Pain in back of eye socket: The request could not be satisfied


Neck and shoulder pain can lead to eye pain

When thinking about what causes pain or strain to your eyes you would not think that tension in your shoulders or neck would have an effect. Anatomically speaking your senses are controlled by the brain and delivered through the nervous system through the spinal cord. For your eyes, this is delivered from the optic nerve which transmits electrical signals from the retina to the brain. Muscle tension in the upper back, neck and shoulders can lead to headaches or problems with your vision, as the flow of blood is restricted to your eyes. 


Signs you may notice are: 

  • Throbbing pain around the temples
  • Blurred vision or difficulty focusing
  • Migraines
  • Nausea or vomiting

The causes

Here are a few factors that can cause neck and shoulder pain. 

Digital devices – The use of digital devices has increased. When looking at a screen your eyes have to work harder because of the brightness of the screen. Our blink rate can almost half and will often mean you are squinting at the screen. 

Posture – Your posture is important and can be affected on a daily basis by working at a desk or through strenuous hobbies. Changes in your posture can affect the strain you are placing on your muscles in your back, which can cause tension headaches and other aches and pains. 

Uncorrected vision – Eye conditions that are undiagnosed for example hypermetropia or presbyopia will make you squint and strain when trying to focus. Your posture could be affected if you try to move closer or further away from an object.

If you are experiencing a lot of neck and shoulder pain, we recommend seeking medical attention from your doctor.

How to reduce the pain in your neck and shoulders? 

Here are a few suggestions which can help: 

  • Take regular breaks when using screens. Moving from your desk or looking away from the screen will reduce the strain on your eyes and allow you to stretch your muscles.
  • Ensure your computer screen is at arm’s length away from you. 
  • Noticing and adjusting your posture when slouching will help. 

Did you know? 

We have specialised lenses for frequent screen use. Ask your independent optician about specialist varifocal lenses or specialist single visions lenses if you wear your glasses regularly when using digital devices. They will be able to recommend lenses that reduce computer vision syndrome. 


Glasses for neck and shoulder pain

Discover glasses that help prevent and reduce neck and shoulder pain


Sinus Headache in Adults: Condition, Treatments, and Pictures – Overview


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Images of Sinus Headache


Sinus headache involves head pain in the setting of irritation of the sinuses (air-filled chambers present in several bones of the face). This irritation can be secondary to infection of the sinuses by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or other organisms or may be secondary to allergies.

Immediately seek medical attention if you or someone you are caring for experiences any of the following:

  • Stiff neck and a high fever associated with headache
  • Sudden onset of a severe headache
  • Loss of motor function, the ability to think clearly, or convulsions associated with headache
  • Head injury
  • Increased intensity and/or frequency of headaches

Who’s at risk?

Sinus headaches are a common response to allergies to substances in the environment such as dust, pollen, ragweed, and grass, which, in those affected by the particular allergy, cause production of secretions that drain into the sinuses and congest them. People with chronic or severe allergies may develop headaches in specific settings that they can easily identify (eg, seasonal allergies, being around pets).

Infection of the sinuses is possible in anyone, but it is potentially more common or serious in people who have weakened or malfunctioning immune systems (those with AIDS, cancer, or poorly controlled blood sugar; with chronic steroid use; old age, etc). Certain conditions may also make a person prone to sinus infections (eg, those with Sjögren’s syndrome), due to abnormal tissue lining of the sinuses. Injury to nasal passages and sinuses may also predispose a person to sinus infections and headaches.

Signs and Symptoms

Sinus headaches involve pressure or pain in the forehead, brow, below or behind the eye, behind the ear, and, occasionally, sensitivity in the upper gums. This pain is typically constant and on one side, but it may be on both sides of the head. Congestion with difficulty breathing through the nose may be present, due to secretions that can be thick and yellow or green in color. Blowing of the nose, moving quickly, lying down, and bending forward often intensify the pain. The area around the eyes and cheek may be swollen, to the extent that the eye may appear narrowed on the affected side when open. The forehead, brow, and cheek may be tender to the touch. Cough, runny nose, and itchy eyes and ears (if due to allergies) are additional possible symptoms.

If a fever is present along with sinus headache, then infection is more likely, but many sinus infections causing headache do not involve a fever. Sore throat, muscle aches, and fatigue may be present if the sinus infection is caused by a virus.

Self-Care Guidelines

Humidified air from a humidifier, basin of hot water, or shower can relieve symptoms, as can over-the-counter pain medications such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Over-the-counter decongestant sprays (oxymetazoline, phenylephrine) and tablets (pseudoephedrine) are often helpful. If allergies are responsible for the sinus headache, antihistamines (diphenhydramine, loratadine) or saline nasal sprays are effective and available at pharmacies.

Avoiding the causes of allergies or treating the allergic problem before exposure is also important. Avoiding flying or sudden changes in air pressure when having a sinus headache is helpful as well.

When to Seek Medical Care

For people with known allergic triggers to sinus headaches, management is often possible without routine medical care simply by relieving symptoms with over-the-counter medications and, when possible, avoiding what causes the allergies.

Call your doctor if:

  • You have head pain over your sinus and develop a fever, or you have a problem with your immune system.
  • You symptoms are worsening in ways not experienced before.
  • You develop new symptoms not typical of prior headache.
  • A particularly severe headache occurs.
  • Alteration or loss of consciousness occurs.
  • Headache persists longer than 5–6 days, particularly with symptoms that are worsening.
  • Current therapies/treatments are not working.
  • Fever and neck pain or stiffness are present.
  • Headache symptoms interfere with activities of daily living (eating, bathing, working, etc).
  • You suspect an infection.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

If appropriate, your doctor may prescribe over-the-counter medications described above. Decongestants can be particularly helpful in sinus headache.

For more difficult allergies, medications that decrease secretion formation may be prescribed. Steroid nasal sprays can also be used effectively. For severe allergies, your doctor may refer you to an allergy specialist for other desensitizing therapies.

Your doctor may order a CT or MRI scan of the sinuses to determine the extent of a bacterial infection, if present. If your doctor suspects a bacterial infection, he/she may prescribe antibiotics. Many sinus infections are caused by viruses that the body can effectively eliminate with time, which do not require antibiotics. Different agents designed to kill fungus or other organisms may be prescribed depending on your medical history. Additionally, some of the fluids draining from you sinus may be taken to identify the infection.

