or family doctor.
In Estonian and Russian:
Website of the Estonian Association of Anesthesiologists
video: Amanda goes to surgery
Allred KD, Byers JF, Sole ML. The effect of music on postoperative pain and anxiety. Pain Manag Nurs Off J Am Soc Pain Manag Nurses. 2010 Mar; 11 (1): 15-25.
Crowe L, Chang A, Fraser JA, Gaskill D, Nash R, Wallace K. Systematic review of the effectiveness of nursing interventions in reducing or relieving post-operative pain. Int J Evid Based Healthc. 2008 Dec; 6 (4): 396-430.
Engwall M, Duppils GS. Music as a nursing int ervention for postoperative pain: a systematic review.J Perianesthesia Nurs Off J Am Soc PeriAnesthesia Nurses Am Soc PeriAnesthesia Nurses. 2009 Dec; 24 (6): 370–83
Johansson K, Nuutila L, Virtanen H, Katajisto J, Salanterä S. Preoperative education for orthopedic patients: systematic review. J Adv Nurs. 2005 Apr; 50 (2): 212-23
Macintyre PE, David A Scott, Stephan A Schug, editors. Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence (3rd edition) 2010.
Vaajoki A, Pietilä A-M, Kankkunen P, Vehviläinen-Julkunen K. Effects of listening to music on pain intensity and pain distress after surgery: an intervention.J Clin Nurs. 2012 Mar; 21 (5-6): 708-17.
Wood S. Postoperative pain 2: patient education, assessment and management. Nurs Times. 2010 Nov 23; 106 (46): 14-6.
IASP Taxonomy. (2012). International Association of the Study of Pain.
www.iasppain.org/Education/Content. aspx? ItemNumber = 1698 & navItemNumber = 576 # Paintolerancelevel
Ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid: is this combination safe?
Ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid belong to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).Their combined use leads to increased side effects of both drugs.
Indications for use
Ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid are available without a prescription and are used to treat:
- muscle pain;
- menstrual pain;
- lumbago (acute lower back pain).
Both drugs are used to treat chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.Also, acetylsalicylic acid is used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Should I combine these drugs?
If a person is taking acetylsalicylic acid to relieve pain, then the additional use of ibuprofen does not make sense. It will only increase the side effects of both drugs.
In the case where acetylsalicylic acid is used in low doses for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, intermittent use of ibuprofen is justified to reduce the severity of pain.
Common NSAID side effects include:
- disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including bleeding, ulcers and diarrhea;
- kidney dysfunction;
- increased blood pressure;
- violation of the heart;
- fluid retention leading to swelling of the legs, feet, ankles and hands;
When acetylsalicylic acid is used in the treatment of heart attack, chronic ibuprofen use may interfere with the mechanism of action of acetylsalicylic acid.
Taking NSAIDs is contraindicated in humans:
- with an allergy to this group of drugs;
- with asthma;
- with high blood pressure;
- with severe kidney and liver diseases;
- with disorders in the digestive tract;
- for pregnant or breastfeeding women.
Acetylsalicylic acid is also contraindicated in children under 16 years of age.
Method of using both drugs
United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. Food and Drug Administration – FDA) recommends that people taking acetylsalicylic acid prophylactically use ibuprofen 8 hours before or 30 minutes after acetylsalicylic acid. The FDA also recommends that you discuss the issue of co-administration of these drugs individually with your doctor.
How to deal with side effects?
Many side effects from the combined use of ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid are successfully controlled at home:
- for gastrointestinal disorders, antacids can be used to help reduce dyspeptic discomfort;
- for nausea, it is worth adhering to a diet that excludes fatty and spicy foods;
- in case of flatulence, the use of foods that provoke fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract should be limited.
If a person has any of the following serious side effects, they should seek immediate medical attention:
- blood in urine, sputum;
- yellow skin and eyes – a sign of liver dysfunction;
- joint pain may be a sign of high blood uric acid levels;
- swollen hands or feet.
It is worth considering separately the manifestations of serious allergic reactions in which urgent medical attention is needed:
- itchy, red, swollen, blistered, or flaky skin;
- wheezing and tightness in the chest or throat;
- swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat.
What alternatives are there?
