Shaking index finger: The request could not be satisfied


Dave’s Story: Early Onset Parkinson’s



My sentencing took place on March 25, 2005 a Friday, in a neurologist’s office in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, when it was made official, as Dr. Buoyini, in his Peter Sellers as Dr. Strangelove accent, told us that all the test results suggested a diagnosis of Parkinsonism, most likely Parkinson’s disease. It was one of those dream-like moments where time seemed held suspended and left the words hanging motionless in the air, without impact, without surprise, without meaning, as I looked around the room at the blood pressure instruments, the mirrors, the exam table, Dr. Buoyini, in his white lab coat, seated across the room and to my left, and finally to my right, where my wife sat, tears silently streaming down her face. This took me by complete surprise, and still in that split moment where everything had slowed down and was seemingly standing still, I asked myself, why is she crying, and then time kicked back into gear, rushing forward and on its way picking up reality as a passenger, shattering the dream trance, and we sat there, the five of us, the neurologist, my wife, time, reality and myself. I remember saying thank you to Dr Bouyini and shaking his hand.

I was 46 years old when I officially became a “Parkie”. My diagnosis of having Parkinson’s disease ended about a two month series of tests and exams to figure out what if anything was wrong with me that began with a visit to my family physician for a routine physical in the previous January. I was a typical overweight and out of shape middle aged man (I’m also bald – not that that has anything to do with anything, but you may as well get the complete picture now), and was motivated to make the appointment by fears of high cholesterol and heart disease and prostate problems. Any concerns I had going in to the physical centered on the need for that most dreaded of all procedures, the rectal exam. Parkinson’s disease wasn’t even remotely on my mind at the time. Dr. G. was new, the latest in what had become a revolving door of physicians at the practice

“I occasionally have an involuntary twitch with my index and middle finger on my left hand.

He began the physical, doing the stethoscope, the eyes, ears and nose, talking to me and asking me questions the whole time. He asked me if I had any concerns about my health, and I told him I was worried about my cholesterol, and oh, by the way, I’ve noticed in the past three or four months I occasionally have an involuntary twitch with my index and middle finger on my left hand. He nodded, and said “Essential tremor, in all likelihood.” Then out came the rubber gloves and the dreaded procedure, and suffice to say, Dr. G. was thorough and would take no short cuts. No perfunctory exam here. He talked to me throughout, told me he knew this was uncomfortable, then added, lightheartedly, “relax.” Relax? For a moment, I felt like the wooden dummy in a twisted ventriloquist’s act.

Afterwards, as I got dressed, the late afternoon sun crept through the blinds of the examining room much the same way it creeps through the blinds of a cheap motel room. Across the room, the doctor, who for one split second I imagined was sitting back smoking a cigarette, watched, when he said, “Has your wife said anything about you moving slowly? Or having a blank expression on your face?”

“No”, I said, thinking, of course I have a blank expression and am moving slowly after what just happened in this office!

“It’s probably nothing”, he said. “It’s just that these things along with the tremor in your fingers are sometimes an indication of Parkinson’s disease.” He said it was likely nothing to worry about, but he wanted to make an appointment with me and my wife in a couple of weeks and get her perspective.

I left thinking less about the tremor and the Parkinson’s possibility than being relieved that I had survived the exam and wouldn’t have to go through that for at least another year. I mentioned the follow up appointment to Deb and we talked a bit about it but neither one of us was real concerned.

At some point in the next day or two, with the physical still on my mind, I performed a simple test: I rapidly drummed the three middle fingers on my right hand on the table where I was sitting, starting with my fourth finger, then my middle finger, then my index finger, just like, being the famous life-long fidgeter my Mother used to complain I was, I had done thousands of times before. After doing this a few times, I tried to repeat the sequence with my left hand, and much to my surprise, I couldn’t do it – the three fingers weakly made contact with the table, and the fourth and middle finger were unable to move independently from each other, and the index finger spasmodically went up and down twice before the other two fingers were able to make contact once with the table. I showed this to my wife, and we agreed that maybe there’s something to this Parkinson’s stuff. Then came the first appointment with the neurologist, Dr. Bouyini, followed by the series of tests to rule out Multiple Sclerosis, Lou Gehrig’s disease and even Lyme disease.

Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep Brain Stimulation is a surgical procedure in which thin electrodes are implanted into parts of the brain that control movement.

Learn more about surgery

Deep Brain Stimulation, and looking back after seven years

That was seven years ago, and looking back at a couple of other events, I know now that I had the disease at least two years prior to my diagnosis. My instance of Parkinson’s Disease is of the rigidity variety; although I occasionally have some tremors, they aren’t too pronounced, and my primary symptom during “off” periods is a rigor-mortis like stiffness that spreads through my body until my Stalevo (the form of levadopa/carbidopa I take) kicks in. In January 2010, I underwent Deep Brain Stimulation surgery, and it has helped prolong the “on” periods, the time between taking my meds, and has helped me sleep much better at night. There have been some side effects to the surgery, impacting my speech and my handwriting, and I still experience periods of intense fatigue during the day, but overall I am doing much better since the surgery than I was before.

Sometime after being diagnosed I started experiencing frequent and intense insomnia, awake for several hours during the night. Eventually, with nothing else to do, I started writing during these episodes, writing about what I was experiencing, what I had been dreaming about, whatever was on my mind, and now, all these years later, I haven’t quit. Writing has provided for me a tremendous outlet for dealing not just with my disease but also all the challenges and rewards that are a part of being middle aged. I have combined many of these writings into a book-length memoir that I am still shopping around in search of an agent. I am also working on a novel, and have a website ( where I post whatever is on my mind at the time.

APDA helps thousands of people each year live life to the fullest in spite of a Parkinson’s Disease diagnosis––and we depend on the generosity of donors like you.

If you’d like to lend a helping hand, join our cause and donate today.

11 Major Causes And Treatment » HealthWeakness

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What is Index finger twitching?

So out of the ordinary, your fingers start moving side to side, that movement is called a twitch, and sometimes for no apparent reason our index finger twitches.

A twitch is a small, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation. “Fasciculations” are the medical term for twitches, and they can occur in any muscle area, including the fingers. People with finger twitching may be worried that a neurological disorder is developing.

However, when other symptoms do not accompany this twitching, it is usually not a cause for concern. Physical exercise, fatigue, and drinking too much caffeine can cause or worsen index finger twitching. This article explores the causes of finger twitching and its treatments.

The twitching of the Index finger and other fingers may seem disturbing, but it is often a benign sign. Many cases result from stress, anxiety, or strain of the muscle. Twitching of fingers and muscle spasms may now be more prevalent than ever, as texting and gaming are such popular activities. While most cases of twitching of the index finger are mild, some instances may be an indication of a severe nerve or motion disorder.

Causes of Index finger twitching?

The twitching of the index finger is a sign that may be caused by several factors or disorders. Common factors that may trigger involuntary spasms of the finger or twitching include:

  1. Muscle fatigue
  2. Vitamin deficiency
  3. Certain medications like isoniazid, corticosteroids, e.t.c.
  4. Dehydration
  5. Benign fasciculation syndrome
  6. Carpal tunnel syndrome
  7. Parkinson’s disease
  8. Essential tremor
  9. Lou Gehrig’s disease
  10. Hypoparathyroidism
  11. Tourette syndrome

Overuse and strain of the muscle are common factors that can cause twitching of the fingers. When you function primarily with your hands regularly clicking on a keyboard, playing a lot of video games, or even spending time texting. Consequently, you may feel muscle tiredness that can result in your index finger twitching, as well as other fingers twitching.

A lack of nutrients may influence the working of your muscles and nerves. You can feel your index finger and hand twitching if you are deficient in potassium, vitamin B, or calcium.

Muscle twitching and spasms can be side effects of some medication including:

  • antibiotics such as isoniazid
  • Corticosteroids
  • Drugs that interrupt calcium movement such as flunarizine
  • Medications used in treating epilepsy, such as topiramate
  • Muscle relaxant, such as succinylcholine
  • Psychiatric medication e.g., lithium

If a person thinks a drug causes twitching of the muscle, they should talk to their doctor before stopping treatment. If possible, the doctor may recommend lowering the dosage or switching to an alternative medication.

To retain optimum health, your body needs to stay properly hydrated. Water intake assures the correct response of your nerves and that you maintain a normal electrolyte balance. Dehydration can be a factor in muscle spasms and index finger twitching.

