Finger alignment: They Say The Secret To Your Personality Is The Length Of This Finger. Mine’s Eerily True!
They Say The Secret To Your Personality Is The Length Of This Finger. Mine’s Eerily True!
By Cassandra Lewis, writer at LittleThings.com
It seems like every time I turn around, science announces some bizarre, and often unpleasant, discovery.
But for the first time in a long while, science has brought forth findings that are not only pleasant, they’re downright fun.
According to recent studies, if you’re looking for an accurate personality test, look no further than your very own hands — more specifically, your ring finger. As it turns out, the length of your ring finger indicates the amount of testosterone you were exposed to in the womb. The longer or shorter it is, the more telling.
I thought this was going to be a bunch of mumbo-jumbo, but when I got to my results, I was stunned. I knew that palms allegedly reveal a lot about ourselves, but our fingers?
To see what your hands say about you, compare your hand to the image below.
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To see what your fingers say about you, straighten out your left hand and compare it to the images below. Hand “A” means your ring finger is longer than your index finger. Hand “B” means your index finger is longer than your ring finger. Hand “C” means your ring and index finger are the same length.
Hand “A” means you are charming!
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Do others often flirt with you, or respond well to your flirtations? It’s probably because your ring finger is longer than your index finger.
You ooze with confidence and charm, so you tend to take more risks — and they often pay off handsomely. Some might say you can be a bit aggressive, but if you know what you want, why not go for it?
If this doesn’t sound like you, it might be time to make some changes in your life, because your fingers say otherwise! Your perfect profession would be soldier, salesperson, or CEO.
Hand “B” means you’re a natural leader!
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Would you consider yourself a confident, take-charge kind of person? If your index finger is longer than your ring finger, then your answer should be “heck yes!”
You were born to lead the pack. In sticky situations, you’re quick on your toes and eager to guide the way. Resourceful, even-tempered, and confident, people look to you for the right answers.
If you don’t agree with this, then your genes are telling you to reassess yourself, because you’re destined to hold the reins. Your ideal job would be politician, author of self-help books, or teacher.
Hand “C” means you’re a good communicator!
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Are people always telling you their deepest secrets, even if you don’t know them very well? It’s probably because your ring finger and index finger are the exact same length.
You’re a balanced person who tends to listen twice and speak once, and people are drawn to that. You make others feel comforted and appreciated when they need it most. You’re peaceful, compassionate, and warm, so you’re at your best when helping others.
If you don’t connect with this description, then it’s time to look inwards and find the balanced, softer side of yourself. Your fingers prove that it’s there. Your ideal profession would be nurse, social worker, or therapist.
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Using Ring Splints to Support Finger Joints
By Holly Welling and Donna Rae Siegfried
If you have pain or trouble moving your fingers due to arthritis, loose ligaments or injury, you’ll need support to help you complete daily tasks. Similar to taping a painful finger to another or using a Popsicle stick, ring splints can support alignment, improve function and keep deformities from getting worse. Silver ring splints combine style and therapy, providing a benefit no other medical devices offer.
What Do Ring Splints Do?
Some people with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may not be able to straighten a finger joint, which can make grasping difficult or putting on gloves downright impossible. In others, an inflamed tendon may cause a finger to feel locked in a bent position, causing pain and reducing function. Ring splints can be worn on any of the fingers to help these problems and other deformities, such as joints that become “stuck” in a hyperextended position or instability at the knuckles, which lets fingers cross under or over each other.
According to Cynthia Garris, an occupational therapist and inventor of silver ring splints, joint destruction and disease can affect the alignment of ligaments and cause joint instability. This creates a loss of support and decrease in power. Ring splints stabilize the finger and control the movement of the joint in its normal range.
“Swelling and pain are precursors to joint instability, so if you notice you’re starting to have these symptoms in your hands, tell your doctor you’d like to have an occupational therapist or certified hand therapist evaluate your hands and advise you about the benefits of a ring splint,” says Garris. “Once a joint becomes fused splints are no longer useful.”
Metal ring splints may also help improve function. In the only study of its kind published in 2004 in Arthritis Care and Research, 17 people who had finger deformities caused by RA volunteered to wear metal splints on their affected finger joints. In the 17 people, 72 silver ring splints were used on joints that were not actively inflamed. Results show that after one year of use, dexterity increased significantly from a score of 71 at the beginning to 85 at one year.
Ring Splint Styles and Types
Ring splints most commonly fall into two categories: swan neck splints, which are used to prevent hyperextension of joints beyond the neutral position; and boutonniere splints, which help straighten a joint that a person cannot actively extend.
Ring splints are available in plastic, if you want to try them temporarily, as well as silver and gold, for long-term use. If you plan on using them for years, you can have them crafted to look even more like jewelry by adding decorative bands and precious or semi-precious stones. Garris says that one splint can last more than 10 years.
Silver or gold ring splints are custom-fitted double-loops of flexible metal and are less bulky and more durable than foam or plastic ring splints. Because of this, patients are more likely to wear them regularly and benefit from treatment, explains Melissa Peavey, a Dallas-based occupational therapist and certified hand therapist.
“I have a patient who says that people are always coming up and asking her where she gets her ‘cool rings,’” says Peavey.
For more information on silver splints, visit SilverRingSplint. Similar ring splints can be found at OrthoPlex and plastic versions are available at 3pp.
Finger Length Predicts Health and Behavior
Researchers have discovered that a quick study of the hands — more specifically, the lengths of the index and ring fingers — can tell a lot about a person’s personality and risk of disease. Of course, your digits don’t actually control these issues; it’s closer to the other way around.
In boys, “during fetal development there’s a surge in testosterone in the middle of the second trimester” that seems to influence future health and behavior, says Pete Hurd, a neuroscientist at the University of Alberta. One easy-to-spot result of this flood of testosterone: a ring finger that’s significantly longer than the index finger.
Scientists are not at the point where they can factor in finger length to arrive at a diagnosis, but they’ve gathered evidence that shows how this prenatal hormone imbalance can affect a person for life, from increasing or decreasing your risk of certain diseases, to predicting how easily you get lost or lose your temper.
Researchers continue to study what sparks these hormonal changes and have begun looking at environmental chemical exposure, stress levels and diet during pregnancy.
How Do You Measure Up?
Increased verbal aggression Fq < 1
The shorter your index finger, the sharper your tongue: In both men and women, a lower Fq can predict more verbal sparring.
Improved athletic ability Fq < 1
A greater surge of prenatal testosterone can be an indicator of high levels of achievement in sports, as well as a mental toughness in athletics. In one study, college varsity athletes (male and female) were found to have shorter index fingers than other students.
Improved sense of direction Fq < 1
In women, a more masculine digit ratio tends to predict a better sense of direction, backing up past research that found men tend to have better spatial cognition than women.
More physical aggression Fq < 1
Men with shorter index fingers are more likely to pick fights. Women with the same hand shape are more likely to react with aggression after being provoked.
More risk taking Fq < 1
Men who experience a higher surge of prenatal testosterone, and thus have longer ring fingers, tend to be risk takers. One example: The most successful financial traders tend to have the longest fourth fingers. These behavior patterns seem to apply only to men.
Healthier knees Fq > 1
An index finger that’s shorter than the ring finger can be a sign of knee osteoarthritis risk, particularly in women, compared with people whose fingers are equal lengths, or who have a longer index finger.
Increased risk of oral cancer* Fq > 1
A high digit ratio — those with very little difference between the index and ring finger, or with a longer index finger — was found among men with oral cancer, compared with men with pre-cancerous oral lesions or no lesions, according to one all-male study.
Lower prostate cancer risk Fq > 1
Men with long index fingers and shorter ring fingers have a 33 percent reduced risk of prostate cancer. If they’re younger than 60, the risk is even less — 87 percent.
Editor’s Note: This article was amended on April 11 to reflect the following correction: Fq>1 is associated with an increased, not reduced, risk of oral cancer.
