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Swollen eyes hives: Hives, Urticaria, and Angioedema: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

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Hives, Urticaria, and Angioedema: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Hives are swollen, pale red bumps, patches, or welts on the skin that appear suddenly. They can happen because of allergies or other reasons. Your doctor may call them urticaria.

Hives usually itch, but they may also burn or sting. They can show up anywhere on your body, including the face, lips, tongue, throat, and ears. They range in size from a pencil eraser to a dinner plate and may join together to form larger areas known as plaques. They can last for hours, weeks, or even years.

Angioedema is different. The swelling happens under the skin, not on the surface. It’s marked by deep swelling around the eyes and lips and sometimes of the genitals, hands, and feet. It generally lasts longer than hives, but the swelling usually goes away in less than 24 hours. It’s rare, but angioedema of the throat, tongue, or lungs can block your airways, making it hard to breathe.

Causes

Allergic reactions, chemicals in foods, insect stings, sunlight, and medicines can make your body release a chemical called histamine. Histamine sometimes makes blood plasma leak out of small blood vessels in the skin, causing hives or angioedema.

Sometimes, doctors don’t know exactly why hives have formed.

Types

Acute urticaria and/or angioedema are hives or swelling lasting less than 6 weeks. The most common causes are foods, medicines, latex, and infections. Insect bites or a disease may also be responsible.

The most common foods that cause hives are nuts, chocolate, fish, tomatoes, eggs, fresh berries, soy, wheat, and milk. Fresh foods cause hives more often than cooked foods. Certain food additives and preservatives may also be to blame.

Drugs that can cause hives and angioedema include aspirin and other NSAIDs (such as ibuprofen), high blood pressure medications (such as ACE inhibitors), and painkillers such as codeine.

Chronic urticaria and/or angioedema are hives or swelling that lasts more than 6 weeks. The cause is usually harder to find than in acute cases. The causes can be similar to those of acute urticaria but can also include your immune system, chronic infections, hormonal disorders, and tumors.

Physical urticaria are hives caused by direct physical stimulation of the skin — for example, cold, heat, sunlight, vibration, pressure, sweating, and exercise. They usually happen right where the skin was affected and rarely appear anywhere else. Most appear within 1 hour after exposure.

Dermatographism are hives that form after firmly stroking or scratching the skin. You may also have other forms of hives.

Hereditary angioedema is painful swelling under the skin. It runs in families.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask you many questions to try to find the cause of hives or angioedema. You’ll also get a checkup.

Your doctor may give you skin tests to find out if you’re allergic to something. You may get blood tests, too.

Treatment

The best treatment is to identify and remove the trigger. But that’s not always easy.

Your doctor may prescribe antihistamines to ease your symptoms or help prevent them.

If you have chronic hives, you may need antihistamines or a combination of medications, such as steroids or a biologic drug.

For severe hives or angioedema, you may need an injection of epinephrine or a steroid medication.

5 Simple Tips

While you wait for the hives and swelling to disappear:

  1. Avoid hot water. Use lukewarm water instead.
  2. Use gentle, mild soap.
  3. Apply cool compresses or wet cloths to the affected areas.
  4. Try to work and sleep in a cool room.
  5. Wear loose-fitting lightweight clothes.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

If you have hives or angioedema and any of the following symptoms, call your doctor right away:

Urticaria, Welts, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment



Overview

What are hives (urticaria)?

Hives are raised red bumps (welts) or splotches on the skin. They are a type of swelling on the surface of your skin. They happen when your body has an allergic reaction to an allergen, a substance that’s harmless to most people. But can also occur in autoimmune conditions or systemic conditions, if hives last for a prolonged period of time.

Hives may be itchy, or you might feel them burning or stinging. They can be as small as a pinprick or as big as a dinner plate. The medical name for hives is urticaria.

Sometimes, the welts from hives join together to form larger areas called plaques. Hives tend to fade within 24 hours, although they may be noticeable for several days or longer.

What is swelling (angioedema)?

Angioedema is a kind of swelling that can be related to hives, but can be an isolated event. It most often causes swelling in deep layers of tissue around the eyes, lips and face. Your hands, feet, throat, intestines and genitals may also swell.

People who get hives may get angioedema at the same time. Sometimes people have angioedema without hives.

Swelling from angioedema can be itchy, and can sometimes be painful. It usually goes away in a day or two. In extreme situations, your throat, airway and digestive tract might swell. These reactions can be life-threatening.

How common are hives and angioedema?

About 20% of people will develop hives at least once. Angioedema by itself occurs less often.

Who’s most likely to get hives (urticaria) or angioedema?

Anyone can get hives or angioedema. Hives are more common than angioedema. People who react to many different types of allergens may get hives frequently. Some people get hives just once or only a few times in their lives.

What are the types of hives (urticaria) and angioedema?

There are different types of hives (urticaria) and angioedema, including:

  • Acute: Hives or swelling that last for less than six weeks are considered acute, meaning they come on suddenly. Allergic reactions to certain foods or medications often cause acute hives and swelling.
  • Chronic: When hives linger for more than six weeks, the condition is chronic. In 95% of chronic conditions, nobody knows what causes them, though it is thought to be autoimmune in nature.
  • Physical: Some people develop hives and swelling in specific situations. Hives might pop up when you’re in the cold, heat or sun. Some people react to vibrations or pressure, or exercise and sweating. Physical hives usually appear within an hour after exposure.



Symptoms and Causes

What causes hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema)?

Allergens can causes these reactions. An allergen is a substance your body doesn’t like, and your body’s immune system reacts by releasing chemicals called histamines. Histamines are a chemical made by allergy cells (mast cell) and other immune cells (eosinophils, basophils, etc) that goes into overdrive to get rid of the allergen. But your body may respond to the flood of histamines by having an allergic reaction that causes hives and swelling.

People get hives and angioedema from all kinds of things, including:

  • Airborne allergens like tree and grass pollen, mold spores and pet dander.
  • Bacterial infections, such as strep throat and urinary tract infections.
  • Food allergies to milk, peanuts and tree nuts, eggs, fish and shellfish.
  • Insect stings.
  • Medication allergies, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), codeine and blood pressure medicine, especially ACE inhibitors.
  • Quick changes in body temperature due to heat, cold or physical activity.
  • Viral infections, such as the common cold or mononucleosis.
  • Allergies to other materials, like latex or detergents.
  • Hormonal issues, like changes in your body because of pregnancy, menopause or thyroid disease.
  • Autoimmune conditions.

What are the symptoms of hives (urticaria)?

Hives look different depending on the person and the situation. They can show up anywhere on your body. Signs of hives include:

  • Red, raised welts or bumps on the skin.
  • Blanching (the center of the hive turns white when pressed).
  • Itchy skin.
  • Swelling (angioedema).

What are the symptoms of swelling (angioedema)?

Signs of angioedema include:

  • Puffy or swollen face, especially the eyes and mouth.
  • Digestive problems, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea or nausea and vomiting.
  • Swollen hands, feet or genitals.
  • Swelling in the mouth, throat or airway that may make it harder to breathe.



Diagnosis and Tests

How are hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) diagnosed?

Your doctor can diagnose hives and swelling by looking at your skin. Allergy tests can help identify what’s triggering a reaction. Knowing the cause can help you avoid allergens, hives and swelling. Allergy tests include:

  • Skin tests: During this test, healthcare providers test different allergens on your skin. If your skin turns red or swells, it means you’re allergic to that substance. This type of allergy test is also called a skin prick or scratch test. Skin testing is not commonly done if hives are chronic in nature.
  • Blood tests: A blood test checks for specific antibodies in your blood. Your body makes antibodies to fight off allergens. The process is part of your immune system — but if your body makes too many, it can cause hives and swelling.



Management and Treatment

How are hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) managed or treated?

Most of the time, hives and swelling go away without treatment. Your healthcare provider might recommend medications and at-home care to help you feel better and lower your chances of having hives again. Treatments include:

  • Allergy medications: Medicines called antihistamines block histamine’s effects on your body. Antihistamines relieve itching from hives and prevent allergic reactions. Some antihistamines react fast, like diphenhydramine (Benadryl®). Depending how severe the hives are, your healthcare provider may recommend daily over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription allergy medications, like loratadine (Claritin®). fexofenadine (Allegra®), cetirizine (Zyrtec®) or levocetirizine (Xyzal®).
  • Allergy shots: For hard-to-treat chronic hives, your healthcare provider may recommend a monthly injection of a drug called omalizumab (Xolair®). This medication blocks the body’s allergy antibody, immunoglobin E (IgE), from causing allergy reactions. People with severe allergies can make too much IgE, leading to problems like hives and asthma.
  • At-home treatments: To relieve hives, you can take a cool bath or shower, wear loose-fitting clothing and apply cold compresses. An OTC hydrocortisone cream, such as Cortizone®, can relieve itching and swelling.
  • Epinephrine: Severe allergic reactions and swelling can lead to a life-threatening condition called anaphylaxis. Symptoms include hives, swelling, shortness of breath, wheezing, vomiting and low blood pressure. People experiencing anaphylaxis need an immediate epinephrine injection (EpiPen®) to open a swollen airway.
  • Oral steroids: Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, can relieve hive symptoms that don’t respond to antihistamines.

What are the complications of hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema)?

Anyone who has a severe allergic reaction could have life-threatening swelling (angioedema) of the airways — your throat and lungs. This condition is known as anaphylaxis. It can potentially close off the airways, resulting in death.

Anaphylaxis is often triggered by a severe allergic reaction to a certain food, like peanuts and tree nuts, or a bee sting. People having anaphylaxis need an immediate shot of epinephrine, such as injectable epinephrine (EpiPen® or AUVI-Q®). Epinephrine opens airways, raises blood pressure and reduces hives and swelling. If epinephrine is used outside of the medical setting, a trip to the ER is warranted, since symptoms can return if epinephrine wears off.



Prevention

How can I prevent hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema)?

Allergy tests can help your healthcare provider figure out which substances bring on hives and swelling. Once you know your triggers, you can avoid them. You may want to:

  • Cut certain foods or liquids out of your diet.
  • Reduce exposure to airborne allergens.
  • Switch to detergents and soaps without scents or dyes.
  • Avoid extreme changes in temperature.
  • Relax and take a break when you’re stressed or overworked.
  • Wear loose-fitting, lightweight clothing.



Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with hives and swelling?

For most people, hives don’t cause serious problems. Children often outgrow allergies that cause hives.

For some people, angioedema can cause anaphylaxis — severe swelling of the airways and lungs. People with this life-threatening condition should carry injectable epinephrine (EpiPen®) to treat severe allergic reactions.



Living With

When should I call the doctor?

Hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) typically get better without treatment. Call your healthcare provider if you have:

  • Hives or swelling that last more than a week.
  • Infected-looking bumps (red, swollen or pus-filled).
  • Recurring hives that come back every few months.
  • Severe itching.
  • Signs of anaphylaxis, including wheezing, shortness of breath or vomiting.
  • Swollen lips or eyes.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

If you develop hives (urticaria) or swelling (angioedema), ask your healthcare provider:

  • Why did I get hives and swelling?
  • When should the hives and/or swelling go away?
  • Should I get an allergy test?
  • What steps can I take to prevent getting hives or swelling in the future?
  • What’s the best treatment to reduce itching?
  • What’s the best way to get rid of hives?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

Hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) are your body’s way of responding to a substance (allergen) that it doesn’t like. These reactions are a bit uncomfortable, but are not always serious. You may develop hives alone, hives with swelling, or just swelling. Most of the time, these reactions go away in a day or two. If you are prone to hives or swelling, talk to your healthcare provider about getting an allergy test. Once you know what triggers your allergies, you can take steps to avoid your triggers.

Urticaria, Welts, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment



Overview

What are hives (urticaria)?

Hives are raised red bumps (welts) or splotches on the skin. They are a type of swelling on the surface of your skin. They happen when your body has an allergic reaction to an allergen, a substance that’s harmless to most people. But can also occur in autoimmune conditions or systemic conditions, if hives last for a prolonged period of time.

Hives may be itchy, or you might feel them burning or stinging. They can be as small as a pinprick or as big as a dinner plate. The medical name for hives is urticaria.

Sometimes, the welts from hives join together to form larger areas called plaques. Hives tend to fade within 24 hours, although they may be noticeable for several days or longer.

What is swelling (angioedema)?

Angioedema is a kind of swelling that can be related to hives, but can be an isolated event. It most often causes swelling in deep layers of tissue around the eyes, lips and face. Your hands, feet, throat, intestines and genitals may also swell.

People who get hives may get angioedema at the same time. Sometimes people have angioedema without hives.

Swelling from angioedema can be itchy, and can sometimes be painful. It usually goes away in a day or two. In extreme situations, your throat, airway and digestive tract might swell. These reactions can be life-threatening.

