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What Is It, Symptoms, Causes and Treatment


What is a nail infection (paronychia)?

Paronychia is nail inflammation that may result from trauma, irritation or infection. It can affect fingernails or toenails.

Paronychia can develop when bacteria enter broken skin near the cuticle and nail fold, causing an infection. The cuticle is the skin at the base of the nail. The nail fold is where the skin and nail come together.

Healthcare providers treat paronychia with antibiotics to kill the infection. Providers may also drain pus (thick, infectious fluid that builds up around a wound). They may also culture the fluid to see what specific bacteria might be causing the infection.

Sometimes, the infection comes back or symptoms last for weeks (chronic paronychia). Chronic paronychia is more commonly caused by irritation from occupational or environmental exposures. Less often, it may be caused by a chronic bacterial or fungal infection.

How common is paronychia?

Paronychia is a common nail condition. Anyone can get a bacterial nail infection, but it’s more common among people who:

  • Are exposed to irritants: Detergents and other chemicals can irritate the skin and lead to a nail bed infection. People who work with chemicals and don’t wear protective gloves have a higher risk.
  • Bite their nails or cuticles: Nail biting or picking at the cuticles can create tiny cracks in the nails or cuts in the skin. Bacteria may enter the skin through these small cuts.
  • Have certain skin conditions: People who have underlying skin conditions may be more likely develop nail infections.
  • Work with water: Bartenders, dishwashers and other people with jobs that require their hands to be wet have a higher risk of developing paronychia.

Symptoms and Causes

What are the symptoms of a nail infection (paronychia)?

Symptoms of paronychia usually develop over several hours or days. Sometimes they take longer to develop. Symptoms appear where the nail meets the skin (the nail fold and cuticle). The sides of the nail can also be affected.

Paronychia symptoms include:

  • Pain, swelling and tenderness around the nail.
  • Skin that is red and warm to the touch.
  • Pus that builds up under the skin. A white to yellow, pus-filled abscess may form. If an abscess forms, it may require antibiotics and/or drainage.

Untreated, the nail can start to grow abnormally and may have ridges or waves. It may look yellow or green, and it can be dry and brittle. The nail can detach from the nail bed and fall off.

What causes paronychia?

Most commonly, infectious paronychia results from a staph infection. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria cause staph infections. Other bacteria (such as Streptococcus pyogenes) can also cause the infection. Bacteria get into the skin through:

  • Cuts, broken skin or hangnails.
  • Ingrown nails (this happens most often with ingrown toenails).
  • Irritation from water or chemicals.
  • Trauma to the nailbed or cuticle area. Trauma can result from accidents, nail biting or frequent manicures or pedicures.

    Some medications can also cause paronychia. Some of these medications include retinoids, anti-cancer medications, HIV medications and some antibiotics.

What are the types of paronychia?

There are two types of paronychia. Both types have similar signs and symptoms:

  • Acute paronychia: Symptoms of acute paronychia appear over hours or a few days. The infection is only in the nail fold and doesn’t extend deeper inside the finger or toe. Symptoms go away with treatment and last less than six weeks.
  • Chronic paronychia: Symptoms develop more slowly than acute paronychia, and they usually last six weeks or longer. Several fingers or toes can be infected at once. A nail fungus (usually from a type of fungus called candida) may occur along with the bacterial infection. Candida is one of several types of fungi that cause toenail fungal infections.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is paronychia diagnosed?

Your provider will ask about your symptoms and do a physical exam. Healthcare providers usually don’t need to order tests to diagnose a nail infection. Occasionally, providers may take a sample of the tissue and send it to a lab to test for specific infectious causes such as bacteria or fungi. Rarely, if the infection is severe, imaging (such as an X-ray) may be ordered to check for involvement of the underlying bone.

Management and Treatment

Can I treat paronychia at home?

You may be able to treat mild cases of paronychia at home. Soak the infected area in warm water for about 15 minutes a few times a day. Be sure to dry the area thoroughly. Soaking the cuticle and nailbed helps pus drain from under the skin.

If symptoms don’t get better after a day or two of home remedies, see your provider. You may need other treatments, such as antibiotics, to clear up the infection and help you heal. You may also need minor procedures such as drainage if an abscess has formed.

What is the treatment for nail infections (paronychia)?

Most bacterial nail infections go away with antibiotics. These medications kill bacteria that cause infections. Be sure to follow your provider’s instructions and finish the entire course of antibiotics so the infection doesn’t return.

If pus has built up around the nail bed and isn’t draining on its own, your provider may drain the pus. After cleaning the area, your provider makes a small cut so the pus can drain. Your provider places a bandage over the cut. You should keep the area clean and replace the bandage when necessary.


Can I prevent nail infections (paronychia)?

To prevent a nail infection, you should:

  • Avoid biting or chewing on your nails or hangnails. Don’t pick at your cuticles.
  • Be careful not to cut your nails too short. When trimming cuticles, avoid cutting too close to the nail fold.
  • Maintain good hygiene by washing your hands and keeping your nails clean. Use gentle soaps that are not irritating to your skin.
  • Use lotion on your nail fold and cuticles if your skin is dry. Excessive dryness can cause the skin to crack.
  • Wear waterproof gloves if you work with chemicals or your hands will be wet for a long period.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the outlook for people with paronychia?

Paronychia usually clears up with treatment. Some people get more than one infection, or the infection comes back after treatment (chronic paronychia). Untreated, the infection can cause damage to the nail.

Rarely, untreated paronychia can go deeper into the finger or toe and lead to a serious infection. The infection may progress to involve the underlying bone. In severe cases, providers need to remove a finger or toe to make sure the infection doesn’t spread to the rest of the body. Severe, chronic paronychia most often affects people who have diabetes or conditions that cause problems with blood circulation.

Living With

When should I see my healthcare provider about paronychia?

If you have diabetes or another condition that affects your circulation, or are immunosuppressed, call your provider as soon as you notice signs of infection. You should seek immediate care if you have a condition that affects your body’s ability to fight infection.

See your provider if symptoms are severe or don’t go away after a few days. If symptoms return after treatment, call your provider for an evaluation.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Nail infections can be painful, but they don’t usually cause serious health problems. If your job requires you to work with chemicals or detergents, or if your hands are frequently wet, talk to your provider. You can protect your hands and avoid an infection by wearing waterproof gloves that do not irritate the skin. Seek treatment right away if you have diabetes or difficulty fighting infections. Also, see your provider if paronychia comes back after treatment, or if your symptoms worsen or don’t go away.

Nail Infection, Bacterial (Paronychia) in an Infant or a Baby: Condition, Treatments, and Pictures for Parents – Overview


Information for

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Images of Paronychia


Paronychia, commonly known as a bacterial nail infection, involves inflammation of the nail beds of fingers and/or toes and is usually the result of a bacterial infection (although it can be caused by a yeast or virus, typically the herpes simplex virus [HSV]). There are 2 types of paronychia; acute (short term) and chronic (long term).

  • Acute paronychia appears as redness, warmth, tenderness, and swelling along the edge of the nail. It often occurs as a result of a break in the skin.
  • Chronic paronychia will appear the same way but is a more gradual development, and may be the result of finger or thumb sucking common in infants. It may also form as the result of debris underneath the fingernail, which becomes a favorable environment for bacteria to grow. It is important to keep infants’ hands clean and dry, especially when they become old enough to grasp objects.

Who’s at risk?

Acute paronychia may occur at any age but is particularly common in children. Chronic paronychia is most common in adult women and those who work in places where their hands are kept moist, but it has been seen in infants who suck on the thumb or fingers, or in those whose caretakers over trim the infant’s fingernails.

Signs and Symptoms

Bacterial nail infection most often affects the proximal nail fold of the fingers and, less commonly, can affect the toes.

  • Acute paronychia: The proximal nail fold is red, swollen, painful, and may contain pus. Usually one nail is affected.
  • Chronic paronychia: The proximal nail fold is swollen, red, and has no cuticle (the strip of hardened skin at the base and sides of a fingernail or toenail). One or more nails may be affected.

Self-Care Guidelines

  • Try soaking the nails in warm water for acute paronychia.
  • Avoid water and chemical exposure to prevent symptoms of chronic paronychia.

When to Seek Medical Care

See your child’s doctor for evaluation if you notice signs of bacterial nail infection.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

For acute paronychia, the doctor may:

  • Puncture and drain the affected area and test for bacteria or viral infection.
  • Prescribe antibiotics for a bacterial infection or an antiviral medication for a herpes infection.

