Finger

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What to do plus symptoms, causes, and treatment

A dislocated finger occurs when a finger bone slips out of its joint. Sports injuries, falls, and accidents can cause a finger or thumb to dislocate.

Dislocating a finger or thumb can be extremely painful and distressing. Although dislocation is not a life-threatening emergency, it is still important to seek prompt medical attention.

This article describes what to do when a person dislocates their finger or thumb. It also discusses the symptoms, causes, treatment, and recovery for a dislocated finger.

Share on PinterestA person should not try to relocate a dislocated finger themselves.
Image credit: Mdumont01, 2013

People who suspect they have dislocated their finger should seek immediate medical attention. While waiting for help or heading to a clinic, it is important not to move the damaged finger or thumb. Applying ice to the finger may help to reduce pain and swelling.

Do not attempt to move the finger bone back into its joint; a qualified healthcare professional must do this. Trying to relocate the finger bone without proper training can make the injury worse and cause additional pain and swelling.

People who attempt to move their own finger bone back into place also risk permanently damaging the surrounding structures, such as:

  • tendons
  • ligaments
  • nerves
  • blood vessels
  • joint articular cartilage

A dislocated finger may appear swollen or crooked and is typically very painful.

Other signs that indicate a dislocated finger include:

  • numbness or tingling
  • bruising or discoloration of the skin
  • difficulty moving the injured finger

Fingers contain three joints, and thumbs contain two. A joint is where the ends of two bones meet. Ligaments are short bands of fibrous material that hold the bones together and help support the joint.

Dislocations can occur when a significant force causes the ligaments to give way, causing the bone to slip out of the joint.

Sports injuries are a common cause of dislocated fingers. According to a 2015 review, around half of all sports-related hand injuries affect the fingers. Sports with the highest rates of hand injuries include football, gymnastics, basketball, lacrosse, and wrestling.

Other possible causes of a dislocated finger can include:

  • overextending the finger
  • blunt force impact to the tip of the finger, or jamming
  • falling on an outstretched arm

People with health conditions that can weaken joints and ligaments may be at greater risk of dislocations.

A healthcare professional will examine the affected finger and ask the person about how and when the injury occurred. They may then order an imaging test to confirm a dislocation or evaluate the extent of damage to the finger.

Imaging tests for dislocated fingers include:

  • X-ray. X-rays use electromagnetic radiation to create images of the body’s internal structures. Doctors use X-ray images to confirm dislocations and to check for fractures or breaks.
  • MRI scan. An MRI scan uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the tissues inside the body. A doctor may recommend an MRI scan if they suspect significant tissue damage near the dislocated joint.

Treatment options vary depending on the location and severity of the dislocation.

Reduction

The first step in treating a dislocated finger or thumb typically involves carefully manipulating the bone back into the joint. The procedure is known as reduction.

Before performing a reduction, the healthcare professional may use a local anesthetic to numb the affected area of the person’s hand.

After the healthcare professional has completed the reduction procedure, they may order an X-ray test to check the alignment of the bone inside the joint.

Immobilization

After reduction, a person will normally need to wear a splint to protect and immobilize the injured finger while it heals. A splint contains a rigid strip of metal that supports a broken or dislocated bone. Immobilization stops a person moving their finger and prevents them dislocating or injuring it again.

A healthcare professional may also recommend “buddy taping” the splinted finger to an adjacent finger. Buddy taping provides support for the injured finger while allowing a greater range of motion.

A person with a dislocated finger may need to wear the splint for several weeks. However, wearing a splint for too long may cause permanent stiffness and reduced mobility of the finger.

K-wire fixation

Depending on the type or severity of the injury, some people with a dislocated finger may also have a bone fracture. A fracture occurs when a significant amount of force impacts a bone causing it to splinter or break into two or more separate pieces.

Finger fractures also require reducing and splinting. Some people with finger fractures may require K-wire fixation. K-wires are thin metal rods that surgeons implant to help stabilize bone fragments.

Surgery

Dislocated fingers that involve torn ligaments, fractures, or broken bones may require a surgical procedure known as open reduction.

Like other treatments for dislocated finger, surgical procedures aim to reduce, stabilize and restore mobility to the finger without damaging surrounding structures.

According to a 2017 review, dislocated fingers typically heal within 4 to 6 weeks. Factors that affect recovery time can include:

  • the severity and location of the dislocation
  • damage to ligaments and tendons
  • bone fractures
  • requiring surgery

Following reduction and splinting, some people may also require physical or occupational therapy. A physical or occupational therapist will show a person how to do exercises that strengthen the finger and improve the range of motion.

Some things people can do at home while their finger heals include:

  • keeping their splint clean and dry
  • keeping their finger elevated above the level of their heart to reduce swelling
  • resting their finger and avoiding moving it during the healing process
  • applying cold compresses or ice packs to reduce pain and inflammation
  • taking over-the-counter medications, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, to help reduce pain and swelling
  • regularly performing any finger exercises that a therapist recommends

Following recovery, a dislocated finger may be more prone to injury in the future. A person can reduce the risk of dislocating the finger again by:

  • performing hand and finger exercises to strengthen muscles, tendons, and ligaments
  • wearing a splint or buddy tape during sports activities
  • avoiding wearing rings while playing sports

While painful and distressing, a dislocated finger is not a life-threatening emergency. However, it is important to seek prompt medical attention.

A person should not attempt to relocate the dislocated finger themselves. Manipulating the injured finger can cause additional damage to the joint or the surrounding structures.

Following medical treatment, dislocated fingers usually take a few weeks to heal. Bone fractures and damage to the surrounding tissues can significantly increase recovery time.

What to do plus symptoms, causes, and treatment

A dislocated finger occurs when a finger bone slips out of its joint. Sports injuries, falls, and accidents can cause a finger or thumb to dislocate.

Dislocating a finger or thumb can be extremely painful and distressing. Although dislocation is not a life-threatening emergency, it is still important to seek prompt medical attention.

This article describes what to do when a person dislocates their finger or thumb. It also discusses the symptoms, causes, treatment, and recovery for a dislocated finger.

Share on PinterestA person should not try to relocate a dislocated finger themselves.
Image credit: Mdumont01, 2013

People who suspect they have dislocated their finger should seek immediate medical attention. While waiting for help or heading to a clinic, it is important not to move the damaged finger or thumb. Applying ice to the finger may help to reduce pain and swelling.

Do not attempt to move the finger bone back into its joint; a qualified healthcare professional must do this. Trying to relocate the finger bone without proper training can make the injury worse and cause additional pain and swelling.

People who attempt to move their own finger bone back into place also risk permanently damaging the surrounding structures, such as:

  • tendons
  • ligaments
  • nerves
  • blood vessels
  • joint articular cartilage

A dislocated finger may appear swollen or crooked and is typically very painful.

Other signs that indicate a dislocated finger include:

  • numbness or tingling
  • bruising or discoloration of the skin
  • difficulty moving the injured finger

Fingers contain three joints, and thumbs contain two. A joint is where the ends of two bones meet. Ligaments are short bands of fibrous material that hold the bones together and help support the joint.

Dislocations can occur when a significant force causes the ligaments to give way, causing the bone to slip out of the joint.

Sports injuries are a common cause of dislocated fingers. According to a 2015 review, around half of all sports-related hand injuries affect the fingers. Sports with the highest rates of hand injuries include football, gymnastics, basketball, lacrosse, and wrestling.

Other possible causes of a dislocated finger can include:

  • overextending the finger
  • blunt force impact to the tip of the finger, or jamming
  • falling on an outstretched arm

People with health conditions that can weaken joints and ligaments may be at greater risk of dislocations.

A healthcare professional will examine the affected finger and ask the person about how and when the injury occurred. They may then order an imaging test to confirm a dislocation or evaluate the extent of damage to the finger.

Imaging tests for dislocated fingers include:

  • X-ray. X-rays use electromagnetic radiation to create images of the body’s internal structures. Doctors use X-ray images to confirm dislocations and to check for fractures or breaks.
  • MRI scan. An MRI scan uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the tissues inside the body. A doctor may recommend an MRI scan if they suspect significant tissue damage near the dislocated joint.

Treatment options vary depending on the location and severity of the dislocation.

Reduction

The first step in treating a dislocated finger or thumb typically involves carefully manipulating the bone back into the joint. The procedure is known as reduction.

Before performing a reduction, the healthcare professional may use a local anesthetic to numb the affected area of the person’s hand.

After the healthcare professional has completed the reduction procedure, they may order an X-ray test to check the alignment of the bone inside the joint.

Immobilization

After reduction, a person will normally need to wear a splint to protect and immobilize the injured finger while it heals. A splint contains a rigid strip of metal that supports a broken or dislocated bone. Immobilization stops a person moving their finger and prevents them dislocating or injuring it again.

A healthcare professional may also recommend “buddy taping” the splinted finger to an adjacent finger. Buddy taping provides support for the injured finger while allowing a greater range of motion.

A person with a dislocated finger may need to wear the splint for several weeks. However, wearing a splint for too long may cause permanent stiffness and reduced mobility of the finger.

K-wire fixation

Depending on the type or severity of the injury, some people with a dislocated finger may also have a bone fracture. A fracture occurs when a significant amount of force impacts a bone causing it to splinter or break into two or more separate pieces.

Finger fractures also require reducing and splinting. Some people with finger fractures may require K-wire fixation. K-wires are thin metal rods that surgeons implant to help stabilize bone fragments.

Surgery

Dislocated fingers that involve torn ligaments, fractures, or broken bones may require a surgical procedure known as open reduction.

Like other treatments for dislocated finger, surgical procedures aim to reduce, stabilize and restore mobility to the finger without damaging surrounding structures.