How common are hives and angioedema?

About 20% of people will develop hives at least once. Angioedema by itself occurs less often.

Who’s most likely to get hives (urticaria) or angioedema?

Anyone can get hives or angioedema. Hives are more common than angioedema. People who react to many different types of allergens may get hives frequently. Some people get hives just once or only a few times in their lives.

What are the types of hives (urticaria) and angioedema?

There are different types of hives (urticaria) and angioedema, including:

  • Acute: Hives or swelling that last for less than six weeks are considered acute, meaning they come on suddenly. Allergic reactions to certain foods or medications often cause acute hives and swelling.
  • Chronic: When hives linger for more than six weeks, the condition is chronic. In 95% of chronic conditions, nobody knows what causes them, though it is thought to be autoimmune in nature.
  • Physical: Some people develop hives and swelling in specific situations. Hives might pop up when you’re in the cold, heat or sun. Some people react to vibrations or pressure, or exercise and sweating. Physical hives usually appear within an hour after exposure.



Symptoms and Causes

What causes hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema)?

Allergens can causes these reactions. An allergen is a substance your body doesn’t like, and your body’s immune system reacts by releasing chemicals called histamines. Histamines are a chemical made by allergy cells (mast cell) and other immune cells (eosinophils, basophils, etc) that goes into overdrive to get rid of the allergen. But your body may respond to the flood of histamines by having an allergic reaction that causes hives and swelling.

People get hives and angioedema from all kinds of things, including:

  • Airborne allergens like tree and grass pollen, mold spores and pet dander.
  • Bacterial infections, such as strep throat and urinary tract infections.
  • Food allergies to milk, peanuts and tree nuts, eggs, fish and shellfish.
  • Insect stings.
  • Medication allergies, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), codeine and blood pressure medicine, especially ACE inhibitors.
  • Quick changes in body temperature due to heat, cold or physical activity.
  • Viral infections, such as the common cold or mononucleosis.
  • Allergies to other materials, like latex or detergents.
  • Hormonal issues, like changes in your body because of pregnancy, menopause or thyroid disease.
  • Autoimmune conditions.

What are the symptoms of hives (urticaria)?

Hives look different depending on the person and the situation. They can show up anywhere on your body. Signs of hives include:

  • Red, raised welts or bumps on the skin.
  • Blanching (the center of the hive turns white when pressed).
  • Itchy skin.
  • Swelling (angioedema).

What are the symptoms of swelling (angioedema)?

Signs of angioedema include:

  • Puffy or swollen face, especially the eyes and mouth.
  • Digestive problems, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea or nausea and vomiting.
  • Swollen hands, feet or genitals.
  • Swelling in the mouth, throat or airway that may make it harder to breathe.



Diagnosis and Tests

How are hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) diagnosed?

Your doctor can diagnose hives and swelling by looking at your skin. Allergy tests can help identify what’s triggering a reaction. Knowing the cause can help you avoid allergens, hives and swelling. Allergy tests include:

  • Skin tests: During this test, healthcare providers test different allergens on your skin. If your skin turns red or swells, it means you’re allergic to that substance. This type of allergy test is also called a skin prick or scratch test. Skin testing is not commonly done if hives are chronic in nature.
  • Blood tests: A blood test checks for specific antibodies in your blood. Your body makes antibodies to fight off allergens. The process is part of your immune system — but if your body makes too many, it can cause hives and swelling.



Management and Treatment

How are hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) managed or treated?

Most of the time, hives and swelling go away without treatment. Your healthcare provider might recommend medications and at-home care to help you feel better and lower your chances of having hives again. Treatments include:

  • Allergy medications: Medicines called antihistamines block histamine’s effects on your body. Antihistamines relieve itching from hives and prevent allergic reactions. Some antihistamines react fast, like diphenhydramine (Benadryl®). Depending how severe the hives are, your healthcare provider may recommend daily over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription allergy medications, like loratadine (Claritin®). fexofenadine (Allegra®), cetirizine (Zyrtec®) or levocetirizine (Xyzal®).
  • Allergy shots: For hard-to-treat chronic hives, your healthcare provider may recommend a monthly injection of a drug called omalizumab (Xolair®). This medication blocks the body’s allergy antibody, immunoglobin E (IgE), from causing allergy reactions. People with severe allergies can make too much IgE, leading to problems like hives and asthma.
  • At-home treatments: To relieve hives, you can take a cool bath or shower, wear loose-fitting clothing and apply cold compresses. An OTC hydrocortisone cream, such as Cortizone®, can relieve itching and swelling.
  • Epinephrine: Severe allergic reactions and swelling can lead to a life-threatening condition called anaphylaxis. Symptoms include hives, swelling, shortness of breath, wheezing, vomiting and low blood pressure. People experiencing anaphylaxis need an immediate epinephrine injection (EpiPen®) to open a swollen airway.
  • Oral steroids: Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, can relieve hive symptoms that don’t respond to antihistamines.

What are the complications of hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema)?

Anyone who has a severe allergic reaction could have life-threatening swelling (angioedema) of the airways — your throat and lungs. This condition is known as anaphylaxis. It can potentially close off the airways, resulting in death.

Anaphylaxis is often triggered by a severe allergic reaction to a certain food, like peanuts and tree nuts, or a bee sting. People having anaphylaxis need an immediate shot of epinephrine, such as injectable epinephrine (EpiPen® or AUVI-Q®). Epinephrine opens airways, raises blood pressure and reduces hives and swelling. If epinephrine is used outside of the medical setting, a trip to the ER is warranted, since symptoms can return if epinephrine wears off.



Prevention

How can I prevent hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema)?

Allergy tests can help your healthcare provider figure out which substances bring on hives and swelling. Once you know your triggers, you can avoid them. You may want to:

  • Cut certain foods or liquids out of your diet.
  • Reduce exposure to airborne allergens.
  • Switch to detergents and soaps without scents or dyes.
  • Avoid extreme changes in temperature.
  • Relax and take a break when you’re stressed or overworked.
  • Wear loose-fitting, lightweight clothing.



Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with hives and swelling?

For most people, hives don’t cause serious problems. Children often outgrow allergies that cause hives.

For some people, angioedema can cause anaphylaxis — severe swelling of the airways and lungs. People with this life-threatening condition should carry injectable epinephrine (EpiPen®) to treat severe allergic reactions.



Living With

When should I call the doctor?

Hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) typically get better without treatment. Call your healthcare provider if you have:

  • Hives or swelling that last more than a week.
  • Infected-looking bumps (red, swollen or pus-filled).
  • Recurring hives that come back every few months.
  • Severe itching.
  • Signs of anaphylaxis, including wheezing, shortness of breath or vomiting.
  • Swollen lips or eyes.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

If you develop hives (urticaria) or swelling (angioedema), ask your healthcare provider:

  • Why did I get hives and swelling?
  • When should the hives and/or swelling go away?
  • Should I get an allergy test?
  • What steps can I take to prevent getting hives or swelling in the future?
  • What’s the best treatment to reduce itching?
  • What’s the best way to get rid of hives?
  • Should I look out for signs of complications?

Hives (urticaria) and swelling (angioedema) are your body’s way of responding to a substance (allergen) that it doesn’t like. These reactions are a bit uncomfortable, but are not always serious. You may develop hives alone, hives with swelling, or just swelling. Most of the time, these reactions go away in a day or two. If you are prone to hives or swelling, talk to your healthcare provider about getting an allergy test. Once you know what triggers your allergies, you can take steps to avoid your triggers.

Hives & Swelling | Riley Children’s Health

The itchiness, grouping and size range of hives make them different from other allergic skin reactions like atopic dermatitis. Hives may occur suddenly as a reaction to a specific trigger (acute hives), or they may occur repeatedly or for long periods of time (chronic hives).

Hives may appear with angioedema (swelling of the deeper tissue of the skin). Angioedema usually does not itch and commonly occurs around the eyes, lips, tongue, hands and feet. Children who have hives with angioedema are more likely to have recurring or chronic hives.

The symptoms of hives may last anywhere from a few minutes to a few months or longer. Signs and symptoms of hives often include:

  • Itching
  • Red, raised bumps or welts on the skin that turn white when pressed (blanching)
  • Sudden appearance and disappearance of these bumps

Angioedema (swelling) can occur at the same time as hives or as a separate reaction. Symptoms of angioedema include:

  • Swelling around the eyes or the lining of the eyes
  • Swelling of the hands and/or feet
  • Swelling of the mouth and/or throat
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Stomach cramps

Hives can appear in one area or all over the body. If your child suddenly develops severe hives or angioedema and is having trouble breathing, is vomiting or loses consciousness, he or she may be experiencing anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction. Anaphylaxis is an emergency. If you think your child is experiencing a severe allergic reaction, take him or her to the hospital for immediate treatment.

Many different factors can cause your child to develop hives or swelling. These causes may be physical reactions, allergic reactions or nonallergic reactions.

Physical causes include:

  • Cold
  • Heat
  • Pressure
  • Sunlight
  • Vibration
  • Water

Allergic reactions can cause hives or swelling in response to:

  • Pollens
  • Dander
  • Mold spores
  • Foods
  • Drugs
  • Insects

Nonallergic causes of hives include:

  • Infections
  • Idiopathic reasons (no cause is found)
  • Autoimmune conditions
  • Other conditions

Diagnosis of Hives & Swelling

As a first step to diagnosing the cause of hives and swelling, the allergy doctors at Riley at IU Health will ask about your child’s medical history and do a physical exam. The focus will be on exposures that may be contributing to the problem.

Allery specialists will often perform an evaluation if the problem is chronic (for example, a child is has hives daily for two to three months). It can be extremely difficult to identify and confirm causes of chronic hives, but the allergy specialists at Riley at IU Health are trained to review your child’s medical history to help determine a possible cause and direct any further testing.

In the case of acute hives, there may be an obvious food or substance such as peanuts or a medicine that acts as a trigger. Acute hives may not require further evaluation or allergy testing unless a food is part of the history or there is anaphylaxis.

If your child’s allergist suspects a food allergy based on your child’s history, the doctor may perform a food allergy test and may suggest a food challenge to confirm the diagnosis.

When Your Child Has Hives (Urticaria) or Angioedema

Hives (urticaria) are raised, red, itchy bumps on the skin. Each bump can last for a few hours or days and then go away completely. Groups of hives can come and go for days at a time in different parts of the body.. Hives can be uncomfortable. But they won’t harm your child or leave scars. Sometimes your child may have severe swelling around the face, lips, throat, or eyes. This is a more serious skin reaction called angioedema. It can happen with hives or on its own.

What causes hives?

Hives often develop when cells in your child’s skin release a chemical called histamine during an allergic reaction. The histamine produces swelling, redness, and itching. Here are some of the most common causes:

  • Foods, such as peanuts, shellfish, tree nuts, eggs, and milk. Also food additives, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and artificial colorings.

  • Viral infections

  • Prescription and over-the-counter medicines. These include antibiotics (such as penicillin), sulfa, anticonvulsant medicines, phenobarbital, aspirin, and ibuprofen.

  • Extreme heat or cold:

  • Emotional stress

  • Scratching the skin, continual striking of the skin, or wearing tight-fitting clothes that rub the skin (dermatographism).

  • Exercise or physical activity

  • In some cases hives keep coming back, but there is no known cause (chronic urticaria).

What do hives look like?

Hives are raised itchy bumps that can vary in color from pink to deep red. They come in different sizes. They sometimes spread to form large patches of swollen skin. Hives can appear on one part of the body and disappear on another in a few hours. Each hive lasts less than a day. But new hives may keep forming for days or even weeks.

How are hives diagnosed?

Your child’s healthcare provider can diagnose hives by looking at your child’s skin and taking a full health history. Your child may also have skin tests. These look for foods or other substances that your child may be sensitive to. Blood tests may be done to rule out causes of hives not linked to allergies. But in most cases, the cause is never found.

How are hives treated?

For mild symptoms:

  • Give your child an oral over-the-counter antihistamine that has diphenhydramine. Talk about this with your child’s healthcare provider

  • To ease itching and swelling, use calamine lotion or cool compresses. Or have your child soak in a cool bath. (Adding 2 cups of ground oatmeal to the tub may make your child more comfortable).

For more severe symptoms, your child’s healthcare provider may prescribe:

  • A prescription or over-the-counter oral antihistamine to block the chemical in the body that causes allergic reactions. Your child is likely to take it every 4 to 6 hours for a few days. Some antihistamines may make your child drowsy. Some work faster than others. Ask your child’s provider which antihistamine to use and the correct dose to give your child.

  • An oral steroid to ease severe swelling of the throat and airways. It’s often taken for 3 to 5 days.

  • Epinephrine (adrenaline) to use in an emergency to stop a severe allergic reaction. If swelling affects your child’s breathing, call 911right away. Your child is likely to need an injection of epinephrine to stop the allergic response.