Opening Wedge Osteotomy for Valgus Deformity of the Little Finger after Proximal Phalangeal Fracture in Children: Two Case Reports
In the treatment of posttraumatic valgus deformity of the pediatric little finger, it is usually difficult to achieve accurate correction of angular and rotational deformity using closing wedge osteotomy. We report two cases of valgus deformity of the little finger (both 11-year-old female patients) successfully treated using opening wedge osteotomy followed by intramedullary semirigid fixation with a single Kirschner wire. A wire tip inserted from the retrocondylar fossa of the proximal phalangeal head was advanced along the radial side of the intramedullary cortex after gradual opening of the osteotomy site. If needed, further fine adjustment of the rotational alignment can be performed even after K-wire insertion. Postoperatively, the gap between the little and ring fingers in the fully extended and adducted position and the finger overlapping in the fully flexed position were completely resolved. The flexibility of the pediatric bone and sagittal clearance between the wire and the inner wall of the proximal phalangeal medullary cavity allow fine adjustment of the rotational alignment even after wire insertion.
A valgus deformity of the little finger sometimes occurs after conservative treatment or neglect of the proximal phalangeal neck fracture. Because of remaining ulnar tilt of the proximal phalangeal distal articular surface with or without rotation, the distal part of the little finger cannot touch the ulnar side of the ring finger in the fully extended and adducted finger position, although the proximal parts of the fingers can touch. The ring and little fingers overlap when the patient makes a fist, causing functional impairment .
To resolve the problems associated with such valgus deformity, closing wedge osteotomy is usually performed with fixation using a plate and screws or two Kirschner wires (K-wires) [2–4]. However, it is difficult to accomplish the exact resection of wedge bone and fixation according to preplanned correction angles. In contrast, an opening wedge osteotomy needs only one cutting line and careful opening of the wedge while making the opposite side cortex the center of rotation of angulation . As pediatric bones have a more elastic cortex and thicker periosteum than adult bones, opening wedge osteotomy is suitable for the treatment of pediatric bone deformity; moreover, children have superior bone healing potential and do not necessarily need bone grafting into the opening gap at the osteotomy site. After opening the osteotomy site, we performed intramedullary fixation with a single K-wire. This semirigid fixation allows further fine adjustment of the rotational alignment even after K-wire insertion. Herein, we report two cases of pediatric little finger posttraumatic valgus deformity successfully treated with opening wedge osteotomy followed by intramedullary fixation with a single K-wire.
2. Case Reports
2.1. Surgical Procedure
A midlateral skin incision of approximately 1 cm was made over the distal ulnar side of the proximal phalanx. The ulnar lateral band was moved aside dorsally, and the distal ulnar side of the proximal phalanx was exposed subperiosteally. An image intensifier was used to confirm the preplanned osteotomy line at the distal metaphysis of the proximal phalanx. The osteotomy line does not need to be the same as the fracture line, as long as the center lines of the reconstructed proximal phalanx and the middle phalanx of the same digit coincide. The osteotomy line in the metaphysis was preplanned to be parallel with a line tangential to the distal articular surfaces on an anteroposterior view on plain radiography. Multiple drilling was made at the preplanned osteotomy line using a 1 mm diameter wire. A 1.2 mm K-wire was then inserted through the retrocondylar fossa of the proximal phalangeal head, and the K-wire tip was advanced until just distal to the preplanned osteotomy line (Figure 1(a)). The insertion angle between the K-wire and the distal ulnar cortex of the phalangeal head was approximately 20°. Osteotomy was performed with a small thin osteotome, leaving the most radial cortex of the osteotomy site intact. The osteotomy site was then gradually opened until the preplanned angle was achieved, and the tip of the K-wire was advanced along the radial side of the intramedullary cortex to a point just distal to the epiphyseal line (Figure 1(b)). The distal tip of the exposed K-wire was bent, truncated, and buried under the skin. Bone grafting was not performed. After closing the surgical incision, the little finger was loosely buddy taped with the ring finger to allow active range of motion (ROM) exercises. At postoperative 4 weeks, we removed the K-wire after radiographic confirmation of callus formation at the osteotomy site.
2.2. Case 1: An 11-Year-Old Female
At 9 years of age, the patient fractured the proximal phalanx of the right little finger during kendo (Japanese fencing) training. At the time of the injury, she felt pain but did not consult any medical institution. When the pain resolved, the patient noticed valgus deformity of the little finger in extension and difficulty in gripping caused by finger overlapping.
Two years after the injury, she consulted our clinic due to functional and cosmetic impairments. There was a gap between the ring and little fingers in the fully extended and adducted position. The patient could not make a fist because of the overlapping of the little finger over the ring finger (Figure 2). The ROM of the finger joints was normal, except for the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the little finger (right: 40–45°; left: 40–70°). Plain radiography showed that the angle between the proximal growth plate and the distal articular surface of the proximal phalanx was 29° on the affected side compared with 5.5° on the contralateral noninjured side (Figure 3). Bilateral middle brachyphalangia of the little fingers was also detected. Surgery was performed as described above.
At postoperative 1 year, the valgus deformity and overlapping of the little finger had completely resolved (Figure 4). The extension contracture of the little finger MCP joint remained. The angle between the growth plate and the distal articular surface of the proximal phalanx was 4.5° (Figure 5).
2.3. Case 2: An 11-Year-Old Female
At 9 years of age, the patient fractured the proximal phalanx of the left little finger in a fall. At the time of the injury, the former doctor performed conservative therapy with cast fixation. Valgus finger deformity was noticed after fixation removal, but this was not addressed as there was no functional impairment.
At 2 years after the injury, the patient consulted our clinic due to a gap between the ring and little fingers in the fully extended and adducted position (Figure 6). There was also partial overlapping of the ring finger over the little finger in the fully flexed position. The ROM of the fingers was normal. Plain radiography showed that the angle between the proximal growth plate and the distal articular surface of the proximal phalanx was 15.3° on the affected side compared with 4.7° on the contralateral noninjured side (Figure 7). Surgery was performed as described above.
At 1 year and 2 months postoperatively, the valgus deformity and overlapping of the little finger had completely resolved (Figure 8). The angle between the growth plate and the distal articular surface of the proximal phalanx was 5.0°.
We described two cases of pediatric little finger valgus deformity successfully treated using opening wedge osteotomy and intramedullary semirigid fixation with a single K-wire.
Closing wedge osteotomy results in a good outcome in correction of an angulated phalanx ; however, it is not easy to perform the exact resection of the wedge bone, especially the apex of the wedge bone, according to the preplanned correction angles. Moreover, rigid fixation with a plate or two K-wires makes it impossible to finely adjust the alignment after the fixation procedure. In fixation using two K-wires, the prominent radial stump of the K-wire interferes with the attaching of the little and ring fingers to each other and makes it difficult to check the exact alignment of the little finger. In our procedure, the operative field and the K-wire stump are on the ulnar side of the little finger; hence, there is nothing between the little and ring fingers, and it is easy to check the coronal alignment in the fully extended and adducted position and the rotational alignment in the fully flexed position.
Before the osteotomy, we inserted a K-wire from the retrocondylar fossa of the proximal phalanx at an angle of approximately 20° against the ulnar side cortex of the proximal phalangeal head. This angle is appropriate for further advancement of the K-wire after opening of the osteotomy site; the K-wire tip could be advanced while maintaining contact with the inner cortex without cortical penetration. A K-wire insertion angle of less than 10° should be avoided, as the K-wire may not maintain contact with the radial inner cortex, which will result in undercorrection in the coronal plane. Overcorrection in the coronal plane is prevented by the closely attached normally aligned ring finger and the flexibility of the inserted K-wire.