  • Benign fasciculation syndrome

Those with benign fasciculation syndrome (BFS) experience frequent involuntary muscle twitches. Signs are usually present for years, and some doctors only treat BFS if there have been signs for at least five years. Doctors do not know what causes BFS. However, one study in 2013 found a link between this syndrome and reduced neurological activity of the small nerve fibers in the sweat glands and skin. It will require more research to confirm this relationship.

This condition causes numbness, tingling, and muscle spasms in your fingers and hands. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs by applying pressure to the wrist’s median nerve.

Parkinson’s disease is a condition that causes a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects motion. While tremors are normal, it can also cause body weakness, writing disorders, and changes in speech

Repeated, involuntary movement of a part of the body is known as essential tremor. The movements occur with consistent frequency and force in a person with essential tremor. Essential tremor is the most popular neurological cause of tremors, but doctors do not know what causes the condition.

People usually feel essential tremor in their hands. The tremor extends to the head in some people, and it can also affect the voice of a person. Essential tremor does not change the life expectancy of a person. But, it can affect the quality of life of a person and trigger disabilities.

This disease is also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a nervous disorder that destroys your nerve cells. Although the twitching of the muscle is one of the first symptoms, it can lead to fatigue and total disability. For this illness, there is no treatment.

This rare condition causes the body to secrete parathyroid hormone levels that are unusually low. This hormone is essential to maintain the calcium and phosphorous balance of your body. If hypoparathyroidism is suspected, you can suffer, among other signs, muscle aches, twitching, and fatigue.

Tourette is a tic disorder marked by repeated motions and vocalizations involuntarily. Twitching, grimacing, sniffing, and shoulder shrugging are some of the typical tics.

Treatment for index finger twitching

Index finger twitching often resolves itself on its own. If your symptoms persist, however, it is best to schedule your doctor’s visit to discuss a potential treatment plan. Ultimately, treatment depends on the underlying cause. Standard options for treatment include:

  • Physical therapy
  • Prescribed medication
  • Splinting or bracing
  • Psychotherapy
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Steroid or botox injections
  • Surgery

In Conclusion

Your index finger twitching is not a life-threatening symptom, but it may indicate a more severe medical condition. However, never self diagnose yourself. When you start experiencing persistent twitching of your index finger and other fingers followed by other unusual signs, plan a doctor’s visit.

Usually, the person may undergo further signs and symptoms if finger twitching results from a neurological disease. Early detection and proper diagnosis will ensure the best treatment for your symptoms.

RECOMMENDED FOR YOU: Causes and remedies of swollen feet


What is twitch?
A twitch is a small, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation. “Fasciculations” are the medical term for twitches, and they can occur in any muscle area, including the fingers.

What are the possible causes of index finger twitching?
The possible causes of index finger twitching are dehydration, certain medications, muscle fatigue, vitamin deficiency, etc

What should you never do when experiencing symptoms?
Never self-diagnose when experiencing symptoms of finger twitch.

What are the treatment options for index finger twitching?

The 6 treatment options for index finger twitching are;

  • Prescribed medication
  • Splinting or bracing
  • Psychotherapy
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Steroid or botox injections
  • Surgery

Involuntary Movements – Clinical Methods


The movement disorders include tremor, chorea, athetosis, myoclonus, and asterixis.

Tremor consists of purposeless involuntary movements resulting from the alternating contractions of opposing muscle groups. Tremor at rest occurs when muscles are at rest, for example, the pill-rolling tremor of parkinsonism. Postural tremor occurs when muscles maintain a posture such as outstretched arms, for example, the fine tremor of hyperthyroidism. Action tremor (intention tremor) occurs near the end of a goal-directed movement, for example, the coarse, side-to-side tremor of cerebellar disease seen as the finger-nose test is done.

Chorea is a series of brief, jerky, explosive movements, or “fidgeting”; an example is Sydenham’s chorea, seen in rheumatic fever. Athetosis is writhing, sinuous movements, especially marked in the digits and extremities, such as occur in hepatic encephalopathy. Myoclonus consists of sudden brief twitches or jerks of groups of muscles or a single muscle, as seen in metabolic encephalopathies such as uremic encephalopathy. Asterixis (“liver flap”) is an intermittency of sustained posture, illustrated by “flapping” of the hands when the arms are outstretched and wrists dorsiflexed, as in hepatic encephalopathy. A “foot flap” is seen in many patients with asterixis of the hands.


Abnormal movements often can be observed when taking the history or performing parts of the physical examination. If such movements are observed or suspected, they can be studied more carefully by inspecting the patient at rest, while maintaining a posture such as erect with outstretched arms, and performing goal-directed movements such as the finger-nose-finger test.

Systematically inspect the resting patient beginning with the face and proceeding with the upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities. Chorea produces sudden grimaces about the face—the patient is unable to keep the tongue protruded, and it darts in and out. Inspect the tongue as it rests inside the mouth, as certain types of tremor can involve the tongue. Myoclonic twitches can be seen quite well about the shoulders and distal upper extremities. Restless fidgeting or purposeless movements of the arms are among the earliest signs of chorea. Sinuous twistings of the hand are seen with athetosis.

Have the patient maintain a posture by standing with arms outstretched, slightly flexed at the elbow, and with hands extended at the wrist, as though halting traffic. Look for the following signs. In asterixis the hands “flap,” that is, flex briefly at the wrist, then immediately snap back into the extended position. A foot flap can often be brought out by having the patient dorsiflex the feet and maintain them in that position. The flap is identical to that seen in the hands. This posture is also well suited to bringing out the abnormalities produced by chorea, athetosis, and myoclonus, since they all will produce changes in the position of the limb. Certain tremors are provoked by sustained posture. Observe carefully for distal postural tremors, such as the fine rapid tremor of the hands seen in hyperthyroidism. Tremors involving the shoulders and neck produce head bobbing when the neck is affected and coarse tremors of the entire arm when the shoulder girdle is involved.

Observe voluntary goal-directed movements. Ask the patient to perform the finger-nose-finger test (see Chapter 69, The Cerebellum), and watch for tremors that usually occur maximally just before the goal is reached. Note whether the involved segments are distal (wrist, fingers) or proximal (shoulder), as this helps in neuroanatomical localization. A coarse, side-to-side tremor is characteristic of cerebellar disease. Chorea is manifested as a break or interruption in the performance of what is intended to be a smooth voluntary movement.

The following information should be recorded for all abnormal movements:

  1. Structures or segments involved

  2. State of muscles when they occur: at rest, maintaining posture, or during goal-directed movements

  3. Description of movement(s), including the pattern of involvement of various segments and their duration and frequency

  4. Factors which increase or decrease movements: rest, exercise, anxiety, alcohol

The progress and influence of treatment on tremors that involve the hands can be followed by having the patient write the same sentence and draw an Archimedes spiral each visit.

Basic Science

The mechanisms underlying involuntary movements are very poorly understood. The extrapyramidal motor system is clearly involved in certain tremors, chorea, and athetosis. This system refers anatomically to the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and amygdala) and related brainstem reticular formation. Experimental evidence also suggests that the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus and the cerebral cortex are involved.

Disease of the cerebellum or its brainstem connections produces a coarse action tremor. This tremor has been experimentally reproduced by lesions of the dentate nucleus or the brachium conjunctivum, which contains a large number of projection fibers from the dentate nucleus. Clinically, lesions of the cerebellum or brachium conjunctivum prior to its decussation produce ipsilateral tremor.

Myoclonus is seen in a wide variety of disturbances. An important form occurs in multiple muscle groups in association with metabolic encephalopathy, especially uremic or carbon dioxide encephalopathy. In these circumstances myoclonus presumably indicates neuronal injury. However, the specific pathophysiology is unknown.

Asterixis was described by Adams and Foley in 1949; it is seen in many of the metabolic encephalopathies. Physiologically the electromyogram shows a lapse of electrical activity in the muscle as the wrist flaps down, followed by a compensatory muscle contraction that jerks the hand up again. The neurophysiology is not known.

Clinical Significance


The pill-rolling tremor of parkinsonism is present at rest. This is a coarse, regular movement involving the thumb and index finger. Although the tremor predominantly involves the distal upper extremity, the face and tongue may be involved also. Sleep decreases the tremor, and emotion makes it worse. The tremor often increases as the patient walks.

Other causes of tremor at rest are rarer. They include drug-induced tremors (principally phenothiazines), severe cases of essential tremor (benign familial tremor), Wilson’s disease, chronic acquired hepatocerebral degeneration, mercury poisoning, and general paresis.

As a generalization, proximal postural tremors—those involving the shoulder, pelvic girdle, or neck—are produced by lesions of the cerebellum and its brainstem connections. They are usually coarse and slow. Distal postural tremors, involving wrists and finger joints, result from midbrain or basal ganglia problems. Many of these are fine and rapid. However, there are exceptions to these generalizations, and in many cases the site of neurologic dysfunction is not really known.