For chronic paronychia, the doctor may:

  • Prescribe a topical steroid.
  • Prescribe a topical antifungal medication.
  • Prescribe an oral antifungal medicine or antibiotics.

Trusted Links

Clinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Paronychia


Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.263-264, 1072. New York: Mosby, 2003.

Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed. pp.660, 2590. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons


Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons.

Keywords: chloronychia, green nail syndrome, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elderly

Case series

Case 1

A 67-year-old healthy retired man developed an asymptomatic greenish discoloration of the nail plate of the right toe nail over a period of 2 months. There was a history of chronic nail trauma prior to the discoloration, probably due to tight shoes. Dermatologic examination showed greenish-black discoloration, mild onychodystrophy of the entire nail plate, and distal onycholysis ().

Green coloration of the toe nail.

Bacteriologic culture of nail scrapings was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fungal coinfection was excluded by potassium hydroxide preparation and culture. The nail plate was cured after 6 weeks of oral ciprofloxacin.

Case 2

A 68-year-old gardener was seen during summer, after working in wet conditions, for green discoloration of his right finger nail, slight pruritus, and pain. On clinical examination, distal onycholysis and greenish discoloration were noticed on the nail plate starting from the distal edge ().

Onycholysis and secondary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the finger nail in a 68-year-old man.

Bacteriologic culture of nail scrapings was positive for P. aeruginosa. No fungal coinfection was proved. Cutting the distal part of the nail plate and application of topical gentamicin twice daily for 1 month were followed by positive results.

Case 3

A 56-year-old man, diagnosed 1 year earlier with toenail onychomycosis, in the absence of any treatment, developed greenish discoloration of the entire nail plate. No signs of paronychia were noticed, only subungual hyperkeratosis ().

Onychomycosis, onychogryphosis, and choloronychia in a 56-year-old man.

Note: Colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown on agar media.

Bacteriologic culture of nail scrapings was positive for P. aeruginosa. Direct mycologic examination of nail scrapings was positive and culture was positive for Trichophyton rubrum. The fungal infection was treated with itraconazole 200 mg/day 14 days per month for 3 months. Bacterial infection was cured after systemic administration of ciprofloxacin 500 mg/day for 3 weeks.


Bacterial infections of the nails are caused by Gram-negative bacteria, usually P. aeruginosa, but can also be caused by Klebsiella spp. and Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus.1,2P. aeruginosa is the most common pathogen causing bacterial nail infections, although it is rarely reported. 3P. aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic, coccobacillus belonging to the Pseudomonadaceae family. These pathogens are widespread in nature, inhabiting soil, water, plants, and animals (including humans).

More than half of all clinical isolates produce the blue-green pigments pyoverdin and pyocyanin.2P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can produce pulmonary, kidney, and urinary tract infections and even systemic infections. It can be also involved in soft tissue infections, skin and nail infections in immunocompetent subjects and patients with immune deficiency syndrome. P. aeruginosa is not part of normal skin flora, so Pseudomonas infections of the intact nail are rare. When infection occurs, P. aeruginosa colonizes moist regions of the skin, axillae, anogenital regions, and retroauricular areas.

The pathogenesis of nail infections caused by P. aeruginosa is not fully elucidated. Predisposing factors must be taken into consideration: onycholysis, onychotillomania, microtrauma to the nail-fold, chronic paronychia, chronic exposure to water, soaps, or detergents, and associated nail disorders, such as psoriasis.4

Onycholysis is characterized by separation of the nail plate from the nail bed; it is followed by secondary Pseudomonas infection, particularly when the nails are exposed to a warm and moist environment. A number of triggers for onycholysis have been reported, including psoriasis, onychomycosis, yellow nail syndrome, contact dermatitis, medications (doxycycline), endocrine disorders (acquired hypoparathyroidism),5 constant local trauma, especially in elderly. Chloronychia is more common in homemakers, barbers, dishwashers, bakers, and medical personnel, and can be regarded as an occupationally triggered disease.6

Small cuttings from the affected nail and/or subungual debris should be sent to the laboratory for investigations. Gram stain coloration is performed presenting Gram-negative rods with no particular arrangement; on cetrimide agar medium, P. aeruginosa expresses pyocyanin, a blue-green exopigment, and the colonies are flat, large, and oval, with a characteristic fruity smell.

Recently it has been reported a strong relation between fungal and P Aeruginosa infection of the nail: fungal infection stimulates bacterial colonization within the nail and overgrowth of P Aeruginosa in culture inhibits the isolation of fungus.7 The differential diagnosis includes subungal hematoma, malignant melanoma, infections caused by other pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, and Proteus, and chemical exposure to solutions containing pyocyanin or pyoverdine.8

The treatment of chloronychia, especially in elderly people, is difficult in many cases and recommendations based on clinical trials are missing.3 In the past, removal of the entire nail was a therapeutic option, but not nowadays. Treatment consists of cutting off the detached nail plate, brushing the nail bed with a 2% sodium hypochlorite solution twice daily, prevention of repeated immersion by wearing cotton and latex gloves and antibiotics administered topically and orally.

Topical silver sulfadiazine, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin have also been reported to be valuable therapeutic options.9 Topical antibiotics (polymyxin B or bacitracin) applied 2–4 times daily for 1–4 months have been demonstrated to be effective in immunocompetent patients.6 Topical therapy with nadifloxacin applied once daily for several weeks was curative for two patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.4 When topical therapies are not preferred by the patient, oral ciprofloxacin should be recommended for 2–3 weeks.

Pseudomonas infections of the nails are treated by fluoroquinolones, when necessary, in comparison with other bacterial nail infections that require culture and sensitivity testing. This is the reason to recognize easily, by simple clinical observation of the color of the nails, especially in aged persons, to avoid unnecessary laboratory investigations and to save time.

What Is Pseudomonas? – Wellness

pseudomonas [sue-de’mo-nus] n: a common household bacteria that thrives in many environments, including water and moist soil. It is the main culprit of the unwelcome phenomenon known to nail techs as “green nails.”

Pseudomonas is the name given to a common, run-of-the-mill bacterium that announces itself to nail clients by turning their nails green. Most of the time, the nail bed and the nail plate do not provide a sustainable environment for these bacteria to grow. There are times, however, when conditions are perfect, and happy bacteria make a home either on top of the nail bed and under the natural nail, or on top of the natural nail and under an enhancement. Advanced cases will appear as dark green or even black spots on the nail. This is not mold.

Mold is a fungus; green spots are bacterial — and the bacteria “pseudomonas” that causes the majority of green nails can be present almost anywhere — on plants and animals, in soil, even in water. Because these bacteria are so prevalent, people can develop green nails from a pseudomonas infection even if they don’t have nail enhancements. All it takes is for the skin under their nail to be compromised and then exposed to the pseudomonas bacterium.

Given that green nails can develop even without enhancements, techs need to be vigilant about thoroughly cleaning their implements, all salon surfaces, their own hands, and the hands and nails of their clients. Careful cleaning and disinfection of the nail surface is essential before applying product. Otherwise, techs could unknowingly trap bacteria between the product and the natural nail. When product is applied over a nail plate that holds pseudomonas bacteria, “it creates a nearly oxygen-free environment — which these bacteria just love,” says Doug Schoon, chief scientific advisor at CND. “They eat the oils and excrete an extremely dark substance. This is what we see when the nail turns green.”

Schoon reminds us that green spots are not caused by moisture. “That’s like saying a flower will grow because you watered the ground every day. Of course that won’t happen unless flower seeds were in the ground,” he says. So in the case of the pseudomonas bacteria causing green spots under nail product, the cause is always one of two things: either these bacteria were on the nail plate when the product was applied (due to dirty implements or poor prep), or product adhesion was insufficient. When adhesion is insufficient, pseudomonas bacteria can find their way under the product through a chip, crack, or lift. Even the most experienced tech can be counted among pseudomonas victims. The reason for this is that even after careful preparation, clients can be exposed to these bacteria while sitting in the salon. “For example,” says Schoon, “if a client touches her nails to her face and the nail plates aren’t re-cleaned,” her chances of infection have increased.

The treatment for green nails is to remove the enhancement, and trim, clean, and disinfect the nail to kill the pseudomonas bacteria. Some doctors will suggest a 1% acetic acid treatment, an antibiotic, or an antifungal cream. There was a time when techs were taught to treat the nail to remove a green spot. Some techs may even remember the days we were told to reapply product over the stain left behind from a green spot. Those days are gone. “If a nail is infected, it’s out of your hands,” says Schoon. “The client needs to be under a doctor’s supervision.”