Other headache syndromes, such as migraine or cluster headache, can mimic sinus headache. Your doctor will discuss these possibilities and advise you accordingly.

Causes of Double Vision | Stanford Health Care

Double Vision Causes

A range of conditions can cause double vision, including problems within the eye, such as the cornea or lens. Other underlying causes can involve muscles or nerves controlling eye function and movement, or issues in the brain. Some causes can be minor, such as astigmatism, or life threatening, such as an aneurysm or stroke.

Read more about double vision diagnosis.

Double Vision Caused by Cornea Problems

The cornea is the clear layer that covers the front of the eye. Its main function is to focus incoming light into the eye. Problems in the cornea distort its surface, which can create double vision. Such problems include:

  • Astigmatism
  • Dry eyes
  • Infections such as shingles or herpes zoster
  • Scars caused by disease, injury or infection

Double Vision Caused by Lens Problems

Your eye’s lens works with the cornea to focus incoming light onto the retina (back of the eye). The lens is behind the pupil and changes shape as it focuses.

The most common lens problem that can cause double vision is a cataract, a clouding of the normally clear lens due to aging. Our eye surgeons can remove cataracts in an outpatient surgery. Learn more about cataract surgery.

Double Vision Caused by Eye Muscle Problems

Six muscles in your eye socket control your eye’s movement up, down, to each side and in rotation. Problems in these extraocular muscles include weakness or paralysis that prevent one eye from moving in coordination with the other. Eye muscle problems include:

  • Graves’ disease, a thyroid condition that affects eye muscles and causes vertical double vision, in which one image appears above the other
  • Strabismus (misaligned eyes), a weakened or paralyzed eye muscle that prevents the eyes from aligning properly

Double Vision Caused by Nerve Problems

Certain cranial nerves connect the brain to the eye muscles to control eye movement. Some conditions that can affect or damage these cranial nerves and lead to double vision include:

  • Diabetes, a metabolic disease affecting your body’s ability to process blood sugar that can cause nerve damage
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome, a nerve condition in which early symptoms can occur in the eyes, causing muscle weakness
  • Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks neuromuscular junctions involved in eye movement
  • Multiple sclerosis, a chronic neurological disease affecting the central nervous system, possibly damaging nerves that control eye movement

Double Vision Caused by Brain Problems

Several areas inside the brain process visual information that is transmitted from the eyes through nerves. If these areas are affected by illness or injury, double vision can result. Some brain conditions that can lead to double vision include:

Read more about double vision treatment.

​Why is there pressure behind my eye?

Have you ever felt pressure behind your eye? All you want is it for it to go away so you can focus on your day. The best way to treat it is to first learn what the source is, so today we’d like to talk about what causes pressure behind the eye.

Headaches and eye pressure

Headaches – be they tension headaches, cluster headaches, or migraines – are often linked to eye pressure. Tension headaches are when you feel tightening or a sensation of pressing in your head. Cluster headaches are headaches that come and go throughout the day and can occur every few days or weeks before stopping. Migraines are intense headaches, usually characterized by severe throbbing pain. In addition to eye pressure, they are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraines can last for hours or even days, and the pain can be disabling.

Pain relievers are usually the best course of action for treating headaches. For non-migraine headaches, over-the-counter medicine should suffice. If you have migraines, you and your doctor will discuss the right course of treatment for you, which may include pain relievers and other medications.

Sinusitis and eye pressure

Sinusitis, or a sinus infection, is when bacteria or viruses get into your sinus cavities, causing your sinuses to swell. Other symptoms include a stuffy or runny nose, mucus drainage, a cough, fever, fatigue, and ear pain. Sinusitis is often treated with antibiotics, but chronic sinusitis often needs additional treatment.

A toothache and eye pressure

If you have a toothache, the surrounding nerves may become aggravated, which can spread the pain from your teeth to your eye. Visit a dentist to have your tooth treated and you can treat your eye pain at the same time.

Injuries and eye pressure

If you sustain a facial injury, damage to the surrounding muscles or nerves can cause eye pressure. Discuss all your discomfort with your doctor so they can correctly treat your injuries.

Optic neuritis and eye pressure

If the optic nerve becomes swollen or inflamed, you can experience eye pressure. Infections and diseases like multiple sclerosis are often associated with optic neuritis. Other symptoms include blurred vision, vision loss, color blindness, and reactions to bright light. See a doctor if you have any of these symptoms.

Graves’ disease and eye pressure

Graves’ disease is when an overactive thyroid gland makes the tissues, muscles, and fat behind your eyes swell. Not only can it cause pressure, but it can make your eye bulge from the socket and prevent it from moving. A visit to the doctor is strongly recommended if you are experiencing these symptoms.

Glaucoma and eye pressure

While a lot of patients think that pressure in or behind the eye is related to glaucoma, it’s important to note that you cannot feel pressure in the eye from glaucoma unless it elevates quickly and gets very high, CEENTA Ophthalmologist Pedro Cervantes, MD, said. That is called acute angle closure glaucoma and is also associated with pain, redness, blurry vision and a fixed, mid-dilated pupil. That would require a prompt visit to an ophthalmologist for treatment.

Eye pressure can have many causes, and if you are concerned, don’t hesitate to see a doctor. They can help treat the pressure in your eye and help relieve the mental pressure of not knowing what’s wrong.

This blog is for informational purposes only. For specific medical questions, please consult your physician. Dr. Cervantes sees patients in our SouthPark and Steele Creek offices. Do you need an appointment with an eye doctor near you? Call 704-295-3000. You can also schedule an appointment online or through myCEENTAchart.

Pain Behind Eye With Movement

Foreign body in the eye

Foreign bodies like windblown grit, wood or masonry, or flecks of metal can land in the eye and get stuck there, causing extreme discomfort.

Rarity: Uncommon

Top Symptoms: feeling of something in the eye

Symptoms that always occur with foreign body in the eye: feeling of something in the eye

Urgency: In-person visit

Anterior uveitis

Uveitis refers to any inflammatory condition that causes swelling and destroys the tissues of the middle layer of the eye. It can occur in people of all ages, but primarily affects people between the ages of 20 and 60 years old.

Uveitis may be the result of eye problems or diseases, or i..