Correction of the tilted distal articular surface in the coronal plane usually improves the rotational alignment of the little finger to some extent. However, further adjustment of the residual rotational alignment is sometimes needed. In our procedure, further adjustment of the rotational alignment can be performed, even after K-wire insertion; the clearance between the K-wire and the inner wall of the proximal phalangeal medullary cavity in the sagittal plane makes it possible to finely adjust the alignment of the little finger. When fine rotational correction is needed, only gentle manual corrective force should be applied toward the desired direction. As the additional rotation angle required is usually small, further correction is accomplished without disruption of the preserved radial cortex of the osteotomy site. The corrected alignment is maintained during early active exercise with a loosely buddy-taped ring finger.
In the cutting of the bone, multiple drilling was first performed without penetrating the most radial cortex. Bone cutting was then gradually performed with a small osteotome, with pushing performed by hand. Tapping the osteotome with a hammer should be avoided, as fine tuning of the tapping power is difficult.
Opening wedge osteotomy and intramedullary semirigid fixation with a single K-wire allow fine correction of rotational alignment even after K-wire insertion and are appropriate for treating pediatric little finger posttraumatic valgus deformity.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article.
Copyright © 2018 Souichi Ohta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Finger Posture and Finger Load are Perceived Independently
Perception of joint angle
Joint angle matching
First, we measured the perception of joint angle and the degree to which it is influenced by a load imposed on the digit. To this end, subjects were instructed to flex their right index finger until a circle displayed on a monitor disappeared, then match the resulting posture with their left index finger. Resistive weights – ranging from 50 to 250 g – were applied to the reference finger to assess whether load influences perceived posture. Moreover, we compared two conditions: One in which the subject actively moved the reference finger to the reference angle, and one in which the reference finger was passively moved by the experimenter to the reference angle. Matching performance of each individual subject during the active task is shown in Supplemental Figure 1, whereas each individual subject’s performance during the passive task is shown in Supplemental Figure 2.
When pooling behavioral data across loads and across active and passive conditions, matched and reference angles were linearly related with a mean slope of 0.83 across subjects (Fig. 2A,B). This slope was slightly, albeit significantly, shallower than unity (one-sample t-test, t(15) = 5.37, p = 7.8e-05). However, the difference in slopes between the active and passive conditions (0.010) was not significant (two-sample equal-variance t-test, t(14) = 0.16, p = 0.88). Power analysis reveals that, given 80% power (1-β) and 5% false positive rate (α), 5000 subjects distributed across the active and passive conditions would be required for this difference to reach statistical significance (Nsig = 5000).
Angle matching. Matching performance under active and passive conditions. The right finger lifted one of four masses (50, 100, 150, or 250 g), and the left finger always lifted 50 g. Angle matching was performed for six target angles (spanning 10 to 60°). Group means in (A) active and (B) passive angle matching are reported, as are the (C) intercept and (D) slope of the regression for each subject. (E) Mean error, reflecting biases, across all target angles. Error bars denote SEM.
Matching bias and sensitivity varied widely across subjects in both the active and passive conditions (Fig. 2C,D). However, subjects’ mean signed matching error (−1.1°) was not significantly different from 0° (one-sample t-test, t(15) = 0.63, p = 0.54, Nsig = 320) (Fig. 2E). The difference in mean signed error between active and passive conditions (3.6°) was also not significant (two-sample equal-variance t-test, t(14) = 1.04, p = 0. 32, Nsig = 118). Matching accuracy – as indexed by the absolute matching error – was also highly variable across subjects, ranging from 4.3° to 11.5°, with a mean of 7.9°.
We then assessed whether the exertion of force affected the matched posture and found that matching was not affected by load. Indeed, matching bias, as indexed by mean signed error, was not significantly affected by load during the active (repeated measures one-way ANOVA, F(3,21) = 0.22, p = 0.88) or passive condition (repeated measures one-way ANOVA, F(3,21) = 1.47, p = 0.25) (Fig. 3A). A slight trend toward positive signed error with heavier weights was observed in the passive condition but even the largest difference–between 50 and 250 g (2.7°) – was non-significant (paired-samples t-test, t(7) = 1.65, p = 0.14, Nsig = 26) and the difference in signed error between the active and passive conditions at 250 g (5.1°) was also non-significant (two-sample equal-variance t-test, t(14) = 1. 35, p = 0.20, Nsig = 72).
Load dependence of angle matching performance. (A) Mean bias (direction of error preserved) vs. imposed load. (B) Mean absolute error vs. imposed load. Error bars denote SEM.
Moreover, matching accuracy, as indexed by absolute matching error, was not significantly affected by load during the active (repeated measures one-way ANOVA, F(3,21) = 0.18, p = 0.91) or passive condition (repeated measures one-way ANOVA, F(3,21) = 0.77, p = 0.53) (Fig. 3B). A small difference in the mean absolute error between the active and passive conditions (1.8°) emerges, but this difference is not significant (two-sample equal-variance t-test, t(14) = 2.00, p = 0.066, Nsig = 34).
In conclusion, subjects can veridically perceive finger posture, this sense is impervious to externally applied loads, and it does not depend substantially on whether posture is achieved actively or imposed on the finger.
Joint angle discrimination
The angle matching paradigm can reveal perceptual biases but only yields a coarse measure of sensitivity in the absolute matching errors. To more reliably measure sensitivity, we had subjects perform an angular discrimination task. In brief, subjects moved their right index finger to a reference angle and their left index finger to one of a series of test angles (all cued visually in a manner that was uninformative about final posture), then reported which finger was more flexed. Psychometric functions were then fit to the angular discrimination judgments as a function of test angle. From these functions, the point of subjective equality (PSE) – at which judgements of ‘lesser’ or ‘greater’ angle are equally prevalent – and just noticeable difference (JND) – the change in angle that yields 75% correct performance – were derived for each subject. Angle discrimination performance for each individual subject is shown in Supplemental Figure 3.
When discrimination judgments were pooled across load conditions, the average PSE (31. 2°) was not significantly different from the reference angle (30°) (single sample t-test, t(7) = 0.824, p = 0.44, Nsig = 95) (Fig. 4). The typical JND was 4.7° ± 1.0° and ranged from 3.4° to 6.1°. The difference in PSE between loads (0.6°) was not significant (paired-sample t-test, t(7) = 0.604, p = 0.5649, Nsig = 175), nor was the difference in JND between loads (0.2°) (paired-sample t-test, t(7) = 0.257, p = 0.8048, Nsig = 956) (Fig. 4C).
Angle discrimination. (A) Mean performance, pooled across load conditions. (B) Mean performance split by load condition. (C) Just noticeable differences. Faint lines connect data obtained from individual subjects. Error bars denote SEM.
In conclusion, subjects exhibited high angular acuity, within half the width of the fingertip, and acuity was insensitive to loads imposed on the finger, consistent with the angle matching results.
Perception of load
Next, we sought to measure sensitivity to changes in load imposed on the finger. To this end, subjects lifted weights with each index finger and judged which was heavier. On a given block of trials, the weight lifted by the right finger remained constant and served as reference while the weight on the left varied from trial to trial. Each individual subject’s weight discrimination performance is shown in Supplemental Figure 4.
When normalized by reference weight then pooled across reference weights, the average PSE (98.4%) was not significantly different from 100% (single sample t-test, t(5) = 0.518, p = 0.6264, Nsig = 178) (Fig. 5), so there was no systematic bias. Moreover, as might be expected, the JND increased with reference load from 8.2 g for the 100-g reference to 23.3 g for the 250-g reference, yielding a similar Weber fraction (8.2% and 9.3%, respectively) for each. The difference in PSEs between reference weights (0. 3%) was not significant (paired-samples t-test, t(5) = 0.17, p = 0.8757, Nsig = 1741), nor was the difference in Weber fractions (1.1%) (paired-samples t-test, t(5) = 1.35, p = 0.24, Nsig = 28) (Fig. 5B).
Load discrimination experiment. (A) Mean performance. (B) Weber fractions. Error bars denote SEM.