What’s a Tech to Do to Deal with Pseudomonas?

Prevention is the best treatment. The first step in prevention is a clean environment and proper application. Protect yourself and your client by holding to industry standards. Short cuts can result in infection.

Next, educate your clients about nail care. During a client’s first appointment, instruct her not to pick, pry, or glue her nails. Don’t wait until she has glued a cracked or broken nail to tell her about trapped bacteria and green spots. When a client glues the nail, she increases the risk of trapping bacteria under the nail.

If a green spot appears on the nail, techs can’t treat the infection. “Green spots are considered to be a medical disorder,” says Doug Schoon, “and not something nail technicians are allowed to treat.” Refer the client to a doctor. Techs may want to remove the product from the nail, but if the nail has an infection, techs are legally bound to avoid any form of treatment. If you nick the skin while removing the nail, you could worsen the infection. If any of your implements came into contact with the infected nail, immediately clean and disinfect it, wash your hands, your client’s hands, and the surface of your work area.

The natural nail underneath the enhancement will likely be stained, with colors ranging from a dull green to an unsightly black, and it could be soft from being moist; do not apply polish or product over the nail to hide the color until the client has seen a doctor and the infection is completely clear. Once treated by a doctor, the stained nail will eventually grow out, and a soft nail will “harden” back up as it’s exposed to air.

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Texas Teen Almost Loses Fingertip After Biting Nails

  • A Texas teenager shared a warning to all nail biters on TikTok.
  • She almost lost her fingertip due to a nail-biting related infection called paronychia.
  • Lauren Nichols shared photos of the infection and detailed her surgery and recovery on her account.

    A teenager in Texas is recovering after she almost lost her fingertip due to a nail-biting habit. Lauren Nichols opened up about the whole ordeal on TikTok. “Nail biters, stop what you’re doing,” she said in a video. “I almost got the tip of my finger amputated because I bite my nails.”

    According to Nichols, it all started on January 8 when she noticed a “green spot” on her cuticle. Turns out it, was paronychia, a nail infection caused by trauma to the cuticles. She saw a doctor a few days later when the spot got bigger and became painful.

    Nichols said she was given antibiotics, but it didn’t really help. In the meantime, her finger kept getting more swollen and the green spot grew bigger. “It got pretty painful,” she said. Eventually, the teen needed surgery to remove the bump.

    Now, Nichols told People, her finger is doing better, but she still has to fight the urge to bite her nails. “My finger looks a little weird but it healed fine,” she said. Breaking the nail-biting habit hasn’t been easy, though. “I’ve always been a more anxious person, and [nail-biting] is one of the ways I’ve coped,” she said. Nichols said she’s bought a fidget spinner to try to help herself and, when she gets the urge to bite her nails, she tries to remember what she went through.

    “It’s still kind of tender to the touch, so if I ever start trying to bite my nails or think about it, it’s still there as a reminder to not,” she explained. “I definitely still think about it, but I’ve stopped myself many times because that was not a fun experience.”

    How common is paronychia?

    It’s actually pretty common, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Paronychia can happen when the area around your nails is injured from things like biting it off, picking a hangnail, or trimming or pushing back a cuticle.

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    The infection can be caused by a bacteria, candida (a type of yeast), or fungus. Paronychia usually gets better with treatment, like antibiotics or antifungal medication, and soaking your nail in warm water two or three times a day, but in some rare cases, there can be complications, per the U. S. National Library of Medicine. Those include developing an abscess, a permanent change in the shape of the nail, or a spread of the infection to the tendons, bones, or bloodstream.

    “It would have to be very advanced to cause osteomyelitis, a serious bone infection that may require intravenous antibiotics,” Gary Goldenberg, MD, assistant clinical professor of dermatology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, told Women’s Health. “My recommendation is to see your dermatologist as soon as you notice an issue with the nail and skin around it.”

    Still think it’s worth the risk of biting your nails? The U.S. National Library of Medicine has this to say: “DO NOT bite or pick the nails.” (Their caps, btw.) So…maybe take a pass.

    Korin Miller
    Korin Miller is a freelance writer specializing in general wellness, sexual health and relationships, and lifestyle trends, with work appearing in Men’s Health, Women’s Health, Self, Glamour, and more.

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    Nail Changes

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    During treatment for breast cancer you may notice some changes in the color or thickness of your fingernails or toenails or changes around the nail bed.

    • Your nails may look bruised — turning black, brown, blue, or green. People with darker complexions notice the color change more.

    • You may develop blemishes on your nails such as a horizontal or vertical line, or small indentations. These marks reflect the timing of chemotherapy. You may have multiple lines or indentations that mark the different cycles of chemotherapy. These spots are not permanent, and will grow out with the nail.

    • Your nails may become thin or brittle. Your nails probably won’t grow as long as they used to and may tend to break more easily.

    • The nail can lift completely off the nail bed or fall off in some cases. If the nail is not tightly bound to the nail bed, it can be a site for bacteria to enter and cause infection.

    • The nail bed may become dry and you may have frayed cuticles.

    • You may develop ingrown nails on your fingers or toes.

    The following treatments for breast cancer can cause nail changes:

    Managing nail changes

    If you’re experiencing nail changes, your risk of infection may increase. A nail infection can be serious if your immune system is compromised from chemotherapy. If you have lymphedema, a nail infection can make it worse.

    The following tips can cover up any nail blemishes and help keep your nails free from infection:

    • Keep nails trimmed and clean to reduce the risk of infection.

    • Wear gloves when gardening or housecleaning to avoid infection.

    • Paint your nails to hide blemishes and increase nail strength. Make sure to use a nail polish you’ve used before to decrease the risk of having an allergic reaction.

    • Remove nail polish with a non-acetone-based remover — it can be less drying than an acetone-based remover.

    • Don’t bite or tear at your nails. This habit can put you at risk for infection. Buy thin cotton gloves that you can wear around the house to help you break this habit.

    • Don’t pick at your cuticles if you have dry skin around the nail bed or frayed cuticles.

    • Use a cuticle remover cream or gel to keep cuticles tidy. You can push your cuticles back gently using a wooden cuticle stick.

    • Massage cuticle cream into the nail area to prevent dryness, splitting, and hangnails.

    • Limit the time your hands are in water. Excessive exposure to water can lead to fungal infections in the nail bed.

    • Avoid professional manicures. If you must have your nails done in a shop, bring your own sanitized instruments.

    • Do not use artificial nails. Artificial nail adhesives have chemicals that may cause an allergic reaction, such as swelling or inflammation. Fake nails also can trap bacteria that may cause infection.

    • If you develop an ingrown toe or fingernail, try soaking it in warm water and putting some antibiotic cream on the area. If the area is still painful or there is pus or redness that seems to be spreading, call your doctor immediately.

    • Tell your doctor if you have any signs of inflammation or infection. If you’re having pain or draining fluid from your nail, call your doctor immediately.

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    Last modified on July 29, 2020 at 10:03 AM

    Dad’s nail biting leads to deadly infection and leaves him fighting for life

    Steven had to have emergency surgery on his infected finger [Photo: SWNS]

    Warning graphic content

    A dad was left fighting for his life thanks to a severe infection caused by his life-long nail biting habit.

    Steven MacDonald, 48, was rushed to hospital just days after noticing his left index finger had become infected.

    The former postman – who has bitten his nails all his life – was initially given magnesium sulphate by a pharmacist in an attempt to cure it.

    But his finger continued to swell and started oozing green puss.

    Four days later his fiancée, Karen Peat, 47, spotted a rash on her partner, which ran from his finger up his forearm.

    Steven was rushed to University Monklands Hospital, North Lanarkshire, where he was found to have an extreme case of paronychia – an infection of the skin around the fingernail.

    Doctors were concerned the infection was spreading, so sent him straight to the Glasgow Royal infirmary where he had emergency surgery to save his life.

    Steven’s infected nail was swollen and leaking green puss [Photo: SWNS]

    READ MORE: What is sepsis and what are the early signs and symptoms to look out for?

    Recalling discovering the seriousness of the situation mum-of-two Karen, a care worker, from Coatbridge, near Glasgow, Scotland, said: “At first we weren’t that worried as he’d had little swellings before where he’d been nail biting, but when it kept getting worse and then he showed me the rash, I really started to panic.

    “I knew it was quite serious then so I rushed him into our local hospital. The doctor took one look at it and he was whizzed right through the A&E queue.

    “After giving him a strong shot of antibiotics they told us we’d need to go straight to Glasgow Royal Infirmary for emergency surgery.

    “They told us that if we’d left it even a few hours longer he might have been dead.