Paracetamol is often a good choice for fever and mild to moderate pain. In case of severe pain, a person should consult a doctor. Combining NSAIDs with paracetamol is considered safe.
What is worth remembering?
Doctors recommend avoiding the combined use of ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid, as this increases the likelihood of side effects.
People who regularly take acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases should take into account that ibuprofen can distort the expected therapeutic effect. The combination of paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid is considered safe.
Based on materials from www.medicalnewstoday.com
Flurbiprofen (Ophthalmic) | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.
What is this drug used for?
- This medication is used in eye surgery.
What should I tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?
- If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances. Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.
- if you are allergic to aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen.
The combination of this drug with certain drugs and medical conditions can be adverse.
Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the medicines you take (both prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems. You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical condition and in combination with other drugs you are already taking.Do not start or stop taking any drug or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.
What do I need to know or do while taking this drug?
- Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug. These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
- If you have eye damage or irritation that persists, seek medical advice.
- Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.The benefits and risks for you and your child will need to be discussed.
What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?
WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can cause serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your healthcare professional or get medical attention right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:
- Signs of an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
- Changes in vision, eye pain or very severe eye irritation.
- Hemorrhage in the eye.
What are some other side effects of this drug?
Any medicine can have side effects. However, many people have little or no side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if these or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:
- Burning or tingling sensation.
This list of potential side effects is not exhaustive. If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor. Talk to your doctor about side effects.
You can report side effects to the National Health Office.
You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.
What is the best way to take this drug?
Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Read all the information provided to you. Follow all instructions strictly.
- For eyes only.
- Wash hands before and after use.
- Do not wear contact lenses while taking this medication.
- Do not touch the tip of the bottle to the eyes, eyelids, or other areas of the skin.
- Tilt your head back and inject the medicine into the eye.
- If you are using this medication at home to treat both eyes, use a separate bottle for each eye. If you have any questions, please consult your doctor.
What to do if a dose of a drug is missed?
- Call your doctor for further instructions.
How do I store and / or discard this drug?
- Store at room temperature.
- Store all medicines in a safe place.Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.
- Dispose of unused or expired drugs. Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, consult your pharmacist. Your area may have drug recycling programs.
General information about medicines
- If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
- Do not give your medicine to anyone or take other people’s medicines.
- Some medicines may come with other patient information sheets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
- Some medicines may come with other patient information sheets. Check with your pharmacist. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
- If you think an overdose has occurred, call a Poison Control Center immediately or seek medical attention. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.
Use of information by the consumer and limitation of liability
This information should not be used to make decisions about taking this or any other drug. Only the attending physician has the necessary knowledge and experience to make decisions about which drugs are suitable for a particular patient.This information does not guarantee that the drug is safe, effective, or approved for the treatment of any disease or specific patient. Here are only brief general information about this drug. It does NOT contain all available information on the possible use of the drug with instructions for use, warnings, precautions, information about interactions, side effects and risks that may be associated with this drug. This information should not be construed as a guide to treatment and does not replace the information provided to you by your healthcare professional.Please consult your doctor for complete information on the possible risks and benefits of taking this drug.
© UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and / or licensors, 2021. All rights reserved.
instructions for use, analogs, composition, indications
When using the drug NUROFEN® for 2-3 days, side effects are practically not observed. In case of prolonged use, the following side effects may occur:
From the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, vomiting, heartburn, anorexia, pain and discomfort in the epigastrium, diarrhea, flatulence, the occurrence of erosive and ulcerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract (in some cases complicated by perforation and bleeding), abdominal pain, irritation, dryness of the oral mucosa or pain in the mouth, ulceration of the gingival mucosa, aphthous stomatitis, pancreatitis, constipation, hepatitis.
From the nervous system: headache, dizziness, insomnia, agitation, drowsiness, depression, confusion, hallucinations, rarely – aseptic meningitis (more often in patients with autoimmune diseases).
From the side of the cardiovascular system: heart failure, increased blood pressure (BP), tachycardia.
From the urinary system: nephrotic syndrome (edema), acute renal failure, allergic nephritis, polyuria, cystitis.
From the side of hematopoiesis: anemia (including hemolytic, aplastic), thrombocytopenia and thrombocytopenic purpura, agranulocytosis, leukopenia.