The most common postural tremors are as follows:

  1. Anxiety and fatigue tremors: fine, rapid tremors involving the fingers. The injection of epinephrine into normal individuals produces tremors identical to those seen in anxiety or with fatigue.

  2. Thyrotoxicosis: a fine, rapid tremor of the fingers identical to the tremors listed above.

  3. Essential (benign familial) tremor: a coarse, irregular tremor that usually starts in the hands and fingers and eventually involves the voice, head, and neck. Usually it becomes worse with goal-directed movements. Difficulty with handwriting, piano playing, typing, or drinking coffee is often the most prominent complaint. Drinking alcohol diminishes the tremor. There is a strong heritable tendency. Onset is in early adult life. Treatment with propranolol is efficacious in some patients.

  4. Cerebellar tremor: a coarse, irregular tremor involving the shoulder girdle and neck, seen in patients with diseases of the cerebellum. A prime example is alcoholic cerebellar cortical degeneration. When quite severe, it can be present at rest also.

  5. Lithium tremor: seen in individuals being treated with lithium. It is quite similar to essential tremor.

Postural tremors are also seen in Wilson’s disease, acquired hepatocerebral degeneration, and certain poisons, especially mercury. Mercury poisoning was known as the “hatter’s shakes” because workers involved in the manufacture of felt hats were exposed to mercury.

Action (intention) tremors are seen during voluntary activity, usually being most prominent near the end of goal-directed movement. The same generalizations about localization apply as given for postural tremors. A good example is the coarse, side-to-side tremor seen in cerebellar disease as the finger approaches the nose. Note that although we speak here of the finger, the actual origin of the tremor is in the elbow or shoulder joint.

The foregoing statements about tremors are generalizations to which there are numerous exceptions. However, they form a useful bedside approach to the analysis of tremor disorders. The final diagnosis is based on this analysis in addition to a meticulous history and physical examination.

Chorea and Athetosis

Sydenham’s chorea is seen in children and adolescents and is often associated with rheumatic fever. Huntington’s chorea is an autosomal dominant disorder that usually appears in adulthood. Chorea gravidarum is seen in pregnancy. Chorea has been reported in a large variety of other conditions, especially diseases such as lupus erythematosus in which there is cerebral arteritis.

Athetosis occurring during childhood involves both sides of the body (“double athetosis”) and is thought to be due to neonatal cerebral hypoxia. In adults it usually involves only one side of the body and is seen most often with strokes.

Myoclonus and Asterixis

Myoclonus involving multiple muscle groups most frequently occurs in patients with metabolic encephalopathies, such as those produced by uremia, carbon dioxide, or hypoxia.

Asterixis was first described in hepatic encephalopathy. It is also seen in other metabolic disorders such as uremia, hypokalemia, carbon dioxide narcosis due to chronic pulmonary disease, dialysis dementia, hypoxia, and hypomagnesemia. Asterixis has been caused by the following drugs: dilantin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, primidone, and perhaps diazepam and flurazepam. Structural lesions producing asterixis, even unilateral asterixis, have been located in the midbrain and thalamus.

The combination of myoclonus and asterixis in a patient with stupor strongly suggests a metabolic encephalopathy, rather than a structural brain lesion, as the cause.


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Risk Factors, Symptoms & Treatment


The carpal tunnel is a space in the wrist that holds tendons and your median nerve. This space is compressed in carpal tunnel syndrome. One symptom of carpal tunnel syndrome is numbness that spreads throughout the hand (see shaded blue area).

What is carpal tunnel syndrome?

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common condition that causes pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and wrist. It happens when there is increased pressure within the wrist on a nerve called the median nerve. This nerve provides sensation to the thumb, index, and middle fingers, and to half of the ring finger. The small finger (the “pinky”) is typically not affected.

Carpal tunnel syndrome was first described in the mid-1800s. The first surgery for the release of the carpal tunnel was done in the 1930s. It is a condition that has been well recognized by orthopaedic surgeons for over 40 years.

What is the carpal tunnel?

The carpal tunnel is a narrow canal or tube in the wrist. Similarly to a tunnel you could travel through by car, this part of the wrist allows the median nerve and tendons to connect the hand and forearm. The parts of this tunnel include:

  • Carpal bones: These bones make up the bottom and sides of the tunnel. They are formed in a semi-circle.
  • Ligament: The top of the tunnel, the ligament is a strong tissue that holds the tunnel together.

Inside the tunnel are the median nerve and tendons.

  • Median nerve: This nerve provides feeling to most of the fingers in the hand (expect the little finger). It also adds strength to the base of the thumb and index finger.
  • Tendons: Rope-like structures, tendons connect muscles in the forearm to the bones in the hand. They allow the fingers and thumb to bend.

Does carpal tunnel syndrome only happen to office workers or factory workers?

No. Many people with carpal tunnel syndrome have never done office work or worked on an assembly line. It affects people who use their wrists and hands repeatedly at work and at play. Anyone can get carpel tunnel syndrome, but it is unusual before age 20. The chance of getting carpal tunnel syndrome increases with age.

Who is at risk for carpal tunnel syndrome?

People at risk for carpal tunnel syndrome are those who do activities or jobs that involve repetitive finger use. Motions that can place people at risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome include:

  • High-force (hammering).
  • Long-term use.
  • Extreme wrist motions.
  • Vibration.

Many other factors can also contribute to the development of carpal tunnel syndrome. These factors can include:

  • Heredity (smaller carpal tunnels can run in families).
  • Pregnancy.
  • Hemodialysis (a process where the blood is filtered).
  • Wrist facture and dislocation.
  • Hand or wrist deformity.
  • Arthritic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout.
  • Thyroid gland hormone imbalance (hypothyroidism).
  • Diabetes.
  • Alcoholism.
  • A mass (tumor) in the carpal tunnel.
  • Older age.
  • Amyloid deposits (an abnormal protein).

Carpal tunnel syndrome is also more common in women than in men.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes carpal tunnel syndrome?

Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused when the space (the carpal tunnel) in the wrist narrows. This presses down on the median nerve and tendons (located inside the carpal tunnel), makes them swell, which cuts off sensation in the fingers and hand.

How often is hand pain caused by carpal tunnel syndrome?

While carpal tunnel syndrome is a common condition, it has a different set of symptoms from many other sources of hand pain. There are actually several similar conditions that cause hand pain. These include:

  • De Quervain’s tendinosis: A condition where swelling (inflammation) affects the wrist and base of the thumb. In this condition, you will feel pain when you make a fist and simulate shaking someone’s hand.
  • Trigger finger: This condition causes soreness at the base of the finger or thumb. Trigger finger also causes pain, locking (or catching) and stiffness when bending the fingers and thumb.
  • Arthritis: This is a general term for many conditions that cause stiffness and swelling in your joints. Arthritis can impact many joints in your body and ranges from causing small amounts of discomfort to breaking down the joint over time (osteoarthritis is one type of degenerative arthritis).

What are the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome?

Symptoms usually begin slowly and can occur at any time. Early symptoms include:

  • Numbness at night.
  • Tingling and/or pain in the fingers (especially the thumb, index and middle fingers).

In fact, because some people sleep with their wrists curled, nighttime symptoms are common and can wake people from sleep. These nighttime symptoms are often the first reported symptoms. Shaking the hands helps relieve symptoms in the early stage of the condition.

Common daytime symptoms can include:

  • Tingling in the fingers.
  • Decreased feeling in the fingertips.
  • Difficulty using the hand for small tasks, like:
    • Handling small objects.
    • Grasping a steering wheel to drive.
    • Holding a book to read.
    • Writing.
    • Using a computer keyboard.

As carpal tunnel syndrome worsens, symptoms become more constant. These symptoms can include:

  • Weakness in the hand.
  • Inability to perform tasks that require delicate motions (such as buttoning a shirt).
  • Dropping objects.

In the most severe condition, the muscles at the base of the thumb visibly shrink in size (atrophy).

Diagnosis and Tests

How is carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosed?

First, your doctor will discuss your symptoms, medical history and examine you. Next, tests are performed, which may include:

  • Tinel’s sign: In this test, the physician taps over the median nerve at the wrist to see if it produces a tingling sensation in the fingers.
  • Wrist flexion test (or Phalen test): In this test, the patient rests his or her elbows on a table and allows the wrist to fall forward freely. Individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome will experience numbness and tingling in the fingers within 60 seconds. The more quickly symptoms appear, the more severe the carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • X-rays: X-rays of the wrist may be ordered if there is limited wrist motion, or evidence of arthritis or trauma.
  • Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies: These studies determine how well the median nerve itself is working and how well it controls muscle movement.