Multiple sclerosis (ms)

Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a disease of the central nervous system. The body’s immune system attacks nerve fibers and their myelin covering. This causes irreversible scarring called “sclerosis,” which interferes with the transmission of signals between the brain and the body.

The cause is unknown. It may be connected to a genetic predisposition. The disease usually appears between ages 20 to 50 and is far more common in women than in men. Other risk factors include family history; viral infections such as Epstein-Barr; having other autoimmune diseases; and smoking.

Symptoms include numbness or weakness in arms, legs, or body; partial or total loss of vision in one or both eyes; tingling or shock-like sensation, especially in the neck; tremor; and loss of coordination.

Diagnosis is made through patient history, neurological examination, blood tests, MRI, and sometimes a spinal tap.

There is no cure for MS, but treatment with corticosteroids and plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) can slow the course of the disease and manage symptoms for better quality of life.

Rarity: Rare

Top Symptoms: severe fatigue, constipation, numbness, decreased sex drive, signs of optic neuritis

Urgency: Primary care doctor

Thyroid Eye Disease (TED or Graves Eye Disease) | Kellogg Eye Center

What Is Graves’ Eye Disease or Thyroid Eye Disease?

Graves’ eye disease, also known as thyroid eye disease, is an autoimmune condition in which immune cells attack the thyroid gland which responds by secreting an excess amount of thyroid hormone. As a result, the thyroid gland enlarges and excess hormones increase metabolism. The hypermetabolic state is characterized by fast pulse/heartbeat, palpitations, profuse sweating, high blood pressure, irritability, fatigue, weight loss, heat intolerance, and loss of hair and alterations in hair quality.  When the immune system attacks the tissues around the eyes, it causes the eye muscles or fat to expand.

The eyes are particularly vulnerable to Graves’ eye disease, because the autoimmune attack often targets the eye muscles and connective tissue within the eye socket. This likely occurs because these tissues contain proteins that appear similar to the immune system as those of the thyroid gland. Ocular symptoms can range from mild to severe; but only 10-20% of patients have sight threatening disease. Another tissue that can also be involved in the immune attack of Graves’ eye disease is the skin of the shins.

Thyroid Glands Relation to the Eye

Although Graves’ disease and Graves’ eye disease both stem from the immune system’s attack on healthy tissue, one disease does not directly cause the other. That’s why treatment of the thyroid gland, while important, does not improve the eye disease. The two diseases run their separate courses and do not necessarily occur at the same time.  

Signs and Symptoms of Graves’ Eye Disease

In Graves’ eye disease the tissue around the eye is attacked, and the result is inflammation and swelling, causing:

  • Redness and pain
  • Puffiness around the eyes
  • Bulging of the eyes
  • Dry eye and irritation, occurring when the eyelids cannot close completely over bulging eyes

Progressive swelling may cause: 

  • Increased pressure inside the eye socket
  • Pressure-pain or deep headache, which worsens with eye movements
  • Decreased vision, when swollen tissues push on the optic nerve

The muscles around the eye are particularly susceptible to the attack of lymphocytes. As they tighten and lose their ability to stretch, these symptoms can occur:

  • The eye is pushed forward in its socket causing a “staring” appearance
  • Restriction of the eye’s normal movements, resulting in double vision

As symptoms build, many patients fear they will lose their vision. Fortunately, patients almost never go blind from Graves’ eye disease.


When the immune system attacks the muscles and other ocular tissues in the eye socket, the swelling and scarring resulting from the inflammation causes symptoms and signs noted above. In severe cases, the clear covering of the eye (cornea) may ulcerate, or the optic nerve may be damaged, either of which may result in a permanent loss of vision if not treated appropriately. The former is often due to a combination of the eyes bulging forward and scarring resulting in the eyelids retracting backward. The latter is due to thickened, inflamed and/or scarred muscles impinging on the optic nerve at the back of the socket.

In most patients who develop Graves’ ophthalmopathy, the eyes bulge forward or the eyelid retracts to some degree. Many patients with mild to moderate Graves’ ophthalmopathy will experience spontaneous improvement over the course of two to three years or will adapt to the abnormality. Severe ophthalmopathy will affect 10% of patients. It is caused by inflammation of the muscles, which causes them to swell. They can also become stiff (scarred), which interferes with movement of the eyes and causes double vision or impinges upon the optic nerve, causing loss of vision. In some patients, eye protrusion makes it difficult for the lids to close properly and the cornea becomes exposed and vulnerable. When the optic nerve is compromised, progressive and irreversible vision loss occurs. Rarely, orbital swelling may precipitate glaucoma that also affects the optic nerve.

Risk Factors

Approximately one million Americans are diagnosed with Graves’ eye disease each year. Women are five to six times more likely than men to get the disease. Cigarette smokers are at significantly increased risk to develop the disease, and when they do, often have more severe and prolonged activity that threatens vision.

Although Graves’ disease and Graves’ eye disease both stem from the immune system’s attack on healthy tissue, one disease does not directly cause the other. That’s why treatment of the thyroid gland, while important, does not improve the eye disease. The two diseases run their separate courses and do not necessarily occur at the same time. 

Tests and Diagnosis

If your doctor suspects you have an overactive thyroid gland, your thyroid function must first be evaluated and treated appropriately by an internist trained in doing so. Treatments include medications to suppress the production of hormone by the thyroid gland, radioactive iodine to eliminate hormone-producing cells, and surgery to remove the thyroid tissue. In most cases, replacement thyroid hormone is required following the natural course of the Graves’ autoimmune attack on the thyroid gland or following effective treatment.  Once your thyroid function is treated and returned to normal, the eye disease must be monitored as it often continues to progress. Eye involvement must be evaluated on a continuing basis by an ophthalmologist during the active phase of the disease and, if necessary, treated. Although symptoms often resolve on their own, activity, scarring, and visual loss not readily apparent to the patient may otherwise go unnoticed and cause permanent changes.

Treatment and Drugs 

Treatment for thyroid eye disease generally occurs in two phases. The first phase involves treating the active eye disease. This active period usually lasts two to three years and requires careful monitoring until stable. Treatment during the active phase of the disease focuses on preserving sight and the integrity of the cornea as well as providing treatment for double vision when it interferes with daily functioning and becomes bothersome. 