From the senses: hearing loss, ringing or tinnitus, reversible toxic optic neuritis, blurred vision or diplopia, dry and irritated eyes, edema of the conjunctiva and eyelids (allergic genesis), scotoma.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, itching, urticaria, Quincke’s edema, anaphylactoid reactions, anaphylactic shock, fever, erythema multiforme (v.incl. Stevens-Johnson syndrome), toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’s syndrome), eosinophilia, allergic rhinitis.
Respiratory system: bronchospasm, shortness of breath.
Other: increased perspiration.
With long-term use in large doses – ulceration of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, bleeding (gastrointestinal, gingival, uterine, hemorrhoidal), visual impairment (impaired color vision, scotoma, amblyopia). If side effects occur, you should stop taking your doctor.
What helps with a severe headache
With tension headaches, there is a feeling of pressure in the temporal and occipital region. It seems as if the head is squeezed by a hoop.
Cluster headache is rare. It may bother you for weeks or even months, or it may appear periodically. Cluster headache is characterized by short bouts of extremely intense, unilateral pain in or around one eye.It can cause a runny nose and / or nasal congestion, red eyes, and watery eyes. 2
Migraine worries less often than, for example, tension headache. But it is the migraine that causes more trouble. As a rule, these are recurrent pains in the frontal and temporal parts of the head. Migraine headaches can be accompanied by other unpleasant symptoms: nausea and vomiting, increased sensitivity to light and sound.
What are the causes of headaches?
There are several factors that can cause headaches.This is stress, fatigue, unhealthy diet. Different types of headaches can occur for different reasons. For example, the cause of migraine is in the brain itself. The pain that a person experiences with a migraine is one of the effects of disturbances in the structures of the brain that are responsible for conducting pain signals and other sensations. It is also a known fact that people are born with a predisposition to the appearance of migraines, provided that this kind of headache occurred in one of the parents. 3 However, it is difficult to predict who may become a victim of migraine, and how often it will haunt a person afterwards.
Scientists are still studying the true causes of cluster headaches. It is generally accepted that these pains arise due to the expansion of the blood vessels of the brain, which, in turn, is a consequence of changes in the hypothalamus – the part of the brain that is responsible for changing the biological rhythms of a person.
Fun fact: 8 out of 10 people with cluster headache are men, almost all of whom are addicted to nicotine. 4
Science knows much more about tension headaches. The onset of painful sensations is associated with the muscles of the head, neck and face. When these muscles are tense, they release special chemicals called prostaglandins that stimulate pain receptors and make us feel pain. If this happens, then something is wrong in the body. Pain is a warning signal.
Stress, anxiety, and poor posture can trigger tension headaches, which means that an uncomfortable posture can be the cause of the headache.Bright sunlight, dehydration, and strabismus can also cause tension headaches. 5
What can be done?
There are several ways to help get rid of headaches. These include relaxation techniques and exercise programs for back and neck pain. In any case, if you suspect that you are suffering from migraines or cluster headaches, you should see your doctor. Pain relievers can help with tension headaches.
As we have already said, headache is caused by prostaglandins, which are produced due to tension in the muscles. Nurofen is an over-the-counter pain reliever. The active ingredient in its composition is ibuprofen. The mechanism of action of ibuprofen is associated with blocking the production of prostaglandins, including in the muscles of the head and neck.
If it is difficult to determine the type of headache, it is necessary to consult a doctor. If the headache has arisen after any incident, and intensifies day by day, accompanied by other unpleasant symptoms (fever, nausea, problems with speech), you should immediately consult a doctor.
1 Tabeeva G.R.Management of patients with tension headache in everyday practice / G.R. R. Tabeeva // Attending physician, 2015, N No. 3.-P.86-90.
2 Headaches – WHO Fact Sheet N ° 277, October 2012 (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs277/ru/)
3 Information for patients with migraine – Russian Society for the Study of Headache (http://headache-society.ru/migren-informatsiya-dlya-patsientov-/informatsiya-dlya-patsientov-stradayuschih-migrenyu.html)
4 Cluster (beam) headache (information for patients) – Russian Society for the Study of Headache (http://headache-society.ru/klasternaya-puchkovaya-golovnaya-bol/klasternaya-puchkovaya-golovnaya-bol-informatsiya -dlya-patsientov.html)
5 Tension-type headaches – UK Department of Health, NHS Choices website (http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/headaches-tension-type/Pages/Introduction.aspx)
Sore throat – cold, tonsillitis or tonsillitis?