Management and Treatment

How is carpal tunnel syndrome treated?

Carpal tunnel syndrome can be treated in two ways: non-surgically or with surgery. There are pros and cons to both approaches. Typically, non-surgical treatments are used for less severe cases and allow you to continue with daily activities without interruption. Surgical treatments can help in more severe cases and have very positive outcomes.

Non-surgical treatments

Non-surgical treatments are usually tried first. Treatment begins by:

  • Wearing a wrist splint at night.
  • Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen.
  • Cortisone injections.

Other treatments focus on ways to change your environment to decrease symptoms. This is often seen in the workplace, where you can make modifications to help with carpal tunnel. These changes might include:

  • Raising or lowering your chair.
  • Moving your computer keyboard.
  • Changing your hand/wrist position while doing activities.
  • Using recommended splints, exercises and heat treatments from a hand therapist.

Surgical treatments

Surgery is recommended when carpal tunnel syndrome does not respond to non-surgical treatments or has already become severe. The goal of surgery is to increase the size of the tunnel in order to decrease the pressure on the nerves and tendons that pass through the space. This is done by cutting (releasing) the ligament that covers the carpal tunnel at the base of the palm. This ligament is called the transverse carpal ligament.

If you have surgery, you can expect to:

  • Have an outpatient procedure where you will be awake, but have local anesthesia (pain numbing medication). In some cases, your doctor may offer an IV (directly into the vein) anesthetic. This option allows you to take a brief nap and wake up after the procedure is finished. This is not a general anesthetic, like what is used in surgery. Instead, your healthcare team will monitor you during the procedure (called monitored anesthetic care, or MAC). This is also used for procedures like a colonoscopy.
  • Be in brief discomfort for about 24 to 72 hours after surgery. People usually experience complete nighttime symptom relief quickly—even the night after surgery.
  • Have your stitches removed 10 to 14 days after surgery. Hand and wrist use for everyday activities is gradually restored by using specific exercise programs.
  • Be unable to do heavier activities with the affected hand for about four to six weeks. Recovery times can vary depending on your age, general health, severity of carpal tunnel syndrome and how long you had symptoms. You will continue to gain strength and sensation in the following year after surgery.
  • Have relief from most carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms.


How can carpal tunnel syndrome be prevented?

Carpal tunnel syndrome can be difficult to prevent. The condition can be caused by so many different activities in a person’s daily life that prevention can be challenging. Workstation changes—proper seating, hand and wrist placement—can help decrease some factors that can lead to carpal tunnel syndrome. Other preventative methods include:

  • Sleeping with your wrists held straight.
  • Keeping your wrists straight when using tools.
  • Avoiding flexing (curling) and extending your wrists repeatedly.
  • Decreasing repetitive/strong grasping with the wrist in a flexed position.
  • Taking frequent rest breaks from repetitive activities.
  • Performing conditioning and stretching exercises before and after activities.
  • Monitoring and properly treating medical conditions linked to carpal tunnel syndrome.

Outlook / Prognosis

Does carpal tunnel syndrome have a long recovery?

Surgery to repair carpal tunnel syndrome does not have a particularly long recovery. The bandage that covers the stitches after surgery can be removed in a few days. The hand can then be used for light activities. Making a fist is encouraged. Full range of finger motion and early symptom relief is usually seen within two weeks after the stitches have been removed. You can usually return to most activities by six weeks. Your return to work depends on factors such as type of work, how much control you have over your work and workplace equipment.

What is the success rate for carpal tunnel syndrome surgery?

Surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome has a very high success rate of over 90%. Many symptoms are relieved quickly after treatment, including tingling sensation in the hands and waking up at night. Numbness may take longer to be relieved, even up to three months. Surgery won’t help if carpal tunnel syndrome is the wrong diagnosis.

When the carpal tunnel syndrome has become severe, relief may not be complete. There may be some pain in the palm around the incisions that can last up to a few months. Other after-surgery pain may not be related to carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients who complain of pain or whose symptoms remain unchanged after surgery either had severe carpal tunnel syndrome, had a nerve that was not completely released during surgery, or did not really have carpal tunnel syndrome. Only a small percentage of patients do not gain substantial relief from symptoms.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome | Michigan Medicine

Topic Overview

What is carpal tunnel syndrome?

Carpal tunnel syndrome is numbness, tingling, weakness, and other problems in your hand because of pressure on the median nerve in your wrist.

The median nerve and several tendons run from your forearm to your hand through a small space in your wrist called the carpal tunnel. The median nerve controls movement and feeling in your thumb and first three fingers (not your little finger).

What causes carpal tunnel syndrome?

Pressure on the median nerve causes carpal tunnel syndrome. This pressure can come from swelling or anything that makes the carpal tunnel smaller. Many things can cause this swelling, including:

  • Illnesses such as hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes.
  • Making the same hand movements over and over, especially if the wrist is bent down (your hands lower than your wrists), or making the same wrist movements over and over.
  • Pregnancy.

What are the symptoms?

Carpal tunnel syndrome can cause tingling, numbness, weakness, or pain in the fingers or hand. Some people may have pain in their arm between their hand and their elbow.

Symptoms most often occur in the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. If you have problems with your other fingers but your little finger is fine, this may be a sign that you have carpal tunnel syndrome. A different nerve gives feeling to the little finger.

You may first notice symptoms at night. You may be able to get relief by shaking your hand.

How is carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosed?

Your doctor will ask if you have any health problems—such as arthritis, hypothyroidism, or diabetes—or if you are pregnant. He or she will ask if you recently hurt your wrist, arm, or neck. Your doctor will want to know about your daily routine and any recent activities that could have hurt your wrist.

During the exam, your doctor will check the feeling, strength, and appearance of your neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, and hands. Your doctor may suggest tests, such as blood tests or nerve tests.

How is it treated?

Mild symptoms usually can be treated with home care. You can:

  • Stop activities that cause numbness and pain. Rest your wrist longer between activities.
  • Ice your wrist for 10 to 15 minutes 1 or 2 times an hour.
  • Talk to your doctor about trying nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They can help relieve pain and reduce swelling. Be safe with medicines. Read and follow all instructions on the label.
  • Wear a wrist splint at night. This takes pressure off your median nerve.

The sooner you start treatment, the better your chances of stopping symptoms and preventing long-term damage to the nerve.

You also may need medicine for carpal tunnel syndrome or for a health problem that made you likely to get carpal tunnel syndrome.

Surgery is an option. But it’s usually used only when symptoms are so bad that you can’t work or do other things even after several weeks to months of other treatment.

How can you keep carpal tunnel syndrome from coming back?

To keep carpal tunnel syndrome from coming back, take care of your basic health. Stay at a healthy weight. Don’t smoke. Exercise to stay strong and flexible. If you have a long-term health problem, such as arthritis or diabetes, follow your doctor’s advice for keeping your condition under control.

You can also try to take good care of your wrists and hands:

  • Try to keep your wrist in a neutral position.
  • Use your whole hand—not just your fingers—to hold objects.
  • When you type, keep your wrists straight, with your hands a little higher than your wrists. Relax your shoulders when your arms are at your sides.
  • If you can, switch hands often when you repeat movements.


Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when a combination of health conditions and activities puts pressure on the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel in your wrist. This pressure leads to symptoms. Anything that decreases the amount of space in the carpal tunnel, increases the amount of tissue in the tunnel, or increases the sensitivity of the median nerve can lead to carpal tunnel syndrome.

Things that help cause carpal tunnel syndrome include:

  • Conditions or illnesses that can cause or contribute to arm pain or swelling in the joints and soft tissues in the arm, or to reduced blood flow to the hands. These include obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, diabetes, lupus, and hypothyroidism.
  • Repeated hand and wrist movements. They can cause the membranes surrounding the tendons to swell (tenosynovitis).
  • Broken wrist bones, dislocated bones, new bone growth from healing bones, or bone spurs. These can take up space in the carpal tunnel and put more pressure on the median nerve.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common work-related condition. It can be caused by work that requires:

  • Forceful or repetitive hand movements.
  • Hand-arm vibration.
  • Working for long periods in the same or awkward positions.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is even more likely if you have these work-related issues along with other health conditions.

In some cases the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome cannot be found.