According to a 2017 review, dislocated fingers typically heal within 4 to 6 weeks. Factors that affect recovery time can include:

  • the severity and location of the dislocation
  • damage to ligaments and tendons
  • bone fractures
  • requiring surgery

Following reduction and splinting, some people may also require physical or occupational therapy. A physical or occupational therapist will show a person how to do exercises that strengthen the finger and improve the range of motion.

Some things people can do at home while their finger heals include:

  • keeping their splint clean and dry
  • keeping their finger elevated above the level of their heart to reduce swelling
  • resting their finger and avoiding moving it during the healing process
  • applying cold compresses or ice packs to reduce pain and inflammation
  • taking over-the-counter medications, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, to help reduce pain and swelling
  • regularly performing any finger exercises that a therapist recommends

Following recovery, a dislocated finger may be more prone to injury in the future. A person can reduce the risk of dislocating the finger again by:

  • performing hand and finger exercises to strengthen muscles, tendons, and ligaments
  • wearing a splint or buddy tape during sports activities
  • avoiding wearing rings while playing sports

While painful and distressing, a dislocated finger is not a life-threatening emergency. However, it is important to seek prompt medical attention.

A person should not attempt to relocate the dislocated finger themselves. Manipulating the injured finger can cause additional damage to the joint or the surrounding structures.

Following medical treatment, dislocated fingers usually take a few weeks to heal. Bone fractures and damage to the surrounding tissues can significantly increase recovery time.

Dislocated Finger | How to Fix, Types & Recovery Time

Treatment options and prevention for dislocated finger

Treatment will depend on the severity and type of dislocation, as well as further details of the diagnosis, described below. Treatments typically include some element of pain control and may include other non-surgical or surgical measures.

Diagnosis

To diagnose a dislocated finger, a physician will usually take X-rays of your finger from multiple angles in order to visualize the entirety of the joint. Imaging the finger is important for determining treatment, such as if the joint is amenable to closed reduction or popping it back into place. The joint should not be popped back into place if there is a fracture in any of the surrounding bones. Furthermore, imaging can help distinguish between a dislocated and jammed finger. A jammed finger will not have evidence of dislocation on X-rays or changes in any of the surrounding tendons.

Pain control

The mainstay of therapy of a dislocated finger is closed reduction. Pain control and anesthesia is an important first step in closed reduction. In older children and adults, a digital nerve block is usually sufficient for anesthesia. In a digital nerve block, an anesthetic is injected locally into the nerve of the finger so that you don’t feel pain in that area. Young children may require procedural sedation for closed reduction of dislocated joints.

Resetting the joint and splinting

Once the physician has determined the direction of the dislocation, he or she will apply force in the appropriate direction to reset the joint in place. All closed reductions are followed by the application of an immobilization splint. The type of dislocation also determines how long you should wear a splint.

  • Dorsal dislocation of the middle joint of the finger requires splinting for about three to five days.
  • Dorsal dislocation of the joint closest to the tip of the finger necessitates a splint for two to three weeks.
  • A volar dislocation of the middle joint requires a splint for about four weeks.

Surgery

Surgery may be indicated in cases of joint dislocation. Some potential reasons to pursue surgical management include a fracture in the surrounding bones, continuous joint instability despite the closed reduction, or failure to reduce the joint despite multiple attempts.

Broken finger or thumb – NHS

Get medical advice as soon as possible if you think you have broken a finger or thumb. It may need treatment to heal properly.

A broken bone is also known as a fracture.

Check if you have a broken finger or thumb

It can be hard to tell if a finger is broken, dislocated or badly sprained. You’ll probably need an X-ray.

Urgent advice: Get advice from 111 now if:

You have had an injury and your finger or thumb is:

  • painful, swollen and bruised
  • stiff or difficult to move

111 will tell you what to do. They can tell you the right place to get help if you need to see someone.

Go to 111.nhs.uk or call 111.

Other ways to get help

Go to an urgent treatment centre

Urgent treatment centres are places you can go if you need to see someone now.

They’re also called walk-in centres or minor injuries units.

You may be seen quicker than you would at A&E.

Find an urgent treatment centre

Immediate action required: Go to A&E if:

You have had an injury and the finger or thumb:

  • is pointing at an odd angle
  • looks blue or feels numb
  • is cut and you can see bone through it
  • is cut and there’s bone poking out of it

If you cannot get to A&E by yourself, call 999 and ask for an ambulance.

While you’re waiting to see a doctor

  • try not to move the finger or thumb – it may help to tape it to the finger next to it
  • lift your hand up to reduce swelling
  • apply an ice pack (or a bag of frozen peas) wrapped in a tea towel for 15 to 20 minutes every 2 to 3 hours to reduce swelling
  • if there’s a cut, cover it with a clean dressing
  • take a painkiller, such as paracetamol (but do not take ibuprofen until a doctor has confirmed your finger or thumb is broken)
  • remove any rings from the affected hand

Treatments for a broken finger or thumb

A doctor or nurse might:

  • try to straighten your finger – they’ll give you an injection of local anaesthetic to numb the pain
  • put your finger in a splint or cast, or strap it to another finger to keep it in position
  • give you a tetanus injection or antibiotics if there’s a cut to prevent infection

You may need surgery for complicated breaks – for example, if it’s broken in lots of places or the nerves are damaged.

You may be invited back for a follow-up appointment to check how your finger or thumb is healing.

Things you can do to help

There are some things you can do to ease pain and speed up healing of a broken finger or thumb:

Do

  • take a painkiller, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen, to relieve pain

  • keep your hand up to reduce swelling – rest it on a cushion or a pillow

  • gently hold an ice pack (or a bag of frozen peas) wrapped in a tea towel on the finger or thumb for 15 to 20 minutes every 2 to 3 hours

How long it takes to recover from a broken finger or thumb

A broken finger or thumb usually heals within 2 to 8 weeks, but it can take longer.

It may be 3 to 4 months before full strength returns to your hand.

Once it’s healed, use your finger or thumb as normal. Moving it will stop it getting stiff.

Your doctor may be able to give you some gentle hand exercises.

Ask your doctor when you can return to contact sports or other activities that put a lot of strain on your fingers.

Non-urgent advice: See a GP if:

  • you’re worried the break is not healing properly
  • the pain and swelling has not started to ease after a few days
  • it hurts to use the finger or thumb once the cast or strapping is off

Page last reviewed: 10 April 2019
Next review due: 10 April 2022

Finger, Hand, and Wrist Injuries

Do you have a finger, hand, or wrist injury?

Yes

Finger, hand, or wrist injury

No

Finger, hand, or wrist injury

How old are you?

Less than 5 years

Less than 5 years

5 years or older

5 years or older

Are you male or female?

Why do we ask this question?

  • If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as “male” and once as “female”). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.

Has it been more than a month since the finger, hand, or wrist injury?

Yes

Finger, hand, or wrist injury over a month ago

No

Finger, hand, or wrist injury over a month ago

Have you had finger, hand, or wrist surgery in the past month?

If a cast, splint, or brace is causing the problem, follow the instructions you got about how to loosen it.

Yes

Fingers, hand, or wrist surgery in the past month

No

Fingers, hand, or wrist surgery in the past month

Do you think that any of your fingers might have frostbite?

Yes

Cold temperature exposure

No

Cold temperature exposure

Have you had a major trauma in the past 2 to 3 hours?

Yes

Major trauma in past 2 to 3 hours

No

Major trauma in past 2 to 3 hours

Are you having trouble moving your fingers or hand normally?

Pain or swelling can limit movement.

Yes

Difficulty moving fingers or hand

No

Difficulty moving fingers or hand

Can you move the fingers, hand, and wrist at all?

Yes

Able to move the fingers, hand, and wrist

No

Unable to move the fingers, hand, and wrist

Have you had trouble moving the fingers, hand, or wrist for more than 2 days?

Yes

Difficulty moving hand for more than 2 days

No

Difficulty moving hand for more than 2 days

Is there any pain in the fingers, hand, or wrist?

Yes

Pain in fingers, hand, or wrist

No

Pain in fingers, hand, or wrist

Has the pain:

Gotten worse?

Pain is increasing

Stayed about the same (not better or worse)?

Pain is unchanged

Gotten better?

Pain is improving

Do you have any pain in your fingers, hand, or wrist?

Yes

Finger, hand, or wrist pain

No

Finger, hand, or wrist pain

How bad is the pain on a scale of 0 to 10, if 0 is no pain and 10 is the worst pain you can imagine?

8 to 10: Severe pain

Severe pain

5 to 7: Moderate pain

Moderate pain

1 to 4: Mild pain

Mild pain

Has the pain:

Gotten worse?

Pain is getting worse

Stayed about the same (not better or worse)?

Pain is unchanged

Gotten better?

Pain is getting better

Has the pain lasted for more than 2 days?

Yes

Pain for more than 2 days

No

Pain for more than 2 days

Is your hand blue, very pale, or cold and different from the other hand?

If the hand or arm is in a cast, splint, or brace, follow the instructions you got about how to loosen it.

Yes

Hand is blue, very pale, or cold and different from other hand

No

Hand is blue, very pale, or cold and different from other hand

Is any part of a finger partially or completely cut off?

Yes

Part of finger cut off

Is it more than the tip of the finger or more than half the size of a dime, or can you see the bone?

Gently wash off any dirt, wrap the cut-off part in a clean cloth, put the wrapped part in a plastic bag, place the bag on ice to keep the digit cool and bring it to the hospital.

Yes

More than tip of finger severed

No

More than tip of finger severed

Was the finger or wrist twisted or bent out of its normal position, even if it is back in its normal position now?