Sore throat is a common symptom of a cold (acute respiratory viral disease).However, a sore throat with a cold lasts one to two days and may go away without treatment. Common companions for colds are runny nose and nasal congestion.
Sore throat, a disease caused by the bacteria streptococcus, is also a common cause of sore throat. With angina, the sore throat is intense, lasts longer and is accompanied by a number of general symptoms
Tonsillitis is a painful inflammation of the tonsils, which are located at the back of the throat. Also causes sore throat.
What causes a sore throat with a cold – bacteria or viruses?
Most often, a sore throat with a cold is caused by various viruses and can be accompanied by other symptoms of viral diseases – a runny nose, fever, coughing, redness of the eyes.
How to treat a sore throat with a cold?
While there are no drugs that act directly on the viruses that cause the common cold, there are treatments that can help relieve a person’s condition with a cold. Drinking plenty of warm fluids, saline gargling, and taking antipyretic medications can help reduce cold symptoms.
Does medication improve sore throat symptoms for colds?
Antipyretics can relieve cold symptoms and sore throat.But do not exaggerate the effectiveness of these drugs
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen or naproxen relieve sore throat from colds. There are many commercial formulations that contain these substances. We remind you that aspirin should not be given to children, in order to avoid the development of Reye’s syndrome, which can cause brain damage and death .
Various sprays with antiseptics and anesthetics reduce the intensity of the sore throat.
Vasoconstrictor nasal sprays and drops improve the symptoms of sore throat with a cold by getting on the back of the throat. It is not recommended to use them for more than 3 days – they become ineffective and can cause even more swelling of the mucous membrane
Antibiotics do not need to be used to treat colds and sore throats because all colds are caused by viruses.
How does a sore throat with strep sore throat differ from a sore throat with a cold?
Inflammation in the pharynx with angina is caused by the bacteria-strep
Why is a sore throat more dangerous with a sore throat than with a cold?
Streptococcal sore throat can cause such a formidable complication as rheumatism with damage to the heart valves. Therefore, it is very important to start the correct treatment of sore throat on time. With proper treatment, the symptoms of sore throat disappear within 10 days.
Is sore throat different from sore throat and cold?
With angina, the sore throat is more intense and differs in a number of features
loss of appetite
pain when swallowing
redness of the tonsils with white patches
Should I seek help from a doctor if I suspect streptococcal sore throat?
On the first day of illness, a sore throat with a cold and sore throat is very similar.If you still suspect the presence of a sore throat, you must definitely consult a doctor to establish the correct diagnosis and conduct therapy.
Treatment of sore throat with angina?
With angina, the use of antibiotics is mandatory . Oral antibiotics of the penicillin group are most often prescribed. If you are allergic to these antibiotics, the doctor chooses a different group. The prescribed regimen of Antibacterial
Why does the sore throat not decrease with streptococcal sore throat?
Sometimes, despite taking medications, the condition with angina does not improve within two to three days. This may indicate
fever for more than 2-3 days while taking antibiotics
nausea or vomiting
neck muscle tension
the appearance of a rash on the skin
shortness of breath
What is the difference between a sore throat with a cold and a sore throat with tonsillitis?
Sometimes a sore throat occurs with tonsillitis, an inflammation of the tonsils (lymphatic tissue) in the throat.Tonsillitis can be caused by both viruses and bacteria. The tonsils protect the body from infection through the pharynx, but they themselves can be affected by an infectious agent. When this happens, the affected tonsils cause severe pain.
How are the symptoms of tonsillitis different from a sore throat with a cold?
A cold is usually accompanied by symptoms such as a runny nose, nasal congestion, and coughing. With tonsillitis, these symptoms are absent, but there is swelling of the tonsils and a yellowish coating on them.In addition, with tonsillitis, the following symptoms occur:
hoarseness of voice
pain when swallowing
enlarged lymph nodes in the neck
How to treat sore throat with tonsillitis?
If tonsillitis is caused by bacterial flora, antibiotics are needed.The decision is made by the attending physician.