Angioedema

Angioedema is a type of allergic reaction that sometimes happens along with hives. It causes swelling deep in the skin. This occurs especially around the face, lips, throat, and eyes. Swelling can make it hard to breathe. If this happens, seek medical care right away.

Preventing hives

To help prevent hives, stay away from any substances your child is sensitive to:

  • If your child has food allergies, read labels carefully. And be careful in restaurants.

  • Tell your child’s healthcare provider, dentist, and pharmacist about any allergies your child has to medicines. Keep a list of alternate medicines handy.

Call

911

Call 911right away if your child has hives and any of these: 

  • Wheezing, or trouble breathing or swallowing

  • Swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat

  • Dizziness or fainting

  • Loss of consciousness

  • Stomach pain, cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, or bloating

  • Feeling of doom

Angioedema – NHS

Angioedema is swelling underneath the skin. It’s usually a reaction to a trigger, such as a medicine or something you’re allergic to.

It is not normally serious, but it can be a recurring problem for some people and can very occasionally be life-threatening if it affects breathing.

Treatment can usually help keep the swelling under control.

Symptoms of angioedema

The swelling most often affects the:

  • hands
  • feet
  • area around the eyes
  • lips and tongue
  • genitals

Many people also have a raised, itchy rash called urticaria (hives).

In more serious cases, angioedema can also cause breathing difficulties, tummy (abdominal) pain and dizziness.

Read more about the symptoms of angioedema.

When to get medical advice

See your GP if you have episodes of swelling that affect your skin or lips and you’re not certain of the cause.

You may need to have some tests to determine the cause. Read more about tests for angioedema.

Dial 999 for an ambulance if you, or someone with you, has swelling and:

  • sudden or worsening breathing problems 
  • feels faint or dizzy
  • passes out or collapses 

These are signs of a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis). If you, or the person who’s ill, have been prescribed an adrenaline auto-injector for this, use it while waiting for the ambulance to arrive.

Causes of angioedema

There are several different types of angioedema, each of which has a different cause.

It can be caused by:

  • an allergic reaction, such as a food allergy – this is known as allergic angioedema
  • a medicine, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for high blood pressure – this is known as drug-induced angioedema
  • a genetic fault that you inherit from your parents – this is a rare, lifelong condition that usually starts in childhood called hereditary angioedema

But in many cases, it’s not clear what causes angioedema. This is known as idiopathic angioedema.

Read more about the causes of angioedema.

Treatments for angioedema

The swelling will usually get better by itself in a few days, but there are treatments that can help it settle faster and reduce the risk of it happening again.

The treatments recommended depend on the type of angioedema you have. For example:

  • allergic and idiopathic angioedema are usually treated with antihistamines or, occasionally, steroid medicine to reduce the swelling
  • drug-induced angioedema will usually resolve if you change to a different medicine – your doctor will advise you about this
  • hereditary angioedema cannot be cured, but medicines can help prevent swelling and quickly treat swelling when it occurs

Angioedema can usually be treated at home, although treatment in hospital may be necessary in serious cases.

Read more about how angioedema is treated.

Page last reviewed: 28 August 2019
Next review due: 28 August 2022

Hives (Urticaria) & Angioedema Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Hives or welts, also known as urticaria, are itchy, raised, reddish areas on the skin. About a quarter of the general population can have hives during their life. Hives often appear without warning and may start at any age.

Angioedema is swelling below the surface of the skin and fatty tissue. Areas of swelling may be painful. Angioedema usually occurs in the face, throat, hands, and feet. Swelling can also occur in the abdomen or other areas of the body. Throat swelling can be life threatening and requires immediate medical attention. It is important to understand that angioedema is a medical term to describe swelling. It can be found with many different disorders. Angioedema can occur with or without hives. There are several different ways swelling can occur. Understanding the underlying mechanism of swelling or the specific disease is critical in determining the best treatment.  

 

Hives and AngioedemA Symptoms & Diagnosis  

Hives are itchy and can occur anywhere on the body including the face, extremities, chest, back or face. Hives range in size from just a few millimeters to several centimeters. An individual hive usually fades within a 24-hour period and the skin returns to normal without leaving any marks or bruising.

Doctors will classify your hives based on how long you have had them. When hives occur for less than 6 weeks, we call this acute urticaria. When hives last longer than 6 weeks, we change the name to chronic urticaria. This helps doctors think about possible causes of your hives. The cause of your hives change based on how long you have had them. Chronic urticaria (hives over 6 weeks) is not dangerous. Sometimes hives occur with angioedema (swelling). Usually the cause of chronic urticaria cannot be identified. Allergy is not typically a cause of chronic urticaria. This is a constant finding of medical authorities and researchers around the world. The absence of an identifiable trigger can be frustrating for patients.

Classifications





Acute Chronic
Spontaneous hives, angioedema or both for less than 6 weeks Spontaneous hives, angioedema or both for more than 6 weeks

 
Acute, spontaneous urticaria

 

Chronic spontaneous urticaria

(very common)   

 
Chronic inducible urticaria

(very common)   

 

Often due to:

Viral infection

Food / drug allergy

Adverse drug reaction

(opioids/NSAIDs)

 

Often autoimmune

 

Physical Urticaria (non-allergic hives from environmental triggers)

Scratching/rubbing (dermatagraphic urticaria)

Pressure/tight clothes (pressure urticaria)

Sweating/increased temperature (cholinergic urticaria)

Cold exposure, ice (cold urticaria)

Swelling from vibration (vibration induced angioedema)

Sunlight (solar urticaria)  

Water (aquagenic urticaria)

 

Modified from http://www.urtikaria.net/en/forms-of-urticaria/overview.html

Angioedema without Urticaria: A Special Situation

Talk to your doctor if swelling occurs without hives. This may suggest a special situation requiring additional evaluation. Sometimes high dose antihistamines may not improve your swelling. This is because the mechanism (cause) of swelling may be different than that of hives.

Swelling without hives may be due to:

1. Aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen

2. ACE inhibitors (a class of blood pressure medications)

  • The generic names of these medications end in “pril” such as lisinopril. ACE inhibitors can cause swelling at any time during the course of therapy, even after years of being on the medication.  


3. Hereditary angioedema (swelling)

  • Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disorder in which patients have a defect in the gene that controls a regulatory blood protein called C1 Inhibitor. When C1 Inhibitor does not function properly, fluids can shift out of the blood and into tissues to cause swelling. Antihistamines, corticosteroids and epinephrine will not be effective in treating swelling in patients with HAE, however targeted treatments are available once your diagnosis is established. Over 50% of patients with HAE will have their first swelling episode prior to age 12.


4. Acquired angioedema

  • Acquired angioedema (swelling) is an acquired form of C1 inhibitor deficiency that can occur if you are over age 40. This is not hereditary or passed to your children.

Angioedema without Urticaria



Spontaneous Medication induced Underlying disease
Unclear cause

Autoimmune
Aspirin/NSAID induced

ACE inhibitor induced angioedema
Hereditary angioedema (HAE)

Acquired angioedema

 

Hives and Angioedema Treatment & Management  

The goals of treatment are to:

  • Provide relief of itching
  • Make hives more tolerable
  • Provide complete resolution of your hives


Medications will help your itching and reduce hives. Medications will not “cure” hives but can help to completely resolve them. Antihistamines are the best initial medication to treat your hives. Sometimes, a combination of several antihistamines or an increased dose of one antihistamine may be recommended.

Older antihistamines (sedating antihistamines) may cause you to get sleepy, cause dryness and only last for several hours. Newer non-sedating antihistamines are less likely to make you sleepy. They have fewer side effects and last much longer. Non-sedating antihistamines (shown below) are often the first medication doctors will prescribe for your hives. High dosages, up to 4 times the recommended dose, are often well tolerated and can help control your itching. This will also help to prevent the use of other medications that may have more side effects.

About 50% of chronic spontaneous urticaria (hives over 6 weeks with no identifiable cause) will respond to antihistamine as discussed above. For those who do not improve on antihistamines, 65% respond to omalizumab (Ref 2). Omalizumab is an FDA approved treatment of chronic urticaria. This medication is injected under the skin once a month. Corticosteroids, such as prednisone or prednisolone may help hives. These are not an ideal treatment for long-term use but may have a role to relieve severe symptoms for a few days.  

Your doctor will outline a treatment plan that allows you to increase treatment during an outbreak of hives or swelling and reduce medications when the hives or angioedema are not as bothersome.

Chronic hives can last for many years but will often go away. Hives will resolve in half of patients within 1-2 years and 80-90% of patients will improve within 5 years. Even if a patient’s hives improve, it is not unusual to see the hives recur months to years later.

Antihistamines commonly used to treat urticaria:







Sedating antihistamines Non-sedating antihistamines
hydroxyzine (Atarax)  cetirizine (Zyrtec)
diphenhydramine (Benadryl) levocetirizine (Xyzal)
  fexofenadine (Allegra)
  loratadine (Claritin)
  desloratadine (Clarinex)

References

1. Bernstein JA, Lang DM, Khan DA et al. The diagnosis and management of acute and chronic urticaria: 2014 update. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:1270-7

2. Kaplan AP. Therapy of chronic urticaria: a simple, modern approach. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014;112:419-25

3. Zuraw BL, Bernstein JA, Lang DM et al. A focused parameter update: hereditary angioedema, acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131:1491-3

Find out more about skin allergies.

Test your knowledge and see how much you know about hives.

This article has been reviewed by Andrew Moore, MD, FAAAAI

Reviewed: 9/28/20

90,000 Urticaria and Quincke’s edema

Overview

Urticaria is a skin reaction that results in itchy patches ranging in size from small patches to large raised lesions reaching several centimeters in diameter. A rash can occur after eating certain foods, drugs, or other substances.

Quincke’s edema is an acute allergic reaction of the body, which is characterized by the spread of edema to the deeper layers of the skin with frequent involvement of the face and lips.

Antihistamines are generally accepted for the treatment of urticaria and angioedema. But it should be remembered that there are also life-threatening cases of Quincke’s edema, when swelling of the tongue, throat areas (pharynx, larynx) are very pronounced and block the airways.

Symptoms and causes

Symptoms

Urticaria

Rash due to urticaria

  • Red or flesh-colored rashes by color
  • Intensely itchy
  • Oval or worm-like
  • to one centimeter

    In most cases, the urticaria resolves within 24 hours.Chronic urticaria can last from several months to several years.

    Quincke’s edema

    Quincke’s edema is a reaction similar to urticaria, but affecting the deeper layers of the skin and spreading to the deeper layers of the skin. Usually localized around the eyes, cheeks and lips. Quincke’s edema with urticaria can occur both simultaneously and in isolation from each other.

    Signs and symptoms of Quincke’s edema include:

    • Large thick, hard elements of the rash
    • Swelling and redness
    • Soreness or localized fever in the area of ​​the affected area

    Call emergency medical help immediately if the neck, throat or have difficulty breathing!

    The causes of urticaria and angioedema can be:

    • Food .Different foods can cause reactions in people with hypersensitivity. Shellfish, fish, peanuts, nuts, eggs, and milk are the foods that most commonly cause food allergies.
    • Medicines . Almost any drug can cause hives and Quincke’s edema. This can be penicillin, aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, or blood pressure medications.
    • Common allergens – Pollen, animal dander, latex and insect bites.
    • Environmental factors – heat, cold, sunlight, water, pressure on the skin, emotional stress and exercise.
    • Certain medical conditions . Hives and Quincke’s edema sometimes occur in response to blood transfusions, immune system disorders such as lupus, certain cancers (lymphoma), certain thyroid conditions, and diseases caused by bacteria or viruses such as hepatitis, cytomegalovirus infection, or HIV.
    • Genetic predisposition . Hereditary Quincke’s edema is a rare inherited (genetically determined) disorder associated with low levels or abnormal functioning of certain blood proteins that play a role in the immune system.

    Risk factors

    Urticaria and angioedema are common. You may be at an increased risk of these conditions if:

    • You have had a history of Quincke’s edema
    • You have had other allergic reactions
    • You have a medical condition that may be associated with hives and angioedema (for example , systemic lupus erythematosus, lymphoma, or thyroid disease).
    • A close relative has had cases of urticaria, Quincke’s edema or hereditary Quincke’s edema.

    Complications

    Severe Quincke’s edema can be a life-threatening condition when the swelling of the tongue or larynx is so severe that it blocks the airway.

    Diagnostics

    After examining the elements of rash and edema, if any at the time of examination, the doctor collects a thorough history to find out the possible causes.In some cases, allergy skin tests may be prescribed. In the case of a possible hereditary form of the disease, the doctor may prescribe a blood test for specific blood proteins.

    Treatment

    If you have minimal symptoms, you may not need treatment. These cases of hives usually go away on their own without treatment. However, treatment can reduce the intensity of itching if there is severe discomfort or persisting symptoms.