    “I was so scared.”

    Initially the couple weren’t worried when Steven’s finger became red and itchy, but after noticing it turning green and swelling up Karen insisted on getting it checked at the local pharmacy.

    The pharmacist also didn’t seem concerned and suggested magnesium sulphate, which can be used to draw out splinters, pus or infection from the skin.

    Story continues

    When the finger continued to swell Steven visited another chemist, where the “worried” pharmacist booked him an appointment at an out of hours doctors surgery.

    Steven recalls the doctor wasn’t too concerned but did suggest the finger should be lanced and properly cleaned out at hospital.

    Having learned there would be an eight or nine hour wait, the couple decided to leave it until first thing the following day.

    “But when I got up the next day there was a rash all up my arm, coming from the finger, it was a bit like sunburn,” Steven remembers.

    “I didn’t think much of it but Karen seemed quite worried so we rushed into A&E.”

    There, Steven was given antibiotics and sent straight to Glasgow Royal Infirmary for surgery.

    Following a two hour operation to remove the infected flesh on 6th January this year, Steven was kept in for observation for four further days, before returning home to recover.

    READ MORE: Mum saves son from potentially deadly sepsis by spotting early sign

    The two hour operation involved removing the infected flesh [Photo: SWNS]

    Doctors aren’t sure if Steven’s nail will grow back [Photo: SWNS]

    READ MORE: Woman’s arms and legs amputated due to infection from dog saliva

    Following his ordeal Steven has now quit his nail biting habit.

    “I’ve been tempted to bite a few times since, as it’s been a habit of mine for so long, but I’ve told myself not to.

    “It’s weird now that I’m not nibbling away at them, they’re actually growing really fast.

    “I keep joking that I might need to get myself down the salon for a manicure!

    “But seriously, I really cannot thank the NHS enough, they reacted so fast, it was incredible.”

    Despite the possibility that his nail might never grow back dad-of-one Steven remains positive.

    He’s chosen to share his experiences to warn other nail biters about the potential danger.

    “This ordeal has taught me a huge lesson, to any nail biters out there, please just pull your finger away from your teeth!” he said.

    “I’d never had a problem like it before but it left me seriously considering life and death.

    “I was quite jokey about it until I came around from the operation and realised what a close call it had been.”

    Steven and his fiancee Karen were shocked at how quickly the infection escalated [Photo: SWNS]

    What is paronychia?

    According to the Patient. info paronychia is a common infection of the skin just next to a nail. The infected nail fold looks swollen, inflamed and may be tender.

    Treatment usually involves antibiotic medicines for germ (bacterial) infections, but occasionally an operation is needed to drain out any pus which has collected.

    Nail biting can make you more prone to infections such as paronychia because it can cause a break in the skin, which can allow the germs on the skin to get inside.

    90,000 Iodine and brilliant green: is there a difference?

    We all remember how in childhood, after too active games, my mother treated us with bruises and broken knees with iodine or brilliant green.

    And now these two antiseptics are necessarily kept in our first-aid kits. But there is a fundamental difference between them! Let’s take everything in order so that in a critical situation iodine and brilliant green help, and not harm!

    What is what?

    “Brilliant green” or simply “brilliant green” is a green powder dye dissolved in alcohol. This antiseptic has received recognition only in Russia and the CIS countries. In other countries of the world, you can hardly meet him. In part, its unpopularity is due to the pungent green color, as well as the poorly studied composition.

    But iodine, on the contrary, can be found in any pharmacy in the world and not only in the form of a solution.

    Both substances are long-acting antiseptics (unlike, for example, hydrogen peroxide, which requires frequent reapplication).

    How does iodine “work”?

    Iodine causes blood flow to tissues, contributing to their rapid regeneration.However, it dries the skin a lot, and in large quantities it can even cause a burn. Therefore, they should not process the damaged surface itself. To avoid burns, apply iodine to the skin around the wound to prevent germs from entering.

    Use only for minor scratches and abrasions. Large and deep wounds require different treatment. However, if there is no other antiseptic at hand, then iodine can also be applied to an open wound, after diluting it with water.

    At the same time, iodine is indispensable when it comes to the treatment of bruises, edema and dislocations.By stimulating blood flow, it stimulates rapid tissue repair. Apply iodine to the damaged area with a net and renew the “pattern” as it fades. In addition, iodine, due to its drying properties, fights acne well.

    Features brilliant green

    Zelenka, on the contrary, acts gently and does not burn the skin, so it can be applied directly to an open wound. It penetrates deeper into tissues, dries well and protects against suppuration. Moreover, its effect is longer than that of iodine, thanks to which brilliant green is indispensable when long-term protection from microbes is needed.

    The product is suitable not only for treating wounds, but also for treating rashes during chickenpox or herpes. However, remember that if brilliant green gets on your clothes, it will be virtually impossible to wash it off!

    So, it is really better to keep both funds at hand, but without replacing one with the other. The conclusion is simple: iodine – for small abrasions, closed injuries and bruises, brilliant green – for larger wounds and suppurations. Treat correctly!

    Dracunculosis (Pine’s disease)

    Dracunculosis rarely leads to death, but disrupts the normal functioning of the infected persons for many months.The problem affects the population of rural, disadvantaged and remote areas, where the main source of drinking water is open water bodies, in particular ponds.

    Magnitude of the problem

    Estimated in the mid-1980s. worldwide, there were 3.5 million cases of dracunculiasis in 20 countries, including 17 countries in Africa. In 2007, the number of registered cases of the disease for the first time fell to less than 10,000, and in 2012 it dropped to 542 cases. Over the past eight years, the number of human cases has been measured in double digits (54 cases in 2019 and slightly less – 27 cases in 2020).

    Pathogen transmission, life cycle and incubation period

    About a year after the invasion, a painful blister forms, which in 90% of cases is localized on the lower leg, and one or more worms come out, causing a burning sensation. To relieve the burning pain, patients often submerge the affected body part in water.In this case, the worms release thousands of larvae into the water. These larvae are swallowed by tiny crustaceans, or copepods, also called water fleas, and subsequently reach the invasive stage.

    People drink contaminated water while swallowing contaminated water fleas. Water fleas die in the human stomach, but the invasive larvae are released. They enter the tissues of the body through the intestinal wall. A fertilized female worm (60–100 cm long) migrates through the subcutaneous tissue and reaches the exit point, usually located on the lower extremities, resulting in a blister or swelling on the skin from which it is eventually released. The release of the worm occurs 10-14 months after infection.


    There are no vaccines or drugs to prevent and treat this disease. Nevertheless, prevention is possible, and it is thanks to prevention strategies that the disease is on the verge of elimination. Prevention strategies include:

    • strengthened surveillance to identify each patient within 24 days of worm release;
    • prevention of the release of larvae by each individual of the worm by assisting the patient and regular treatment of damaged skin areas and applying bandages to it until the worm is completely released from the body;
    • Prevention of contamination of drinking water by prohibiting infected patients with signs of parasite release from entering the water;
    • Ensuring wider access to safe drinking water sources to prevent contamination;
    • Filtration of water from open reservoirs before its use;
    • vector control with temefos, an anti-larval agent; and 90,061
    • expanding sanitation and promoting behavior change.

    Stages of disease eradication

    In May 1981, the Inter-Agency Steering Committee for Joint Action for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-1990) proposed the inclusion of dracunculiasis eradication among the indicators of the success of the Decade. In the same year, the World Health Assembly, the governing body of WHO, adopted resolution (WHA34.25) in which it noted that the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade represented an opportunity to eradicate dracunculiasis.Thereafter, WHO and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention formulated the strategy and technical guidelines for the eradication campaign.

    In 1986, the Carter Center joined the fight against the disease, which works in partnership with WHO and UNICEF and is still one of the leading institutions in the elimination of the disease. In 2011, in an effort to give this work a decisive impetus, WHO called on all Member States that are endemic for dracunculiasis to accelerate action to stop transmission and strengthen national surveillance to ensure its eradication.

    Country certifications

    A country can be declared free of dracunculiasis if it has not reported any transmission of the parasite for at least three consecutive years, subject to active surveillance.

    After this period, an international certification team visits the country to assess the adequacy of the surveillance system and review documentation of investigations of possible cases of illness and responses.

    The team is looking at indicators such as access to an improved drinking water source in areas where the parasite lives, and visits rural areas to confirm that the pathogen has not been transmitted. The risks of re-emergence of the disease are also assessed. At the final stage, a corresponding report is sent to the International Commission for Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication (ICSLD).