Mild carpal tunnel symptoms most often affect the hand and sometimes the forearm, but they can spread up to the shoulder. Symptoms include:

  • Numbness or pain in your hand, forearm, or wrist that awakens you at night. (Shaking or moving your fingers may ease this numbness and pain.)
  • Occasional tingling, numbness, “pins-and-needles” sensation, or pain. The feeling is similar to your hand “falling asleep.”
  • Numbness or pain that gets worse while you are using your hand or wrist. You are most likely to feel it when you grip an object with your hand or bend (flex) your wrist.
  • Occasional aching pain in your forearm between your elbow and wrist.
  • Stiffness in your fingers when you get up in the morning.

With moderate or severe carpal tunnel symptoms, you may have numbness or reduced strength and grip in your fingers, thumb, or hand. It may be hard to:

  • Do simple hand movements, such as brushing your hair or holding a fork. You may accidentally drop objects.
  • Pinch an object between your thumb and first finger. (This is called loss of pinch strength.)
  • Use your thumb while doing simple tasks such as opening a jar or using a screwdriver. With long-term carpal tunnel syndrome, the thumb muscles can get smaller and weaker (atrophy).

Symptoms most often occur in parts of the hand supplied by the median nerve: the thumb, the index finger, the middle finger, and half of the ring finger. The median nerve doesn’t affect your little finger. So if your little finger is affected, you may not have carpal tunnel syndrome.

Symptoms often occur in both hands, but they are usually worse in one hand than the other. You may first notice symptoms at night. People with carpal tunnel syndrome can usually fall asleep, but pain or numbness may wake them up.

Not all pain in the wrist or hand is caused by carpal tunnel syndrome. There are many other conditions with similar symptoms, such as:

  • An injury to the muscles, ligaments, tendons, or bones.
  • Nerve problems in the fingers, elbow, or neck.
  • Arthritis in the thumb joint or wrist.

What Happens

The symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome usually develop gradually. Symptoms often improve if you stop or change an activity that is helping to cause the condition.

Most mild cases of carpal tunnel syndrome get better with treatment. Usually there is no permanent damage to the median nerve. Your symptoms may improve by themselves when:

  • Fluid buildup decreases, such as after pregnancy.
  • You change or stop the activity that has caused your carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Other health problems that cause or contribute to your carpal tunnel symptoms improve.

Long-term carpal tunnel syndrome can cause:

  • A loss of feeling and coordination in the fingers and hand. The thumb muscles can become weak and waste away (atrophy).This can make it hard to grip or hold objects.
  • Permanent damage to the median nerve. You may have trouble using the hand.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the most common causes of absence from work.

What Increases Your Risk

Things that put you at risk for carpal tunnel syndrome include:

  • Health problems or illnesses that can cause arm pain or swelling in the joints and soft tissues in the arm, or reduce the blood flow to the hands. These include obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, lupus, hypothyroidism, and multiple sclerosis.
  • Being female. Women between the ages of 40 and 60 have the highest risk. Pregnant women near the end of their pregnancies often have short-term symptoms. Women taking birth control pills, going through menopause, or taking estrogen are also thought to be at risk.
  • Hand and wrist movements and activities that require repeated motions, especially in awkward positions.
  • Smoking. It may contribute to carpal tunnel syndrome by affecting the blood flow to the median nerve.
  • Broken wrist bones, dislocated bones, new bone growth from healing bones, or bone spurs. These can take up space in the carpal tunnel and put more pressure on the median nerve.
  • Tumors and other growths (such as ganglions). These uncommon causes of carpal tunnel syndrome are usually benign.
  • Normal wear and tear of the tissues in the hand and wrist caused by aging.

When should you call your doctor?

or go to an emergency room immediately if you notice sudden loss of feeling in your arm.

Call your doctor if you:

  • Have tingling, numbness, weakness, or pain in your fingers or hand that keeps coming back or that has not gone away after 2 weeks of home treatment.
  • Have gradually developed little or no feeling in your fingers or hand.
  • Cannot do simple hand movements, or you accidentally drop things.
  • Cannot pinch your thumb and index finger together, or your pinch is weak.
  • Cannot use your thumb normally (diminished thumb strength).
  • Have problems at work because of pain in your fingers or hand.

Watchful waiting

You can treat mild symptoms of wrist and hand pain or numbness at home. You may try home treatment for 1 to 2 weeks before calling your doctor.

Who to see

To check your symptoms, you may first want to consult the doctor who provides care for your other health conditions, especially conditions that may be contributing to carpal tunnel syndrome. (Health conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, hypothyroidism, or diabetes can all lead to carpal tunnel syndrome.) Or, you may choose to see:

For more testing, see:

For treatment, see:

  • An orthopedic surgeon.
  • A physical or occupational therapist specializing in hands or overuse injuries.
  • A specialist who identifies workplace situations that contribute to repetitive-motion injuries (an ergonomist).
  • A hand surgeon.

For surgery, see:

Exams and Tests

Carpal tunnel syndrome is usually diagnosed using:

  • Medical history. The doctor will ask about any medical problems or illnesses, prior injuries, current symptoms, or daily activities that may be causing your symptoms.
  • Hand diagram. You may be asked to help fill in a diagram of your hand to show where you have numbness, tingling, or pain.
  • Physical exam, including comparing the strength of both hands.

More testing

If your symptoms are severe, if nonsurgical treatment has not improved symptoms, or if your symptoms aren’t clearly caused by carpal tunnel syndrome, your doctor may recommend:

  • Nerve testing, which checks the median nerve.
  • X-rays. These can check for bone problems caused by past injury, arthritis, recently broken or dislocated bones, or tumors. X-rays aren’t used to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome. But they can be helpful for finding signs of arthritis or an old or new wrist or neck injury that may be adding to your symptoms.
  • Ultrasound, to look at the size of the median nerve. It is inexpensive, comfortable, and quick. But its use for carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis is still unproven and fairly uncommon.
  • MRI. This imaging test can find swelling of the median nerve, narrowing of the carpal tunnel, or problems with circulation of blood through the carpal tunnel.
  • Blood tests. These are sometimes done to check for a thyroid problem, rheumatoid arthritis, or another medical problem.

Treatment Overview

The goal of treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome is to allow you to return to your normal function and activities and to prevent nerve damage and loss of muscle strength in your fingers and hand.

Treatment options include:

  • Home treatment, such as changing or avoiding activities that may be causing symptoms and wearing a wrist splint.
  • Physical therapy
    occupational therapy
    . This includes ultrasound, stretching, and range-of-motion exercises.
  • Medicines, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. In some cases, oral corticosteroids or corticosteroid injections into the carpal tunnel may be considered.
  • Surgery. Surgery is sometimes recommended when other treatment hasn’t helped, if you’ve had carpal tunnel syndrome for a long time, or if there is nerve damage or the risk of nerve damage.

What to think about

Treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome is based on the seriousness of the condition, whether there is any nerve damage, and whether other treatment has helped. If your symptoms are mild, 1 to 2 weeks of home treatment are likely to relieve your symptoms.


To help prevent carpal tunnel syndrome:

  • Take good care of your general health. This includes staying at a healthy weight, not smoking, and getting regular exercise.
  • Keep your arm, hand, and finger muscles strong and flexible.
  • Stop any activity that you think may be causing finger, hand, or wrist numbness or pain.
  • Use hand and wrist movements that spread the pressure and motion evenly throughout your hand and wrist. For example, keep your wrists straight or only slightly bent. Avoid activities that bend or twist the wrists for long periods of time.
  • Switch hands and change positions often when you are doing repeated motions. Take breaks, and rest your hands.
  • Use correct posture.
  • Restrict your salt intake if you tend to retain fluid.
  • Wear a wrist splint when you cannot control your wrist motion, such as while sleeping. A splint can keep your wrist in a neutral position—that is, not bent too far forward or back—and reduce the stress on your fingers, hand, or wrist.

If you feel that certain work activities are causing finger, hand, or wrist numbness or pain, talk to your human resources department. Ask about different ways of doing your job, changes in your equipment, other job assignments, or the possibility of an ergonomics evaluation of your work space and procedures. For more information, see the topic Office Ergonomics.

In daily routines at home or while doing hobbies, think about changing activities in which you make repeated finger, hand, or wrist movements. Train yourself to use other positions or techniques that won’t stress your hand or wrist.

Home Treatment

Home treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome:

  • Can ease pain and prevent further or permanent damage to your median nerve.
  • May completely relieve your symptoms if you start treatment when symptoms first occur.