    Medicines

    Treatment of urticaria and angioedema may include the following groups of drugs:

    • Antipruritic drugs .Standard treatments for hives and angioedema include antihistamines, medications that reduce itching, swelling, and other allergy symptoms.
    • Anti-inflammatory drugs . For severe urticaria or Quincke’s edema, doctors may sometimes prescribe corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone, dexamethasone, to reduce swelling, redness, and itching.
    • Drugs that suppress the immune system. If antihistamines and corticosteroids are ineffective, your doctor may prescribe medications that can suppress the overactive immune system.
    • Leukotriene receptor antagonists. These are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria and angioedema.
    • Blood Protein Controllers. If you have an inherited type of Quincke’s edema, certain medications can regulate the level of certain blood proteins and reduce symptoms.

    Emergency

    In severe manifestations of urticaria or angioedema, emergency care may be required, followed by hospitalization and an emergency injection of adrenaline.If you have had such a severe allergic reaction or such reactions continue despite treatment, your doctor may recommend that you always carry a special syringe pen containing adrenaline with you for self-administration and emergency treatment for yourself in an emergency.

    Lifestyle & Home Aid Kit

    If you have had a case of mild hives or Quincke’s edema, these tips can help ease your symptoms:

    Avoid triggers (allergens).These can include food, drugs, pollen, animal dander, latex, and insect bites.

    Use antipruritic drugs. These are antihistamines in various forms of release (drops, syrups, tablets): loratadine, cetirizine, diphenhydramine. They can help relieve the symptoms of itching.

    Cool wet compresses. Cold dressings or compresses on the affected skin can soothe and protect the skin from chafing (scratching).

    Take a comfortable cool bath.To relieve itching, you can add some baking soda or raw oats to the water.

    Wear loose-fitting, smooth-textured cotton clothing. Try not to wear very tight, coarse, prickly, or woolen clothing. This will help prevent skin irritation.

    Prevention

    To reduce the likelihood of hives or angioedema, take the following precautions:

    Avoid the triggers (allergens) you already know .This can be food, drugs, or extreme temperatures that have already caused hives or Quincke’s edema.

    Keep a diary . If the cause of an allergic reaction is a food product, but you are not sure which one, keep a special diary. In a journal, write down all the symptoms and foods that you ate during the day.

    Based on materials from mayoclinic.org

    Hives and swollen eyelids – Allergic skin lesions

    Page content

    Allergic diseases of the eyelids

    Allergic dermatitis of the eyelids develops due to an altered sensitivity of the body to a particular substance – an allergen.Allergens can be various infectious agents, medicines, airborne particles of animal or vegetable origin, food and other substances. Allergic reactions are acquired or arise as a result of hereditary constitutional predisposition.

    Allergic reactions can be immediate (early) or delayed (late) type. In the first case, allergic inflammation develops immediately after exposure to a resolving factor, after 15-30 minutes it reaches a maximum and after a few hours it completely disappears.Allergic diseases with an early type of reaction include urticaria, angioedema of the eyelids (Quincke’s edema), and various dermatitis. This type of allergic reaction is characterized by inflammation that occurs with the formation of a papular or flat rash of pink or white color with a smooth surface. The rash resembles the blisters caused by nettle burns.

    In cases of an allergic reaction of a delayed type, its first signs appear after 6-12 hours. The reaction reaches its maximum development after 24-48 hours and disappears after a few days or weeks.With this type of reaction, skin hyperemia, edema, papular formations are noted; the latter pass into the vesicle, sometimes ulcerate. The healing process is delayed for a long time. This type of allergy includes eczema, toxicoderma.

    Allergic diseases with a mixed type of reaction are observed, of which drug allergy is currently the most important. Most often it is caused by antibiotics, sulfonamides, anesthetics (dicain), mydriatics (atropine, homatropine), organophosphate miotics (phosphacol, armin) – with their local or general use.

    Urticaria . A peculiar reaction of the skin to a variety of endo- and exogenous stimuli, accompanied by itching and rash of blisters. In the mechanism of blistering, the vasodilating effect of histamine and histamine-like substances is of primary importance. Localization is varied, more often blisters appear on large areas of the body. A rash on the eyelids is accompanied by their swelling, a feeling of tension in the eyeballs, lacrimation. Chills, malaise, fever are sometimes noted.Urticaria is more often acute, less often chronic. In an acute course, blisters appear quickly, exist for a short time (minutes or hours) and also quickly disappear without a trace; in a chronic course, the disease lasts for weeks and months. Often, urticaria is combined with other allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, hay fever).

    Treatment . Complete cessation of contact with a specific allergen, if detected. Locally – means that soothe itching: lubrication and lotions with alcoholic solutions of anesthesin (1%) with novocaine (1%), menthol (2.5%).Nonspecific desensitization consists in the appointment of a 10% solution of calcium chloride orally or intravenously, 30% sodium thiosulfate solution intravenously, 5-10 ml, antihistamines (diphenhydramine, suprastin, diazolin, fenkarol, pipolfen, tavegil, sandosten, fenistil, lisenil, peri-antol , teralen, pernovin). With pronounced manifestations – 1% solution of diphenhydramine, 2% solution of suprastin, 2.5% solution of pipolfen, 1-2 ml intramuscularly. Histoglobulin is injected under the skin: adult – starting with 1 ml, then 2 ml (up to 3 ml) at intervals of 2-3-4 days (for a course – 4-10 injections), as well as 0.1% solution of epinephrine hydrochloride at 0 , 5-1 ml; inside appoint 0.25-0.5% solution of novocaine, 30-50 ml 2-3 times a day, 10-20% tincture of lagochilus or 3-5% sodium bromide solution, 1 tablespoon 3 times a day.In case of persistent course and relapses – short-term small doses of corticosteroid drugs (inside prednisolone 5 mg, dexamethasone 0.5 mg 2-3 times a day).

    Angioedema of the eyelids (Quincke’s edema) is considered as a special form of urticaria. Edema is based on an allergic reaction of a sensitized organism to any irritant – specific or nonspecific. Clinical symptoms are determined by the localization of the edema. Lips, cheeks, eyelids, joints, soft palate, tongue, and gastric mucosa are usually affected.More often, edema develops on the eyelids on one side and even on one eyelid, usually the upper one. Edema appears suddenly and is of varying severity. It can spread to the cornea, iris, choroid, optic nerve, retrobulbar tissue, which often leads to severe complications – secondary glaucoma, exophthalmos, stagnant optic nerve head. The edema is unstable, it lasts from several hours to several days.

    Treatment : elimination of the cause of the edema; topically: in the acute period – cold lotions, with itching – rubbing with alcohol solutions of anesthesin, novocaine, menthol; instillation into the conjunctival sac of 0.1% solution of epinephrine hydrochloride or 1% solution of epinephrine hydrotartrate, 0.5% solution of diphenhydramine, 1% emulsion of hydrocortisone, 0.1% solution of dexamethasone, 0.1% microsuspension of fluoromethasone.For allergic lesions of the choroid and optic nerve, subconjunctival and retrobulbar injections of corticosteroids are indicated: 2.5% hydrocortisone emulsion, 0.4% dexamethasone solution. General therapy is similar to that recommended for urticaria (see Urticaria). As a decongestant and antihypertensive agent, diacarb is prescribed inside at 0.25 g 2-4 times a day, as well as furosemide (lasix) at 0.04 g once a day, clopamide (brinaldix) at 0.02 g or triamterene, triampur compositum 1 tablet 1 time per day, intramuscularly injected 25% solution of magnesium sulfate, 10 ml, intravenously – 10% solution of calcium chloride, 10 ml.In severe cases – 1 ml of a 3% solution of prednisolone hydrochloride intramuscularly.

    Allergic dermatitis is an acute erythematous-exudative disease of the eyelid skin. It occurs as a reaction to local exposure to various allergenic medications and cosmetics in people with hypersensitivity to these substances. Depending on the degree of preliminary sensitization, skin lesions develop more or less rapidly. Usually, during the first 6 hours from the onset of an allergic reaction, there is an increasing hyperemia and edema of the skin of the eyelids, often with vesicular and even bullous rashes.Simultaneous sharp edema of the conjunctiva of the eyelids can lead to the complete closure of the palpebral fissure. Excessive discharge of a clear, sticky liquid often causes maceration of the skin in the corners of the palpebral fissure. With a delayed type of hypersensitivity, the skin of the eyelids gradually thickens, becomes dryish, sometimes wrinkled with symptoms of eczematization and spotty, papular or papular vesicular rashes.

    Treatment . Eliminates the suspected irritant or allergen. Apply corticosteroid ointments and aerosols (preferably without antibiotics): 0.5% prednisolone, 0.5% hydrocortisone.For the local treatment of allergic skin lesions of the eyelids, ointments, creams and emulsions are produced containing 0.025% sinalar (flucinar) and 0.02% locacorten. These drugs have a stronger local effect than hydrocortisone. The ointment is applied to the skin of the eyelids 1-2 times a day (the course of treatment is 1-2 weeks). In the conjunctival sac, 0.1% dexamethasone solution, 0.3% prednisolone solution, 1% hydrocortisone emulsion, 0.1% epinephrine hydrochloride solution or 1% epinephrine hydrotartrate solution are instilled. Inside appoint desensitizing agents: 10% solution of calcium chloride, diphenhydramine, suprastin, fenkarol, pipolfen, dosergan, alimemazin (teralen), pernovin, inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis – indomethacin (methindol) 0.025-0.075 g per day.The treatment lasts 10 days.

    Toxidermia (toxicoderma) – damage to the skin of the eyelids due to the general effect on the body of various chemical, medicinal substances and some food products in the presence of hypersensitivity to them. On the skin of the face, eyelids and other parts of the body, urticarial, erythematous-squamous and petechial rashes appear, sometimes a rash such as exudative erythema. The rash that occurs may disappear, and with a new intake of the same drug, it may appear again on the same or different areas of the skin.Recently, due to the widespread use of various chemicals and pesticides in agricultural production, the incidence of toxicoderma of this genesis has increased.

    Treatment . Elimination of the cause that caused toxicoderma. Diuretics and laxatives are recommended, drinking plenty of fluids. Antihistamines are prescribed inside – diazolin at 0.05 g, diphenhydramine at 0.05 g, diprazine at 0.02 g, pipolfen at 0.025 g; prednisolone 5 mg 2-3 times a day (course of treatment – 300 mg).A 10% solution of calcium chloride is injected intravenously, 10 ml daily (course – 5-10 infusions), 20-30% sodium thiosulfate solution, 10-20 ml. Locally, with an exudative reaction, lotions are prescribed from a solution of rivanol 1: 1000 or a 2-5% solution of Burov’s liquid; after the cessation of exudative phenomena – Lassar paste and zinc-naphthalan. They also use 0.1% triamcinolone, 0.025% milaran, 0.02% locacorten, 0.025% sinalar ointment.

    Eczema – an inflammatory lesion of the eyelid skin, characterized by itchy erythematous vesicular eruptions.Usually occurs acutely, and later is characterized by a chronic course and a tendency to relapse. The skin of the eyelids is hyperemic, edematous, covered with small vesicles, papules and pustules. After opening the pustules, a serous exudate appears – weeping of the skin. The exudate shrinks into straw-yellow crusts. Gradually, the inflammatory phenomena subside, the stratum corneum is restored on the weeping surface, peeling begins, the skin takes on a normal appearance. With a prolonged course, a thickening of the eyelid and its eversion may appear, as well as persistent loss of eyelashes.

    Treatment should be comprehensive. Locally, in the acute stage, cold lotions are used from lead water (0.25%), boric acid solution (2%), Burov’s liquid (2-5%). As the inflammatory-exudative reaction subsides, ointments containing corticosteroids (see Allergic dermatitis), 2% boric-zinc ointment are used. General treatment is the same as for urticaria (see Urticaria). When the process spreads to the skin of the face, treatment is carried out together with a dermatologist.

    Used sources: spravr.ru

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    Urticaria nsvs

    Urticaria from the point of view of homeopathy

    Allergic edema of the eyelids: diseases, causes, symptoms, treatment and adults, in the twenty-first century begins to acquire the character of a pandemic (according to scientists and doctors). This is due to the annually deteriorating ecology, food products, the use of medicines and cosmetics, a host of other unfavorable factors that negatively affect human health.

    Such a concept as “allergic diseases of the eyelids” includes several diseases that combine an over-expressed immune response of the tissues of the eyelids to a variety of allergens. If a person does not seek medical help on time, or is self-medicating with “grandmother’s methods,” the consequences can be irreversible, even fatal.