Yes

Finger or wrist is or was dislocated

No

Finger or wrist is or was dislocated

Is the finger or hand trapped in something, like a jar or a toy?

Yes

Trapped finger or hand

Is there an object stuck in your finger or hand, and you can’t get it out?

This could be something like a nail, a needle, or a large piece of wood, metal, or plastic.

Yes

Embedded object in finger or hand

No

Embedded object in finger or hand

Has your hand or finger been injected with something under high pressure, like oil or paint from a sprayer?

Yes

Hand or finger injected with something under high pressure

No

Hand or finger injected with something under high pressure

Is there any swelling or bruising?

Did you have swelling or bruising within 30 minutes of the injury?

Yes

Swelling or bruising within 30 minutes of injury

No

Swelling or bruising within 30 minutes of injury

Has swelling lasted for more than 2 days?

Yes

Swelling for more than 2 days

No

Swelling for more than 2 days

Do you have weakness, numbness, or tingling in your arm or hand that has lasted more than an hour?

Weakness is being unable to use the arm or hand normally no matter how hard you try. Pain or swelling may make it hard to move, but that is not the same as weakness.

Yes

Numbness, weakness, or tingling for more than 1 hour

No

Numbness, weakness, or tingling for more than 1 hour

Do you suspect that the injury may have been caused by abuse?

This is a standard question that we ask in certain topics. It may not apply to you. But asking it of everyone helps us to get people the help they need.

Yes

Injury may have been caused by abuse

No

Injury may have been caused by abuse

Do you think the problem may be causing a fever?

Some bone and joint problems can cause a fever.

Are there red streaks leading away from the area or pus draining from it?

Do you have diabetes, a weakened immune system, peripheral arterial disease, or any surgical hardware in the area?

“Hardware” includes things like artificial joints, plates or screws, catheters, and medicine pumps.

Yes

Diabetes, immune problems, peripheral arterial disease, or surgical hardware in affected area

No

Diabetes, immune problems, peripheral arterial disease, or surgical hardware in affected area

Have you had symptoms for more than a week?

Yes

Symptoms for more than a week

No

Symptoms for more than a week

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

Pain in adults and older children

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that you can’t stand it for more than a few hours, can’t sleep, and can’t do anything else except focus on the pain.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt your normal activities and your sleep, but you can tolerate it for hours or days. Moderate can also mean pain that comes and goes even if it’s severe when it’s there.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): You notice the pain, but it is not bad enough to disrupt your sleep or activities.

Major trauma is any event that can cause very serious injury, such as:

  • A fall from more than 10 ft (3.1 m)[more than 5 ft (1.5 m) for children under 2 years and adults over 65].
  • A car crash in which any vehicle involved was going more than 20 miles (32 km) per hour.
  • Any event that causes severe bleeding that you cannot control.
  • Any event forceful enough to badly break a large bone (like an arm bone or leg bone).

Pain in children under 3 years

It can be hard to tell how much pain a baby or toddler is in.

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the baby cannot sleep, cannot get comfortable, and cries constantly no matter what you do. The baby may kick, make fists, or grimace.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The baby is very fussy, clings to you a lot, and may have trouble sleeping but responds when you try to comfort him or her.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): The baby is a little fussy and clings to you a little but responds when you try to comfort him or her.

Pain in children 3 years and older

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the child can’t stand it for more than a few hours, can’t sleep, and can’t do anything else except focus on the pain. No one can tolerate severe pain for more than a few hours.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt the child’s normal activities and sleep, but the child can tolerate it for hours or days.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): The child notices and may complain of the pain, but it is not bad enough to disrupt his or her sleep or activities.

Symptoms of infection may include:

  • Increased pain, swelling, warmth, or redness in or around the area.
  • Red streaks leading from the area.
  • Pus draining from the area.
  • A fever.

Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system’s ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in adults are:

  • Diseases such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and HIV/AIDS.
  • Long-term alcohol and drug problems.
  • Steroid medicines, which may be used to treat a variety of conditions.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer.
  • Other medicines used to treat autoimmune disease.
  • Medicines taken after organ transplant.
  • Not having a spleen.

When an area turns blue, very pale, or cold, it can mean that there has been a sudden change in the blood supply to the area. This can be serious.

There are other reasons for color and temperature changes. Bruises often look blue. A limb may turn blue or pale if you leave it in one position for too long, but its normal color returns after you move it. What you are looking for is a change in how the area looks (it turns blue or pale) and feels (it becomes cold to the touch), and this change does not go away.

Shock is a life-threatening condition that may quickly occur after a sudden illness or injury.

Adults and older children often have several symptoms of shock. These include:

  • Passing out (losing consciousness).
  • Feeling very dizzy or lightheaded, like you may pass out.
  • Feeling very weak or having trouble standing.
  • Not feeling alert or able to think clearly. You may be confused, restless, fearful, or unable to respond to questions.

Shock is a life-threatening condition that may occur quickly after a sudden illness or injury.

Babies and young children often have several symptoms of shock. These include:

  • Passing out (losing consciousness).
  • Being very sleepy or hard to wake up.
  • Not responding when being touched or talked to.
  • Breathing much faster than usual.
  • Acting confused. The child may not know where he or she is.

You may need a tetanus shot depending on how dirty the wound is and how long it has been since your last shot.

  • For a dirty wound that has things like dirt, saliva, or feces in it, you may need a shot if:
    • You haven’t had a tetanus shot in the past 5 years.
    • You don’t know when your last shot was.
  • For a clean wound, you may need a shot if:
    • You have not had a tetanus shot in the past 10 years.
    • You don’t know when your last shot was.

With severe bleeding, any of these may be true:

  • Blood is pumping from the wound.
  • The bleeding does not stop or slow down with pressure.
  • Blood is quickly soaking through bandage after bandage.

With moderate bleeding, any of these may be true:

  • The bleeding slows or stops with pressure but starts again if you remove the pressure.
  • The blood may soak through a few bandages, but it is not fast or out of control.

With mild bleeding, any of these may be true:

  • The bleeding stops on its own or with pressure.
  • The bleeding stops or slows to an ooze or trickle after 15 minutes of pressure. It may ooze or trickle for up to 45 minutes.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Put direct, steady pressure on the wound until help arrives. Keep the area raised if you can.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Finger, Hand, and Wrist Problems, Noninjury

Postoperative Problems

Cold Temperature Exposure

5 Signs You Have a Broken Finger (And What to Do About It)

About 38.4 percent of all broken bones are broken fingers. Your finger might be broken, and you don’t even know it. That’s because you can still move around a broken finger.

If your finger is injured, in most cases you will want to seek medical attention as soon as possible. You also want to make sure you do everything you can to prevent infections or making your injury worse.

Keep reading to learn more about the symptoms of a broken finger, and what you should do after a finger injury.

The most accurate way to determine if you have a broken finger is to consult with your doctor. In the meantime, here are five signs your finger might be broken.

1. Immediate Pain

The most tell-tale symptom of a broken finger is immediate pain after the injury. If the pain and swelling prevent movement or use of the fingers, there’s crushed tissue or exposed bone, then you should seek medical attention.

2. There’s Still Some Movement

A fracture will be painful, whereas a broken finger could still have some movement to it, and duller pain. It all depends on fracture stability, as some fractures can be more painful than others.

3. Bruising And Swelling

Usually, after five to ten minutes, there will be bruising and swelling. The swelling can even affect the adjacent fingers too.

4. Stiff Fingers

The finger will also stiffen. You might notice numbness of the fingers either from the trauma of the injury or because swelling compresses the finger’s nerves.

If you have a fingertip fracture, which is called a distal phalanx fracture can happen from and smashing injuries involving the fingernail.

These symptoms include a bruising or swelling of the finger pad. Usually, there will also be purple-colored blood under the fingernail known as subungual hematoma.

5. Exposed Bone

In some cases, the trauma can be so severe that the bone can becomes exposed through the soft tissues. This is called a compound fracture, and you should seek medical attention immediately.

How Common Are Broken Fingers?

Broken fingers are some of the most common traumatic injuries in an emergency room. This is because fingers are easily injured. The most common finger fractures occur in the bones located in the palm of the hand (metacarpal bones) on the finger bones (phalanxes).

This makes sense since fingers are used for everyday activities. There’s a higher chance that your fingers can get injured compared to other parts of your body.  Finger injuries happen a lot during the workplace and sports injuries, as well as during other accidents.

It’s important to understand the anatomy of the fingers and hand to understand the different types of finger injuries and how to treat them.

The hand is made up of three parts: the wrist, the palm, and fingers.

The Wrist

Your wrist is made up of eight bones. These bones move together to allow a vast range of motion in the wrist.

The Palm

Your palm or mid-hand is made up of metacarpal bones. These bones have muscular attachments. The bridge of your wrist as the individual fingers. These bones are commonly injured during direct trauma like a crush or punching injury.

The Fingers

As we mentioned earlier, these are the most frequently injured part of the hand. Fingers are made up of ligaments that are strong supportive tissue that connects bone to bone.

Fingers are also composed of tendons which attach the tissue from muscle to the bone. There are also three phalanxes (bones). There are no muscles in the fingers, as they move by the pull of the forearm muscles on the tendons.

There are three bones in each finger that are named due to their relationship to the palm of the hand. The first bone is the one closest to the palm, and it’s called the proximal phalanx.

Next, there’s the second bone or the middle phalanx, which is on all fingers but the thumb. Lastly, there’s the distal phalanx which is the smallest bone and the farthest from the hand.

Knuckles

Knuckles are joints that are formed by bones of the fingers that can be injured or dislocated due to any trauma on the hand.