Most patients experience relief from dry eyes by using artificial tears throughout the day and gels or ointments at night. Some patients also use eye covers at night or tape their eyes shut to keep them from becoming dry if the eyelids do not close properly. Dryness occurs because the lids are retracted and cannot blink properly, because the tear-producing glands have been affected by the autoimmune process and aren’t functioning well, and/or because the forward bulging of the eyes prevents them from being completely covered by the lids. In some cases, acute swelling causing double vision or loss of vision may be treated for a limited time with prednisone. However, prednisone given for more than a few weeks at the dosages required to suppress the autoimmune inflammation always causes bothersome side-effects that may become severe. In patients who respond to prednisone, radiation therapy may be offered to reduce swelling, double vision, and, in severe cases, loss of vision. Most people get relief from their symptoms within two months of the radiation. However, radiation treatment is only marginally effective at reducing these abnormalities and may cause ocular dryness. It can only be used at most twice in a person’s lifetime and bears a slight risk for inducing tumors. Surgical decompression can also be used during the active phase, most often to relieve optic neuropathy. It is also helpful in reducing congestion, redness, pain, and ocular exposure.

Treatment during the remission phase that lasts indefinitely in most cases, involves correcting unacceptable permanent changes that persist after the ocular conditions of the active phase have stabilized. In the second phase, treatment of permanent changes may require surgery to correct double vision and reduce eyelid retraction. Surgery may be helpful in returning the eye to a normal position within the socket (orbital decompression).

It is important to stop smoking in order to reduce the severity, duration of activity, degree of scarring, and risk of optic nerve involvement, greatly improving the success of treating Graves’ eye disease.

New Study: ‘Breakthrough’ Drug Reduces Graves’ Eye Disease Symptoms

A clinical trial led by the University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center offers hope for those with moderate to severe active TED. Patients had a significant reduction in the severity of symptoms after treatment with teprotumumab, a study drug the Food and Drug Administration designated a “breakthrough therapy.” Learn more about the results of this clinical trial.

Find a Doctor or Location 


Reviewed by Raymond S. Douglas, M.D., Ph.D.

Optic Neuritis | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is optic neuritis?

Optic neuritis is a condition that affects the eye and your vision. It occurs when your optic nerve is inflamed.

The optic nerve sends messages from your eyes to your brain so that you can interpret visual images. When the optic nerve is irritated and inflamed, it doesn’t carry messages to the brain as well, and you can’t see clearly.

Optic neuritis can affect your vision and cause pain. When the nerve fibers become inflamed, the optic nerve can also start to swell. This swelling typically affects one eye, but can affect both at the same time.

Optic neuritis can affect both adults and children. The underlying cause isn’t completely understood, but experts believe that a viral infection may trigger the immune system to attack the optic nerve as if it were a foreign invader.

Loss of vision in optic neuritis commonly reaches its maximum effect within a few days and starts improving within 4 to 12 weeks. 

What causes optic neuritis?

The cause of optic neuritis isn’t always clear. It may be caused by an infection, however, it is a common condition among those who have multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive, neurologic disorder. About 50% of people who have MS will develop optic neuritis. It’s often the first sign of MS.

Who is at risk for optic neuritis?

You are at increased risk for optic neuritis if you:

  • Have a history of multiple sclerosis
  • Live in higher altitudes
  • Are Caucasian

What are the symptoms of optic neuritis?

The following visual problems are common with optic neuritis:

  • Diminished vision (usually the main symptom)
  • Trouble distinguishing colors, or noticing that colors aren’t as vibrant as usual
  • Vision that appears blurry — particularly if it occurs after your body temperature has risen — after you’ve just taken a hot shower or finished a workout, for instance
  • Inability to see out of one eye
  • Abnormal reaction of the pupil when exposed to bright light
  • Pain in the eye, especially when you move it

The symptoms of optic neuritis can vary widely in severity. More extensive optic nerve inflammation leads to more noticeable symptoms.

Just because you have severe symptoms doesn’t necessarily mean that optic neuritis will never go away. Additionally, not everyone who has optic neuritis has problems with his or her vision. It’s possible for the optic nerve to be inflamed without affecting vision. A careful, medical evaluation of the eye can generally pinpoint optic neuritis even if you don’t have symptoms.

How is optic neuritis diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider can diagnose optic neuritis with these tests:

  • Thorough medical exam
  • Evaluation of your eyes’ response to direct bright light 
  • Testing of visual acuity using the letter chart to see how well you can see
  • MRI scan of the brain

  • Testing of the ability to differentiate color
  • Exam of the back of the eye, known as the fundus

More testing may help to determine the underlying cause of the optic neuritis. However, identifying a specific cause isn’t always possible.

How is optic neuritis treated?

In some cases, you may not need any treatment for optic neuritis. After a few weeks, it may go away on its own and your vision will return to normal. This is more likely if you don’t have another health condition that has triggered the optic neuritis.

Sometimes your healthcare provider may recommend a brief course of steroids, usually injected into your vein, to help your vision improve more quickly and minimize inflammation and swelling.

You may also need treatment for another health condition if it’s considered the source of your optic neuritis.

What are the complications of optic neuritis?

Taking corticosteroids on a long-term basis can lead to side effects, such as high blood sugar, weight gain, and bone problems, that affect your whole body. Overall, corticosteroids won’t likely lead to a better outcome than letting the condition run its course. However, in people with certain brain changes seen on MRI intravenous steroids may help prevent future episodes of optic neuritis.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

If you have eye pain or any trouble with your vision, see your doctor for an eye exam. If you’ve already been diagnosed with optic neuritis, call your doctor if your symptoms change, worsen, or don’t get any better.

Key points about optic neuritis

  • See your healthcare provider if you think you may have optic neuritis. You may have another health condition that’s causing it.
  • A complete medical exam may help your healthcare provider find other health conditions that can be treated.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

90,000 Pressing pain in the eyes – causes and possible consequences

Pressing pain in the eyes is not a pleasant sensation. Especially, pain manifests itself fully when trying to look up, to the sides, as well as when opening and closing the eyes. Because of such pain, the patient may begin to feel that he is experiencing a headache, which is felt especially strongly in the area of ​​the frontal and temporal lobes, and sometimes the feeling of pressure is accompanied by an increase in temperature, double vision, photophobia, and a general decrease in the quality of vision. What to do with pressing pain in the eyes and is frequent pain a sign of the disease?