    Edema of the eyelids in allergic diseases

    According to the rate of occurrence of an allergic reaction of the tissues of the eyelid, which arise in response to an irritant, diseases are usually divided into 2 types:

    Reactions of an immediate type are acute and rapidly occurring allergic reactions:

    1. Angioedema …
    2. Urticaria.
    3. Contact dermatitis.

    Delayed type reactions:

    Let’s consider each type separately. Diseases of the first group develop quickly, 10-15 minutes after contact with an irritant, and pass quickly enough.

    Reactions from the second group appear only 6-12 hours after repeated contact with the allergen, reaching the “peak” of symptoms on 1-2 days, passing only after 5-14 days.

    Angioedema of the eyelids in children

    A fairly common pathology similar to Quincke’s edema, which develops mainly in children and adolescents, but rarely in adults.Anything can be the reason for the development: from the banal flowering of plants to the consumption of delicacies (especially exotic fruits and seafood).

    The disease develops very quickly and unexpectedly, accompanied by the following symptoms:

    1. Edema of the eyelid skin in the form of a “swollen bladder”. The bladder is painless, the skin above it is pale, with a waxy shade. Often the edema is very pronounced, often the patient cannot open his eyes. Since the disease is inherent in children, this condition frightens parents very much, which is very justified.
    2. In addition to the skin and tissue of the eyelids, the process may involve the forehead, cheeks, lips, neck, and limbs.
    3. The greatest danger is edema of the mucous membranes, as well as of the meninges, which can be fatal if not treated promptly.
    4. Edema in rare severe cases can affect the iris, fatty tissue (located behind the eye), optic nerve, which can lead to death of the eye.
    Urticaria

    A fairly frequent allergic reaction, which manifests itself in the form of red blisters (without content) of various sizes – from 0.5 cm to 10 cm.There is often a white spot in the center of the blister.

    Urticaria, exclusively on the eyelids, rarely develops. Most often, hyperemic areas of the skin appear all over the face and body, as well as on the mucous membranes of internal organs (the larynx is deadly).

    The disease is accompanied by a burning sensation and intolerable itching of the skin, and sometimes inside the body, which happens when the mucous membranes of the internal organs are affected. Most often, this pathology is associated with intravenous or intramuscular administration of drugs.

    Drugs that most often cause urticaria:

    • aspirin;
    • nicotinic acid;
    • penicillin;
    • blood products;
    • calcium chloride;
    • some nootropics.

    Other causes of urticaria include insect bites and certain foods.

    Blisters usually go away on their own, after 10-20 minutes. But with an increase in temperature, difficulty breathing, unbearable itching, urgent therapy is required.

    Contact dermatitis

    Allergic contact dermatitis in most cases occurs when cosmetic preparations get on the skin of the eyelids, and much less often when in contact with plants (hogweed, ivy, hops, and the like). The disease is predominantly characteristic of young women.

    This type of immune response is characterized by bilateral lesion of the eyelids, which is manifested by pronounced redness, burning and itching, as well as edema of the subcutaneous tissue.

    Eczema of the eyelid skin

    This allergic disease is most often chronic in nature, and is spread not only on the eyelids, but also on other parts of the body.The first time it begins acutely – the skin turns red and swells. Small bubbles (papules and pustules) appear on it, the skin becomes thinner.

    Bubbles break open on their own and cracks form, especially in the corners of the eyes. Later, a yellow crust forms in place of the bursting bubbles. After the descent of the crust, peeling of the skin occurs. After some time, recovery comes.

    In the absence of treatment at the moment when the bubbles burst, infection is possible.In this case, the disease becomes protracted and outwardly scary. The crusts become dirty brown with purulent discharge. And after the descent of the crusts, scars remain.

    Cicatricial change leads to eversion of the eyelid and loss of eyelashes, which requires surgical treatment – blepharoplasty. In addition to the cosmetic defect, the infection may spread to the lacrimal duct, conjunctiva and cornea, which can lead to loss of vision.

    Toxicoderma

    The disease is manifested by severe reddening of the skin, accompanied by itching, burning, swelling, often with the formation of small vesicles, which ulcerate upon self-opening.

    This pathology appears mainly after taking medications, or when working with some pesticides in industry and agriculture. Such allergens include, for example:

    Also, toxicoderma often occurs after visiting cosmetologists – with tattooing, eyelash extensions, eyelash and eyebrow coloring. The disease in its manifestations resembles urticaria.

    A significant difference is the speed of the response. With toxicoderma, symptoms appear only after 20-40 hours.The disease is characterized by a recurrent course, when there are repeated contacts with the allergen.

    In the video, the head of the eye center covers in more detail the topic of allergic eye diseases and their dangerous consequences.

    Treatment of allergic diseases of the eyelids, preparations

    For all allergic diseases of the eyelids, urgent medical attention is needed! Treatment is aimed at eliminating the root cause, or achieving a stable remission, which is characteristic of eczema.

    For acute allergic reactions, antihistamines and corticosteroids are prescribed. If angioedema or urticaria occurs, the doctor prescribes the following treatment:

    1. Chloropyramine – 1 ml intramuscularly once (if necessary, you can repeat the injection after 2-4 hours).
    2. Dexamethasone 1% – intramuscularly 1 ml once.

    The use of the above two injections eliminates the disease in 90% of cases within 2-5 minutes.Swelling, redness, itching “disappear before our eyes.”

    If symptoms persist, repeated injections are prescribed, as well as drops and tablets:

    1. Opatanol, Polynadim or Crom-Allerg – drip 4 times a day for 5-7 days as an antihistamine antiallergic drug.
    2. Dexamethasone 0.1% is a corticosteroid drug. To eliminate edema and eliminate the main cause of the disease, they are also used 4 times a day.
    3. Inside, it is advisable to use one of the antihistamines – Loratadin, Zirtek (in the form of drops in children’s practice), Suprastin.

    In the treatment of eczema of the eyelids, ointment forms of drugs are used:

    Hydrocortisone ointment 1% or Akriderm – applied to the affected skin 2 times a day for 7-10 days.

    Pimafukort – is used when bursting bubbles appear, which happens with toxicoderma, contact dermatitis and eczema.

    Due to the variety of reasons that cause allergic edema of the eyelids (especially with a recurrent course), it is recommended to consult two doctors – an allergist and a dermatologist.

    Author of the article: Pyotr Olegovich Afanasyev, doctor.

    Used sources: zdorovo3.ru

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    One of the most life-threatening complications is angioedema, which can develop with urticaria. Treatment of this condition should be immediate, as there is a high risk and threat to the patient’s life.

    Why can edema develop with urticaria?

    What does angioedema look like? Any allergic reaction, including urticaria, is based on the immune response to the penetration of all kinds of irritating and foreign substances into the human body. At the very first contact with this factor, only an increased susceptibility to it develops, that is, the body remembers, but clinically practically does not react in any way. But in the case of all subsequent contacts, a response in the form of an allergy always develops.

    All symptoms of urticaria occur under the influence of histamine, which is produced almost instantly after the penetration of the allergen.

    As a result of the synthesis of histamine, the vascular permeability of the skin increases, which leads to the formation of redness and edema.

    Angioneurotic edema with urticaria occurs when the process spreads deep into the tissues, to the subcutaneous tissue, affecting the mucous membranes.

    Urticaria and angioedema can occur not only in the face and larynx, which is most often diagnosed, but also in the lower leg, chest, internal organs, and genitals.But, nevertheless, angioedema with damage to the mucous membrane of the larynx is considered to be the most life-threatening.

    What can cause the development of angioedema?

    Urticaria and angioedema have the same causes of development. The development of this type of reaction is not always necessary as a result of the direct intake of the allergen inside, that is, with food. Sometimes it is enough simple contact, inhalation of vapors, particles.

    Most often, edema with urticaria can be caused by the following factors:

    1. Food products, and, as a rule, these are substances belonging to the highly allergenic class.Among them are nuts, honey, citrus fruits, seafood, eggs, as well as any red fruits.
    2. The drugs that are most likely to cause the development of allergic reactions and edema are Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory, Antibacterial and Radiopaque drugs. Also, the edema reaction can be caused by the introduction of immunoglobulins, as well as vaccines.
    3. Urticaria and angioedema often occur in response to insect bites, especially hymenoptera (wasp, bee, bumblebee).
    4. Also among the most frequently diagnosed causes are pollen of various flowers and plants, animal hair.

    It is important to clearly know and remember which substance caused the development of such reactions, and try to prevent contact with it in the future. Since in most cases, repeated episodes of the disease in their condition and course are much more difficult and stronger than the previous ones.

    What does angioedema look like?

    Angioedema of the eyes Urticaria and angioedema have somewhat similar developmental symptoms.Sometimes angioedema develops immediately after direct contact with an irritating substance, and sometimes this condition occurs a short time after the onset of urticaria symptoms.

    Consider the clinic and all the symptoms for which the development of edema can be suspected.

    Angioedema with urticaria is a dangerous condition that often threatens the life of a patient of any age. It is accompanied by a sharp development of edema of the skin in any one area or part of the body, or even throughout the body.Gradually, the process begins to spread to the subcutaneous fat.

    On palpation, the swelling of the tissues is dense, warm. Skin color generally does not change. Itching symptoms are rare.

    When urticaria and angioedema occur simultaneously, a red rash in the form of blisters appears on the patient’s skin. And in this case, there is both itching and burning.

    Most often, this type of edema develops in the larynx region and in this case requires immediate action in order to remove this allergic reaction as soon as possible.The fact is that when the larynx region is affected, very often, literally in a matter of minutes, suffocation develops and a person may die.

    With the development of edema in the eye area, vision is impaired, with damage to the genitourinary organs, urination changes and becomes difficult.

    Diagnostics

    It is very important at the very initial stages of examination of a patient with developed edema to establish what led to such a serious complication. This is necessary in order to exclude a possible re-reaction, since urticaria and angioedema are often repeated and proceed even more severely.However, there is often a lack of an established cause, which is the diagnosis of idiopathic urticaria.

    It is important to collect an anamnesis from the patient in great detail, to try to find out if he has not used any new food products, new cosmetics, medicines before the edema. It is also important to clarify the presence of any chronic diseases, which can often be one of the reasons for such a deterioration in health.

    From laboratory tests, you can take a complete blood count, as well as determine the level of total immunoglobulin E in it, which indicates the presence of allergies in the patient’s body.

    It is forbidden for the period of manifestation of allergic reactions and, especially with the development of life-threatening edema, to put all kinds of allergy tests, provocative tests. Firstly, the result will often be false-positive or false-negative, and secondly, it can very much threaten the patient’s life. It is very dangerous to provoke the body to an allergic reaction again.

    What does the patient need to know?

    Sudden edema with urticaria is a rather unpleasant condition.Everyone who has experienced it at least once should know all the symptoms that have developed and try in no case to allow such reactions to develop again.

    It is advisable to always have a “passport of an allergic patient” with you, where the diagnosis will be written, all provoking factors are listed and basic recommendations are given. This is especially important in the case of intolerance to any medications.

    If it was not possible to identify the cause of this phenomenon, then it is advisable to remember the following:

    1. It is recommended to avoid prescribing and taking medications such as Aspirin and any others belonging to the Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory group.
    2. We must give up smoking and alcohol.
    3. Replace hot baths with showers.
    4. In cases of diagnosing Arterial Hypertension, it is recommended to exclude the use of ACE Inhibitors (Enalapril, Lisinopril and others), since it is this group of drugs that can cause a reaction of edema in case of its predisposition.
    5. A hypoallergenic diet is mandatory, especially during the period of onset of symptoms.

    In addition, you must always have one of the Antihistamines with you, so that in case of a sudden development of symptoms of allergy or edema, you can help yourself in time and prevent the deterioration of the condition.

    Treatment of angioedema

    Treatment of this pathology must necessarily be performed in a very short time in order to relieve an attack of an allergic reaction. Hospitalization of the patient in a hospital department is almost always necessary. This is due to the fact that even if it was possible to quickly remove the inflammation, this does not mean that it cannot reappear after some time, especially in cases of an undetected reagent.

    Urticaria and angioedema require the following treatment:

    1. Mandatory exclusion of the alleged provoking factor.
    2. Antihistamines help to relieve the first signs of edema.
    3. If necessary, prescribe treatment with hormonal drugs (Prednisolone).
    4. Treatment with Enterosorbents is also necessary, which help to remove the allergen from the body faster.
    5. It is desirable to carry out detoxification therapy in combination with diuretic drugs.
    6. A good effect is given by the appointment of Hyposensitizing drugs (Sodium thiosulfate)

    Treatment of this pathology is simply impossible without adherence to a hypoallergenic diet, since cross-reactions can often occur.It is also important to drink plenty of fluids in order to remove all irritating factors as quickly as possible and thereby relieve swelling.

    Angioneurotic edema can often be very severe, which requires its treatment in intensive care units.

    Used sources: vysypanie.ru

    Allergic edema, or Quincke’s edema:

    Angioneurotic edema is a fast, sudden and intense edema that develops on the subcutaneous tissue due to the expansion and increased permeability of blood vessels.Angioedema is also known as Quincke’s edema or allergic edema.