The first and biggest knuckle is the junction that is between the fingers and hand called the metacarpophalangeal joint or MCP. This joint’s fracture is called a boxer’s fracture, as it commonly gets injured due to the closed fist activities.

The next knuckle is out towards the fingernail and is called the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP). This joint can get dislocated in sporting events when an object or ball directly strikes the finger.

The farthest joint on the finger is called the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). Usually, injuries to this joint include a torn tendon (avulsion) injury or fracture.

When Should I See a Doctor?

The treatment of broken fingers depends on what bone is injured and what kind of fracture you’re dealing with. The orthopedic surgeon on an emergency doctor will determine how stable your broken finger is.

Stable Fractures

If the fracture is stable, then the treatment could be as simple as buddy taping or splinting one finger to another. This could last for about four weeks, and maybe two more, and you shouldn’t do any strenuous exercise during recovery.

Unstable Fractures

If your fracture isn’t stable, then the injured finger will need to be immobilized. There are a few different ways you can symbolize a finger.

First is simply with a splint, which can realign the fracture fragments. If this doesn’t help stability, then a surgical procedure might need to happen.

Seek Medical Attention Immediately If

After an injury, if swelling and pain still limit the use of your fingers, or your fingers become numb, then you will want to seek medical attention.

If your injury includes crushed tissue, laceration, exposed bone, you must go to the emergency room or seek medical care immediately.

Some fractures can be subtle and the pain might be bearable. But if you suspect that your finger might be fractured, you should seek medical attention.

How Is A Broken Finger Diagnosed?

The main tool to diagnose broken fingers is with an X-ray. The doctor will need to do an X-ray to see the position of the broken finger bones.

For more complex injuries, the doctor might need to get the advice of an orthopedic whos specializes with bones and joints. Or your doctor might need to consult with a hand surgeon.

What Is The Treatment For A Broken Finger?

Broken fingers should only be treated by a medical professional. However, you can reduce the pain and stabilize your injury on the way to get medical attention.

At-Home Treatment

You will want to first make a splint to immobilize the finger. You can do this by placing a pen or popsicle stick next to the finger, and then wrap something around the stick and finger.

Be sure that you wrap loosely as if your finger is wrapped too tightly, it can cause more swelling and could cut off your circulation. Keep your finger elevated. Before any swelling happens, make sure that you remove any rings or jewelry from the hand that is affected.

You’ll want to then apply ice to the injured finger, as you head to an emergency room. Don’t apply ice directly to the skin, wrap a towel around the ice.

Medical Treatment

Your doctor will assess the stability of your broken finger. Treatment of your broken finger depends on what bone is injured and what type of fracture that you’re dealing with.

If it turns out you have a stable fracture, meaning it won’t get worse or complications won’t happen if you move your finger, then you might just need buddy taping. This is when your finger is splinted to another with tape.

Buddy taping should stay for about four weeks, then two more weeks of not using your finger. If you have an unstable fracture, then your finger will need to be immobilized.

You might need a split after reduction which is when the fractured fragments are re-aligned. If this doesn’t help with stability, then surgery might be needed.

Your surgeon will have different techniques of surgical immobilization. This could range from pinning the fracture with small wires, to a procedure involving screws and plates.

You will likely leave the hospital with some sort of splint that immobilizes you. Keep this clean and elevated, and try not to use your hand for at least one-week post-injury.

If your finger isn’t aligned properly, this could affect the healing of your finger and leave you with a permanent disability.

When Does A Broken Finger Need Surgery?

If your finger needs surgery, then you will leave the hospital with a splint or dressing. It’s important that you don’t disturb the splint. Your splint is what is holding your fractured finger in the right position to encourage healing.

Keep your finger’s dressing clean, elevated and dry to decrease swelling. Any activity can hurt the injury and increase pain. So it’s best that you don’t use your injured hand until you have your follow-up appointment with your hand specialist.

Follow-Up

You hand specialist might want to see you about a week after the injury happened for another x-ray. Here they will evaluate the position of your fracture fragments.

It’s important to make this appointment. If your finger isn’t correctly aligned this could affect how your finger heals and leave your hand permanently disabled.

There are some rare cases where after surgery, an infection can happen. You will know you have an infection if you have a fever, swelling, increased redness, and intense pain in the finger.

Other signs of an infection include a pus discharge and a foul smell from the injury. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, you will need to immediately seek medical attention.

Complications Of A Broken Finger

After immobilization, reduction, and healing for four to six weeks, there’s a good chance that your broken finger will now be healed. The most common problem after broken finger treatment is joint stiffness.

This is because of scar tissue formation and due to the immobilization period. You might need physical therapy from a hand therapist to help repair your hand’s range of motion.

You might realize that rotation happens when one of your finger bones rotates abnormally while it’s healing. This can lead to decreased ability to use your injured finger, such as when you are trying to grasp something. This can also cause a deformity.

There can also be a complication with some fractures called “nonunion.” This is when two ends of the bone don’t heal properly. This leaves the fractured area unstable.

Another complication could be if the skin is injured or if you need surgery. Sometimes an infection can happen after surgery, especially if you don’t let your finger properly rest and heal.

How Can A Broken Finger Be Prevented?

The best way to prevent your finger from getting fractured or broken is to practice safety, especially during sports and in the workplace. Most fingers get broken from machines while playing sports, or trauma that is self-inflicted like punching something.

Which is why it is so key to always use the right safety equipment when you’re doing any dangerous activity. As for sports, making sure you are wearing the proper safety equipment and practicing proper form is the best way to prevent a finger injury.

Always be sure you’re using the right safety equipment whenever you are participating in an injury that can put the safety of your hand or fingers in jeopardy.

If you get injured, don’t wait. Make sure you evaluate the injury as soon as possible and seek medical attention if needed.

Treat Your Broken Finger Now

Now that you know broken fingers are more common than you think. Try to keep your fingers safe, especially during sports or while operating machinery.

If you suspect that your finger is broken or fractured, be sure to treat it immediately, and seek medical attention if needed. Once your finger has been treated, make sure you follow the steps we suggested so your broken finger doesn’t get an infection or get worse.

For more medical resources and advice, check out our blog.

The specialists at Hand Surgery Specialists of Texas have extensive experience diagnosing and treating broken fingers.  They will take the time to identify the source of your symptoms and thoroughly discuss your treatment options. Call (713) 686-7166 to schedule an appointment at one of their many offices in Houston, TX today!

Joel Embiid returns to game after graphic finger dislocation

Joel Embiid’s left ring finger was stuck pointing in a direction that was anything but natural.

No problem. Pop it back in, put me back in, coach.

That was the long and short of the All-NBA big man’s brief and visually jarring injury to his left hand on Monday night against Oklahoma City. Embiid, merely annoyed at the severely bent digit on his left hand, exited the floor with 1:26 left in the first quarter.

It was promptly popped back into place — and Embiid simply returned to start the second quarter for the 76ers.

“It was pretty bad,” Embiid said after the game. “I was basically playing with one hand. So it was pretty bad, but in the midst of the losing streak, I wanted to make sure that I do everything possible to try to get us the win.”

Per Keith Pompey of the Philadelphia Inquirer, Embiid said he thought he injured his finger a couple of plays before he was subbed out with 5:39 left in the first quarter. The gruesome injury was something Embiid’s teammates were both put off by and concerned about.

”I nearly threw up when I saw that,” 76ers guard Ben Simmons said after Monday’s 120-113 win. ”I’m glad he came back out. We needed him. He’s a big part of this team.”

“I was worried,” said Al Horford, per ESPN’s Tim Bontemps. “I have had a dislocated finger, but I don’t know if it was dislocated or more severe. It looked pretty bad. I was relieved once I saw him come in so quickly and be able to go for the start of the second quarter.”

The injury prevented Embiid from playing with his usual force on the glass and he lost a bunch of rebounds to Steven Adams.

”I felt my finger snapping and I thought I fractured it,” Embiid said. ”They did some X-rays and said it was nothing.”

Embiid said there was a chance he might not play Thursday against Boston (7 ET, TNT).

“You know I want to play,” he said. “It is a big game. Last time we played them we had great success, but then again, whatever they want me to do. Obviously I will try to fight it. But they care about me and whatever they want me to do I guess.”

Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.

90,000 How to treat a bruised little toe?

A bruise on the little toe is a common injury to the musculoskeletal system that occurs when falling or hitting. The trauma is accompanied by pain, sometimes swelling and swelling. If the patient is provided with the necessary measures and first aid in a timely manner, complications that increase the recovery period can be avoided.

Symptoms of a contusion of the little finger on the leg

The little finger is most often subjected to blows and bruises, and is accompanied by sharp and severe pain, which immobilizes a person for several seconds.Severe pain occurs due to the presence of soft bone on the toe. Among the main manifestations of a dislocation of the little toe on the leg, the following can be noted:

  • The onset of sharp and severe pain;

  • The appearance of puffiness, which extends to the adjacent fingers;

  • Increased pain when trying to go down on the whole foot;

  • Detachment of the nail plate, it may acquire a dark brown color;

  • Mobility in the finger is impaired;

  • The appearance of redness in the area of ​​damage;

  • Feeling of pulsation in the fingers.

Symptoms may be of a different nature, some are faced with a sharp appearance of cyanosis and pain, an increase in the size of the finger. With such manifestations, it is imperative to visit a specialist, to take an X-ray of the finger to determine if the injury is accompanied by a fracture.