If you have mild symptoms, such as occasional tingling, numbness, weakness, or pain in your fingers or hand, follow these steps to reduce inflammation:

  • Rest your fingers, hand, and wrist. Stop activities that you think may be causing numbness and pain. When your symptoms improve, resume the activity gradually. As you do, keep your wrists straight or only slightly bent.
  • Ice your wrist for 10 to 15 minutes at a time, once or twice an hour.
  • Consider taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to relieve pain and reduce swelling. Studies haven’t shown NSAIDs to be effective for carpal tunnel syndrome, but they may help relieve your symptoms. Be safe with medicines. Read and follow all instructions on the label.
  • Wear a wrist splint at night to keep your wrist in a neutral position and relieve pressure on your median nerve.

When your pain is gone, begin exercises for flexibility and strength for your arm and wrist. Learn the best positions and posture for hand and wrist movements.


Medicine may relieve swelling, inflammation, and pain in the wrist or hand related to carpal tunnel syndrome. Reducing swelling in the wrist will relieve pressure on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel and relieve your symptoms.

Medicine choices

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may relieve pain and inflammation and are available with or without a prescription. They work best if your tendon is inflamed. NSAIDS don’t relieve pressure on the median nerve, but they may make you feel better.

Corticosteroids may be a treatment option when NSAIDs don’t effectively relieve pain and inflammation. But these are powerful anti-inflammatory medicines. They have side effects that should be considered. Corticosteroids can be taken in pill form or injected into the wrist by a doctor.

What to think about

Medicine should be used with other measures (such as ice, rest, and splints) to reduce pain and inflammation.


  • Usually aren’t used until nonsurgical treatments (such as rest, ice, splints, or anti-inflammatory medicines) have been tried for several weeks with no improvement.
  • Often provide temporary relief (for several weeks or more). Injected corticosteroids usually provide longer-lasting results than those taken by mouth (oral). But oral or injected medicines rarely provide permanent relief from carpal tunnel symptoms.


Most people with carpal tunnel syndrome are treated without surgery. Surgery is considered only when:

  • Symptoms haven’t improved after several weeks to months of nonsurgical treatment. This assumes that you are having ongoing symptoms but no sign of nerve damage. Nerve damage would make surgery more urgent.
  • Severe symptoms restrict normal daily activities, such as when:
    • There is a persistent loss of feeling or coordination in the fingers or hand.
    • There is decreased strength in the thumb.
    • Sleep is severely disturbed by pain.
  • There is damage to the median nerve (shown by nerve test results and loss of hand, thumb, or finger function) or a risk of damage to the nerve.

Surgery choices

The most common surgery for relieving carpal tunnel symptoms involves cutting the transverse carpal ligament to relieve pressure on the median nerve in the wrist. Two approaches for this surgery are:

  • Open carpal tunnel release surgery. Open surgery requires a longer recovery period and leaves a larger scar than endoscopic surgery. But there may be less chance of other complications.
  • Endoscopic carpal tunnel release surgery. Recovery is quicker than with open surgery. The scars heal more quickly, are smaller, and tend to be less painful at 3 months after surgery. But there may be a slightly higher chance of needing another surgery later.

Some surgeons are now doing small- or mini-open release surgery. This requires a smaller incision than standard open carpal tunnel release surgery. It may reduce healing time and scarring. But it also allows the surgeon to view the ligament directly during the surgery to minimize danger to the nerve itself. This procedure may be promising. But there are few studies comparing it to the open carpal tunnel or endoscopic procedures at this time.

What to think about

Nerve tests (nerve conduction velocity test and electromyogram) are often completed before surgery is done. Surgery is more likely to be successful if the results from nerve testing point to carpal tunnel syndrome.

Your decision about whether to use open or endoscopic surgery depends on your doctor’s experience with the procedures. Endoscopic carpal tunnel surgery uses very technical equipment and is most successful when the doctor has done the procedure many times.

After surgery, it is important to avoid any activities that may have caused carpal tunnel syndrome. Or you can change the way you do them.

Other Treatment

Other treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome include:

Complementary medicine

Some people try complementary medicine to help with the symptoms of tingling, numbness, weakness, or pain felt in the fingers or hand. There is not strong evidence that they help.footnote 1 Some of these treatments include:

Talk with your doctor about any complementary health practice that you would like to try or are already using. Your doctor can help you manage your health better if he or she knows about all of your health practices.



  1. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2016). Management of carpal tunnel syndrome evidence-based clinical practice guideline. Accessed July 1, 2016.

Other Works Consulted

  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2016). Management of carpal tunnel syndrome evidence-based clinical practice guideline. Accessed July 1, 2016.
  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and American Academy of Pediatrics (2010). Carpal tunnel syndrome. In JF Sarwark, ed., Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care, 4th ed., pp. 436–440. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
  • Ashworth NL (2014). Carpal tunnel. BMJ Clinical Evidence. Accessed October 2, 2014.
  • Bednar MS, et al. (2014). Hand surgery. In HR Skinner, PJ McMahon, eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Orthopedics, 5th ed., pp. 456–516. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Mercier LR (2008). The forearm, wrist, and hand. In Practical Orthopedics, 6th ed, pp. 105–141. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2015). Carpal tunnel syndrome fact sheet. National Institutes of Health. Accessed October 14, 2015.
  • Palmer KT, et al. (2007). Carpal tunnel syndrome and its relation to occupation: A systematic literature review. Occupational Medicine, 57(1): 57–66.
  • Piazzini DB, et al. (2007). A systematic review of the conservative treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21(4): 299–213.
  • Thomsen JF, et al. (2008). Carpal tunnel syndrome and the use of computer mouse and keyboard. A systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 9: 134. Available online:
  • Zhao M, Burke DT (2015). Median neuropathy (carpal tunnel syndrome). In WR Frontera et al., eds., Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 3rd ed., pp. 174–179. Philadelphia: Saunders.


Current as of:
November 16, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
E. Gregory Thompson MD – Internal Medicine
Herbert von Schroeder MD, MSc, FRCSC – Hand and Microvascular Surgery

Current as of: November 16, 2020

Healthwise Staff

Medical Review:Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & E. Gregory Thompson MD – Internal Medicine & Herbert von Schroeder MD, MSc, FRCSC – Hand and Microvascular Surgery

Finger, Hand, and Wrist Problems, Noninjury

Do you have a finger, hand, or wrist problem?

This includes symptoms like pain, numbness, and trouble moving the fingers, hand, or wrists normally.


Finger, hand, or wrist problem


Finger, hand, or wrist problem

How old are you?

Less than 5 years

Less than 5 years

5 years or older

5 years or older

Are you male or female?

Why do we ask this question?

  • If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as “male” and once as “female”). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.

Did you injure the finger, hand, or wrist in the past month?


Finger, hand, or wrist injury in the past month


Finger, hand, or wrist injury in the past month

Have you had finger, hand, or wrist surgery in the past month?

If a cast, splint, or brace is causing the problem, follow the instructions you got about how to loosen it.


Fingers, hand, or wrist surgery in the past month


Fingers, hand, or wrist surgery in the past month

Do you think that any of your fingers might have frostbite?


Cold temperature exposure


Cold temperature exposure

Has sudden, severe weakness or severe numbness affected the whole arm or the whole hand?

Weakness is being unable to use the arm or hand normally, no matter how hard you try. Pain or swelling may make it hard to move, but that is not the same as weakness.


Severe or sudden numbness or weakness in the whole arm or hand


Severe or sudden numbness or weakness in the whole arm or hand

When did it start?

Think about when you first noticed the weakness or numbness or when you first noticed a major change in the symptoms.

Less than 4 hours ago

Numbness or weakness began less than 4 hours ago

From 4 hours to 2 days (48 hours) ago

Numbness or weakness began from 4 to less than 48 hours ago

From 2 days to 2 weeks ago

Numbness or weakness began 2 days to 2 weeks ago

More than 2 weeks ago

Numbness or weakness began more than 2 weeks ago

Do you still have any weakness or numbness?

Weakness or numbness that does not go away may be more serious.


Numbness or weakness is now present


Numbness or weakness is now present

Has the weakness or numbness:

Gotten worse?

Numbness or weakness is getting worse

Stayed about the same (not better or worse)?

Numbness or weakness is unchanged

Gotten better?

Numbness or weakness is improving

Is your hand blue, very pale, or cold and different from the other hand?

If the hand or arm is in a cast, splint, or brace, follow the instructions you got about how to loosen it.


Hand is blue, very pale, or cold and different from other hand


Hand is blue, very pale, or cold and different from other hand

Is there any pain in the fingers, hand, or wrist?


Pain in fingers, hand, or wrist


Pain in fingers, hand, or wrist

Has the pain:

Gotten worse?

Pain is increasing

Stayed about the same (not better or worse)?

Pain is unchanged

Gotten better?