    Since 1995, ICSLD has held 12 meetings, on the recommendation of which 199 countries and territories (comprising 187 WHO Member States) have been certified by WHO as dracunculiasis-free.

    Kenya was the last country to receive this status (in February 2018).

    Continuous surveillance

    WHO recommends that active surveillance should be carried out for at least three years in a country and / or an area where the transmission of shrimp disease has recently been interrupted. This is necessary in order not to miss a single case of the disease and to prevent the return of the disease.

    Since the maturation period of the worm lasts 10-14 months, even one missed case pushes the deadline for eradication by one or more.Data on the return of the disease were obtained in Ethiopia (2008), which previously announced the termination of transmission of helminths as part of the national program to eradicate the disease, and more recently (2010) in Chad, where transmission of the disease resumed almost 10 years later. complete absence of registered cases.

    It is considered that the transmission of the parasite in the country has stopped if no cases of the disease are recorded for 14 consecutive months. The country then remains in the pre-certification stage for at least three years after the last case of local transmission is detected, during which time it is required to conduct intensive disease surveillance activities.Surveillance should continue beyond certification until a global elimination of the disease is declared.


    The most difficult and costly task in the elimination process is to identify and isolate the last remaining patients, as they usually live in remote and often inaccessible rural areas.

    The implementation of this task is complicated primarily by the unsafe environment, which prevents visits to areas endemic for dracunculiasis, especially in countries where there are still cases of infestation among humans and animals.

    Invasions of D. medinensis in dogs, especially in countries such as Chad, Ethiopia and Mali, are an unfavorable factor for the program. This phenomenon was noted in Chad in 2012, and since then, dogs with signs of worm release that are genetically indistinguishable from worms found in humans have continued to be identified in the same risk zone. Invasions of Dracunculus medinensis in dogs remain an obstacle to the global eradication campaign.In 2020, 1,508 infected dogs and 63 infected cats were reported in Chad, while three infected dogs, four infected baboons and eight infected cats were identified in Ethiopia. Mali reported infestations in nine dogs.

    The transmission of helminths in animals can be interrupted by strengthening surveillance to identify all infected animals and isolate them (tying infected and preventive maintenance on a leash of healthy individuals), conducting health education among the local population and animal owners, and implementing intensive and comprehensive control measures with carriers.

    WHO activities

    To combat dracunculiasis, WHO advocates for eradication, issues technical guidance, coordinates eradication efforts, monitors surveillance performance in dracunculiasis-free areas, and monitors progress and issues relevant reports.

    WHO is the only organization authorized on the recommendation of the ICSLD to certify countries as free from this disease. ICSLD currently has nine public health experts. The Commission meets as necessary to assess the transmission parameters in countries that have applied for certification of dracunculiasis eradication and makes recommendations for their certification as parasite-free.

    (1) Prior to the declaration of independence on July 9, 2011, South Sudan was part of Sudan. Cases of shrimp disease in South Sudan were reported as cases in Sudan; respectively, since the 2011, 20 countries were endemic for this disease.

    What they are treating us with: brilliant green, iodine and fucorcin

    Povidone-iodine, a complex of triiodide anions and a water-soluble polymer, is much better tolerated. The World Health Administration even included him and Lugol’s solution on the list of essential drugs, the most affordable and effective.

    Green light for all indications?

    None of the articles in the clinical trials section of the PubMed database are about brilliant green. However, some experiments can still be found there. Thus, one article compares the effectiveness of a “triple dye” (brilliant green is among the three aniline dyes) with and without isopropyl alcohol in the treatment of the umbilical cord of newborns. Isopropyl alcohol does not change the effect, but it tells us little about how strong it is in itself. Another work from 1948 shows that 2% brilliant green helps in 26 days to heal chronic ulcers that did not go away several months before.The authors conclude that the drug kills most bacterial pathogens and can be easily applied at home. They did not find any side effects and added that regular alcohol can be used to cleanse healthy skin from accidental staining.

    Another study showed that brilliant green can kill Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus and Candida albicans at pH of skin and blood (and its activity does not change), although it loses to the dye gentian violet. But it helps badly against gram-negative bacteria. Apparently, the mechanism of action of brilliant green is somehow connected with the destruction of the cell wall, characteristic of gram-positive microorganisms.

    If antiseptics are needed to disinfect a wound where microorganisms have already penetrated, then aseptics prevent infection from getting there. The line between the two is sometimes thin, as some disinfectants can treat both a wound and, for example, surgical instruments. In this sense, lubricating the edges of the wound with brilliant green, fucorcin or iodine solution, we rather use them as asepsis (although it is difficult to say if there are already microorganisms there at this moment).It is usually not recommended to fill the wound inside with them: the irritating effect of these solutions on unprotected tissues slows down healing. Therefore, for the wound itself, less painful and more gentle options are often used, such as a solution of hydrogen peroxide.

    The experience of using brilliant green in a field hospital from 1917 to 1956 is disclosed in a letter to the British Medical Journal. The author calls the antiseptic effective in comparison with others and does not cause severe irritation. He also noticed that brilliant green stains dead tissue more strongly, suggesting that such a feature could prompt the surgeon what needs to be removed.However, he also reported on the restrictions: for example, the wounded did not stay in the infirmary for a long time, and their injuries could be treated with something else before arriving.

    The author of another study of brilliant green, published in 1931, notes that antiseptics are of two types: strong, but irritating to living tissues, like iodine solution, or safer for the patient, but also not having a significant effect on bacteria. The fact is that often the properties of antiseptics, harmful to microorganisms, are also harmful to human cells.Brilliant green suppresses (in vitro) the reproduction of streptococci and pneumococci, even when diluted 200,000 times, while the author calls it non-toxic and non-irritating to wound tissue as much as iodine solution. The article talks about 123 cases of disinfection of already affected tissue areas with green paint (with ulcers, carbuncles, phlegmons, abscesses, and so on), as well as successful use in surgical operations. The author was unable to find out how effectively it protects against infection.

    Some scientists took a different path and created bactericidal gloves by incorporating chlorhexidine and brilliant green into the material. In experiments, such gloves prevented contamination even with antibiotic-resistant pathogens. There is also evidence of the antiviral activity of brilliant green – for example, against the Nipah virus, which causes encephalitis.

    But chicken pox cannot be cured from brilliant green. But this is not the purpose of applying an antiseptic: it will dry the weeping sores and protect against the introduction of a new infection.But brilliant green will help paint new bubbles of the rash in order to monitor the course of the disease. Abroad, this approach is not used largely for aesthetic reasons.

    Hidden dangers of antiseptic dyes

    A fellow of brilliant green in crimson tones, fucorcin was more effective than gentian violet (another aniline antiseptic dye, which is rarely used due to suspicions of carcinogenicity) against the fungus Candida albicans . Since fucorcin, which includes phenol, is also considered potentially carcinogenic, some scientists suggest combining fuchsin with chlorhexidine, a safer antiseptic.This mixture is reported to be suitable for the treatment of otorhinolaryngologic infections.

    According to the already mentioned review of antiseptic dyes, fuchsin is active against gram-positive bacteria and is used to treat pustular skin lesions, dermatitis, eczema and even burns. Fukortsin, in addition, is active against fungi and works as an astringent. Since 1967, the danger of the drug for workers in production has been officially recognized, who are prescribed to undergo additional examinations every six months.

    In a study of 61 patients, fucorcin helped treat an itchy ear infection without affecting neutral bacteria that were not harmful. And yet, in the vast majority of clinical trials, fucorcin is now used to stain cell or tissue samples, and not as an investigational antiseptic. The reason is precisely the potential toxicity, which is possibly associated with the mechanism of oxidative stress (common to many such antiseptic dyes).

    Scientists have a lot of questions about the danger of brilliant green.Brilliant green is one of the most toxic antiseptic dyes when injected intraperitoneally. Experiments on this topic were carried out on guinea pigs in 1918. There is reason to suspect that brilliant green has carcinogenic properties, since at a certain concentration it destroys the DNA of cells. The probability of transfer of dye particles from green paper towels to hands and food has been proven: the risk of carcinogenic effects is approximately equal to that to which we are exposed to illegal fish farms using brilliant green.

    It is precisely known that contact with mucous membranes will not lead to good results, and corneal opacity may occur due to the ingress of brilliant green in the eyes. Cases of allergic reactions to brilliant green are also described.

    Iodine: Most Studied, But Low Quality Studies

    Antiseptics with iodine are the most studied among those that we consider in our article. A number of Cochrane Reviews have been dedicated to them.