First aid for bruised little finger

A severe bruise of the little toe is characterized by sharp pain that must be immediately stopped by using first aid. First aid for a bruised little toe involves the following:

  • If a bruise occurred in a shoe, it is urgent to get rid of it, trying to have a minimal effect on the injured little finger;

  • A cold compress should be applied to the injury site, it can be either a cold bottle or ice wrapped in a towel;

  • If severe pain persists, the patient should take an anesthetic, namely: No-shpa, Ketanov, Analgin;

  • If, in addition to pain and limited mobility, there is a hematoma, sharp pain, cyanosis, it is necessary to urgently seek help from a specialist who will make the necessary examination and determine the presence of a fracture or other serious injury.

First aid should be given increased attention, because it depends on it the speed of recovery, as well as the level of pain during injury. If you have no idea what to do in such a situation, the only correct option is to seek help from a specialist.

How to distinguish a bruise from a fracture?

To find the right treatment, to eliminate pain, you need to understand what type of injury is present. Let’s take a look at how to distinguish between a fracture and a bruise, and what points you need to pay attention to.

Painful sensations in the occurrence of both injuries are identical, a person requires an anesthetic that will eliminate these manifestations. Differences will be observed only in external manifestations. If a bruise occurs, then only soft tissues are deformed, resulting in cyanosis, swelling, and redness. In the event of a fracture, the integrity of the bone is injured, which is accompanied by a complete lack of movement in the little finger, as well as sharp and prolonged painful sensations.

If, after receiving an injury, the patient does not seek help from a specialist, and observes pain manifestations for several days, we can say that there is a fracture or dislocation. It is possible to determine the exact nature of the injury only after taking an X-ray in a medical institution.

What should not be done if the little finger is bruised?

In order not to provoke a complication in the event of an injury, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the rules that speak of forbidden actions in case of bruises:

  • Warm up the damaged area;

  • Rubbing your finger, this can lead to blockage of veins, as well as internal bleeding;

  • Set your finger on your own, because it will cause even more negative consequences;

  • Prescribe painkillers to yourself, not knowing all the consequences of taking.

At best, it is worth contacting a specialist for help, who will examine the finger on the spot, determine the pain syndrome and prescribe the necessary treatment.

Treatment with folk remedies

Contusion is not a long-term type of injury, but it also needs treatment. You can use traditional medicine, which are aimed at reducing pain, swelling, and eliminating the inflammatory process. Traditional medicine suggests using a variety of remedies that have a positive effect on soft tissues, eliminating all the negative manifestations of trauma.Consider the best recipes for a bruised little finger.

  • Onion compress. You need to take a fresh onion, grate it and stir with 20 g of sugar. The resulting gruel is applied to the little finger under the bandage for 2 hours.

  • Oak bark and calendula flower bath. It is necessary to pour boiling water over the plants for 20 minutes, then add the resulting broth to the bath and lower the injured leg. You need to take baths 2 times a day until the symptoms disappear.

  • Cabbage leaf application. You need to take a fresh cabbage leaf and apply it to the surface of the damaged finger. On top, if necessary, apply a bandage for 2 hours.

  • Cold compresses. Ice applied to the affected area will help relieve inflammation and swelling. The ice should be wrapped in a cloth and closed for a few seconds. Repeat 3-4 times a day.

  • Plantain juice. From this plant, you can create lotions by using plantain juice.The damaged finger is wetted with it every 3 hours daily.

It is necessary to use folk remedies until the pain passes and other symptoms are eliminated. How long does a bruised little toe hurt? The duration of the pain depends on the degree of damage, in some cases the pain goes away after 2-3 days, in other cases longer treatment will be needed, from one week.

Treatment of contusion with medicines

Medical therapy in the treatment of a bruise on the leg plays an important role, it is prescribed by a doctor, after examining the injury and determining the severity.Most often, the use of ointments and painkillers is prescribed, among which they note:

  • Ketoprofen;

  • Ortofen;

  • Ibuprofen;

  • Raciniol;

  • Diclofenac.

These products are intended for external use, they are used 2-4 times a day for a week until the damage disappears completely. In order for the effect to persist for a long time, treatment with alcohol compresses can also be added, which in combination will give a good effect.

In some cases, doctors may prescribe the use of physiotherapy procedures that more deeply affect the damage and eliminate pain manifestations. Among the procedures, we note:

These methods are carried out only under the supervision of a specialist who doses the impact, knows all the features of the manipulations. Recovery with medical treatments is much faster than with traditional medicine.

Rehabilitation after injury

Sometimes severe bruises require rehabilitation measures that will allow you to quickly restore the impaired mobility.As rehabilitation measures, fixing bandages are used, which look like a part of a sock. The forefoot is characterized by a firm base, allowing a firm grip on the toes.

In addition to the fact that the patient must use this bandage every day, he is shown taking baths of sea salt, which will allow him to quickly restore mobility and eliminate any negative manifestations after injury. You need to soar your feet in hot water for at least 20 minutes, after the procedure, wrap them in a blanket or put on warm socks.

It is also worth paying close attention to shoes at the time of restoration. The toe should not squeeze the fingers, it should be soft and spacious. In the summer, open shoes are chosen; in the winter, you can take shoes one size larger. If the pain persists, you need to purchase orthopedic insoles that will soften the pressure on the injured toe.

Dislocations of the bones of the hand – symptoms of trauma, first aid and treatment, rehabilitation – Department of Traumatology of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Dislocation is an unnatural condition in which there is a complete displacement of the articular surfaces relative to each other. Dislocations of bones in the wrist joint represent less than 5% of the total number of dislocations. These injuries occur in the wrist joint. The wrist joint is: on the upper side – the radius and ulna, and on the lower side – eight small bones of the hand. Eight of these bones, arranged in two rows, create the wrist. To a greater extent, wrist injuries occur with the lunate and scaphoid bones; dislocations of other bones of the hand are less common.

The main causes of injury

Dislocations of the hand most often occur as a result of a fall with an emphasis on the hand, on impact directly into the area of ​​a specific joint, and when the permissible load on the wrist is exceeded.No one is immune from dislocation, this damage can happen to anyone, anytime. Do not take such injuries lightly. This can lead to adverse consequences, such as aseptic necrosis and, as a result, loss of hand functionality.

Symptoms of hand dislocations

  • Sharp pain in the palm and wrist
  • Joint movements are limited
  • Swelling of the hand
  • Tingling in the fingers, possibly numbness
  • Obvious deformity of the damaged joint
  • Slow or fast heart rate

Diagnosis of dislocation of the wrist

The victim should immediately seek help from a trauma doctor.To make the correct diagnosis, the doctor will prescribe:

Professionals to contact

Treatment

Treatment of wrist injuries involves a set of measures to restore the natural natural position of bones.

Treatment steps include:

  • Reduction of the bones of the hand with local anesthesia or with anesthesia
  • Immobilization with the imposition of a plaster cast to ensure immobility and rest of the injured arm (applied for 2-3 weeks)
  • In case of median nerve entrapment, surgical intervention is possible
  • If necessary, the patient is prescribed pain relievers

Rehabilitation after dislocations

Immediately after the reduction of any dislocation in the wrist joint, it is necessary to develop the fingers of the hand, and after removing the plaster cast, the entire hand;

Restoration of the working capacity of the hands includes:

  • Physiotherapy (magnetotherapy, ultrasound therapy, inductotherapy, mud therapy, UHF)
  • Therapeutic gymnastics (with a recommended set of exercises to develop the injured joint)
  • Massage of fingers, after removal of the plaster, a lymphatic drainage massage is prescribed
  • Hydrotherapy
  • Vitamin therapy
  • Application of wound healing and restorative ointments

Make an appointment

You can sign up for a consultation with specialists in traumatology and surgery and undergo the necessary treatment in Moscow at the clinic of the Central Regional Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Children-Butterfly Foundation – Bandaging fingers and toes

Bandaging the fingers with bandaging: instruction for parents

Bandaging the fingers and toes of a butterfly baby is difficult. If the bandage is not properly secured, it will move, come into contact with the wound or bladder, and cause pain to the baby.

Let’s talk about the main methods of dressing. Please note: before bandaging, the child’s fingers should be lubricated with petroleum jelly, bepanten or Akvofor ointment.

Bandaging fingers on hands with bandage

This manual was developed by Lorraine Spaulding, the mother of a seven-year-old boy with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

1. From Vaseline gauze or soaked in Vaseline, make a bandage 17 cm long and 8 cm wide. Step 2.5 cm away from the edge of the bandage and make a 10 cm deep incision towards the center.

2.Wrap it around your arm so that the 1-inch strip is between your thumb and forefinger. This will provide additional protection if your hand is already wounded and will help keep your palm moist and soft.

3. Using a bandage 2.5 cm wide, start bandaging from the wrist. Wrap around the hand, then go up to the thumb as shown. Wrap your thumb and go back down.

four.Down the thumb, wrap around the inside of the palm, run over the outside of the hand, then stretch up to the index finger, wrap it – first up, then down, and run over the inside of the palm.

5. Continue to do the same with the middle finger. Always start wrapping the tip of your finger on the outside of the hand, where the nail plate is.

6. At this point, the bandaged arm should look something like this.Continue in the direction of the arrow.

7. Stretch the bandage downward, along the inside of the palm, and move to the ring finger. First wind your ring finger up and down from the pad.

8. From your ring finger, pull the bandage down and wrap it around your wrist. Then pull the bandage along the outside of the hand to the gap between the thumb and forefinger, and inside the palm towards the little finger. Wrap your pinky up and down, just as you did with your other fingers.

9. After bandaging the little finger, return the bandage to the wrist.

10. The tips of the fingers can be left slightly open for the child’s sense of touch to work.

11. At this stage, the inner side of the palm is not yet completely closed, leaving no bandaged places. Close all gaps. Be very careful! Never pull gauze or bandage too tight!

12.From your wrist, stretch the bandage along the inside of your hand to the space between your pinky and ring finger. Go back to the outside.