Next, we examined whether sensitivity to changes in load was affected by joint angle. Each individual subject’s weight discrimination performance in the presence of changing joint angles is shown in Supplemental Figure 5. With a 100 g reference weight and the joint flexed at 10 or 60°, the PSE difference across angles (4.1 g) was not significant (paired-samples t-test, t(7) = 1.58, p = 0.16, Nsig = 28) (Fig. 6). More importantly, JNDs were 11.3 and 13.2 g at 10 and 60°, respectively, yielding a difference between these that was not significant (paired-samples t-test, t(7) = 1. 46, p = 0.19, Nsig = 32). Joint angle has little effect on load discrimination performance, just as load has little effect on joint angle discrimination or matching.
Effect of finger posture on load discrimination. (A) Mean performance (B) Weber fractions. The reference weight for this experiment was 100 g. Error bars denote SEM.
In the load discrimination experiments, the subjects may have relied on tactile cues to perform the task despite our attempts to minimize these. With this in mind, we assessed the extent to which performance on the task could have relied on cutaneous signals. To this end, we applied loads to the subjects’ stationary index finger with the same apparatus, but prevented flexion or extension of the MCP so that all the weight was absorbed by the skin. Under these conditions, when pooling across reference weights, Weber fractions were substantially larger than in the active condition (two-sample equal-variance t-test, t(10) = 5. 97, p = 1.4e-04, Fig. 7). Indeed, JNDs in this control condition were 42.0 g (100-g reference) and 70.8 g (250-g reference), corresponding to Weber fractions of 42.0 and 28.3%, compared to 8.2 and 9.3%, respectively, in the active condition. Thus, cutaneous cues played only a minor role in the subjects’ load discrimination performance in the active condition.
Cutaneous contribution to load discrimination. Performance based on cutaneous cues only compared to when proprioceptive information is available. Error bars denote SEM.
In conclusion, normal load perception at the finger joint is sensitive to small differences (~10%), follows Weber’s law, and is independent of finger posture.
Common Finger Fractures and Dislocations
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At Hand to Shoulder Center of Wisconsin, our team of orthopedic specialists are here to diagnose and treat your finger fracture. When you’re seeking a team of orthopedic doctors and occupational and physical therapists with extensive experience with finger fracture treatment and care, contact Hand to Shoulder Center of Wisconsin in Appleton or Green Bay.
What is a Finger Fracture?
Fingers are made up of 14 small bones called phalanges (singular form: phalanx). When a finger is broken or cracked, one or more of the phalanges are affected. This is referred to as a finger fracture or broken finger.
Although fingers are a small part of the anatomy, a fractured finger is not a minor injury. In a non-injured finger, the bones are aligned precisely for ease of movement such as gripping, grasping, and manipulating small objects. When one or more of the bones are damaged, it can affect the function of the entire hand, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of movement. Without treatment, a finger fracture can cause problems including prolonged stiffness and pain.
Finger Fracture Symptoms and Causes
Depending on the severity of the injury, broken finger symptoms can range from mild to extreme pain, swelling, and bruising. Sometimes, numbness and tingling may also affect the finger and/or hand. With some types of fractures or displacements, a visual deformity may occur (Fig. 1).
Figure 1: Finger fractures with visual deformity
Commonly known fractures include:
- A non-displaced fracture, is more commonly known as a hairline fracture. This consists of a thin crack in the bone that occurs with an injury. Typically, it is not as noticeable as other types of fractures, however, localized pain, tenderness, or soft tissue swelling are a few of the common symptoms.
- A displaced fracture occurs when the fracture causes a change in the alignment of the bone (Fig 2).
- An open fracture occurs when there is a break in the bone as well as a break in the skin, which sometimes exposes the bone.
- An avulsion fracture occurs when the tendon or ligament pulls away a small portion of bone from the main mass of bone.
- A comminuted fracture is when the bone breaks in three or more pieces.
- A pathologic fracture occurs in the bone when they are weak due to certain bone disorders, such as cancer or a bone cyst (holes in the bone). This type of fracture is less commonly seen.
Figure 2: Thumb fracture
Causes of finger fractures are many; however, most finger fractures happen from some form of injury to the hand such as a fall, sports injury, or another type of trauma such as a crush injury.
Diagnosis and Finger Fracture Treatment
The orthopedic physicians at Hand to Shoulder Center of Wisconsin are highly experienced in all hand and upper extremity injuries and conditions. A thorough examination is conducted and all prior hand injuries and conditions are explored. The evaluation will consist of a visual examination of the alignment of the fingers along with the flexibility of the hand and how the fingers line up when making a fist. X-rays will be taken and a diagnosis will confirm the location and the type of fracture.
Depending on the stability and location of the fracture, surgery may or may not be needed. Non-surgical treatment typically will consist of splint application to the injured finger or hand (Fig. 3). In some cases, the finger adjacent to the injured finger will be used as a splint; this technique is referred to as buddy taping (Fig. 4).
Figure 3: Finger splint
Figure 4: Budding taping
In some cases, the orthopedic physician will manipulate or “reduce” the fracture back into place and cast or otherwise immobilize it; keeping it from movement.
Figure 5: Screws are placed at the fracture site to hold bones together
In some finger fractures, surgery may be required. Surgery may include placement of pins, screws, and/or wires to realign and hold the broken bones together (Fig. 5).
Rehabilitation may be ordered by your surgeon to aid in the recovery. At Hand to Shoulder Center of Wisconsin, a physical or occupational therapist will work closely with you to increase your strength and ability to perform daily activities. Therapy often plays a huge role in the recovery.
Finger fracture healing time varies depending on the severity of the fracture.
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A crooked toe is not only an aesthetic problem – Baltic Medical Center
Outward curvature of the big toe (in Latin – hallux valgus) or, in other words, “popping out bumps on the toes”, deformed foot bones are the most common foot deformity among women.
Let’s talk about the causes of this deformity and its treatment with Matas Nenartenas, an orthopedic traumatologist at the Baltic Medical Center.
What are the causes of the curvature of the big toe?
Many people believe that toe curvature is due to the wearing of high-heeled shoes or flat feet, but this is only partly true.In reality, this deformation is hereditary. About 80% of patients notice that such a deformity was in the mother, grandmother or other close relatives.
True, such external factors as shoes with a narrowed toe, shoes with high heels can undoubtedly deform healthy feet over time.
This pathology of the foot is also associated with weakness of muscles and ligaments, impaired function. Frequent pregnancy also sometimes contributes to the occurrence of this problem.If a woman puts on a lot of weight, then due to the increased load, the ligaments are weakened, and as a result, deformity of the foot may begin.
In women, this problem occurs much more often than in men. The spread of this deformity among women is almost 10 times more.
How to help a patient in case of a deformity of the big toe?
Unfortunately, if the deformity is painful and progressing, then the treatment can only be surgical. Conservative measures such as the gaps between the fingers are ineffective and, in some cases, even harmful.When using such tools, small fingers are pushed to the side, as a result of which their deformations can occur.
Are curvatures of the finger just an aesthetic problem or does it affect health as well?
This is not only an aesthetic problem. Due to the fact that the articular surface of the fingers wears out faster and pain occurs, this is primarily an orthopedic problem. We lean on the foot, which makes up a small area that carries the body’s weight, so at the moment of repulsion, the load force is very large.Often people do not even imagine the load that falls on their feet.
Patients come to us most often because of pain, and not for aesthetic reasons.
When should I see a doctor?
The first pain is a signal of the need to consult an orthopedic doctor. If the bones are not treated, the pain will intensify, and the other toes and the foot will begin to deform.
The sooner a person consults an orthopedic surgeon after the first signs of foot deformity and pain appear, the easier and faster the treatment process will be.
How to help a patient in case of a deformity of the big toe?
The most important thing is to look after your feet, keep them healthy and not overdo it with wearing uncomfortable shoes. After all, our body rests precisely on the feet, and they support all its weight. Therefore, I recommend very carefully choose comfortable shoes that are suitable for their physiology, with a heel height of 2-3 centimeters and a fairly wide front part. It is not recommended to constantly and often wear high-heeled shoes.