    Very often it develops as a result of the action of an allergen as an allergic reaction, in particular – to insect bites and the use of food.

    The disease can manifest itself at any time in life. However, it most often occurs in childhood or adolescence.

    It has been proven that stress affects the exacerbation of this disease, especially hereditary angioedema.Therefore, “neurotic” was added to the name of the disease.

    Symptoms of angioedema

    Symptoms of angioedema are similar to urticaria . However, urticaria only affects the epidermis (the top layer of the skin). Angioedema affects the deeper layers, including the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, mucous membrane and submucosa.

    Angioneurotic edema most often grows within a few hours or minutes, it is well limited, not symmetrical.Usually found in the area:

    90,020 90,021 eyes and eyelids;

  • red lip border;
  • 90,021 genitals;

    90,021 parts of the extremities remote from the body;

  • or on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract.

Edema occurs as a result of the accumulation of fluid in the tissues. May appear after infection, during stress. In addition, it can be idiopathic, that is, it develops for an unknown reason.

The disease is often accompanied by severe pain in the chest, abdomen, or a sudden feeling of shortness of breath (bronchospasm).Vision may also deteriorate.

Although itching, tingling, or burning may occur with angioedema, often symptoms other than discomfort do not occur. The swelling can be painful if it occurs over the joints.

The most dangerous is angioedema of the larynx. It occurs less frequently, but is accompanied by suffocation. The risk of death from it in the absence of appropriate treatment is 25%.

Not only food allergens, for example, can cause laryngeal edema, but also the introduction of local anesthetics during dental procedures.Facial swelling can also spread to the larynx.

Angioedema can be one of the symptoms of anaphylactic shock, which is also life-threatening.

Angioedema occurs in about every third person with urticaria symptoms. It, in turn, occurs in 20% of people. Edema without urticaria is much less common.

How does angioedema manifest?

There are three main types of its manifestations:

  1. Angioedema combined with urticaria: urticaria that itches with itchy, hot or painful edema.
  2. Isolated angioedema that itches: hot red swelling. They are often large and uncomfortable.
  3. Isolated angioedema without itching or burning: swelling / swelling of body parts. This type of illness is often not treated with antihistamines.

Angioedema eventually disappears in most people on its own. If the edema is persistent, does not disappear or diminish, it is most likely caused by other causes and not associated with angioedema.

Types and causes of edema

There are four main types of angioedema, depending on the cause: allergic, hereditary, idiopathic and drug-induced.

Allergic edema

Allergic is a common type of angioedema. It usually affects people who are allergic to certain foods, medicines, insect venom, pollen, or animal dander.

Edema from food or drug allergies can be severe but usually resolves within 24 hours.

Allergic edema can cause insect bites, contact with latex. Allergy to food or medication usually causes hives or itching, as well as angioedema at the same time.

At the same time, allergy is very rarely the cause of isolated angioedema, that is, one that is not accompanied by other symptoms of allergy.

But it is allergic edema that should be suspected if there are short-term episodes of symptoms that occur in similar situations: for example, after taking certain foods or drugs.

Allergic edema can also be a symptom of a severe allergic reaction – anaphylaxis. This condition requires urgent medical attention.

Allergic angioedema is not prolonged and often recurs upon contact with an allergen. Once it is determined which allergen caused this reaction, it can be avoided.

Conversely, allergies almost never cause edema that lasts for several days or recurs over several weeks.

But the role of food intolerance in the occurrence of edema remains controversial.

Hereditary angioedema (SAN)

Hereditary edema is a genetically determined disease and is often transmitted to children from parents. It is a disease of the immune system associated with insufficient function of the C1 esterase inhibitor.

Moreover, the gene responsible for the development of the disease is dominant. That is, transmitted from one of the parents, it will almost completely manifest itself in a person.

Two of the three types of SAN are associated with quantitative and qualitative changes in the structure of the protein encoded by this incorrect, mutant gene.

A mutation that leads to edema is formed in a quarter of patients anew, that is, it is not inherited from their parents.

The third type of SAN occurs predominantly in women. In this case, the factor of its occurrence is the use of oral contraceptives containing estrogens, and pregnancy.

With this type of disease in humans, there is an increased synthesis of bradykinin, which promotes vasodilation and lowering blood pressure.

Drug-induced angioedema

Quincke’s edema can be caused by certain drugs, such as penicillin or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).

According to one of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies, 30% of cases of angioedema that occur in emergency departments are associated with the use of ACE inhibitors.

In most cases, edema appears within the first few months of treatment. However, sometimes their appearance can be delayed for months or years, or edema appears only with an increase in the dose of the drug.

If angioedema is associated with an ACE inhibitor, your doctor may prescribe a different type of blood pressure medication.

The edema that occurs when taking ACE does not itch and does not cause pain. It usually occurs around the face, tongue, and throat and is not accompanied by hives.This is not an allergic reaction and can be confirmed by a skin test or blood test.

If symptoms disappear when the drug is discontinued, the diagnosis is usually considered confirmed. The swelling usually goes away a few weeks after the medication is stopped.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are another common type of medication that can cause swelling. For example, ibuprofen or aspirin used to relieve pain.

In one in three patients with angioedema, symptoms worsen quickly when taking these drugs, even if the person is not allergic to the drugs. Therefore, it is better for such people to choose alternative medicines for the treatment of pain, such as paracetamol or nimesulide.

Idiopathic angioedema

When a doctor, after analyzing all the usual causes, cannot determine what exactly causes angioedema, the disease is considered idiopathic.

Injury may be one of its causes.

Also, in people with urticaria and angioedema, thyroid diseases and certain types of inflammatory arthritis are more common.

In some people, edema develops as a result of an autoimmune process – that is, the immune system attacks the body’s own cells. Such swelling persists for many years for no apparent reason.

Infection – edema factor in children

Viral infection is usually the most common cause of urticaria and angioedema in children, especially if symptoms last more than 24 hours.

Is angioedema dangerous

Dangerous angioedema is when it spreads to the throat or tongue, resulting in difficulty breathing.

Throat edema requires urgent use of drugs: adrenaline in case of anaphylaxis or ikatibant – for hereditary angioedema.

Swelling on the outside of the neck is uncomfortable but does not affect breathing.

Medical assistance required if:

If, after diagnosing an allergy, the doctor has established that angioedema may be a complication of the patient’s illness, it is advisable for such a person to have an epinephrine autoinjector with him, which is used as first aid.

Allergic edema similar to angioedema

Some skin reactions similar in appearance to angioedema occur for various reasons.

  • Contact allergies to animals or plants are usually localized at the site of direct contact. Itching is often short-lived and does not cause internal edema. But it provokes weeping rashes that peel off within a few days.
  • Animal allergies can cause itchy urticaria and angioedema.However, it occurs predominantly in people with severe allergic rhinitis and / or asthma.
  • Insect bites bees, wasps and some ants – may cause severe local and temporary edema.
  • Palindromic rheumatism, a rare form of the disease, also presents with edema. It lasts for several days and mainly affects the joints and limbs. The swelling is usually more painful and hot than itchy swelling. Some people with this condition develop rheumatoid arthritis over time.

Edema caused by various diseases

Edema similar to angioedema is less common. They are symptoms of various diseases, usually progressive:

  • Dermatomyositis – muscle weakness, facial redness and edema.
  • Syndrome of the superior vena cava (large vein in the chest), which can lead to accumulation of fixed fluid in the neck, face and arms.
  • A disease of the thyroid gland can cause swelling of the face and lips, known as myxedema.
  • Rosacea causes nonspecific facial swelling, redness, flushing and acne.
  • Orofacial granulomatosis – Fixed swelling of the face and lips, sometimes associated with intestinal inflammation.
  • Subcutaneous emphysema (accumulation of air in soft tissues) often occurs after trauma or surgery.
  • Cluster headache is severe one-sided pain associated with puffiness around the eyes on the same side.

How long does angioedema last

The duration of the edema itself depends on its cause.If a treatable cause is found, or if the cause is an ACE inhibitor that has been discontinued, the episodes of edema should stop.

When the cause of the disease is not found, the edema may subside in a few weeks or months. Or it will continue for many years and it is impossible to predict when it will disappear.

Diagnostics

An allergist can make a clear diagnosis based on the symptoms present, a description of what may have caused them, and a family and medical history.

The doctor will also check to see if the person is taking any medications associated with angioedema, such as ACE inhibitors.

If before the onset of angioedema, the patient was exposed to an allergen, this means the likelihood of allergic angioedema. The presence of hives can also indicate this type of illness.

On the other hand, the presence of angioedema in one of the family members may indicate the hereditary nature of the disease.

A person with angioedema may be referred for further tests to confirm the type of disease. These may include:

  • Skin test to confirm association with allergen exposure;
  • blood test for the presence of specific immunoglobulins E to the allergen;
  • blood test to check the C1-esterase inhibitor, complement C3, C4, a low level of which indicates that the problem is hereditary.

You can consult an allergist and undergo all the tests listed above at the FxMed Family and Functional Medicine Clinic.

Treatment

Angioedema is usually effectively treated with medication, but episodes can be severe and require hospitalization.

Treatment of angioedema depends on the cause of it. But the most important thing that doctors have to do is to ensure the passage of the airway. This means that in an emergency, a breathing tube can be installed for the patient for the safety of his life.

Antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment, since the release of histamine is the trigger for edema in most people.Antihistamines block this effect.

Unfortunately, antihistamines are less effective in treating angioedema than urticaria. They are often completely ineffective for nonpruritic types of angioedema that do not involve histamine.

In severe cases of angioedema caused by allergies, epinephrine and corticosteroids are used.

Other medicines are used when antihistamines are ineffective in the treatment of angioedema.People with SAN are more likely to need these types of medications.

In recent years, several new drugs have become available for SAN patients. These include the C1 inhibitor concentrate and the bradykinin receptor inhibitor (Icatibant).

90,000 Eye allergies – redness of the eyes in children and adults: causes

Allergic redness of the eyes is an inflammatory lesion, the body’s immune response to contact with an allergen.

Allergy to the eyes may be accompanied by swelling of the eyelids, itching and burning of the eyes, photophobia and lacrimation, combined with allergic rhinitis or other diseases.

Redness of the whites of the eyes and the skin around them causes a lot of discomfort to the patient, so you should not delay treatment – at the first signs of irritation, you need to seek help from an ophthalmologist. The doctor will find out the cause of the disease and select an adequate therapy.

CAUSES OF EYE REDNESS

The organs of sight are vulnerable to the effects of allergens. The latter can be:

  • medicines;
  • household chemicals, toxic substances in the air;
  • cosmetics;
  • plant pollen;
  • animal hair, bird feathers;
  • sutures used in recent eye surgery;
  • dust;
  • viruses, fungi, bacteria.

Since most patients experience symptoms and signs of allergic eye redness in the summer, it can be concluded that the most common cause of the disease is pollen allergens, which are contained in the air during the flowering period of cereals, trees or grasses. If the redness of the whites of the eyes from time to time makes itself felt at any time of the year, they speak not of a seasonal, but of a year-round allergic reaction. Her provocateurs are connections with which a person contacts from day to day.

HOW DOES REDNESS OF THE EYES MANIFEST

Among the main symptoms of allergies on the eyes, doctors call:

  • sensation of a foreign body in both or only one eye;
  • fear of bright artificial or daylight; 90 022 90 021 dry eyes;
  • increased tearing;
  • itching and burning;
  • Inflammation of the skin around the eyes.

The patient’s eyelids may swell, the eyeballs may turn red.The amount of tear fluid is markedly increased.

REDNESS OF THE EYES IN CHILDREN

In children, an allergic reaction to the eyes may develop immediately after contact with the allergen or with a slight delay. The child’s eyelids are swollen, and liquid contents are secreted from the eyes. The kid complains that it is difficult for him to open his eyes, to look at the light.

Redness of the eyes or around them in a child may be accompanied by a severe runny nose. In severe cases, small ulcers form on the cornea.Then the little patient is in pain.

RED EYE IN ADULTS

Adults usually tolerate eye allergies more easily than children. Quite often, nothing bothers them at all, except for the reddened proteins. Since it looks unaesthetic, they try to solve the problem with the help of vasoconstrictor drops. This only aggravates the situation, as the blood supply to the lining of the eye may deteriorate.

Redness of the eyes in adults may be accompanied by burning, itching and photophobia, edema, and the release of a large amount of tear fluid.If the symptoms are severe and do not go away for a long time, you need to see a doctor.

REDNESS OF THE EYES IN ALLERGIC DISEASES

There are a large number of ophthalmic diseases of an allergic and non-allergic nature, which are characterized by one common symptom – reddening of proteins. Therefore, ophthalmology allergists-immunologists always pay maximum attention to symptoms and diagnostics.