Increased blood pressure is a common cause of pressing pain. In this case, our eyes act as a kind of indicator, taking part of the problem onto ourselves. With an increase in pressure, a person feels that the eye hurts “from the inside”, often the symptom is accompanied by dizziness and blurred vision. When the pressure is brought back to normal, as a rule, the eye pain goes away.

Infectious diseases of the eye, brain and general intoxication of the body should not be ruled out. The sensation of pressure here is due to the fact that the optic nerve and eye muscles can be involved in the inflammatory process. Speaking of intoxication, one should not think only about the ingress of poison into the body. Intoxication is a broad concept that can also occur in the presence of viruses and fungi, for example, with influenza and SARS. Inflammation of the sinuses with a runny nose or sinusitis will also directly affect the condition of the eyes. With complicated forms of infectious diseases, pus can even penetrate into the orbit area.

We often underestimate our psycho-emotional state, therefore we neglect caring for it and the ecology of the inner world. However, the presence of depression periods or a psychological disorder can cause pain in the eyes, especially if, as a result of nervous tension, we cry and constantly three eyes. The colossal stress experienced by the eyes can cause endless migraines and visual impairment.

Injuries to the eyeball, head and facial bones of the skull can cause pain in the eye sockets. The reason is the direct mechanical effect on a rather delicate and sensitive organ. If you have a concussion or have recently experienced it, eye pain is a result of this interaction and, as a result, a side effect.

Our body is an integral system in which everything is interconnected. Thus, pain in osteochondrosis of the cervical part can be felt in the eyes as well.However, the symptoms of osteochondrosis are often accompanied by headache and curvature of the spine.

Of course, eye diseases cannot be ruled out. In this case, the symptom of pressure is inherent in humans in the presence or maturation of barley and in the development of conjunctivitis. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye is a common cause of pain when blinking and at rest, accompanied by a feeling of dryness and the desire to rub the eyes. Often, with conjunctivitis, due to infection, the eyes turn red and watery.

Vision correction methods, lenses or glasses that are not fitted correctly can also aggravate the condition of the eye and the discomfort in it. The tendency to pain is easy to track, watch yourself while wearing glasses, if they have unpleasant sensations, then perhaps the product was selected without taking into account your characteristics and needs to be changed.

What if you are having this unpleasant feeling? First, try to visit a doctor in the near future in order to surely rule out a bad scenario for the development of diseases and accurately determine your symptoms. At home, you can take pain relievers from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. If, in addition to the feeling of pressure in the eyes, there are signs of infectious diseases, influenza or SARS, it is necessary to take a sick leave and work hard to strengthen immunity and treatment, not forgetting to call a therapist at home. If the cause of pain in the eyes is the ingress of a foreign object, in no case should you try to solve the problem yourself and pull it out. This is fraught with infection in the eye, since our hands are not sterile clean, and often such manipulations are carried out in far from suitable conditions.In addition, there is a huge risk of driving a speck or splinter deep into the eye, from where it can be pulled out only by surgical methods. The only thing you can do is rinse your eyes with clean water. If this does not work, and something foreign is still felt in the eyes, you should contact the emergency room.

What examinations do you need to undergo to exclude diseases? When visiting a doctor, it is necessary to measure eye pressure. The acceptable range is from 9 to 22 mm Hg.Art. If there is a deviation from the norm, additional studies may be prescribed. Equally important is CT and MRI to rule out swelling and inflammation of the brain. It is necessary to sign up for an ultrasound of the vessels of the brain in order to determine the presence of blood clots in the vessels and the general speed of blood circulation.

About eye melanoma | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

This information will help you learn about ocular melanoma, risk factors and treatment.

to come back to the beginning

About eye melanoma

Melanoma of the eye, also called uveal melanoma, is a type of tumor in the eye.And this is the most common type of eye tumor in adults. Melanoma of the eye develops in the cells of the melanocytes in your eye. Melanoma of the eye is different from melanoma of the skin.

Figure 1. Structure of the eye

Uveal melanoma can show up in different parts of your eye (see Figure 1). The name of its specific varieties depends on the location of the tumor. For example:

  • Iris melanoma is a melanoma of the eye that develops in the iris.The iris is the colored area around the pupil.
  • Ciliary body melanoma is an ocular melanoma found in the ciliary body. The ciliary body is a fine muscle in your eye that helps create fluid and provides focus.
  • Choroidal melanoma is a melanoma of the eye that develops in the choroid. The choroid is the layer of blood vessels in the wall of the eye, under the retina (the layer of tissue at the back of the eyeball that picks up light and helps a person see).

Many people have freckles, also called nevi, in one or both eyes. Nevi themselves are not eye melanomas, but they can sometimes develop into ocular melanoma. If you have nevi, your doctor may want to observe their size, color, thickness, or possible fluid leakage. Changes in any of these factors can be a sign that a nevus (freckle) is turning into a melanoma of the eye.

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Risk factors for developing ocular melanoma

The exact cause of ocular melanoma is unknown.Research has shown that, unlike skin melanoma, ocular melanoma is not related to general environmental factors such as sunlight, exposure to toxins, or lifestyle choices.

Risk factors for ocular melanoma include:

  • blue, green or light eye color;
  • Pale or fair skin prone to freckles or sunburn;
  • getting into the eyes of “bunnies” – bright flashes of light during welding;
  • intake of carbidopa-levodopa (Sinemet ® ) – a drug used to treat Parkinson’s disease.

The risk of developing ocular melanoma also increases with age.

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Symptoms of eye melanoma

In most people, ocular melanoma is usually asymptomatic. Among people who show symptoms, the most common are:

  • blurry (fuzzy) vision;
  • Vision changes such as blind spots or shadows, flashes of light, or floating objects (flies in front of the eyes).

The appearance of a dark spot or visible freckle on the eye can also be a sign of ocular melanoma, especially if it changes in some way over time.

Very few people experience pain.

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Diagnosis of eye melanoma

To find out if you have ocular melanoma, your doctor will examine the inside and outside of your eyeball. To do this, he can use special tools and diagnostic imaging.

First, the nurse will apply eye drops to dilate the pupil. This will allow you to get a better look at your eyeball. You may experience a slight burning or tingling sensation from the eye drops.

After the pupil has dilated, the technician examines your eyeball using special cameras and imaging instruments. Below are examples of such cameras and instruments.

  • Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) .OCT uses a beam of light to image the layers of the retina. For OCT, bright light is used, but the procedure itself is painless.
  • Ultrasound . An ultrasound machine uses sound waves to create images of the inside of the eyeball. For ultrasound examinations, a probe (probe) coated with a gel that is safe for your eyes is placed on the outside of your eyeball. Although you may feel some pressure from the transducer or feel cool from the gel, this procedure is painless.
  • Optos ® . Optos is an advanced camera that takes pictures of your fundus (the inside of the eyeball).
  • Transillumination . Transillumination uses very bright light to see the location of the tumors inside your eyeball. For transillumination, a probe is placed outside the eye, and a bright beam of light shines through the eyeball for several seconds. For a few minutes after the procedure, you may see bright spots.Although you may feel some pressure from the probe on the eyeball, transillumination is painless.
  • Studies with the introduction of contrast agent . You will be given an intravenous (IV) line in your hand or arm to inject a contrast agent. The images will be used to examine the blood vessels and blood flow in the retina and choroid.

Your pupil will still be dilated for several hours after your doctor’s appointment. This can make it difficult for you to read or look at your computer monitor screen.Also, the sensitivity to light may be higher than usual. Bring sunglasses to protect your eyes from light. If you usually arrive and leave the reception behind the wheel of a car, bring someone with you to drive you home.

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Observation of the development of ocular melanoma

After your diagnosis, you will regularly see an ophthalmologist-oncologist (a doctor who specializes in eye cancer) to examine your eyes.During these visits, the doctor may use some of the tools described in the Diagnosis of Ocular Melanoma section and perform medical imaging procedures.

For your doctor to keep a close eye on your cancer, it is imperative that you do not miss any of these appointments. If ocular melanoma spreads, metastases usually travel through the blood to the liver. Your doctor will discuss this with you. Your doctor may advise you to have an ultrasound or MRI of your abdomen (abdomen) at least once a year.

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Treatment of eye melanoma

There are several treatments for ocular melanoma. Your doctor will talk with you about the most effective treatment for you. You may be offered one or more of the options below.

Observation or “watchful waiting”

If you do not have any symptoms, or if your symptoms are treatable, you and your doctor may decide to closely monitor the tumor over a period of time without any other treatment.Many people choose to “watch out” until symptoms appear or change.

If you choose the watchful waiting option, you will have regular follow-up and eye exams. It is imperative not to miss appointments.


Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy.
With this treatment option, your doctor, together with your radiation oncologist, will make a small disc (applicator) that is the size of your eye, which directs radiation directly to the tumor.An ophthalmologist (ophthalmologist) will place the applicator on your eye during surgery.

The applicator will remain on your eye for several days until the tumor receives the required amount of radiation. You will be in the hospital for the entire period of time until you remove the applicator. You will be placed in a separate room as you will be emitting a small amount of radiation into the space around you. During your hospital stay, people under the age of 18 and pregnant women will not be able to visit you.

Once the tumor has received the required amount of radiation, the applicator will be removed during another operation and you can return home. For more information, read our resource, About Ocular Brachytherapy . You can find it through the search function on our website at www.mskcc.org/pe or from your nurse.


Enucleation is the removal of the eye during surgery.During enucleation, the tissue around the eyeball (for example, the eyelid) remains in place. You may experience some discomfort after surgery, but most patients do not feel pain. Enucleation is performed in the operating room and most people return home the same day.

As soon as you recover from your surgery, you will meet with an ocularist. An ocularist is a specialist in the manufacture and selection of ocular prostheses (artificial eyes). With your help, the ocularist will make an artificial eye that is as similar as possible to your eye.He will teach you how to care for your prosthesis.

Laser photocoagulation

Laser photocoagulation is a therapy using a special type of laser to burn out and destroy the tumor. Most patients are prescribed laser photocoagulation after brachytherapy. The first session is usually done during surgery to remove the applicator from your eye. After that, you will come to the office for 2 more procedures.

After the first session, laser photocoagulation will be performed in the office without anesthesia.Anesthetic drops are placed in your eye before starting the procedure. You may feel warmth in the eye during the procedure, but the treatment itself is painless.

Proton therapy

This is another way to direct the beam of radiation directly to the tumor, this treatment is carried out in Boston. This treatment can be especially effective on tumors near the nerve, and is generally similar to therapy with an applicator. In this case, surgery will also be required in the operating room to place markers on the eye, followed by daily irradiation sessions for about 2 weeks.

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About genetic analysis for eye melanoma

Some studies have shown that people with ocular melanoma and a mutation in the BAP1 gene (BRCA1-associated protein) may be at a higher risk of metastasis (cancer spread).

Your doctor may recommend that you get tested for the BAP1 gene mutation if you have been diagnosed with ocular melanoma, or if:

  • you are not yet 30 years old;
  • You have been previously diagnosed with another type of cancer, especially if it was lung cancer, kidney cancer, stomach cancer, or skin melanoma;
  • Someone in your immediate family has cancer, especially lung cancer, kidney cancer, stomach cancer, or skin melanoma.

If you want to get a genetic test, please tell your doctor or nurse. They will refer you to one of our genetic counselors.

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Call your doctor if you:

  • suddenly lost sight;
  • 90,037 noticed sudden changes in vision;

  • are in pain.

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Ocular Melanoma Foundation
Provides information and support for patients with ocular melanoma.

Melanoma Research Foundation
Provides information on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma.

National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Provides information on ocular melanoma, including causes, screening, and treatment.
800-4-CANCER (800-422-6237)

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90,000 Pain at the base of the skull – causes of occurrence, in what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and treatment methods


The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication.In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For a diagnosis and correct prescription of treatment, you should contact your doctor.

Pain at the base of the skull: causes of occurrence, in what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and methods of treatment.


Pain at the base of the skull (cervicocranialgia vertebrogenic) is a pain syndrome localized in the cervico-occipital region, which can spread to the frontotemporal region and the eye region from the homolateral side.It has been proven that the structures of the upper cervical spine can be a source of pain. Typically, this is the level of the C1, C2, and C3 vertebrae, which includes joints, discs, ligaments, and muscles. The lower cervical vertebrae usually play an indirect role in the formation of the clinical symptoms of pain.

Pathological diseases of the cervical spine, which are accompanied by intense or aching pain, experts call the “painful neck” syndrome.