In what cases do you decide on the need for an operation?
When consulting patients, I try to adhere to the following principle: as long as there is no pain and discomfort, surgery is not required. Any surgical intervention is risky to a certain extent, so it is necessary to weigh the pros and cons. If the quality of daily life is deteriorating due to foot pain, then surgery may be considered. The pain is felt not only due to the friction of the bone against uncomfortable shoes and calluses, but it occurs in the foot itself after walking. Exhausting pain is a signal of the need for treatment and it is better not to postpone it on the back burner. The smaller the deformation, the easier the operation and the better the results.
How is the operation performed?
The surgery technique is selected by the surgeon depending on the patient’s age, degree of deformity and bone structure. The operation consists not only in the restoration of the bone, but also in the correction of the surrounding tissues. During the operation, intravenous anesthesia is used.The operation takes about an hour.
What is the postoperative period? When can a person return to work and daily activities?
Modern surgery has taken a big step forward. In the postoperative period, minor pain may occur for 1 to 2 days, but it can be relieved with medication. If the deformity is small, then the postoperative period will take about a month. Those who work in the office will be able to return to work in about 5 weeks.
In the postoperative period, you can only lean on the heel. Currently, there are special postoperative shoes in which walking is quite comfortable and safe. It is very important to follow the instructions of the doctor, because if you place your foot incorrectly, and all the work will go to waste.
Physical activity on the foot is restored gradually with physiotherapy and certain physical exercises. Therefore, the postoperative period is highly dependent on the consciousness and mood of the patient.
If both legs have the same problem, can both legs be operated at once?
We recommend to operate with one foot. It is necessary that the operated foot is completely healed and its functions restored.
What are the results of the operation? Can the deformation recur?
Most often, surgical treatment is successful. With proper operation, the probability of deformity resumption is about 5%.
There is a high probability in the case of such an operation for children, because their skeleton has not yet been fully formed. Therefore, it is recommended to operate on adults.
Repeated trauma can complicate the results of the operation.
Operation> Hallux valgus
When surgery is indicated:
Increasing misalignment, pain, formation of 90,087 pressure points with chronic inflammation, gait disturbance
Methods of surgery:
Joint-preserving techniques with displacement of the metatarsal bone in combination with soft tissue correction.Removal of joints is only as a last resort to relieve pain.
inpatient: 1-3 days
incapacity for work: up to 12 weeks
depending on the operation:
Shoes to reduce the load on the forefoot 4-6 weeks with partial or full load on crutches
In the main joint of the big toe, the first metatarsal bone is connected to the main phalanx of the big toe.
Near the joint capsule, it is stabilized by muscles and tendons. The main joint of the big toe has a key function for the human gait mechanism. Normal gait requires undisturbed support on the big toe.
The so-called “hallux valgus” or “corpus callosum” is an acquired position disorder that is based on weakening of the arch of the foot and the formation of a more or less pronounced foot with a flat transverse arch.
It is expressed by the bending of the big toe in the main joint of the big toe towards the small toe.
Abduction of the first metatarsal bone mimics new bone formation on the inner side of the big toe and the main joint of the big toe, the so-called “callus” (pseudo-exostosis).
When is the operation necessary?
Surgery is necessary as soon as the patient cannot tolerate the pain emanating from the big toe. In some patients, this manifests itself early enough, when a strong bulge of the shoe is reflected on the inside of the foot, the patient feels painful pressure on the big toe, or is limited by the load when walking.
How is the operation performed?
With a variety of surgical methods for eliminating “hallux valgus”, it is necessary to distinguish between methods that preserve the joint and those in which the joint is removed. Further, it is necessary to take into account the incorrect position of the main phalanx of the big toe. If necessary, for the correct restoration of the axis, it is necessary to additionally take a bone wedge. Taking into account the causes of the occurrence, our clinic mainly uses methods that preserve the joint.Below are some of the methods. Which one suits you best, you will discuss with your surgeon.
How long does the hospital stay last?
An inpatient stay is usually 1-3 days. Rarely, when, for example, severe tumors appear, a longer inpatient stay is necessary.
How is the postoperative treatment going?
After the operation, the patient is put on an elastic support bandage, which protects the foot for several days. Then, in most cases, shoes are selected to reduce the load on the forefoot and the toe spacer, and the load gradually begins when walking on crutches (excluding the Keller-Brandes operation with plastering for 4-6 weeks). After the operation, the corrected position is monitored by an X-ray. Before the load of half of the body weight, daily use of thrombotic injections is necessary.
1. Chevron osteotomy (with slightly increased bone angle):
Chevron osteotomy of the digital end of the first metatarsal bone, which then leads to movement towards the small toe.This movement is guaranteed by a titanium screw (which can no longer be removed). Additionally, an accompanying soft tissue operation is regularly performed to correct the abnormal relationship between the capsule and the muscles. Thus, the necessary correction of the big toe is determined.
2. Basic displacement osteotomy (with increased bone angle):
Here a wedge-shaped correction is performed at the articular end of the first metatarsal bone, which is turned towards the ankle joint, which is guaranteed by a special plate. Here, too, attention is paid to the correction of the soft parts (muscles, ligaments and capsule).
3. Scarf osteotomy (with increased bone angle):
Here we are talking about the plasty of the displacement of the first metatarsal bone, directed along the axis of the trunk. As in the case of chevron osteotomy, it is combined with corrective surgery of the soft parts.
4. Keller-Brandes operation:
The Keller-Brandes operation is a promptly last resort to reduce pain caused by misalignment.
In this case, the main joint of the big toe is removed and the remaining joint capsule is sutured into the lesion between the metatarsal bone and the main phalanx of the toe.
Diseases and deformities of the foot | Articles
Almost every one of us is familiar with foot diseases from childhood. From the school bench, blue or green footprints were left in the first-aid posts, and doctors diagnosed many with flat feet. Also, everyone knows about the limitation of fitness for army service due to flat feet.But hardly anyone seriously thought about why this is happening and how it is possible to rectify the situation!
In fact – it does not just happen!
With flat feet, the front, middle and then the rear arches of the foot are deformed. As a result, the axis of the entire limb is disrupted, which leads to rapid and significant disorders in the knee and hip joints, and this problem is a direct path to disability and joint replacement.
The disease occurs in both men and women.
But if a man was not taken into the army, he forgot about this problem for 20-30 years. In the future, most likely, he will not even think that the knees, hip joints began to hurt so early. Although most likely this happened due to a violation of the axis of the lower limb, formed from childhood. In women, everything progresses much faster, since the muscles and ligaments are weaker, and all women really like to wear heels (this way the legs are worn out and longer and slimmer)
Unfortunately, the reckoning is not long in coming! “Corns”, “bumps” (deviation of the thumb), calluses on all other fingers, curvature of the fingers – all this is a consequence of the deformation of the feet. Painful sensations in the legs, rapid fatigue when walking, pain in the calf muscles, you want to throw out your high-heeled shoes and you have to constantly struggle with growing calluses and bumps.
If at the first appearance of foot deformities you immediately noticed and began to engage in treatment, then everything may not be so bad. Exercise, wearing orthopedic insoles or shoes, special physiotherapy and massage can stop and even correct further deformation, relieve discomfort.
But when the thumb had already deviated outward, “bumps”, “corns”, non-healing calluses appeared, one finger began to be found on the other – this indicates serious changes in the bone, articular and ligamentous apparatus and you need to consult an orthopedic doctor.
The foot is one of the most difficult parts of the human skeleton and only a competent specialist can determine exactly how your foot tried to adapt under the influence of constant walking on a flat surface, wearing heels or tight shoes without arch support and what kind of treatment you need.