    If a child has been bitten by a tick

    If a child was bitten by a tick

    If a child has been bitten by a tick: what to do and what not to do to avoid serious consequences.

    According to the statistics of children, ticks bite more often than adults, and pets (for example, dogs) – more often than children. However, it is children who are most severely affected by the diseases that ticks can infect a person after being bitten.

    There are many diseases carried by ticks – about a dozen. But the most dangerous (namely, deadly) of them are two: tick-borne encephalitis and tick-borne borreliosis.

    Tick-borne encephalitis (otherwise – spring-summer tick-borne meningoencephalitis).This is a viral infection, which is characterized by severe intoxication and damage to the brain and spinal cord. Often, tick-borne encephalitis ends in persistent neurological and psychiatric complications, and sometimes, alas, in death. Tick-borne encephalitis virus can exist and multiply in the organisms of about 130 species of animals and birds. Ticks suck out the virus along with the blood of these animals, and then – when bitten, they can transmit a dangerous infection to humans. The primary symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis with a tick bite: muscle weakness, high fever, fever; temporary anorexia; Strong headache; severe muscle pain.These symptoms may appear up to 60 days after infection.

    Tick-borne borreliosis (or otherwise – Lyme disease, or – Lyme borreliosis). This is a rather severe bacterial infection caused by several types of specific bacteria that are transmitted to humans through a tick bite. Tick-borne borreliosis is the most common disease that can be caught after “meeting” a tick. Insects “catch” the causative agents of this disease in deer, dogs, birds, sheep, cows and other representatives of the fauna, and then safely “transplant” them to a person when bitten along with their saliva.Of the early symptoms of tick-borne borreliosis, the most obvious are: fever; weakness; Strong headache; a characteristic rash, which is called in the medical environment “erythema annular migrans”. Usually, erythema annuli (a rash with red rings around the bite site) occurs 3 to 30 days after infection.

    Where does the tick bite most often?

    Ticks have their favorite bite and suction sites. Moreover, they differ in children and adults – most likely.For example, in children, ticks are most often found on the head (and most likely behind the ears), while in adults the most “popular” bite site is the chest, arms and armpits. In addition to the head, ticks also attack children in the following areas of the body: neck and chest; hands; axillary region (specifically – in children over 10 years old).

    How to remove a sucked tick at home?

    1. The body of the tick is lubricated with oil and left for 10-15 minutes.

    2. Then you need to make a loop from a dense thread and tighten it at the base of the tick proboscis.

    3. Holding the skin with your fingers, swinging the tick, gradually pull it out, stretching the ends of the thread in different directions. You can grab the tick with tweezers or fingers wrapped in clean gauze as close as possible to its mouth apparatus and, holding strictly perpendicular to the bite surface, rotate the tick body around its axis, remove it from the skin.

    4. The bite site must be lubricated with 70% alcohol, 5% iodine, brilliant green or cologne.

    5. If the tick is removed, and its head remains in the skin, then you need to contact the clinic for medical assistance. If there is no way to apply, then you need to treat the place with 5% iodine and remove it like a splinter.

    6. Ticks removed from the body must be placed in a bottle (in extreme cases, burn or pour boiling water). You should not press them with your fingers, because if the tick is infected, the virus can enter the human body through the mucous membranes of the nose, eyes and slightly damaged skin.

    7. After contact with ticks, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water.

    8. To determine the infestation of a tick, it is necessary (in a vial, a jar) to deliver it to the laboratory.The ticks removed from a person are placed in a hermetically sealed container with a small piece of slightly damp cotton wool. The container is placed in a refrigerator at a temperature of + 4C – + 8C (storage for 1 day), during long-term storage, it must be frozen at a temperature of -20C (storage for 2 weeks).

    9. If you cannot remove it yourself, contact the nearest medical facility.

    Where to carry out a study of the infection carrier tick?

    The study of ticks removed from people for infection with pathogens of tick-borne encephalitis, ixodic tick-borne borreliosis, and other pathogens can be in the following institutions:

    Branch name

    Laboratory address

    Research carried out

    FBUZ “Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Udmurt Republic”

    G.Izhevsk, st. Lenin, 106

    For the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus, borrelia, ehrlichia, anaplasma and WNV virus

    Branch of FBUZ “Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Udmurt Republic” in Glazov

    Glazov, st. Kirov, 27a

    For the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus, borrelia

    Branch FBUZ “Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Udmurt Republic” in the village. The game

    Igrinsky district, p. Game, st. Truda, 17

    For the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus, borrelia

    Branch of FBUZ “Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Udmurt Republic” in Mozhga

    Mozhga, Lenin, 8

    For the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus, borrelia

    Branch of FBUZ “Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Udmurt Republic” in g.Sarapul

    Sarapul, st. Azina, 29

    For the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus, borrelia

    Branch of FBUZ “Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Udmurt Republic” in the village. Uva

    p. Uva, st. Soviet, 7

    For the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus, borrelia

    Branch of FBUZ “Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Udmurt Republic” in g.Votkinsk ”

    Votkinsk, st. Sverdlova, 11

    For the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus, borrelia

    As of the beginning of June 2018, 7175 people have applied to the medical organizations of the republic with complaints of tick sucking, of which 1468 are children. The largest number of applicants was registered in Izhevsk (3519), Mozhga (567), Votkinsk (501), Uvinsky (195), Sharkansky (204), Kezsky (175), Igrinsky (148), Yakshur – Bodinsky (141) districts.4447 ticks were examined for the presence of the pathogen of tick-borne encephalitis, of which 151 (3.4%) were identified as the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis; 3387 – investigated for the presence of the pathogen of tick-borne borreliosis, incl. in 1240 ticks (36.6%) the causative agent of ixodic tick-borne borreliosis was identified.

    As of the beginning of June 2018, 45,522 residents of the republic were vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis, including 24,956 children under the age of 14.

    If your child has been bitten by a tick, then immunoprophylaxis is carried out free of charge.You can get it in a serviced medical institution (clinic) until 18.00. After 18.00 in a stationary institution at the place of registration, for residents of Izhevsk: BUZ UR “GKB No. 6 MZ UR”, BUZ UR “GKB No. 7 MZ UR”, BUZ UR “GB No. 3 MZ UR”.

    The best protection against ticks is adherence to safety:

    1. It is not recommended to crawl into impassable thickets of undersized bushes without special need.

    2. When moving through the forest, do not pluck branches, because.because by this action you shake off the ticks.

    3. Legs should be fully covered.

    4. Sports leotards, pants should be tucked into socks.

    5. Be sure to have a headdress.

    6. Long hair should be hidden under a headdress.

    7. After hiking in the forest, check and shake off both outerwear and underwear.

    8. Examine the entire body.

    nine.Comb the hair thoroughly with a fine-toothed comb.

    10. And the best prevention against tick-borne encephalitis is vaccination. Vaccination is carried out for children from 12 months. age, for imported vaccines, and from 4 years old – for domestic.

    The standard tick-borne encephalitis vaccination scheme consists of 3 doses, which are administered according to the scheme:

    – the first vaccination in the fall on the selected day (October, November)

    – the second vaccination in the spring after 5-7 months from the first,

    – the third vaccination after 9-12 months from the second,

    revaccination is carried out every 3 years.

    For most vaccines, an emergency vaccination schedule has been developed. The purpose of using the emergency scheme is to quickly achieve a protective effect, in cases where the timing of the standard vaccination has been missed.

    – the first vaccination in the spring (March, April) on the selected day,

    – the second vaccination one month after the first,

    – the third vaccination after 9-12 months from the second.

    revaccination is carried out every 3 years.

    You can find out more information from your local pediatrician, there are contraindications.