The International Society for the Study of Headache Revision 3 (ICGB-3) recommended considering cervicogenic headache as secondary, arising from changes in the cervical spine, including bone structures, intervertebral discs, and soft tissue structures, the pathology of which is often accompanied by pain in neck. 70% of patients with pain in the cervical spine simultaneously experience headache, but only 18% of cases are considered a consequence of neck pain.

Functional disorders in the spinal motion segments of the cervical spine, in particular, disorders in the structures of its upper cervical spine, play a significant role in the genesis of headaches in childhood and adolescence.

Varieties of pain at the base of the skull

Cervicogenic pain is evidenced by such differential signs as one-sided headache, spreading from the occiput back to front, and evidence of the involvement of the cervical spine in it.A pain attack can be triggered by pressure on trigger points in the cervical / occipital region or by holding the neck uncomfortable. It is important that in some cases such pain has migraine features – a number of patients feel photo- and phonophobia, lacrimation, nausea, vomiting, which can sometimes be regarded as a manifestation of migraine.

Pain at the base of the skull is characterized by limited range of motion in the cervical spine, soreness of the cervical muscles, changes in muscle tone, or a reaction to passive or active stretching.Usually, pain is combined with a functional block at the upper cervical level.

Injuries to the upper cervical spine from tumors, fractures, infections, and rheumatoid arthritis can cause headaches that are clinically similar to cervicocranialgia. However, a feature of cervicogenic headache is that it is provoked by movements in the cervical spine, and after performing certain warm-up movements in the neck, it can be stopped.Most often, such complaints are not associated with a serious pathology, and the patient recovers completely.

Possible causes of pain at the base of the skull

Pain at the base of the skull is based on functional and organic changes in various anatomical structures of the cervical spine: joints, ligaments, fascia, muscles, nerves. The leading role is given to degenerative-dystrophic changes in the spine. In this case, there are only a few indications of the role of functional disorders.

One of the main reasons for the appearance of neck pain is prolonged stay in an unchanged position. Other causes of the disease include:

  • osteochondrosis spondyloarthrosis, spondylosis, uncovertebral arthrosis; other changes in the spine;
  • 90,037 neck injuries, trauma;

  • sprains;
  • herniated disc;
  • spondyloarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis.

A common cause of cervicogenic pain is inferior oblique muscle syndrome.A spasmodic muscle can squeeze the neurovascular bundle passing under it (a segment of the vertebral artery with a periarterial sympathetic plexus, occipital nerves) – for this condition, the development of paresthesias in the scalp is typical, sometimes pain occurs when combing. It has been noticed that stimulation of the cervical structures causes pain, and anesthesia reduces it.

Recently, doctors are increasingly talking about the “text neck” syndrome, which is formed in people who spend a lot of time reading texts from electronic devices (gadgets).

The head of an adult weighs about 5 kg – this is the weight of the neck in its normal position. When reading from the screens of gadgets, the head, as a rule, is tilted: when it is tilted by only 15 °, the load on the spine increases to 12 kg, and when tilted at 60 °, up to 27 kg. As a result, the posture changes, the intervertebral discs of the cervical spine suffer, the muscles spasm, and pain occurs at the base of the skull.

The main manifestations of pain at the base of the skull include:

  • frequent contraction of the occipital muscles, convulsions;
  • painful sensations when turning the head;
  • noise in the head, sleep disturbance;
  • pain in the cervical spine, radiating to the head;
  • dizziness;
  • Constant tension in the neck, occiput.

The presence of three or four signs should make the patient think about seeking medical help.

Which doctor should I contact if pain occurs at the base of the skull

To establish the cause of the headache, consult
general practitioner, general practitioner or
a neurologist. The doctor will prescribe the necessary examination, establish the cause of the disease and prescribe treatment.

Diagnostics and examinations for pain in the base of the skull

The following diagnostic criteria are used for the diagnosis:

  • The causal relationship of headache with pathology of the cervical region is based on at least one of the following signs:
    • Clinical signs confirm that the source of pain is located in the neck;
    • pain stops after a diagnostic blockade of the neck structures or nerve formations (with an adequate comparison with placebo).
  • Headache resolves within 3 months after successful treatment of the disorder or injury causing the pain syndrome.

Using clinical, laboratory and / or neuroimaging methods, signs of damage or damage in the cervical spine or soft tissues of the neck, which are a reliable or possible cause of headache, are determined:

  • X-ray of the cervical region in several projections;


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90,000 Retinoblastoma in children and adolescents

Prognosis in the treatment of retinoblastoma

Most children with retinoblastoma can recover.The main factor affecting patient survival is the spread of the tumor outside the eye. If the tumor is localized in the eye area, then the prognosis is very favorable. If the tumor has spread to other parts of the body, then the disease is less treatable.

Several factors affect the outcome of treatment and the patient’s recovery:

  • Whether the tumor affects one or both eyes
  • Whether the disease is hereditary or sporadic
  • Tumor size and location
  • Number of tumors or presence of fragments of the main tumor
  • Child’s age
  • Has the disease spread beyond the eye
  • How a tumor affects vision or eye function

Patient with ocular tumor> 95% with appropriate treatment.If the disease has spread to the orbit (orbit), lymph nodes, bone marrow, bones, or liver, survival is> 80% with intensive chemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplantation, and radiation therapy. If, at the time of diagnosis, the disease has spread to the cerebrospinal fluid or other parts of the brain, then the prognosis is less favorable (survival rate <50%).

When treating retinoblastoma, doctors and family members should consider the damage the child is suffering from.Healing is paramount, and then the preservation of the eye with the greatest possible preservation of vision. The most important factor in maintaining the eye is the spread of the disease at the time of diagnosis. If there is doubt about the spread of the disease or the likelihood of retaining vision is low, doctors may recommend surgical removal of the eye (enucleation).

When treating patients with retinoblastoma, patient survival is not always the same as “eye survival”.The group or class of tumor affects the prognosis for eye preservation. If the tumor belongs to groups A – C, then it is easier to preserve the eye and vision. Tumors that have disintegrated into smaller ones inside the eye, with seeding of the vitreous humor (group D or E), are the least treatable.

If tumors develop in both eyes (bilateral retinoblastoma), as a rule, an attempt is made to save both eyes with preservation of any degree of vision. This succeeds in 70–85% of cases. For unilateral retinoblastoma at a later stage (group D or E), removal of the affected eye and careful monitoring of the health of the second, healthy eye may be necessary.Most patients with unilateral retinoblastoma do not require additional treatment after surgical removal of the eye.