The most common in medical practice are such allergic pathologies as:

  • Allergic conjunctivitis.Causes reddening of proteins, lacrimation, edema of mucous membranes, photophobia. It can be acute, subacute and chronic, seasonal and year-round.
  • Allergic dermatitis. The result of the use of drugs or cosmetics. Inflamed foci, edema appear on the skin of the eyelids and face. Itching and burning occurs. The eyes turn red.
  • Cold intolerance. Eyes swell and look sore after walking outside in winter. With this form, skin rashes can also be observed.

But these are not all diseases that affect the eyes. Toxic-allergic keratitis, uveitis are also diagnoses in which proteins turn red. They are rare.

TREATMENT OF DISEASES MANIFESTED BY REDNESS OF THE EYES

Regardless of the reason for the allergy, the treatment of the disease will be carried out according to the general scheme. First, you need to identify the allergen and exclude further contact with it. If this is not done, allergic symptoms will still remind of themselves from time to time; the patient can count on a stable remission only during the period of taking medications.

The next step is the selection of drug therapy. The doctor may prescribe funds from the following groups:

  • Antagonists of histamine receptors, stabilizers of mast cell membranes. They do not allow the release of allergens, due to which the symptoms of the disease disappear.
  • Corticosteroids. Effective for severe allergies. Relieve swelling, eliminate itching and burning. Reduces the severity of inflammation.
  • Vasoconstrictor drops. They are used to narrow the vessels of the eyes, to minimize ocular edema.
  • NSAIDs. Needed to reduce inflammation, pain. Usually included in the complex therapy.

When treating allergic eye diseases, ophthalmic ointments, drops, gels and tablets can be used. Therefore, treatment can be general, local, or combined. Often the best effect can be achieved by combining topical preparations with tablets.

“ERIUS”

In the treatment of allergic rhinitis accompanied by redness of the eyes, the latest generation drug “Erius” can be used, the active ingredient of which is desloratadine.

Erius helps to eliminate 10 allergy symptoms, including eye redness:

  1. Eye redness
  2. Nasal congestion
  3. Watery eyes
  4. Skin rash
  5. Itchy eyes
  6. Sneezing
  7. Itchy nose
  8. Itchy palate
  9. Nasal secretions

Desloratadine is an active metabolite of loratadine that prevents histamine released from tissues from interacting with receptors on target cells.Due to this, an allergic reaction does not develop.

In addition, desloratadine prevents the release of interleukins that trigger inflammation. As a result, the whites of the eyes acquire a healthy color. Tearing, itching and burning cease to bother the patient.

What is important, the drug “Erius” is active in three directions at once – antihistamine, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic. The effect of its use persists throughout the day.

The drug is produced in two forms: tablets and syrup.The first is intended for the treatment of allergic diseases in patients over the age of 12 years, the second can be used even if the symptoms of allergy have arisen in a six-month-old baby.

Moreover, “Erius” does not cause drowsiness, does not affect the speed of psychomotor reactions. It can be taken even in those moments when maximum concentration and speed of decision-making are required.

PREVENTION

To reduce the risk of developing allergic redness of the eyes, it is necessary: ​​

  • to exclude contact with the allergen;
  • eat right;
  • give up bad habits;
  • Purchase only high-quality hypoallergenic cosmetics.

If a person knows that the whites of his eyes turn red due to the pollen of certain plants, he needs to start taking antihistamine tablets before they begin to bloom. The appointment time must be determined by the attending physician.

L.RU.MKT.CC.03.2018.2206

Allergic diseases | TAIC

Allergic symptoms are varied.

Allergy symptoms can manifest in different ways and vary in intensity from mild to severe. Especially often the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose are affected.Therefore, common allergy symptoms are watery, red, itchy or puffy eyes, as well as itching, runny or stuffy nose, and sneezing attacks. Cough, shortness of breath, itchy skin, skin redness and a rash with blisters or nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea are also possible signs of allergies. In detail, allergic reactions are clinically manifested as follows:

  • allergic reaction of the mucous membrane of the eyes and nose (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis): lacrimation and red eyes, “runny nose” and nasal congestion
  • allergic reactions of the bronchial system (bronchial asthma): contraction of the smooth muscles of the bronchi and, as a result, shortness of breath (especially difficult exhalation), the formation of mucus due to chronic inflammation, hypersensitivity to other substances (tobacco smoke, fire smoke, strong smell of perfume) and some environmental factors (frost, stuffy room, laughter …)
  • Allergic skin reactions (urticaria): redness due to dilated blood vessels, blisters due to secretion of tissue fluid, itching
  • Allergic reaction of the gastrointestinal tract (food allergy): increased intestinal motility due to contractions of intestinal muscles, increased water secretion and, as a result, diarrhea

Allergic symptoms usually appear immediately after exposure to an allergen.Depending on the frequency and duration of exposure to the allergen, there may be either seasonal symptoms, such as those with pollen allergies during the pollen season, or year-round symptoms, such as cat allergens or house dust mite allergens.

Allergic shock is always a medical emergency

In the worst case, an allergic reaction leads to a life-threatening so-called anaphylactic shock, with a sharp drop in blood pressure, respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest.Anaphylaxis is an extreme form of an allergic reaction that affects the entire body. Signs of a severe allergic reaction can begin with tingling in the palms and soles of the feet, headache, dizziness, and cold sweats.

The risk group includes people who are allergic to insect venom, as well as patients with food allergies (for example, nuts, seafood, chicken eggs) or drug allergies (for example, penicillin, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), X-ray contrast agents).

Anaphylactic shock is always a medical emergency!

Emergency kit for risk groups

People who are allergic to bee or wasp venom and people from other risk groups should always carry a first aid kit prescribed by a doctor. It must contain emergency medications such as epinephrine, which can stabilize blood circulation again. Epinephrine in European countries is available in an emergency kit as a pre-filled syringe (autoinjector) and can be injected into muscle tissue through clothing.

In Russia, an emergency kit usually contains hormones and antihistamines to treat an acute allergic reaction.
To reduce the risk of anaphylactic shock, patients at risk are helped either to avoid allergens, that is, to avoid critical foods or drugs, or, in the case of insect venom allergy, to administer specific immunotherapy (SIT).

Emergency care: anaphylactic shock

If you feel signs of onset of allergic shock or are experiencing critical symptoms in the victim, immediately call the Ambulance

Allergy to venom from stinging insects.
(the most dangerous allergic reactions)

People who are allergic to insect venom often develop severe allergic symptoms after being bitten by a wasp, hornet or bee. Bee venom and wasp venom or the proteins they contain are the most common allergens to insect venom, and wasp venom allergies are even more common than bee venom or hornet venom allergies. Bumblebee or mosquito venom rarely causes allergies.

A wasp sting (usually without a bite) or a bee sting (usually with a residual needle) is always painful and leads to a local skin reaction, even in non-allergic people, in which the skin around the bite site becomes red and swollen.If a person allergic to insect venom is stung by a bee or a wasp, within a very short time (from 1 second to 5 minutes), whole body reactions can develop in the form of a severe systemic reaction or anaphylactic shock.

Therapy for allergy to insect venom is especially important.

Due to the high health risks, accurate diagnosis and therapy are important, especially for those allergic to insect venom. At the latest, when symptoms that are not limited to the site of the sting occur after a bee or wasp sting, the affected person should consult a specialist doctor with special training in allergology.

Specific Immunotherapy (SIT) is considered particularly effective in cases of bee venom or aspen allergy: up to 95% of wasp venom allergies and up to 85% of bee venom allergies can be successfully treated with bee venom allergies.

Tips for people allergic to insect venom
  • No fussy movements when a wasp or bee is around
  • Do not deflate or knock down wasps and bees
  • Do not drink from open cans, cover glasses, use a straw.
  • Do not eat sweets (ice cream, cakes, etc.) and grilled meat outdoors in summer / early fall.
  • Do not walk on the grass without shoes
  • Do not use strong perfume or hairspray; Use fragrance-free deodorants, creams, and sunscreen lotions.
  • Avoid outdoor sports in summer / early fall as sweat attracts wasps.
  • Do not plant flowers on the balcony or near the terrace.
  • Always carry an emergency kit with you (note the expiration date of the medication it contains)
House dust mite allergy

91,000 (most common triggers of home allergies)

House dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to house dust mites, more specifically to the components of the mite’s feces and body.House dust mites are tiny (<0.5 mm), invisible to the naked eye, arachnids that inhabit every home. House dust mite allergens are the strongest triggers for house allergies; Allergic particles are lifted up with the dust and then inhaled. Tick ​​allergy is the second most common form of allergy after pollen allergy.

Tick allergy always year-round
  • People with house dust mite allergies usually develop symptoms throughout the year.Symptoms are often more severe in the early morning hours, as the bed is the main source of mite allergens in many homes. House dust mites love warm, humid climates and feed mainly on dead human skin cells. House dust mites especially like to nestle on beds or mattresses, in upholstered furniture, carpets, curtains and stuffed animals.

  • Allergic symptoms are usually worse in autumn and winter. Because at the beginning of the heating season, many house dust mites die due to low air humidity, and dried, decaying excrement and the chitinous membrane of dead mites increase the number of mite allergens in the air.

  • Everyone who is allergic to ticks reacts differently to contact with ticks. People who are allergic to house dust mites often struggle with persistent colds, slightly reddened eyes and itchy nose, and sneezing. Some people who are allergic to house dust mites develop cough and breathing problems as an additional or only symptom, which are typical signs of asthma.In addition, fatigue and irritability may occur. In addition, children in particular sometimes react to mite allergens with skin infections. In any case, if you suspect an allergy to a house dust mite, it is recommended that an extensive diagnosis be carried out by an allergist.

Treat dust mite allergies as early as possible
  • Antihistamines or, depending on the symptoms, hormone sprays and anti-asthma drugs help with acute symptoms.Since house dust mite allergy can worsen, long-term treatment with specific immunotherapy is important.

Advice for people allergic to house dust mites
  • Change of bed linen every week
  • Blanket every 3 months
  • Use special mattress covers, wipe them monthly with a damp cloth.
  • Wash soft toys regularly or put them in the freezer in a plastic bag for a day.
  • Ventilate several times a day, especially in the bedroom.
  • Avoid an abundance of carpets, fur, open shelves and plants, at least in the bedroom.
  • Clean upholstered furniture regularly
  • Use special filters (HEPA filters) for vacuum cleaners.
  • Prefer to stay above 1200 m (above sea level)
  • When choosing a hotel, pay attention to such notes as “Suitable for allergy sufferers”.
  • Be careful when eating shellfish and crustaceans as cross-reactions may occur.
Pet allergy
(often cat allergic)

  • Animal hair allergies are commonly caused by pets. In some animals, people who are allergic to hair (hair) are hypersensitive to wool or hair proteins, skin scales and body fluids (saliva, urine, secretions of the skin glands). In particular, cats can cause extremely serious allergic reactions. But dogs, horses, guinea pigs, hares, golden hamsters and other rodents can also be a source of allergens.

  • Animal allergens can be found almost everywhere, especially from cat and dog owners, because dandruff and hair sticks to clothing, upholstered furniture, carpets, curtains, bedding and even walls. Cat saliva also contains a particularly high amount of allergens that cats distribute throughout the body when brushing their hair, so cat hair often acts as a carrier for allergens. And it is not surprising that allergens from cats and other animals can be found in residential and public areas (for example, a kindergarten), where they do not exist.

Inhaled animal allergens quickly cause symptoms
  • Animal allergens are mainly inhaled (inhalation allergens) and cause symptoms in allergy sufferers within a very short time. Possible signs of allergy to animal allergens: burning eyes and tears (allergic conjunctivitis), runny nose and sneezing attacks, coughing, shortness of breath and asthma attacks, as well as itching and rashes. If the allergic animal lives in its own home, symptoms appear all year round.

  • Symptoms can also occur in people with animal hair allergies if there is no direct contact with the animal, because some animal allergens, especially feline allergens, are very long-lived. Thus, it is possible that cat hair on a passenger’s coat on public transport, on a neighbor’s sweater at school, or when moving home if cats have previously lived in the new house, could cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to pet hair.

People who are allergic to animal allergens usually have to do more than just pets.
  • Antiallergic drugs (for example, antihistamines) from the pharmacy can help with allergies to animal hair with acute complaints. The medicine is recommended for temporary use only, for example, when visiting a cat farm. If a family member is allergic to animal hair, animals should not be kept in the apartment or house.

  • Unfortunately, allergic reactions to beloved animals can develop even several years after living together.A provoking factor can be, for example, a viral infection. Due to the longevity of some animal allergens, the subsequent renovation of the apartment is strongly recommended. If the “allergenic animal” continues to live in the house, there is a risk of developing allergic asthma. Individuals affected should consult their physician regarding treatment of animal hair allergy with specific immunotherapy (SIT).