13. Cover the bottom of the inner palm with a bandage and slide the bandage along the outer side of the hand to the space between the middle and forefinger.

14. On the inside, slide the bandage to the bottom of the edge of the palm and on the outside of the hand, move up to the space between the thumb and forefinger.

15. On the inside of your hand, slide the bandage to the base of your little finger, and then, on the outside, slide it to the space between your middle and ring fingers. After passing the bandage between them, return to the wrist on the inside.

16. At this point, the inside of your hand will look something like this.

17. Take a second roll of cheesecloth, 5 cm wide. Wrap over the first roll along the inside of the base of the ring and little fingers.Wrapping the bottom of the outside of the hand, work your way up the inside to the space between your thumb and forefinger.

18. Make a full “turn” so as to secure the folded “start” (3-4 cm) of the second roll. Do not pull the bandage too tight. Make sure the palm stays straight and does not bend. The second layer will provide additional protection.

19. Wrap the changeover site one or two more “turns”, and then move to the wrist to finally secure the bandage.

20. When you have bandaged the brush, put on a supporting mesh stocking over the top. For the thumb, cut a hole in it.

Bandaging fingers without bandaging

    You can do without bandaging, using tubular bandages that are simply put on the fingers.

    1. Take the Paul Hartmann seamless knitted tubular bandage Stülpa with a high degree of stretch and an elastic tubular bandage for fixing the bandages on the fingers – for example, no. 1 from 36.6.
    2. Cut the bandages so they are slightly longer than your fingers.
    3. Treat blisters and wounds on fingers as usual. For this, use a contact wound dressing “Mepitel” or “Urgotul”, an antiseptic “Octenisept” or any other, needles for piercing blisters.
    4. Apply the cream or ointment you usually use to your child’s fingers – Sudocrem, Bepanten Plus or others.
    5. On each finger over the cream, put on a “shtulpa” and fasten on top with a tubular bandage for fixation.Try to choose the length of the bandages so that you don’t create unnecessary folds between your toes.

    Bandaging fingers to preserve joints

    The instructions for bandaging fingers in this way were provided by the Austrian house of epidermolysis bullosa EB-haus and the Debra Austria association (Salzburg, Austria).

    The special direction of applying the bandage allows you to correct the wrong position of the fingers.

    Remember that you shouldn’t overtighten your fingers! With this method, it is ideal to use self-fixing elastic bandages: this way, the fingers bandaged with them can bend slightly at the joints.

    So, here are the instructions.

    1. Using a bandage 3-3.5 cm wide, start bandaging from the wrist. Wrap the bandage around the wrist 2-3 times.

    2. Go upstairs to the thumb.

    3. Wrap your thumb, starting from the outside of the hand, as shown in the illustration.

    4. On the outside of the hand, return to the wrist from the edge of the palm.

    5. Having wrapped the wrist once, on the outside of the hand, pass the bandage between the middle and forefinger.

    6. Wrap your index finger in the same way as you did with your thumb, and again return to the wrist.

    7. After making another turn around the hand, wrap the middle finger in the same way.

    8. Return to the wrist again.

    nine.Repeat this step for your ring finger.

    10. Return to your wrist.

    11. Wrap the little finger from the edge of the palm, passing the bandage lastly between the little finger and ring finger. Return the bandage to your wrist from the thumb side.

    12. Attach the end of the bandage to your wrist. From the palm side, the bandaged arm should appear as shown in the illustration.

    Bandaging toes

    The procedure will be as follows:

    1. Treat wounds as usual.Use scissors to cut rectangular strips of Paul Hartmann’s Rolta Soft bandage. Run them around the affected toes, applying ointments and creams underneath. Place them around the affected toes, applying ointments and creams underneath.
    2. Wrap over with the same bandage, being careful to avoid wrinkles and excessive layers when applying, especially at the joints.
    3. Secure with the Peha-Haft self-locking bandage.
    4. For additional fixation of the bandage, put a cotton sock on the foot with the seams outward.It is advisable to cut off the elastic.

    Gloves for hands

    You put the cream on the child’s hands, and after 5 minutes it is on the upholstery of the sofa. A familiar picture, isn’t it? But the problem is solved simply: after applying the cream, you need to put on gloves for the child.

    For butterfly babies, soft gloves are an effective protection for fingers from growing together and moisturize the dried skin of the hands. Always wear gloves, day and night, so that you do not have to undergo painful finger separation surgery in the future.

    Even if you do not bandage the whole hand, but one or more fingers, still wear gloves. Then the kid will thank you!

    How to make a glove?

    1. Place your baby’s hand on a sheet of thick paper or thin cardboard and carefully trace the entire brush with a felt-tip pen, paying particular attention to the contour of the fingers. This procedure is good for both the left and the right hand of the baby – even if at first glance they seem to be the same.

    2. On the resulting contour, step back 1 cm from the fingertips and mark the cutting line. This will create gloves with open fingertips. We measure 5 cm from the conditional line of the wrist so that the gloves are not too short.

    3. For gloves, choose a soft knit fabric, 100% cotton or a touch of Lycra. Attach the pattern cut out of cardboard to the fabric and trace its outline with a felt-tip pen or crayon.Step 1/2-inch into the seams on the outside of the little finger and thumb and mark on the pattern. Do not allow seam allowances on the other sides of the toes.

    4. Cut four identical pieces, provided that the jersey is double-sided and the baby’s palms are equally developed. If there is a face and a wrong side, then you need to cut out 2 parts for the right hand, and 2 for the left (in a mutually mirror image).

    5. Sew the two pieces together along the outer sides with an allowance so that the seams are facing out.

    6. Cut a strip 2 cm wide and 25-30 cm long for inserts between the toes.

    7. Sew this insert between thumb and forefinger first, cut off the remaining fabric. Further – between the rest of the fingers.

    8. The glove is ready, it remains to make the second in the same way. Be sure to try it on and make sure that the child is comfortable. Excellent protection for your child’s fingers – done! Now he can play calmly without fear of injury.

    90,000 Medicine History Tablet. Unnatural little fingers in the paintings of Pinturicchio and others: med_in_art – LiveJournal

    When we were in Siena in the winter, I bought a guidebook there, hoping to learn something from it upon arrival, but fed up with a huge number of dry facts in a tongue-tied booklet, I abandoned reading and this time I forgot her at home.

    It is more interesting to walk in Siena without a guidebook. You can, for example, find all the memorial plaques with quotes from Dante Alighieri’s Divine Comedy, placed on the facades of historic buildings (a total of 8 marble tablets).You can explore the windows of antique shops or stare at photographs of the century-old Palio. That is, you can wander aimlessly: the city is small, everything that needs to be seen is impossible to ignore. And you can hang over looking at the paintings
    of the Piccolomini Library, where there are no books, but only “pictures”. This library is considered an absolute masterpiece of the artist Pinturicchio, nicknamed for his small stature. They write about him: “Each fresco by Pinturicchio, taken separately, is something rather empty, extremely naive and conventional.However, in the overall effect, its bright colors, abundance of gold and sophisticated ornamentation, which he likes to surround his main subjects, make an enchanting impression. ” , got acquainted with his work with the help of the Internet Why his fate was sad: he unexpectedly died in the winter of 1513 in Siena, before he reached the age of sixty, one might say, at the zenith of his creative path.It turns out that his wife and her lover, who encroached on the inheritance of the artist, who suffered not only from osteogenesis imperfecta, but also deafness, starved him or, perhaps, even poisoned him with poison (I must say that the insidious wife, after the death of the faithful, also remained “with a nose” : her lover eventually married the artist’s daughter, having received and squandered all the inheritance: I learned all this thanks to the built-in translator option in Google: there is a website in Siena translated by my translator as a “daily history pill” – read it).Sadly, and another. Vasari, who clearly did not like the artist (all his contemporaries wrote about this dislike, they say, this was facilitated by the lack of orders from Vasari himself, while Pinturicchio was in demand), left very little information in his life description, moreover, in the book he speaks negatively about him, considering his fame is not well-deserved, and reproaches the artist for an excessive desire to please customers.

    But I was interested in another fact. While I was looking for information about Pinturicchio, I stumbled upon the fact that he is one of the 9 artists of the Italian Renaissance, strangely depicting the little finger in his frescoes, which for 20 years has immensely worried rheumatologists and medical historians.

    So, a close look at the hands will surely find this oddity in the image of the fifth finger: it is unnaturally, nonphysiologically bent, as if broken or dislocated.
    What kind of disease struck his models?

    I propose to go sequentially, according to the chronological order of publications by different researchers, and at the same time dive into the features of the images of people in the Renaissance.

    “Look at the hands, how they ask, call, conjure, threaten, pray, refuse, beckon, admire, confess, teach, command, ridicule and, besides, with what variations gesticulation occurs, which the human language cannot do” (c) Michel de Montaigne

    The Renaissance was characterized by some “technical” features in the visual arts, so to speak.The desire and the emerging knowledge of perspective made it possible to depict the human body more realistic than it was before. So, artists began to study anatomy and actively attend autopsies. In fact, images of people at this time combined medical knowledge and artistic skills. But whoever has drawn hands at least once knows that this is the most difficult task in painting: to capture them in dynamics, and even anatomically correct them in statics. This skill requires a fairly active and lengthy training.

    It is clear that our attempts to find out whether the disease is depicted on canvas, or to identify the reason why the artists depicted rare anatomical features of the structure,
    are only speculative in nature. However, you must admit that this is a very exciting activity.

    In 2004 An article was published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine discussing hand depictions in 16th and 17th century Renaissance works by Flemish artists.