90,000 Head injuries that suddenly change their character for the better

  • Christian Jarrett
  • BBC Future

Photo author, iStock

Brain injuries do not always lead to unwanted changes in the victim’s character. learned columnist BBC Future .It happens that the character improves. But should we be happy about it?

In the popular 1980s romantic comedy Overboard, the protagonist, an arrogant and selfish billionaire, falls overboard in her luxury yacht and loses her memory with a head injury. In addition, her character is changing for the better – she becomes caring, attentive and not as mercantile as before.

At first glance, such a positive change triggered by a brain injury looks far-fetched, doesn’t it?

However, let’s take a real case.A woman (let’s call her for ethical reasons “Patient 3534”) at the age of 70 had a brain tumor removed. The operation damaged the frontal lobes of her brain.

According to her husband, who had known his wife for 58 years, before the operation she was irritable and grumpy, with a tough character. After the operation, “she became more sociable, more satisfied with her life and much more talkative.”

Patient 3534 is not the only one whose personality has changed after a brain injury.We now have evidence that (at least for a small subset of patients) positive character changes are reality.

And this is a kind of revelation that allows you to take a fresh look at how brain damage affects a person.

Photo author, iStock

Photo caption,

A brain injury may not have any consequences. But earlier it was believed that if there are any, then always negative

Although the fact that brain injury can change a person’s character has been known for a long time, the scientific literature almost always described extremely dire consequences for the personality.

Take the famous case of Phineas Gage, an American construction worker who suffered a severe brain injury in 1848 while laying a railroad. (Gage was in charge of a team of explosives. In an accidental explosion, scrap metal entered Gage’s skull under the left eye socket and exited just above the forehead. Due to the injury, the builder lost most of the frontal lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere. – Approx. .)

How friends of the victim said then, “this is no longer Gage.”After what happened, he simply became a different person: previously smart and perceptive, Gage became aggressive and impulsive, his psyche changed radically (however, according to some testimonies, later Gage was able to overcome these problems, began a new life as a coachman of a mail coach – and lived another 12 years).

In the modern medical literature, many similar cases are described – when patients after damage to the frontal lobes of the brain began to behave inappropriately and even psychopathically.

However, according to a recent study published in the journal Neuropsychologia, such dire circumstances may not convey the full picture.

A group of scientists led by psychiatrist Marcy King of the University of Iowa found that out of 97 previously healthy patients who received permanent damage to a specific part of the brain, 22 showed positive changes in character.

The character of 54 people deteriorated, while the rest did not notice any changes.

Scientists have established this by interviewing relatives and close friends of victims on 26 different aspects of personality – before and after injury.

It must be admitted that in the past, some studies have indirectly indicated that damage to some parts of the brain can sometimes have a positive effect on the personality.

For example, a 2007 American study that studied Vietnam veterans found that those who suffered damage to areas of the brain thought to be responsible for the development of PTSD were less likely to develop the same disorder.

A similar study found that patients with damage to the emotional regions of the brain were less likely to be depressed as a result.

Photo author, iStock

Photo caption,

Scientists have known for a long time that brain injuries lead to changes in personality character in a large group of patients.

Another example is the case of “Patient 2410,” a 30-year-old man who required surgery for a cerebral aneurysm.

Both he and his wife described that before the operation the man was quick-tempered, easily lost his temper and was prone to depression. After the operation, he jokes and laughs a lot and generally became calmer.

What’s going on? How does brain damage have such an unexpected effect?

The likelihood that a patient’s character will change for the better does not depend in any way on gender, age, educational level or intelligence.

What matters is past personality problems: difficult temperament, hot temper and other negative traits combined with the specifics of brain damage.

To understand this, King and her colleagues performed brain scans of all of their patients.

They found that those with positive personality changes were more likely to suffer from damage to the frontal lobes of the brain (areas involved in making decisions and understanding other people’s perspectives).

Photo author, iStock

Photo caption,

A head injury can improve your temper – but that does not mean doctors will prescribe it to especially irritable patients.

These results, however, are very preliminary, and the authors of the studies call for caution in their interpretation.

Scientists have found only general trends, and further work will help to more accurately determine which parts of the brain are associated with specific changes in human character.

In addition, although the changes in personality of some patients can be regarded as positive, the risk of any brain damage should not be underestimated.

Full recovery from serious brain injuries is extremely rare, and even when the patient seems to be feeling fine, he may sooner or later face hidden problems – for example, with the difficulty of assimilating new information.

The resulting brain injury can also make a person more vulnerable to various neurological diseases, including very serious ones.

Thus, it is simply amazing that such a dangerous thing as brain damage can lead to beneficial changes in character.

However, when you realize that brain surgery is sometimes used as a last resort for mental disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, it no longer looks too ridiculous or strange.

Here you can, of course, recall the so-called psychosurgery, now banned in most countries, an extremely controversial method of treatment. Many of us know about her special case – a lobotomy with massive tissue destruction, which was widely used in the middle of the 20th century in the United States.

However, King and her colleagues emphasize that modern technology allows surgeons to act much more carefully and accurately, and often the purpose of such interventions is to reduce the activity of those brain currents that cause certain mental problems (for example, there is evidence that depression is associated with too active exchange between the frontal regions of the brain and other neural networks responsible for cognition and emotion).

Photo author, iStock

Photo caption,

Some patients who have suffered a brain injury are quite satisfied with the changes in their own character and please

The fact that with the help of surgical intervention it is possible to correct the work of the human brain, to some extent explains why brain injuries in some cases lead to favorable changes in the character of the victim.

In addition, the results of the research by King and her colleagues contribute to a deeper understanding of the neurological underpinnings of the human character.

However, in conclusion, it is worth repeating: any brain injury (including a “light” concussion) should always be taken with great seriousness.

Even in infrequent cases of positive changes in character after trauma, the clinical picture almost always contains a lot of hidden problems for the patient for the time being.

While positive changes in character are good things, let’s not forget that our character reflects our essence. Getting used to the fact that a person has changed – even for the better – will not be easy for friends and family, and for the person himself.

In any case, what happens to the brain and to the person after trauma is much more complicated and amazing than we previously imagined.

To read the original of this article in English, please visit BBC Future .

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