The term “foot orthopedics” in modern medicine receives a completely new meaning, significantly different from the doctrine widespread in Soviet medicine. For many decades, a systematized
Currently, on the basis of multicenter studies, orthopedic care for foot deformities began to be addressed on a comprehensive basis, including:
- Individual foot orthosis
- New methods of surgical intervention
In modern orthopedics, on the basis of a large amount of accumulated material, new principles of surgical treatment of feet have developed, which are set out below:
- Maximum correction of osteoarticular deformity
- Stable fixation of bones using special techniques
- Complete correction of all arches of the foot
The principle of maximum correction implies the simultaneous correction of all components of the foot deformity with the restoration of correct arches and the possibility of wearing regular shoes in the postoperative period 90-196 m without removing the internal fixing structures.
Most frequent operations to correct foot deformity
The approach to the choice of surgery is always individual for each patient, but there are a number of universal approaches.
Deformation of the first toe (“bump”)
- Elimination of the “bump” itself
- Restoration of anatomical structures at the base of 1 toe (correction of the ligamentous apparatus)
- Axle alignment 1 pin
The most important in the operation is the technique of osteotomy (dissection of the bone) and fixation (fixing the newly formed bones in the correct direction with the removal of the connective tissue overgrown as a result of inflammation).During osteotomy, orthopedic traumatologist
Previously, a transverse osteotomy was performed, followed by unreliable fixation with thin wires or a massive metal structure. After such an intervention, the load of the foot was excluded for 3-3.5 months. During this time, the ligamentous-muscular apparatus of the
A completely different result is achieved with the modern technique of longitudinal or horizontal osteotomy, the so-called chevron or SCARF.Operations of this type are performed in the ANDROMEDA Clinic by leading orthopedic trauma surgeons
In this case, the vector of the load on the foot extends perpendicular to the performed plane of the osteotomy and the bone fragments are well fixed. The screws are screwed into the bone “flush” with the surface, which allows the patient to walk in the next postoperative
“Corns”, hammer-like fingers, stubborn calluses
Very often, in parallel with the appearance of “bumps” and outwardly deflected toe on the plantar surface of the foot, rounded keratinized painful areas of the skin appear in the region of the heads of 2-5 metatarsal bones on the plantar side, the appearance of calluses on the surface of deformed “crooked” toes. These formations are very painful and cause great discomfort. They appear due to the “spreading” of the arch of the foot, while the support from 1 and 5 metatarsal toes is transferred to 2, 3, 4 metatarsal toes. Normally, fingers 2, 3 and 4 are not supporting when walking. In the case of transferring the main weight of the body to them, a reaction of the plantar surface occurs in the form of coarsening and keratinization of the skin, the occurrence of pain, the inability to wear tight tight shoes, and calluses appear on the back of the foot in the area of the joints.
Operations previously performed according to the old methods did not bring a stable result and caused relapses of weakness of the ligamentous apparatus of the foot with a return to the “corns”.
The problem is radically solved with Weil osteotomy – the formation of the function of the transverse arch of the foot with shortening of the metatarsal bones of the foot while preserving the main joints of the toes. During this operation, the heads of 2-4 fingers remain preserved, are removed from the load and the tense extensor apparatus of the fingers is weakened.Osteotomy during Weil’s operation is also performed using modern equipment, which minimizes tissue trauma. Weil’s operation also underlies the correction of the hammer toe. It is also possible to use minimally invasive percutaneous foot correction techniques, which make it possible to correct the position of bones and joints, to give them the correct position.
The combined and individual application of various methods of operative correction of the arch of the foot is a mandatory approach used in the ANDROMEDA Clinic.The photo shows the results of the treatment. The postoperative period for the
The picture shows the result of surgery on the left leg
When it comes to slight deformation, the results are much better. The fact is that the neglected foot becomes “stiff” or rigid, therefore the correction requires a more massive intervention, mainly due to the osteotomy of a larger number of bones, while modern techniques make it possible to successfully correct very complex cases presented in the photographs.
And most importantly, earlier correction of foot deformities will improve the condition of the remaining joints of the legs – ankle, knee and hip.
Before operation After operation
Before surgery After surgery
Before surgery After surgery
How to correct the foot without surgery | Med-magazin.ua
A person’s foot bears the load of the whole body, therefore, a beautiful light gait, health of joints and spine, the ability to wear model shoes depend on its health.
Flat feet, heel spurs, hallux valgus, calluses and corns – all these pathologies, if measures are not taken in time to eliminate them, can cause irreparable harm and require immediate surgical intervention to correct them.
To help your legs and avoid the need for surgery later, it is necessary to use devices for conservative treatment, with the use of which it is possible to correct the legs without surgery. The ability to fully correct the toes with the help of these devices largely depends on the timely start of their use, since at a certain stage only surgical intervention becomes effective.
Devices for the correction of hallux valgus
Hallux valgus is characterized by the formation of a bump on the thumb with a deviation outward.Violation of the metatarsophalangeal joint is accompanied by a burning sensation, pain, and a progressive inflammatory process. If the deflection angle does not exceed 30, then you can do without surgery and limit yourself to wearing various corrective devices, which, in combination with massage and anti-inflammatory drugs, give a good result.
Basic actions of the corrector
• Relieves pain, reduces inflammation, stops the development of bursitis, the formation of corns and calluses;
• Promotes even distribution of the load on the foot and optimizes blood circulation;
• Aligns the position of the thumb, and together with it brings the remaining fingers into the correct anatomical position, which can be deflected together with the first finger;
• Suspends the development of the disease even at the later stages of its development;
• Accelerates postoperative recovery;
• Reduces pressure on the metatarsus that occurs while walking;
• Eliminates discomfort when wearing fashion shoes – with heels, with narrow socks, prevents friction;
• Provides the required level of depreciation.
Types of correctors.
1. Fabric corrector, which is a kind of sock that can be worn in any shoe. This soft retainer is effective only at the initial stage of the formation of hallux valgus;
2. Gel (silicone) toe retainer for permanent wear, which is an interdigital insert with a side petal that covers the protruding bone.
– Reduces pressure and stress on the big toe joint;
– Protects from chafing, eliminates soreness and discomfort when walking;
– Prevents the formation of calluses when wearing model tight shoes.
It is used as part of the complex conservative treatment of hallux valgus, since it alone does not have a therapeutic effect and does not correct the curvature. Retainers are not visible from the shoe, sold in pairs – for both feet. For their manufacture, silicone is used that does not cause allergic reactions. In order for the fixative to be suitable for use during the entire service life declared by the manufacturer, it must be properly looked after – washed with soap and water, treated with talcum powder.Sometimes it is advisable to use a tissue silicone concealer – a strong, durable and comfortable combination of silicone and tissue.
3. Correction splints prevent deflection of the finger, fix it in the correct position, as a result of which the finger gets used to the correct stable state.
There are several types of tires:
• Frame hinged splint, which is most often used after surgery, to change the plaster cast. Unlike plaster fixation, such a splint provides some joint mobility, since the fixation is semi-rigid.The angle of deflection of the first toe is not adjustable, which can cause some discomfort when wearing.
Construction: Frame with a hinge mechanism that provides the joint with a certain degree of mobility;
• Soft corrective splints (bandages), which are used both for postoperative recovery and as part of the conservative treatment of Hallux Valgus. Consists of a bandage around the foot and a cover for the big toe. Fixed on the heel with special Velcro fasteners
The splint ensures the correct redistribution of the load, reduction of pain, inflammation and fatigue when walking;
four.Night splints for legs – a device for rigid fixation of the big toe, which is in a stationary static state. It has the maximum corrective effect, since the joint is in a rigid immobile position throughout the night, reduces inflammation and soreness. To create maximum user comfort, it is possible to adjust the angle of the finger deflection. Attached to the leg with durable Velcro fasteners. The tire is universal and fits any foot.
This splint is the most effective in conservative treatment of hallux valgus, as it provides a rigid, stable fixation.