    90,000 getting rid at home, masks, means

    Black dots on the nose: why they appear and how to fix the defect forever

    How to remove black dots on the nose: getting rid at home, masks, means

    Blackheads on the nose: why they appear and how to eliminate the defect permanently

    The need to get rid of blackheads on the nose arises not only in adolescence.Is it possible to clean pores with home remedies and remove cosmetic



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    MOSCOW, December 7 – RIA Novosti. The need to get rid of blackheads on the nose arises not only in adolescence. Is it possible to clean pores with home remedies and remove a cosmetic defect forever – in the material RIA Novosti. points on the face, in the neck, chest and back, you need to know the true cause of their occurrence.In pursuit of perfect skin, most people use various methods of treatment, which do not always help, and often worsen the condition of the outer integument. Experts said what affects the appearance of blackheads. According to dermatologist and cosmetologist Ekaterina Kulago, black comedones become as a result of accumulation in the sebaceous plugs of the pigment melanin, which oxidizes upon contact with air. As a result, the top layer of the comedone darkens. From which blackheads appear. The causes of open comedones can be varied.With acne, it is advisable to consult a dermatologist to find out the true cause, and not treat blackheads locally. The main reasons for the appearance of blackheads: With age, the rashes disappear on their own, as the sebaceous glands begin to produce less sebum. Cosmetic procedures Quickly getting rid of open comedones is problematic, therefore many resort to aggressive means: squeeze, scrub, exposing the skin to mechanical stress. Cosmetologists categorically forbid doing this, since such methods are dangerous to health: the risk of infection increases, the skin is injured, an inflammatory process and pigmentation may occur.Basic daily facial skin care will help to gently cleanse your face of blackheads. With regular procedures, after a few weeks, you will be able to see the result. Step-by-step actions: The best remedies for blackheadsCosmetic procedures There are a lot of cosmetic procedures that can get rid of blackheads. According to Ekaterina Kulago, their main action is aimed at removing the upper dead stratum corneum and removing the contents of comedones. Traumatic face cleansing includes the phased use of chemical compounds that can soften and remove sebaceous secretions.This method is the most painless and gentle. Mechanical or manual cleansing of the face includes deep cleansing of the skin with steaming and comedone extraction. These methods have a number of contraindications and are more aggressive. Peels are another category of procedures that can not only clear the skin of black comedones, but also lighten the face with post-acne symptoms, relieve inflammation, renew and refresh the complexion. Cosmetologist Yanina Oleinikova recommends the following procedures that will have a positive effect: Home remedies Many people, faced with the problem of blackheads, try to eliminate them with home remedies.Before this, it is necessary to carefully analyze the composition in order to avoid the appearance of an allergic reaction. It is believed that eliminating the problem of blackheads with the help of home remedies will help: However, Ekaterina Kulago warns that folk remedies are not suitable for skin care. Since most ingredients that mix on their own can have the exact opposite effect, and many homemade ingredients are too aggressive (e.g. lemon juice, salt, etc.)), skin irritation can lead to more inflammation. Some ingredients, according to the doctor, are completely devoid of cleansing properties, in this case there will be no effect. care: mechanical scrubs, gommages, multi-acid peels, enzyme masks.The expert also advises not to forget to regularly visit a beautician for cosmetic procedures that will help in the fight against skin imperfections. Yanina Oleinikova notes that two main factors affect the appearance of blackheads: nutrition and care. “Dairy products and sugar increase the production of sebum. lovers of fast food and those with a sweet tooth, it will hardly come to the surface and the pores will clog.In the diet should be added more vegetable fats and green products: cabbage, celery, spinach, green apples.Salads are best seasoned with olive oil, it is beneficial to take omega-3s (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and monitor the level of vitamin D. Regular proper home care aimed at reducing sebum secretion and gentle exfoliation of the skin will solve the problem of blackheads. Use mild cleansers, in no case should you overdry the skin, otherwise it will defend itself and throw out twice as much sebum, and this is a vicious circle. Add products with acids to the care, these can be wipes or toners, serums that tighten pores.Many cosmetic brands have light chemical peels for home use. “ html

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    society, health – society, health, skin

    MOSCOW, December 7 – RIA Novosti. The need to get rid of blackheads on the nose arises not only in adolescence. Is it possible to cleanse pores with home remedies and remove a cosmetic defect forever – in the material RIA Novosti.

    Blackheads on the nose

    Blackheads (open comedones) are clogging of pores with accumulation of sebum (sebum), dead epithelial cells and external impurities.

    To find an effective way to treat blackheads on the face, neck, chest and back, you need to know the true cause of their occurrence.In pursuit of perfect skin, most people use various methods of treatment, which do not always help, and often worsen the condition of the outer integument.

    Experts told what influences the appearance of blackheads.

    According to dermatologist and cosmetologist Ekaterina Kulago, comedones become black as a result of the accumulation of melanin pigment in the sebaceous plugs, which oxidizes upon contact with air. As a result, the top layer of the comedone darkens.

    “Sebaceous glands are located almost all over the body, but their greatest number is located on the face (especially in the T-zone), back, scalp, which is the reason for the appearance of a greater number of black dots in these areas,” the expert notes.

    What causes blackheads

    The causes of open comedones can be varied. With acne, it is advisable to consult with a dermatologist to find out the true cause, and not treat blackheads locally.

    “The very first and main reason is genetics. There are a number of factors that stimulate the increased secretion of sebum: changes in hormonal levels, stress, the use of low-quality cosmetics, improper home skin care, poor nutrition, etc.What is the cause of the appearance of blackheads in a particular patient can be said only after a thorough examination, “dermatologist, cosmetologist and trichologist Yanina Oleinikova told RIA Novosti.

    The main causes of blackheads :

    1. 1

      Hormones During the period of restructuring of the hormonal system (in adolescence, during pregnancy, with hormonal disruptions), there is an active production of sebum due to an increase in the level of androgens in the blood, which affects the oily skin and the occurrence of rashes.

    2. 2

      Power supply. Skin rashes can be caused by foods with a high glycemic index (sweets, flour products, soda), dairy and sour milk products, spicy, fatty foods, as well as coffee and alcohol.

    3. 3

      Imbalance of intestinal microflora. Acne, like acne, can occur under the influence of bowel disease, inflammation and microflora imbalance.

    4. 4

      Personal hygiene. Irregular and poor-quality cleansing of the face from dirt and cosmetics can contribute to the formation of conditions for the multiplication of bacteria, as a result of which rashes are formed.

    5. 5

      Cosmetics. The wrong definition of your skin type and the wrong choice of cosmetics can aggravate its condition and cause inflammation. Cosmetics for problem skin should not contain mineral oils and animal wax (lanolin). You also need to monitor the expiration date.

    With age, the rash disappears on its own, as the sebaceous glands begin to produce less sebum.

    Cosmetic procedures

    It is problematic to get rid of open comedones quickly, so many resort to aggressive means: squeeze, scrub, exposing the skin to mechanical stress.Cosmetologists categorically forbid doing this, since such methods are dangerous to health: the risk of infection increases, the skin is injured, an inflammatory process and pigmentation may occur.

    Basic daily facial skin care will help to gently cleanse your face from blackheads. With regular procedures, you will be able to see the result in a few weeks.

    Nutritionist told how to get rid of acne

    Step by step:

    1. 1

      Morning and evening washing. For your daily wash, use mild, pH neutral products to help maintain the skin’s protective layer and hydrolipidic balance. With oily skin, you should not thoroughly dry your face with alcohol-based lotions, this can provoke increased work of the sebaceous glands and give the opposite effect.

    2. 2

      Cleansing . Since one of the components of blackheads are dead cells of the epidermis, you need to help the skin get rid of them in time.For this, exfoliating products are best suited to remove dead skin cells and make the surface of the face cleaner. In the absence of open inflammation, scrubs with small abrasive particles and chemical exfoliants based on mild acids are suitable. It is important not to forget to use products with SPF protection.

    3. 3

      Deep cleansing. In solving the problem of blackheads, masks for deep cleansing of enlarged pores, as well as for oily and problem skin, are excellent.It is best to apply them once or twice a week. They deeply cleanse the pores and help create an even skin tone.

    4. 4

      Humidification. Lack of moisture in the skin increases the oily sheen and provokes the appearance of comedones. It is recommended to use creams that are suitable for the type of skin, and do not forget to drink the daily amount of water – at least one and a half liters.

    The best remedies for blackheads



    How to use

    9000 925 The adhesive strips have an immediate effect, but they don’t work for everyone.They will not eliminate the cause of the problem, but only cleanse the filled pores for a while. Most often they are used for the nose.

    1. Steam the skin of the face.

    2. Wet nose.

    3. Stick on strip, smooth and press firmly.

    4. Wait a while until the impregnation softens the comedones and helps to remove them without damaging the skin.

    5. Remove the strips.

    6. Wash face and apply pore-tightening agent.


    They have a longer effect after getting rid of blackheads, as they help to “pull” the contents out of the pores.

    1. Prepare the skin, thoroughly cleanse it from dirt and make-up, wipe it with a toner.

    2. Apply the mask with a special brush or fingers, massage.

    3. Maintain a certain time (indicated in the instructions).

    4. Wash off with warm water and apply moisturizer.


    Has a calming effect, restores the acid-base balance, moisturizes the skin, tightens pores and restores natural tone to the cells.

    1. Cleanse the face, neck and décolleté area.

    2. Apply a small amount of toner to the sponge and wipe these areas without touching the skin around the eyes.

    3. Apply serum or cream.


    Not suitable for all skin types, can be combined well with toner.