Pain is improving

Do you have any pain in your fingers, hand, or wrist?


Finger, hand, or wrist pain


Finger, hand, or wrist pain

How bad is the pain on a scale of 0 to 10, if 0 is no pain and 10 is the worst pain you can imagine?

8 to 10: Severe pain

Severe pain

5 to 7: Moderate pain

Moderate pain

1 to 4: Mild pain

Mild pain

How long has the pain lasted?

Less than 2 full days (48 hours)

Pain less than 2 days

2 days to 2 weeks

Pain 2 days to 2 weeks

More than 2 weeks

Pain more than 2 weeks

Has the pain:

Gotten worse?

Pain is getting worse

Stayed about the same (not better or worse)?

Pain is unchanged

Gotten better?

Pain is getting better

Do you think the problem may be causing a fever?

Some bone and joint problems can cause a fever.

Are there red streaks leading away from the area or pus draining from it?

Do you have diabetes, a weakened immune system, peripheral arterial disease, or any surgical hardware in the area?

“Hardware” includes things like artificial joints, plates or screws, catheters, and medicine pumps.


Diabetes, immune problems, peripheral arterial disease, or surgical hardware in affected area


Diabetes, immune problems, peripheral arterial disease, or surgical hardware in affected area

Have you had trouble moving the fingers, hand, or wrist for more than 2 days?


Difficulty moving hand for more than 2 days


Difficulty moving hand for more than 2 days

Has swelling lasted for more than 2 days?


Swelling for more than 2 days


Swelling for more than 2 days

Have you had finger, hand, or wrist problems for more than 2 weeks?


Symptoms for more than 2 weeks


Symptoms for more than 2 weeks

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

Symptoms of infection may include:

  • Increased pain, swelling, warmth, or redness in or around the area.
  • Red streaks leading from the area.
  • Pus draining from the area.
  • A fever.

Pain in adults and older children

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that you can’t stand it for more than a few hours, can’t sleep, and can’t do anything else except focus on the pain.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt your normal activities and your sleep, but you can tolerate it for hours or days. Moderate can also mean pain that comes and goes even if it’s severe when it’s there.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): You notice the pain, but it is not bad enough to disrupt your sleep or activities.

When an area turns blue, very pale, or cold, it can mean that there has been a sudden change in the blood supply to the area. This can be serious.

There are other reasons for color and temperature changes. Bruises often look blue. A limb may turn blue or pale if you leave it in one position for too long, but its normal color returns after you move it. What you are looking for is a change in how the area looks (it turns blue or pale) and feels (it becomes cold to the touch), and this change does not go away.

Pain in children under 3 years

It can be hard to tell how much pain a baby or toddler is in.

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the baby cannot sleep, cannot get comfortable, and cries constantly no matter what you do. The baby may kick, make fists, or grimace.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The baby is very fussy, clings to you a lot, and may have trouble sleeping but responds when you try to comfort him or her.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): The baby is a little fussy and clings to you a little but responds when you try to comfort him or her.

Pain in children 3 years and older

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the child can’t stand it for more than a few hours, can’t sleep, and can’t do anything else except focus on the pain. No one can tolerate severe pain for more than a few hours.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt the child’s normal activities and sleep, but the child can tolerate it for hours or days.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): The child notices and may complain of the pain, but it is not bad enough to disrupt his or her sleep or activities.

Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system’s ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in adults are:

  • Diseases such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and HIV/AIDS.
  • Long-term alcohol and drug problems.
  • Steroid medicines, which may be used to treat a variety of conditions.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer.
  • Other medicines used to treat autoimmune disease.
  • Medicines taken after organ transplant.
  • Not having a spleen.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Cold Temperature Exposure

Finger, Hand, and Wrist Injuries

Postoperative Problems

Index Finger Twitching When Playing Piano

Index Finger Twitching Playing Piano

I feel it is important to be clear that even though I have a Doctorate, it is not a medical one and the information contained in this article is not intended to offer professional, medical advice. If you are suffering from any kind of medical condition that you feel may be of concern, you need to seek professional medical attention and advice.

For most musicians, the idea of regular practice on their chosen instrument or with their voice is a given. It is an essential aspect of the learning process that brings rewards in the form of improved performances and being able to master increasingly challenging pieces, but it can also lead to problems.

Index Finger Twitching Playing Piano

As an undergraduate student, I first came across the possibility of injury due to practice. The phrase in common use at the time was ‘repetitive strain injury’ that came about for some musicians due to frequent and strenuous practice regimes and performance schedules. They had pushed themselves too far and as a result caused, in some more extreme cases, permanent damage. The hands and fingers were the usual areas of the body which were identified as having suffered this unpleasant type of strain, and for many easing back on performing and practicing was enough to set it right, but for others, there were more serious effects.

Another common factor in twitches that arrive in the hand seems to be the health of the individual musician concerned. It would appear that twitches happen regularly to performers who are under great pressure, perhaps giving many recitals, or not sleeping well. These amongst other factors can contribute to all manner of twitches in the hands, sometimes attributed to strain in the back too.

On one site I discovered a video of the well-known pianist Valentina Listsa playing the famous ‘Appassionata’ Sonata by Beethoven where she seems to be suffering from the same affliction suggested in the title of this article. In the light of her punishing schedule of recitals, it is perfectly reasonable that she may be under such immense pressure that her levels of exhaustion are showing in her performance.

Practicing in the ‘right’ way is a key point that is worthy of further consideration. It can also be a serious reason for working with an experienced, empathic teacher of your instrument of choice as they are likely to be in a good position to advise you on best playing techniques, posture, and practice regimes. If you have fallen into poor practice habits or perhaps have a weak technique on the piano, for instance, this could lead to injury, twitching, and other avoidable physical problems. On the other hand, it is also possible that you might have been taught to play the piano incorrectly and this, in turn, could give rise to all manner of physical anomalies from backache to twitching index fingers.

If you are using or even over-using your muscles to play the piano then there is a distinct possibility that a type of dystonia might develop. This, as I understand it, comes about through pressing, gripping, or even pinching to a point that the muscles, tendons, and nerves in the hands and fingers are being badly compromised.

According to the National Health Service (UK), dystonia is defined in the following way: “Dystonia is the name for uncontrolled and sometimes painful muscle movements (spasms)”. The description is one that includes twitching and other painful involuntary movements that can be in the hands through to other parts of the body. Treatment is possible from localized injections of botulinum toxin directly into the affected muscles, muscle relaxants, and even surgery. All of which sounds rather unpleasant if potentially avoidable under careful professional guidance.

From my research on the opinions of practicing pianists, the overarching feeling is to try and avoid the more extreme medical treatments. I imagine though that if the condition is advanced then there may be fewer options and the more invasive types of remedy might be required to alleviate the problem.

Other suggestions are for complete rest and relaxation together with a consultation perhaps with a professional who deals with movement. If they can offer an analysis of how you are moving, sitting, reacting when you play the piano, then there is a very real chance that they will be able to help correct your approach. It is all too easy to become entrenched in detrimental habits when playing any instrument and equally easy to overlook the signs and signals the body provides as warnings.

The scenario does not end there. If you are experiencing twitching in your fingers, index, or otherwise, there are additional possibilities of the condition to consider. Muscle cramps and shaking can be the result of a magnesium deficiency which although rare amongst healthy individuals could be at the root of the problem. If your vitamin E is deficient then this can create some very unpleasant symptoms from difficulties articulating through to a decline in cognition. ‘Benign Fasciculation Syndrome’ is another common condition that can make muscles twitch involuntarily. BFS is a relatively recent diagnosis that according to ‘Medical News Today’ requires further research.

Having had some experience of finger twitching I can certainly attribute some of it to stress, caffeine intake, and insufficient sleep at those times. I have also made a concerted effort throughout my years of playing and performing to pay close attention to how I play, practice, and move. It’s not always easy and we all make mistakes which is why another pair of experienced eyes is very useful to see what we have become complacent about or simply become used to.

A twitch is in all probability a sign that something is not right. Pianists make significant use of their hands and indeed their whole body when playing the instrument. Alongside the deep emotional input when performing music, it is not a revelation to realize that these injuries frequently occur. Try to be aware of your whole being when you practice and perform and as all good musicians do, listen, but not only to the music, to your own body.

90,000 Offensive gestures – for a traveler’s note

Gestures, and indeed body language in general, are a very effective way to convey a thought to the interlocutor without words. However, the gestures are different, and in each country they are different. We suggest you learn a few “bad” gestures used in different countries so as not to inadvertently offend their inhabitants. After all, you do not want to be considered ignorant and rude without knowing it?

Blow to the chin

Meaning: Get out.