5. Rigid corrective orthoses
For conservative treatment and postoperative rehabilitation, an orthosis can be used – a rigid corrector of the toes, which is additionally equipped with metal stiffeners. An aluminum rib runs along the big toe, allowing it to be swiveled into position and locked in place.Movement in such an orthosis is problematic, since it does not provide freedom of movement for the thumb joint.
Effective correction of fingers without surgery is possible only when using an integrated approach, which includes wearing a corrector, massage, physiotherapy procedures (baths, warming up) .In order to choose the right size, type, required degree of fixation and the time of wearing the bandage, you need to contact to an orthopedic specialist.Only he can correctly determine which bandage will be effective at the current stage of the disease.
Where to buy
Effective body fixators from leading manufacturers of orthopedic products can be selected and purchased on the med-magazin website of the Your Health network, where corrective splints, interdigital inserts, various correctors, heel pads and other devices are presented that will make wearing any shoe comfortable and prevent the formation of calluses. corns, scuffs and curvature of the fingers.
Treatment of transverse flat feet
Longitudinal flat feet usually occurs between the ages of 16-25. Transverse flat feet are more common at a later age (35-50 years). In this case, the weight of a person is important: the greater the weight and, accordingly, the load on all parts of the foot, the more pronounced the flat feet. Flat feet are 20 times more common in women than in men. Often, transverse flat feet are accompanied by other changes in the foot, such as longitudinal flat feet, which usually appear at a young age.
Symptoms of flat feet
- Abrasion of the shoe and more wear on the inner sole.
- Rapid fatigue of the legs when walking and static activity on the legs.
- Fatigue and pain in the legs towards evening, feeling of heaviness, cramps.
- Swelling of feet and ankles.
- Difficulty and pain when wearing stiletto heels and high heels.
- Necessity to buy shoes with a larger size due to the size of the foot in width.
- Extension of the foot so that the foot does not fit into the shoes that previously fit.
With transverse flat feet, the transverse arch of the foot is flattened, the forefoot distributes pressure to the joints of all five metatarsal bones, the length of the feet is reduced due to fan-shaped divergence of the metatarsal bones, deviation of the first toe outward and hammer-shaped deformity of the central toes. The transverse flat feet are also called a transversely spread foot with a deviation of the first toe outward.
With transverse flat feet, the forefoot expands and, as it were, spreads out. In this case, the support is distributed to the heads of all metatarsal bones, and not only to the first and fifth, as anatomically laid down by nature. The load on the previously weakly involved second and fourth joints of the metatarsal bones increases, and the share of the load on the joint of the first metatarsal bone decreases.
The work of the muscles that are attached to the first toe of the foot changes, which creates conditions for the deviation of the first toe inward.At the same time, the head of the first metatarsal bone protrudes, and the first toe deflects towards the second, creating pressure on it, and leads to deformation of the second toe.
Transverse flat feet are often associated with prolonged standing on the legs, being overweight (including its increase during pregnancy), decreased muscle tone and decreased muscle elasticity with a prolonged sedentary lifestyle, immobilization due to injuries and fractures, aging, etc. Also, when walking on high heels or stiletto heels for a long time, the pressure is redistributed body weight: from the heel it is redistributed to the area of the transverse arch, which is not ready for it, therefore it cannot cope with the loads and is deformed, which is why transverse flat feet appear.The main reason in the development of transverse flat feet, therefore, is the insufficiency of the ligamentous apparatus.
Manifestations of transverse flat feet
Transverse flat feet is reflected in the redistribution of the body weight load from the heel to the forefoot: when a healthy person walks, the heel and the first metatarsal bone (suitable for the big toe) fall under the greatest load; with transverse flat feet, this load is significantly re-distributed. The load previously borne by the I metatarsal bone falls on the heads of the middle metatarsal bones.Due to this redistribution of the load I, the metatarsal bone turns and rises, and the big toes deviate. Since the forefoot and its central part receive a significant load, the skin on its sole thickens, dry calluses and corns appear on it.
A significant deviation of the thumb from the normal position is observed with prolonged transverse flat feet. Such a deviation of the big toe is accompanied by pain arising from pressure on the I metatarsal bone (for example, when squeezing in shoes).The head of this bone (below the big toe) may show signs of inflammation (bursitis), which appear as redness and swelling of the area. Gradually in this place there is an overgrowth of cartilaginous tissue (“bone”).
Osteoarthritis occurs in the joint of the first metatarsal bone and the main phalanx of the first toe . Mobility in this joint decreases, painful sensations appear. The other toes also undergo changes. In the joints between the heads of the metatarsal bones and the main phalanges of the fingers, subluxation of the joints is formed.The middle fingers, which are now subject to an exorbitant load for them, acquire a hammer-like shape.
Hammer-like deformity of the toes , which often becomes the main source of pain in people with transverse flat feet, makes it difficult and painful for them to wear standard and sometimes orthopedic shoes. Pain syndrome and problems when using shoes lead to inactivity, irritability, sometimes destroy the psycho-emotional balance of a person and make it impossible to move.All this leads to the restriction of labor and household activities.
Consequences of flat feet
Flat feet leads to very serious consequences for the whole organism. This seemingly local pathology, which affects almost the entire musculoskeletal system and accelerates its wear.
The main consequences of flat feet.
- Diseases of the spine and posture disorders (curvature, osteochondrosis, herniated discs, sciatica).
- Excessive stress on the joints and, as a result, their premature wear (osteoarthritis, arthrosis of the joints) as a result of additional transverse loads.
- Diseases of the pelvis (coxarthrosis).
- Foot deformities lead to “neurological disorganization” due to distortion or misinterpretation of nerve impulses from the foot receptors. As a result, to imbalance and coordination disorders, a decrease in the effectiveness of movements.
- Muscle imbalance results in painful trigger points.The smoothness of the gait is disturbed, lameness appears over the years. With flat feet, the efficiency of the venous pump mechanism of the calf muscles decreases, blood stagnation occurs in the legs, which contributes to the formation of varicose veins of the lower extremities.
- Another consequence of flat feet is a disease of the plantar aponeurosis, a nerve (Mardan’s neuralgia) – a heel spur, which is accompanied by burning pains.
- Due to the slowing down of blood flow in the lower extremities, the cardiovascular system as a whole works worse.
A decrease in the work of the cardiovascular system, in turn, leads to chronic hypoxia of the tissues of the lower extremities. This contributes to the progression of varicose veins. A vicious circle is formed. In older people with initially reduced work of the cardiovascular system and diabetics, such disorders often lead to pathological edema, trophic disorders, ulcers of the foot and lower leg.
Treatment and slowing of the progression of transverse flat feet
Conservative treatment is aimed at curbing the progression of flat feet and reducing pain. In the early stages of transverse flat feet, treatment consists in the manufacture and wearing of individual orthopedic insoles or rollers placed below the location of the corns. In the later stages (with severe deformities) of transverse flat feet, patients wear orthopedic shoes, tailored to individual measurements in strict accordance with the recommendations of the orthopedic traumatologist.
Conservative treatment includes also physical exercises, massage and physiotherapy procedures, warm foot baths (they help to relax muscles, and therefore relieve pain).Conservative treatment for such deformities is a preventive measure that maintains the function of deformed toes and feet under static and dynamic loads, which improves the quality of life of patients and slows down the progression of foot deformities. However, if flat feet have already led to deformation of the toes (their hammer-like shape), primary importance is given to surgical methods of correction and elimination of secondary changes in soft tissues.
Surgical treatment of transverse flat feet is carried out with significant pain, which can be removed using conservative treatment methods.Interventions are performed on the joints of the fingers to eliminate the hallux valgus of the first toe as an independent intervention or as a component of a reconstructive surgery aimed at correcting the entire forefoot. Among them it is necessary, first of all, to name the operation of Schede.