    Cleans deep dirt and disinfects, dries up inflammation.

    As part of a water-alcohol solution with active active ingredients (vitamins, acids, herbs).

    1. Cleanse the face, neck and décolleté area.

    2. Pat dry with a towel.

    3. Apply lotion to damp skin without affecting the eye area.

    4. Wait five minutes until it is absorbed.


    Optimal solution for cleansing pores. They have a base (gel, cream) and abrasive particles (natural or synthetic).

    The effect of clean pores, an even complexion and soft skin can be seen immediately after application.

    1. Cleanse the skin of the face from impurities and make-up.

    2. Steam your face thoroughly.

    3. Apply a scrub to damp skin.

    4. Massage your face gently in a circular motion.

    5. Wash off with warm water and pat dry with a towel.

    Cosmetic procedures

    There are a lot of cosmetic procedures that can get rid of blackheads. According to Ekaterina Kulago, their main action is aimed at removing the upper dead stratum corneum and removing the contents of the comedone.

    Atraumatic face cleansing includes the step-by-step use of chemical compounds that can soften and remove greasy secretions. This method is the most painless and gentle.

    Mechanical or manual face cleansing includes deep cleansing of the skin with steaming and comedone extraction. These methods have a number of contraindications and are more aggressive.

    Peelings is another category of procedures that can not only cleanse the skin of black comedones, but also brighten the face with post-acne symptoms, relieve inflammation, renew and refresh the complexion.

    “As a rule, peelings based on beta-hydroxy acid (salicylic acid) are used for skin with a lot of blackheads, increased oiliness, enlarged pores, and inflammatory elements. It easily penetrates into the deep layers of the skin, exerting an effect at the cellular level.” , – the expert noted.

    April 21, 19:00 The doctor told how to get rid of blackheads on the nose

    Cosmetologist Yanina Oleinikova recommends the following procedures that will have a positive effect:

    • superficial chemical peels in a course of three to five procedures with an interval of 10-24 days;

    • manual or ultrasonic cleaning with the use of cosmetics, which promotes the delicate extraction of comedones without injuring the skin;

    • American vacuum cleaning Hydrafacial is a modern installation for deep peeling and cleansing of the skin.

    Home remedies

    Many people, faced with the problem of blackheads, try to fix them with home remedies. Before this, it is necessary to carefully analyze the composition in order to avoid the appearance of an allergic reaction.

    It is believed that using home remedies to eliminate the problem of blackheads will help:

    • white clay – cleans the face of rashes and lightens age spots;

    • tea tree extract – has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties;

    • aloe juice – eliminates inflammation and soothes the skin;

    • chamomile infusion – evens out the complexion, has an anti-inflammatory effect;

    • parsley decoction – regenerates the skin, brightens pigmentation, relieves redness.

    However, Ekaterina Kulago warns that folk remedies are not suitable for skin care. Since most ingredients that mix on their own can have the exact opposite effect.

    In addition, many homemade ingredients are too aggressive (eg lemon juice, salt, etc.), irritation on the skin can lead to more inflammation. Some ingredients, according to the doctor, are completely devoid of cleansing properties, in which case the effect will be absent.

    Prevention of blackheads

    Prevention of the appearance of blackheads consists in regular competent cleansing of the skin, followed by moisturizing.

    “It is strictly forbidden to wash with aggressive soaps, wipe the skin with alcohol.

    Expert opinion

    Ekaterina Kulago recommends deep cleansing once a week with additional care products: mechanical scrubs, gommages, multi-acid peels, enzyme masks.The expert also advises not to forget to regularly visit a beautician for cosmetic procedures that will help in the fight against skin imperfections.

    Yanina Oleinikova notes that two main factors affect the appearance of blackheads: nutrition and care.

    22 December 2018, 08:00 Science Warming pain. Scientists told which people suffer more from acne “Dairy products and sugar increase the production of sebum. For lovers of fast food and those with a sweet tooth, it will be difficult to come to the surface and the pores will become clogged.More vegetable fats and green products should be added to the diet: cabbage, celery, spinach, green apples. It is better to season salads with olive oil, it is useful to take Omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and monitor the level of vitamin D .

    Regular proper home care aimed at reducing the secretion of sebum and gentle exfoliation of the skin will solve the problem of blackheads. Use mild cleansers, in no case should you overdry the skin, otherwise it will defend itself and throw out twice as much sebum, and this is a vicious circle.Add products with acids to the care, these can be wipes or toners, serums that tighten pores. Many cosmetic brands have light chemical peels for home use. “

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs

    Sexually transmitted infections are a medical, social and psychological problem in modern society. These include:

    • Human papillomavirus infection.
    • Urogenital chlamydia.
    • Urogenital trichomoniasis
    • Genital herpes
    • Mycoplasma infection

    These infections can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, causing pathology of pregnancy, fetus and newborn, pneumonia of newborns and low birth weight, therefore, timely detection, prevention and treatment of STIs are important aspects of public health protection.

    Often these infections can be asymptomatic or with mild symptoms, while they can cause serious complications such as: urethritis, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, arthritis, postpartum endometritis, infertility, ectopic pregnancy.Human papillomavirus infection increases the likelihood of developing cervical cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. The co-factors of HPV infection are early onset of sexual activity, frequent changes in sexual partners, concomitant sexually transmitted infections, and smoking.

    Possible symptoms of sexually transmitted infections:

    • discharge from the genital tract (milky, cheesy to yellow-green foamy discharge)
    • itching, burning
    • swelling of the tissues of the vagina and vulva (external genital organs)
    • rashes on the external genital organs in the form of vesicles, which later open up with the formation of erosion
    • finger-like or warty growths single, multiple and confluent (in the form of cauliflower) formations
    • dyspareunia (discomfort or soreness in the genital area and small pelvis that occurs during sexual intercourse)
    • dysuria (discomfort or pain when urinating)

    The choice of tactics and method of treatment is determined by the doctor based on the results of the examination of the patient.

    Cervicitis and vaginitis

    The most common women’s health problems are inflammatory diseases of the vagina and cervix – vaginitis and cervicitis, which become chronic and lead to frequent exacerbations, create discomfort in everyday life, reduce the quality of sexual and social life and can lead to serious complications (infertility, intrauterine fetal infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, postpartum complications), etc.

    In postmenopausal women, vaginitis and cervicitis occur due to a low level of female sex hormones, a decrease in the number of lactobacilli and the activation of opportunistic microorganisms against this background.

    Inflammation is specific when the causative agents are sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, genital mycoplasmas, Trichomonas, gonococci) and nonspecific, when, against the background of certain diseases and a decrease in immunity, opportunistic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, staphylococci, streptococci, bacterioids, gonococci ) cause inflammation.


    From the clinical symptoms of vaginitis, there is redness of the external genitalia, vestibule and walls of the vagina, profuse pathological discharge, with or without odor, itching and a burning sensation in the vagina. Pain during intercourse is not uncommon. Inflammation is often chronic with frequent flare-ups, such as after menstruation or changing sexual partners. Cervicitis is often combined with inflammation of the vagina, but it must be remembered that cervicitis is most often asymptomatic and only examination by a gynecologist can reveal signs of inflammation in the cervix.


    Vaginitis and cervicitis are a common cause of pregnancy complications (chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes of the membranes, premature birth and low fetal weight). Another, very important, complication of vaginitis and cervicitis is the development of inflammatory diseases of the small pelvis (endometritis, salpingoopharitis) due to the ascending route of infection, the development of the adhesions in the small pelvis and infertility.


    • measurement of vaginal pH (acidity), which is the simplest and most inexpensive method of “express” diagnostics of pathology of the lower parts of the female reproductive system
    • Gram smear from the cervix and vagina
    • PCR study for STI pathogens
    • PCR study of opportunistic microorganisms (Femoflor-16)
    • bacteriological culture for microflora and determination of sensitivity to antibiotics and bacteriophages


    In the “Women’s Health Clinic” there is an opportunity to receive all modern methods of treatment of inflammatory diseases of the lower genital tract:

    • prescribing antibiotic therapy in accordance with international standards after preliminary examination
    • prescribing bacteriophage therapy in case of antibiotic resistance and frequent recurrence of infections
    • correction and elimination of factors that contribute to the development of inflammation: hormonal imbalance, decreased immunity
    • physiotherapy – low-intensity laser therapy using laser radiation of different wavelengths (we have developed and patented a new method for the treatment of background and precancerous diseases of the cervix)