    In this first work, the authors Hijmans and Dequeker defended the position of camptodactyly (congenital flexion of the finger, most often the little finger), images of which were found in the Dutch artist Dirk Bouts (JR Soc Med 2004; 97 : 549 – 551). Throughout the article, the authors gracefully exclude other causes, such as rheumatological diseases (Bouchard’s nodules and rheumatoid arthritis) and various deformities of the fingers (clinodactyly, arachnodactyly).The authors considered that Boates, who was famous for his attention to detail, could not deliberately depict any anomalies in pursuit of fashion, therefore “mannerism” (a trend that allows you to distort reality in images) was rejected as the cause of the “strange little finger”.

    In this article, for all its beauty and consistency, there is one serious disadvantage: it turns out that the authors made all their generalizations based on the works of one artist. They concluded their investigation by claiming that all the paintings with the strange little finger depicted the same person (one model).After the publication of this article, the editorial board was literally inundated with letters questioning this hypothesis. Moreover, the “ugliness” of the fifth finger in the same period was depicted by several artists, which discredited the diagnosis of camptodactyly made by Hijmans and Deckwecker based on the works of Boates.

    Discussion of the “non-physiological” image of the fifth finger, begun by Hijmans and Deckwecker (artist Dirk Bouts lived 1410-1475), was continued by Fras (he described this phenomenon in the canvases of Gerard David, who lived in 1455-1523) and Johnson (in the paintings of Filippo Lippi, 1406-1469, Hans Memling, 1430-1494, Cosimo Roselli, 1439-1507 and Luca Signorelli, 1445-1523).

    These researchers suggested that the effect resembling camptodactyly was added by Boates and other artists intentionally to comply with a certain convention that was prevalent at that time: idealization and even super-gracefulness in the depiction of hands.

    Ten years later, another group of scientists conducted a “systematic survey of the little fingers” among the works of Italian Renaissance artists. They complemented the “strange little fingers” collected earlier and tried to answer some previously unresolved questions.

    So, here are the nine Italian Renaissance artists whose paintings are sinister in the non-physiological position or even the “ugliness” of the little finger.

    Bernardino di Betto, also known as “Pinturicchio” (1452-1513), Domenico Bigordi, also known as Ghirlandaio (1449-1494), Paolo di Dono or Paolo Doni, also known as Paolo Uccello (1397-1475), Timoteo Viti (1469-1523), Giovanni Santi (1433-1494), who was the father of Raphael Santi, Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, also known as Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510), Piero di Benedetto de Francesco, also known as Piero della Francesca (1416 / 1417-1492), Pietro di Cristoforo Vannucci, also known as Pietro Perugino (1448-1523) and Giovanni Bellini (1433-1516).All of them were recognized masters of the Renaissance.

    A 2014 study (Lazzeri D, et al. JR Soc Med. 2014; 107 (12): 474-9), with the participation of art historian Professor Rodolfo Papa of the Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, Rome, confirmed that the distortion of reality was deliberate, in order to maximize the transfer of beauty, and this trend was recorded among all the major artists of the Renaissance, especially with regard to the hands.

    A bit of history: during the 15th and 16th centuries, two different schools of artists arose: those who followed the “idea of ​​the ideal” and those who were looking for a “real description” of reality (such a different interpretation of reality gave rise to two different schools in parallel thoughts).

    All of these artists were idealists, striving for beauty and splendor (this was the philosophy of Catholicism).
    After centuries of depicting flat human figures in profile, deprived of the proper volume and depth, not to mention perspective, the Renaissance Revolution brought to art a “revival” of interest in the ideal bodies of Greek and Roman cultures. To obtain perfect figures with perfect and harmonious forms, Renaissance artists often used techniques such as slight distortions of proportions, which were not noticeable at first glance, but in general only heightened the feeling of “ideal”.Two main examples of these signs of the Renaissance can be seen in Michelangelo’s David and his Pieta. In the first case, the head and arms are disproportionately larger. In the second statue, female hands are significantly larger than the hands of Jesus Christ (this was done intentionally in order to include the body of Christ in the pyramid of the composition for maximum harmony). Actually, such distortions to enhance the effect of works of art are not an accident, but a pattern.

    There is one more feature of these paintings.
    Almost no known model of these artists, who worked so fruitfully and depicted divine scenes, has survived. Exceptions can be counted on one hand, and their faces are repeated.

    In any case, it seems unlikely that so many artists whose artistic life together spanned more than a century and whose works were made in a wide variety of cities, including Perugia, Urbino, Florence, Siena and Rome, depicted the same phenotype (certain genotype).They clearly drew a once-created image of the ideal.

    Moreover, in different years of the artist’s life, the phenotype of the ideal model was the same. Even the repetitive facial features of the same artist in the depiction of the Madonna at different times cannot be considered as convincing evidence of posing the same model.

    And even the most violent imagination is difficult to imagine that Europe during the Renaissance was completely inhabited by people with deformed hands or fingers.

    Beauty! How ideas about beauty change over the centuries.

    References:
    1. Hijmans W, Dequeker J. Camptodactyly in a painting by Dirk Bouts (c. 1410-1475). J R Soc Med 2004; 97: 549-551.

    2. Fras C. Finger deformities in Renaissance art. J R Soc Med 2005; 98: 337-339

    3. Johnson HA. The Renaissance fifth finger. J R Soc Med 2005; 98: 87-87.

    4. Lazzeri D, et al. J R Soc Med. 2014; 107 (12): 474-9

    Frescoes by Pinturicchio https://barucaba.livejournal.com/181349.html

    Picolomini Library https: // galik-123.livejournal.com/189486.html
    Death of Pinturicchio http://www.umbrialeft.it/notizie/giallo-della-morte-pinturicchio-morto-siena-giusto-500-anni-fa

    Siena history tablets https: // www.iltesorodisiena.net/2015/12/11-dicembre1513-muore-siena-bernardino.html?m=1

    Dislocated toe (pinky, big): symptoms, what to do?

    A phenomenon often occurs when, after intense training or falling from a height, a sharp pain appears, and the doctor ascertains a dislocated toe.The muscular system begins to contract vigorously, and the articular surface of the bone is displaced in one direction or another. The toes are equipped with many nerve endings, so if you accidentally turn the foot or bruise, often the big toe, severe burning pain immediately manifests itself and leads to the inability to even step on the foot.

    No one is immune from a failed jump from a height, a strong blow with a finger on a hard object, excessive overstrain of the joint, and even from regular tiptoeing.Dislocation often occurs in athletes, when the thumb, as the most prominent among all the others, begins to swell and hurt sharply. Less often, the little finger or middle finger is prone to dislocation due to underdeveloped muscles in these places of the ligamentous apparatus.

    1

    How to distinguish dislocation from fracture?

    In case of dislocation, the site of the lesion immediately turns red, swells, there is a burning pain in the finger, which grows. A sprain may occur when it sharply constrains, and it becomes impossible to move a finger, its movement in different directions is limited.

    It is difficult to visually distinguish a fracture from a dislocation, therefore only a doctor, based on the results of the images after the ultrasound scan, can clarify the diagnosis and take appropriate measures, i.e. make the right. Already at the first examination in case of dislocation, the doctor will reveal the dislocated tip of the finger bone.

    The procedure is quite “jewelry”, it requires precision and extremely correct actions. It is not recommended to set your finger on your own. Any wrong movement can lead to complications and unpleasant consequences.This applies primarily to elderly people, in whom the bone structure becomes fragile, and any, even minor, injury, for example, when pinched by a door, can lead to dislocation, and it is rather difficult to correct a finger without experience.

    If you happen to accidentally twist your leg or subject it to a blow, then it is better not to tighten it and contact a traumatologist urgently. Only the right actions of a specialist will help you quickly get rid of unpleasant symptoms, and significantly reduce the rehabilitation period in the future.

    Dislocation of the thumb leads to displacement of the distal phalanx to one side or the other, rupture of the plantar or lateral ligament. Clamping of the sesamoid bone between the articular surfaces may occur, which will lead to difficulties in the process of drawing the right.

    How to understand and recognize an injury if you cannot go to the hospital. Just a minor bruise or a major fracture?

    Dislocation of the little toe is less common, but when the blow falls on the outer part, the bone may move inward or upward.Together with the dislocation of the metatarsophalangeal joint due to its size and greater mobility, a dislocation with a displacement of the 4th toe on the foot is often observed, which is slightly higher than the little toe, but is also not protected from blows. The thumb is most often injured because it occupies a central position and is located just above the rest.

    2

    Diagnosis of trauma

    When contacting the trauma center to confirm the dislocation of the toe, the doctor will conduct a visual examination for the discrepancy between the location of the articular surface of the toe in relation to the rest of the nearby correct ones.Further, the traumatologist will issue a referral for radiography, MRI, ultrasound in order to make an accurate diagnosis and, on the basis of the images obtained, will develop an individual approach to treatment in case of a strong displacement of the composite surface.

    3

    First aid

    In case of dislocation, it is better to immediately contact the nearest emergency room. Painful symptoms are so unbearable that they impede movement and prevent you from stepping on your foot.

    As first aid you need:

    • Apply a cold compress or a piece of ice wrapped in a rag to the affected area;
    • apply a splint, splint, fix with a bandage;
    • Raise the leg up to increase blood flow at the site of the lesion.

    Incorrect rough manipulations should not be carried out at home, it is better to leave your leg alone and go to the emergency room. Only an x-ray will help identify the cause of the injury. Caution requires manipulation in case of dislocation of the little finger, when only an experienced specialist can carry out the correct actions, apply a splint, bandage together with the nearest healthy finger. At home, you can only apply ice, fix your finger and see a doctor.