Pollen allergies are commonplace

  • Pollen allergy, also known as hay fever, is the most common type of allergy.Triggers (allergens) of pollen allergy are pollen from plants or pollen in the air, or more specifically, certain proteins in pollen.

  • Pollen allergy to early flowering plants such as hazel, alder and birch, or meadow grasses such as timothy and bluegrass, or weeds, wormwood, ragweed is especially common.

Pollen allergy symptoms
  • Typical symptoms of pollen allergy are red eyes, sneezing attacks and a runny nose (allergic rhinitis).Most sufferers feel itchy eyes and nose. The nasal mucosa swells due to inflammation, so a stuffy nose is also one of the symptoms of pollen allergy.

  • Depending on the flowering time (pollen season) of the relevant plant allergen and the severity of the allergy, people who are allergic to pollen suffer to varying degrees. Many sufferers feel tired during the pollen season and cannot concentrate properly. In addition, some people who are allergic to pollen have allergic reactions to certain foods because they contain proteins similar to plant pollen – this is cross-allergy or fruit-pollen syndrome.

Stop the spread of pollen allergy
  • Over-the-counter antiallergic drugs available from the pharmacy, called antihistamines, provide only temporary relief from the symptoms of acute hay fever. In the long term, people with pollen allergies only benefit from specific immunotherapy (SIT), usually for three to five years. It significantly reduces allergic symptoms and prevents the expansion of the spectrum of allergens, the development of allergic asthma.

  • If a pollen allergy is suspected, it is important that the allergist rule out other causes of the symptoms and diagnose the allergenic plants in order to be able to adapt the therapy accordingly.

Tips for people with pollen allergies.
  • Take a shower and wash your hair in the evening
  • Wipe the apartment regularly with a damp cloth.
  • Briefly ventilate the air every day when the pollen count is at its lowest (in rural areas in the evening, in cities in the early morning or during rain)
  • Do not dry laundry outdoors
  • Leave your shoes and jacket / coat in the entrance area and do not take off your clothes in the bedroom.
  • Use pollen filters for cars
  • Rest by the sea, in the highlands or in regions where allergenic plants do not bloom.
  • Keep track of your current pollen count using sites (Pollen Club, etc.)

symptoms and signs, treatment of urticaria in children and adults

Urticaria ranks second after bronchial asthma among dangerous allergic diseases. Urticaria most often manifests itself in the form of an allergy to an irritant or may be a consequence of a certain disease.It manifests itself in an acute or chronic form. Acute urticaria occurs suddenly and lasts for several days or for 1 to 2 weeks. Chronic urticaria occurs for a long time over several years, rashes occur every day or at intervals.

There are several types of urticaria, depending on the factors of the disease:

  • Allergic urticaria – a reaction occurs due to various pathogens, an insect bite, food.
  • Idiopathic urticaria – this type of disease is diagnosed if it is impossible to determine the cause of the allergy.
  • Cholinergic urticaria – occurs due to severe emotional stress or physical exertion, in the presence of disorders of the nervous system. It can manifest itself in a chronic form.
  • Cold urticaria – occurs as a result of the body’s reaction to a cold climate, wind or water. Most common in countries with cold and temperate climates.

Causes of urticaria

The disease is based on the body’s response to irritating factors.Urticaria is caused by a high sensitivity to a specific pathogen. It could be an insect bite or some food. An antigen triggers a reaction in the body, and an antibody is produced by the immune system to destroy the extracellular antigen.

Urticaria can occur against the background of anaphylactoid reactions. In this case, the ability of mast cells (cells that are located under the skin and mucous membranes and contain a large amount of biologically active substances) to release accumulated enzymes and active proteins increases.This phenomenon occurs without the participation of cells of the immune system.

Among the causes of urticaria, chronic liver diseases are distinguished, which lead to a decrease in the destruction of histamine, which is actively involved in an allergic reaction. In many cases, urticaria occurs after autoimmune inflammation. In this state, the body’s immune system perceives its own tissues as foreign, resulting in allergies.

Other causes of urticaria are not fully understood, doctors find new factors every year.The disease worsens after taking certain medications, foods, insect bites. The chronic form of urticaria develops against the background of changes in the body and long-term diseases: chronic cholecystitis, adnexitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, stomach diseases, viral and bacterial diseases, alcoholism and others.

Symptoms of urticaria

Urticaria is much more acute in children than in adults. It can manifest itself in mild, moderate and severe forms. A mild form of urticaria is accompanied by mild symptoms: slight itching, no nausea, no swelling.Skin rashes form in one place and disappear after a day.

With a moderate form of urticaria, the patient’s condition worsens. Nausea, headaches, fever may occur, and Quincke’s edema forms in some areas of the body. This is a rapidly occurring swelling of the skin with allergies that spreads throughout the body in a short period of time. First, swelling occurs on the eyelids and lips, then the face and hands swell. The most dangerous is swelling of the larynx and tongue, in which the patient can suffocate if he is not helped in time.The skin swells, the rash is accompanied by painful sensations.

The most common symptom of urticaria is the formation of blisters on the face and hands. Formations of a red or pink tint, reminiscent of an insect bite or a nettle burn. At the site of the rash, the skin itches and turns red. Skin lesions may coalesce to cover some areas of the body. They are usually symmetrical.

With a moderate form of urticaria, the gastrointestinal tract can be affected, severe nausea and vomiting occur.The patient may experience a slight burning sensation and itching of the skin. Edema disappears after a few hours, or after 1-2 days, relapses of the disease are not excluded. With a severe form of the disease, the temperature rises, Quincke’s edema occurs, which must be eliminated with the help of drugs for allergies. Rashes appear on the mucous membranes of various organs.

Urticaria proceeds without complications, the skin returns to its previous appearance. After the rashes, there is no pigmentation, scars and other marks.Blisters can occur anywhere on the body and spread to the skin. In the chronic form of the disease, nervous disorders and insomnia may occur due to severe itching and discomfort on the skin.

Urticaria treatment

How to treat urticaria:

  • elimination of a pathogenic factor;
  • correct diet, excluding allergenic foods;
  • 90,021 taking medications for allergies;

  • body cleansing.

Treatment of urticaria involves, first of all, the elimination of the negative factor that causes the allergy.If the disease has arisen from food, it is necessary to remove allergenic substances from the body. You can take a laxative and drink plenty of fluids. Allergy to food is quickly removed with a cleansing enema, diuretics. It is most effective in the early hours of urticaria.

Urticaria symptoms are eliminated with the help of effective antihistamines, sulfates. Thanks to their effect on the body, the patient’s condition is alleviated, the rash on the skin and itching are reduced.The medicine is used in the form of injections or tablets. It is best to take the medications before bed, as they cause lethargy and drowsiness.

You can book medicines on our website.

Cold compresses help relieve discomfort and itching. To do this, mix one tablespoon of vinegar in a glass of cool water, moisten the bandage and apply it to the affected area of ​​the skin.

Equally important point in the treatment of urticaria is proper nutrition. It is aimed at eliminating painful symptoms and protecting the body from external factors.It is necessary to exclude the food allergen from the diet, and strictly adhere to the prescribed diet for 2 weeks or a month.

With this diagnosis, you can eat dairy products in the form of kefir and cottage cheese, boiled or stewed vegetables, some fruits, excluding citrus fruits, strawberries and other allergens. Confectionery, pastries, strong tea and coffee, canned food, salty foods should be excluded from the diet. During the period of urticaria treatment, it is necessary to refrain from milk, eggs, carrots, beets, tomatoes, red peppers, mushrooms, apples, cocoa, nuts, honey, seasonings and spices, as well as fried and smoked foods and foods.

New products should be introduced into the patient’s diet gradually, giving in small quantities. If, after adding a new product, the urticaria does not return, you can give boiled meat or fish. In this case, the diet should be adhered to for a month. During treatment, do not treat the hives rash with regular cream or ointment. This will only exacerbate the rash.

During the period of treatment, it is forbidden to take a hot bath, visit a sauna or bath, spend time on the beach, as the sun’s rays irritate and dry the skin.If a person falls ill with urticaria in the summer, before going out, it is necessary to lubricate the skin with a high protection sun cream. In the cold season, you need to dress warmer, be sure to use gloves and a hat.

To restore the metabolic process in the body, it is necessary to take iron complexes, B vitamins, sodium and others. During an attack of urticaria, glucorticoids, as well as histaglobin, can be used. For external treatment, baths with a decoction of chamomile, string, starch and bran are used, the skin is lubricated with water-zinc paste, ointments with hormones.However, topical therapy for urticaria has little effect.

Prevention of urticaria

The measures for the prevention of urticaria primarily include the elimination of a negative factor that causes allergies. It is necessary to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys, avoid viral diseases, helminthic pathogens. It is important to observe proper nutrition, lead an active lifestyle, and protect yourself from the effects of stress and other stress.

Patients with chronic urticaria are advised by allergists to adhere to some rules:

  • Wash hands and take a shower in warm water, as hot water negatively affects the skin and causes irritation;
  • it is better to buy clothes from natural fabrics made of cotton, linen, since they do not cause irritation, it is better to refuse synthetics;
  • for hygiene, it is worth choosing liquid soap with natural oils so that it does not dry out the skin;
  • after bathing or taking a shower, you need to wipe yourself off with a soft-bristled towel so as not to injure your skin;
  • it is worth excluding staying in direct sunlight and sunbathing in a solarium, especially for women;
  • avoid emotional stress and stress, take sedatives in the form of herbal preparations and tinctures to calm down;
  • to exclude the use of aspirin when diagnosed with allergic urticaria;
  • Observe proper nutrition, do not eat foods, fruits and vegetables that cause an allergic reaction.
  • 90 029 90 000 First signs of allergy: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of the first signs of allergy

    Sneezing

    Sneezing is a natural way for the body to get rid of irritating substances (dust, sand, etc.), which are removed along with a small amount of secretory fluid. With allergies, this reaction becomes exaggerated. Sneezing attacks last day after day for no apparent reason, with no signs of a cold.

    Nasal congestion, runny nose

    In case of allergies, the nasal mucosa becomes inflamed and thickened. This leads to disruption of the normal outflow of mucus from the nasal passages or even completely blocks it. Attempts to blow your nose do nothing and only increase the nasal congestion. Often, allergies are manifested by continuous or intermittent nasal discharge of large amounts of clear, watery mucus (“water from the nose”), whereas with a cold, the discharge is usually yellowish and thicker.

    Redness and itching of the eyes, lacrimation

    Eye redness, tears, itching and burning can occur when a foreign object (speck, grain of sand, eyelash) gets into the eye, but as soon as the cause of irritation is eliminated, the discomfort goes away. However, if you are allergic, the situation changes dramatically: itching in the eyes occurs without an external cause, and nothing can reduce it. This itching can last for weeks. The eyelids are usually reddened and swollen. Characteristic is simultaneous and equal damage to both eyes.

    Cough

    Cough is “invented” by the body to remove microorganisms, dust and other foreign particles that have entered the bronchi. It is a normal defense against colds. However, in bronchial asthma, cough does not have a protective function, but is a consequence of narrowing of the airway lumen due to allergic inflammation in the bronchi. This cough is characterized by paroxysm, “dryness” (ie absence of phlegm), the cough can be debilitating, “to vomiting.”Often with bronchial asthma, an attack of dry cough ends with a profuse discharge of light, slightly foamy sputum, after which relief comes.

    Shortness of breath, whistling when breathing

    Shortness of breath is a well-known sensation of shortness of breath after a run, when exercising in a gym, i.e. with intense physical activity. Pathological shortness of breath with allergic inflammation in the bronchi occurs at rest or with little physical exertion, often accompanied by a feeling of difficulty in exhaling.Often, such shortness of breath is accompanied by whistles and wheezing during breathing, which are heard by others.

    Choking attacks

    A choking attack is a painful, fearful condition in which the inability to breathe is manifested to a greater extent by difficulty exhaling. Often such an attack of suffocation is resolved by coughing with a discharge of white, frothy sputum. With an attack, there is a desire to take a sitting position with a slight tilt forward, drink hot water, which in some cases brings relief.

    Skin itching, redness and skin rashes

    Allergies are common, but not the only cause of itching and skin rashes. At the same time, allergic skin diseases are always accompanied by itching. Skin manifestations of allergies may look like nettle burns or combed insect bites (hives), swelling of the face and other parts of the body, edema (Quincke’s edema), and red scaly patches of various sizes (dermatitis).
    Urticaria rashes are usually not symmetrically located on the body, each blister lasts no more than a day, new blisters form in new places.
    The preferred location of foci of inflammation in allergic dermatitis is the elbow and knee bends, the inner surface of the arms from the elbow to the hands. Such lesions can persist for years, changing the structure of the skin.

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