Operations are performed on the bones and ligaments of the foot. As a rule, during the operation, the cartilaginous outgrowth on the head of the metatarsal bone (part of the protruding “bone”) is cut off, the bone is leveled, the tendon is reduced so that it can keep the first toe in a straight position.All this is fixed with a special tape. The operation is complex, but effective.
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Cloth bandage for aligning fingers. Finger wrap clip.
Treatment of the hammer toe necessarily includes wearing a special bandage that fixes the phalanges in the correct position. The product allows you to install a sore finger so that it is maximally attracted to the adjacent one, and is reliably protected from friction from all sides.This position helps to reduce curvature, eliminate pain. To prevent adjacent fingers from crossing, there is a fabric divider between them. The bandage is fixed with Velcro.
suitable for day and night wear;
goes well with any footwear;
fixing force is adjustable with Velcro
recommended by orthopedic doctors for complex therapy.
Indications for use Tissue bandage is effective for preventing and developing hammer-like deformity, and in the presence of pathology – for its gradual correction.Also, wearing the product is necessary if you have the following problems:
hallux valgus of the big and next toes;
movable and immobile claw-like deformity;
calluses between the second and third toes;
curvature of the fingers due to joint disease.
Effect of application The bandage protects the crooked toe from rubbing with shoes. Thanks to fixation, the phalanx during the day is in the anatomical position relative to the thumb and the next toe. As a result, the pathology is gradually corrected, discomfort when walking disappears.Positive effects of constant wearing of a bandage:
reduction and then complete correction of the curvature;
elimination of pain when walking;
the ability to wear any closed shoes;
lack of rubbing, compression of the phalanges;
prevention of crossing fingers;
reduced load on the metatarsus in the area of problem fingers
normalization of gait.
For maximum effect, it is recommended to wear a bandage during the day, and at night to use tires with fixation of the 2nd finger. Product Composition The bandage is made of natural cotton fabric.Velcro – made of synthetic hypoallergenic material.
Open wounds at the site of application.
Fixed deformities of the foot.
Allergic reactions to the composition.
Wearing in the postoperative period – only under the supervision of a doctor.
Wearing and care rules Corrective band is put on and adjacent to the hammer finger. A tissue divider is placed between the phalanges. With the help of Velcro, the product is fixed, while the force of impact is regulated.It is better to start with a little effort, gradually increasing it as you straighten the finger.Before putting on the bandage, it is recommended to massage the joints, stretching them in the area of curvature. The product can be worn with indoor, outdoor, sports shoes, with socks or barefoot. If necessary, the bandage can be washed in warm water and soap. Do not wring or twist after washing! Dry flat without heating devices.
Package contents: 1 piece.
Recovery after surgery on toes
Result of surgery
After a toe operation, the leg usually heals in 2-3 months.Conclusions about the success of the operation can be made after 6-12 months; before this time, discomfort, swelling and slight pain may occur in the operated leg.
The period of incapacity for work depends on the operation performed and the patient’s profession: for an office worker, it lasts from 6 to 8 weeks, for those engaged in manual labor – 4 weeks more.
The operated foot begins to ache in the evening of the day of the operation, because by this time the effect of the drug used to anesthetize the leg wears off.Pills can help relieve pain, and your doctor will give you a prescription before you leave the hospital. The pain will also be reduced by applying a bag of cold to the operated foot for 20 minutes 4-5 times a day. Severe leg pain disappears in 2-3 days.
In the first days after surgery, sometimes severe pain persists despite taking pain relievers. This may be due to too tight a bandage on the swollen foot. Cut the bandage with scissors from the outside of the foot (at the fifth toe), do not remove the bandage from the leg and tie it with a non-sterile bandage.Be sure to notify your doctor before releasing your leg from the bandage.
The edema usually begins to decrease 4 months after the operation, it can persist for up to a year. To reduce the swelling of the foot and the pain caused by this, the most important thing is to keep the operated leg higher than the body for the first three days after the operation. Spend this time mostly lying on your back, rest your foot on three pillows on top of each other. Medicines will not relieve swelling that has already occurred. If you cannot sleep with your leg higher than your body, then sleep in a position that is comfortable for you.A good sleep is more important than a raised leg. Sitting on a couch or chair for two weeks after surgery, place your foot in front of you on a chair. Edema of the foot can be started to heal after 4 weeks of surgery, also with lymphotropic therapy and contrast baths.
The patient leaves the hospital on crutches. The chills are used within 2 weeks. For the first three days after the operation, you cannot lean on the operated leg, it is recommended to lie down as much as possible and keep the operated leg above body level (for example, on three pillows placed on top of each other); you can only walk if absolutely necessary.Within 2 weeks after the operation, you need to walk as little as possible, and in a sitting position, you need to raise the operated leg (put it on a chair). Usually, after the operation, it is allowed to walk in special shoes that transfer the load from the operated area to the heel.
Special shoes are worn only for walking for 6-8 weeks, depending on the operation, in the state of rest and during sleep, the shoes are removed. Depending on the procedure, you can use public transport and drive a car 6-8 weeks after the surgery.At the end of the period of using special shoes, you can try cycling and swimming. Pole walking, running, jumping and cross-country skiing are permitted after normal walking is restored approximately 16-24 weeks after surgery. When playing sports, the foot can be loaded until pain occurs. Normal shoes can be worn 6-8 weeks after surgery. Until the swelling of the foot subsides and its operated area stops hurting, it is recommended to wear soft shoes that are slightly larger than usual.The opportunity to wear shoes that the patient likes may appear only 3-4 months after the operation.
Some bleeding after surgery is normal. The dressing with a small amount of blood does not need to be changed because the blood is sterile and does not interfere with healing. It is not recommended to remove the bandage until 48 hours after the operation, because this contributes to the occurrence of inflammation in the wound. Wrap the bandage with a small amount of blood yourself with non-sterile gauze pads or bandage.If the bandage is very bloody or simply very dirty, ask a qualified healthcare professional to have it replaced as soon as possible. In case of expected healing of wounds, bandaging of the leg is carried out every seven days. The stitches are removed 17-21 days after the operation. With normal wound healing, the operating scars on the toes become barely visible. To avoid excessive scar tissue formation, Contractubex Gel can be used for three months after suture removal.If you have problems with wound healing, consult your doctor before washing your foot. Signs of complete wound healing: the edges of the wound have grown together, there is no discharge from the wound and the crust has come off.
After surgery, it is very important to keep the toes in the correct position, this will help the soft tissues surrounding the bones to heal beneficially and thereby maintain the normal shape of the toes.
After operations, the big toe should be kept in the correct position for the first 6 weeks after the operation around the clock with an interdigital separator or with a bandage.If the big toe is immobilized, it is not necessary to maintain its position.
Thin metal needles are installed in the operated toe 2-5 to maintain the position. The tip of the needles should be covered with a bandage around the clock to prevent inflammation. The needles are removed in the clinic, the procedure causes more inconvenience than pain. After the removal of the needles, the operated toe 2-5 is supported with an adhesive plaster for 4 weeks straight and bent downwards, this is called taping.
To maintain the muscle tone of the leg, immediately after the operation, they begin to perform exercises for flexion and extension of the knee and ankle joint. In the first postoperative weeks, the maximum immobility of the toes is preserved.
Finger gymnastics begins 4 weeks after surgery. Exercising your fingers will help keep your fingers moving after surgery.
Perform gymnastics only on the operated toes, 10 minutes, 2 times a day, until you start walking in normal shoes.For gymnastics, remove the bandage or interdigital separator from the first and adhesive plaster from the 2-5th fingers, after gymnastics, return them to their place.
After immobilizing the metatarsophalangeal joint, do not exercise the big toe.
The operated foot can be washed after the wound has healed. If the toes are fixed with metal knitting needles, then up to
Wait for spokes to be removed. Before washing, the foot must be protected with a waterproof cover.Before coming to the operation, order yourself a product from the online store that protects you from getting wet. One of the most suitable is the reusable Foot Dressing Waterproof Protector, www.limboproducts.