    It is best to correct the dislocated finger immediately after injury in order to avoid the development of soft tissue edema and in order to heal the injured area as quickly as possible.But only specialists can do it. Based on the X-ray, the doctor will identify the exact location of the lesion and, with careful movements, adjust the dislocated bone on the thumb or little finger.

    The main thing is to distinguish a dislocation from a fracture in time. Only x-rays will help in this, and independent manipulations can significantly aggravate the situation. An experienced doctor in a hospital will quickly relieve the painful condition, apply a splint, and fix it with a bandage. But old dislocations are often no longer subject to righting.The finger begins to grow at random, an ingrown nail is observed, then the operation cannot be dispensed with.

    Types, symptoms and treatment of a fracture of the phalanx of a finger on the hand

    Usually, after applying a plaster cast, the doctor recommends limiting movement to 25 days, and at the appointed time you will need to go for dressings. In order to eliminate as much as possible any load on the sore finger, it is better to take care of purchasing a crutch for use as a support, until the plaster splint is removed and the joint is fully restored.Additionally, the doctor will prescribe:

    • pain relievers to relieve pain;
    • antibiotics for the elimination of the inflammatory process;
    • vitamins to support the immune system.

    During the treatment period (at least in the first 2-3 days), it is recommended to stay in bed, to protect the sore finger from any, even minor physical impact, to raise the leg more often to improve blood outflow.

    When stretching the ligaments, you can apply warming ointments, gently massage the diseased areas for faster restoration of the tissues and structure of the phalanx of the injured finger.

    There is no special scheme for dislocation, therefore, the treatment is purely individual and is developed exclusively by a doctor. In severe cases, an operation, laser surgery can be prescribed, if the dislocation has led to inflammation and suppuration of bone tissue, atrophy of the finger, and an incision cannot be dispensed with. Next, the doctor treats the place with antiseptics, stitches.

    Of the recovery procedures, a course of exercise therapy, physiotherapy, therapeutic exercises, massage is recommended, which will help to avoid repetitions of finger displacement in the future.

    It is possible to carry out the stretching procedure by extending the finger in length, installing a special wire, leaving it for fixation in case of displacement, until the joint takes its original place. To carry out immobilization of the finger, an adhesive plaster or plaster bandage is applied for up to 3 weeks, taking into account the degree of dislocation.

    Rarely do doctors resort to resection of the proximal phalanx followed by stretching of the finger so that it does not bend in the future.

    No one is immune from dislocation, painfulness with such an injury appears immediately.You can confuse a dislocation with a fracture, and the sooner you go to the emergency room, the easier the procedure will be to straighten the dislocated bone, and the rehabilitation period will be significantly reduced. It is always more effective to carry out manipulations immediately after damage, because chronic dislocations are more difficult to eliminate, and sometimes even useless.

    Protective and reinforced swollen toe

    Protective. Swollen Sock is designed to help eliminate workplace hazard scenarios that can lead to foot injuries.Alibaba.com has these files. Swollen Toe has a variety of multi-functional designs to meet your indoor and outdoor safety requirements. Unlike regular shoes. swollen toe is durable as it is used in sectors known to be hazardous in the workplace, such as the construction industry.

    They are specialized. puffy sock are made from genuine materials that vary by location.Waterproof. swollen sock is very important to prevent liquid from entering the feet and causing discomfort. These. puffy toe is also reinforced with steel tips to make them more durable and provide extra protection. In this market, you are sure to find all-season shoes with anti-slip soles for protection both indoors and outdoors.

    They are waterproof. puffy sock , available on Alibaba.com are a good reason for them to be at the top of your wishlist, as they ensure that you can work in swampy areas. These. The puffy sock is also made with a ventilated air mesh that ensures your feet stay dry when working in hot summer weather. All-seasonality of these. puffy toe is the reason they are produced with unique features such as non-slip spiked soles.

    They are amazing.The range of puffy toe featured on Alibaba.com is economical for vendors looking for affordable options. These shoes are more comfortable and provide additional protection from workplace hazards. puffy sock suppliers and wholesalers can also find great deals on bulk purchases.

    dislocation of the nail phalanx – Injury to the skeleton and internal organs

    By
    Edwin · Posted

    I read …
    just shocked…
    1 jamb, crossing out all the work at all.
    The author finds the difference in the concentration of alcohol in urine and blood by 1.2 times (see Table 4). And he decides that this is a “true” difference in concentration and proves the duration of dying, they say, alcohol remained in the urine, and continued to be utilized in the blood.

    Damn, they didn’t even realize that they had found a physiological norm. The fact is that if you take blood from a corpse and measure alcohol, then you will find, for example, in it. 1 ppm Now take and centrifuge the same blood and measure it in blood plasma and get, oh horror (!), 1.2 ppm in plasma.And the blood sample is the same. This is done, for example, in hospitals. In hospital laboratories, ethanol is usually determined in serum and therefore this factor of 1.2 must be taken into account in order to obtain a true value in whole blood.
    Why is the concentration of ethanol in serum higher than in whole blood? Because ethanol is poorly soluble in erythrocytes. Those. erythrocytes, just add volume and mass, i.e. as if diluting the blood sample. The calculation is based on weight or volume of the sample. Hence, it is normal that the ethanol concentration in the liquid fraction of the blood sample is 1.2 times higher.This is the same as with adipose tissue, in which ethanol practically does not dissolve and therefore the coefficient in the formula from Eric Widmark in women is 0.6 (more fat) than in men (0.7).
    Now imagine that there is primary and secondary urine? Naturally, there are no shaped elements in it. Now a question for filling. If a person’s blood concentration will actually be equal to 1 ppm at a certain time, then at the same time, ethanol in what concentration will be released in the primary and secondary urine? Right! 1.2 ppmThis is normal physiology. And the author riveted on this dissertation … Ignorance helps a lot to make new discoveries

    In the USSR, no one thought about this, did not measure and did not take into account the normal physiological difference in detectable concentrations in urine and blood. Hence, in old textbooks, this essay is about the difference in concentration in the urine and blood of a corpse and a living one and assumptions about the phases of resorption and elimination.
    Now they were measuring the liquor there. You will not believe, but for example. in the control group, their concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid was 1.18 plus minus 0.02 ppm higher.You can all guess why it is 1.2 times higher in the cerebrospinal fluid? Again, normal physiology …. rules. Erythrocytes do not enter the cerebrospinal fluid.

    2 jamb, crossing out all the work at all.
    The author builds all his speculations on the concepts of resorption and elimination, which he differentiates from the differences in concentration in urine and in blood. But this does not correspond to the concepts accepted all over the world after the work of Widmark. Resorption is the time at which the concentration of ethanol in the blood rises to its maximum peak. After the peak, the concentration in the blood begins to fall and this is the elimination phase.There can be no question of urine, because no one has ever measured ethanol there, and why if there is blood, and there is no need to solve the problem with residual urine, how much of it in the bladder before alcoholization.
    In theory, everything is easy and understandable, but this is true only for a single intake of alcohol. And if you drink for a long time in small glasses? Ethanol concentration will come in waves. Took it on the chest – the ethanol curve climbs up – resorption, sat, smoked, danced – the curve falls – elimination, however.Again he took it on the chest – again resorption ….., while the liver is engaged in elimination all the way, i.e. with the beginning of the first sip of alcohol and getting it into the liver after a few seconds, strictly speaking, the liver begins to eliminate alcohol, the kidneys help … Elimination always proceeds and in parallel with alcoholization.
    The author, at least a word about it, somehow took it into account? There are no hints in the abstract. That is, the terms “resorption”, “elimination” were taken arbitrarily, I assume by the difference in concentration in urine and in blood, while the normal physiological coefficient of 1.2 was not taken into account.
    3 joint ….
    They took the control group (heart attacks, gallows, etc.). the person drank and got into the noose or his heart stopped.
    OK! They look and find them, on average, the difference in blood and in urine is 1.18 different, in urine, naturally higher (explanation above).

    Now they take overcooled people who died after drinking for 4 hours or longer. The study group died for a long time and through a phase of unconscious prolonged lying in the cold. And here, we all come to mind similar cases when people lie for a long time after alcoholization and slowly die.Do you think the difference in concentration in urine and blood will be higher than in the control group? Well, of course …. trite to the limit. Ethanol in the blood will be excreted already, but in the urine it will not go anywhere, it will lie in the bladder like in a bottle. With prolonged dying, there will be a tendency for the difference to increase in favor of urine. Found this by the authors? Well, of course.

    BUT! Here the dog rummaged …
    The authors say that since the concentration of ethanol in the urine of the chilled is higher than in the group of gallows, this means …
    hold on to the chairs so that we don’t faint from the tension….

    ethanol, it is listed, disappeared from them, since the body first of all used it as energy. There is no such thing in the control group.

    And from what Budun should the gallows have this? They die quickly. All those who die for a long time will have a higher concentration in urine, and not only those who are chilled.
    Those. the authors in no way proved anything by comparing their cases with an uncomparable control group.

    4 cant … about the blood-brain barrier …
    she’s tired of it so far, maybe later I’ll add about the rest…

    This is not science rippled, but doing something without understanding what you are doing there. It’s sad … probably a dissertation candidate cannot be scolded for this. How could a young scientist know such subtleties of a subject? But where did the supervisor look and what did the opponents read or think? I am silent about the dissertation council, since this is a political organization and the issue of defense is not a question of science, but rather of personnel policy, which is somehow all the same crooked …
    It is sad for me for the Siberian court. honey. alcoholic science, well, in the part of this dissertation.So much work and in vain. And now the authors also refer to this toadstool in monographs. This is what myth-making in forensic medicine is all about. We all suffer and our expertise .