Used in: Belgium, France, Northern Italy, Tunisia.

In France, this gesture is known as la barbe, or beard. The point is that this is a demonstration of masculinity, just as a male deer displays it by flapping its horns, or a rooster shaking its comb. The gesture is quite simple – moving the fingertips forward under the chin. He is recognized in many countries, and he was and remains an effective way to get rid of the annoying interlocutor.

Note: In Italy this gesture simply means no.


Meaning: “What are you, an idiot?”

Used in: Brazil.

This gesture indicates the stupidity of the interlocutor and requires some acting skill to perform. You need to put your fist on your forehead and put your jaw forward. The gesture is especially effective with repeated use of disgruntled grunts. If you did everything right, you will be rewarded with a grateful laugh, although the laugh will clearly not be the one to whom you addressed the gesture.


Meaning: “To hell with you!” / “I’ll rub your face with shit!” / “I will abuse your sister!”

Used in: Greece, Africa, Pakistan.

One of the most complex gestures, as complex and ancient as the tea ceremony in Japan. Probably the oldest offensive signal still in use. It appeared in Ancient Byzantium, where criminals were chained to a donkey and left on public display. Passers-by could throw shit in the face of criminals. In Greece, the gesture is often accompanied by shouts like par’ta (“here you are”) or órse (“take a bite”). Over the years, this gesture has acquired other meanings, including of a sexual nature.Five fingers outstretched represent five sexual acts that you are about to have with the sister of the person to whom you are showing this gesture.

Five fathers

Meaning: “You have five fathers” (ie your mother is a whore).

Used In: Arab and Caribbean Countries.

If you want to be deported from Saudi Arabia, you can just publicly show someone the Five Fathers gesture. This is the most provocative gesture in the Arab world. It means that the subject’s mother had so many admirers that paternity cannot be established.To show the gesture, stick your left index finger into the piled-up fingers of your right hand. This insult is very strong and is likely to provoke violence.

Pepper mill

Meaning: “Crazy”.

Used in: Southern Italy.

In southern Italy, this gesture is used to indicate that the other person is crazy. The meaning of the name is that the subject’s insane brain rotates as fast as the blades of a pepper mill.


Meaning: “Your wife is cheating on you.”

Used in: Baltic countries, Brazil, Colombia, Italy, Portugal, Spain.

How to tell a man that his wife is cheating on him? It is not easy, but fortunately in some countries it is quite simple to do it: you just need to show a gesture called “korna”. This is a very old gesture (2500 years old) for horns. But be careful – although “horns” are used all over the world, in different countries their meaning is different. For example, this could mean that your wife is just a fan of a rock band or a fan of the American football team.

Note: in Saudi Arabia, Syria and Lebanon, the gesture “your wife is cheating on you” is shown a little differently: a “fan” of fingers is wound behind the head, imitating a horned deer.

Write off

Meaning: “I ignore you.”

Used in: Greece.

The literal translation of the name of this gesture is st’arxidia mou – “I write this on my balls.” This is, of course, a metaphor to tell the other person that you are ignoring them. It is not necessary to have eggs to show this gesture, i.e.That is, women can also show it.


Meaning: “To hell with you and all your family.”

Used in: India, Pakistan.

If you are in India or Pakistan and suddenly want to send away not only your friend, but his entire family, just use this gesture. Its origin is unknown, but its effectiveness is instant and scary. Bend your fingers into a fist, then bite your thumb and exclaim “cutta!” (“Fuck you!”). As a result, you will be kicked out of the house in which you are staying.Insult mission completed.


Meaning: “You are greedy.”

Used In: Mexico, South America.

In many Latin American countries, the elbow is associated with greed, just as the heart is associated with love. The point is that the stingy person very rarely straightens his arm to pay the bill. If your friend isn’t paying the bills, tell them with a gesture. For greater expressiveness, you can hit the table with your elbow.

Note: In Austria and Germany, the same gesture means “You are an idiot”, assuming that the elbow is where the idiot’s brains are.

Fishy smell

Meaning: “I don’t trust you.”

Used in: Southern Italy.

In business, it is important to let your partners know that you will not be used. With this gesture, you show them that you guessed that they are trying to deceive you. Just grab your nose with your index and middle fingers and move them lightly from side to side. The gesture suggests that something stinks and you are trying to get rid of that smell.

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Can a person change for the sake of a loved one? Perhaps it depends on what is in yourself to try to change.Some change their appearance (nose, lips, chest), there would be money, another thing is when you need to overcome yourself and change something in your character. If a person is crazy, he must be treated. If he has bad habits, he must get rid of them. And if a person loves to steal, but falls in love with a police officer, what needs to be changed? This is the situation that viewers will consider when watching the movie “Catch Me” .

The main character detective Lee Ho Tae is still thinking about his first love, Yoon Jin Suk, she disappeared as suddenly as she appeared.Their youthful innocent love lasted only 100 days, and after Ho Tae, there was nothing left but to become the one to whom Jin Suk would return – a policeman. Several years pass, and Ho Tae meets her, but circumstances do not allow them to be together. He should arrest her for hitting a man. Concurrently, Jin Suk turns out to be one of the most skilled thieves in Korea. What is Ho Tae to do? After all, he wants to spend more time with his beloved. And an option appears: hide it at home, and at work say that he will not find the criminal in any way.

The plot and characters of characters are shown in the film with a great deal of satire and humor. Ho Tae is a naive kid who life has never taught him to be strong. In love, he is a hero, but in reality he turns out to be a weakling. Later, of course, he is rehabilitated, but it is hard to believe that this can be true. Jin Suk is another problem. She is a first-class thief who even has her own lecture course in this specialty. In theory, she should be cunning, savvy and not give in to feelings.At first it seemed so, Jin Suk simply felt sorry for her ex-lover and used the chance to be free for a longer time. But in the end it turned out that all her actions were out of love. But in my life I will not believe them!

Let’s say the film was created in order to ridicule human naivety, and if this idea was brought to a victorious end, everything would be great. But no, the creators turned the comedy into melodrama (as expected) and even made a happy epilogue. This brought its share of disappointment, and again another Korean film with a stellar cast did not catch on.The search for a masterpiece continues!

7 of 10

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August 13, 2015 | 00:05


While I’m Alive Jab Tak Hai Jaan (2012)

While I’m Alive will be my last film of my career. “(Yash Chopra)

In November 2012, there were many events around the film “While I’m Alive”, the most shocking of them was the death of director Yash Chopra. He was too great in Indian cinema to die. In India he will not be forgotten, just as Raj Kapoor has not been forgotten. Another event was the quarrel with Ajay Devgan over the “monopoly” of large companies, but it did not become so important.

I really liked the idea of ​​the obstacles in the form of God in the film.I have never seen a movie with a similar idea and a plot wrapped around it. In Indian films, the question of the incompatibility of the two religions, their enmity, is often raised. However, about the enmity of an ordinary mortal man and Jesus Christ , this has not happened yet. Mira always made deals, with everyone, even with God. To get something, she gave something in return. Most likely a lot of people do this, don’t they? It’s just that in her case, this led to the most terrible consequences, she promised to save the life of her beloved, and in return give the most precious thing she has.Samara had to live away from his beloved for 10 years and play constantly with death. He loved Mira, but he thrust all the romance and love into himself so deeply that he could not pull it out without someone else’s help. Akira, an aspiring journalist, had to pull it all out …

Throughout the first episode, I wondered: why I have no feelings for the experiences of the heroes? They appeared only at the end of the history of Mira and Samara in the past. Something didn’t fit, I mentally compared two films, two director’s works – “While I’m Alive” and “Vira and Zara”.I like the latter more, now I am firmly convinced of it. A lot of unnecessary and unsaid things in the film. Characters appeared, spoke their lines, and disappeared. For me, the story with the loss of memory in Samar was so completely superfluous, it would be better if he met his love in his right mind and strong memory. But, as they say, the greats are not judged.

Many things have been written that this is the worst role Shah Rukh Khan . With this I do not agree, she is not the worst, but not the best, the role of Samara is simple. She is nothing, did not stand out from the rest of the roles of the Shah.Therefore, it should come as no surprise that he did not receive the Filmfare Awards this year. But Anushka Sharma fully deserved her statuette for a supporting role. Akira was too charismatic and lively. You look at her in the film and your eyes are happy. The same cannot be said about Katrina Kaif . May her fans and ardent fans forgive me, but even Yash Chopra could not melt her ice and draw out her emotions. In “Politics” and “Life Can’t Be Boring,” I liked her performance better.

The soundtrack of the film is gorgeous.I listened to it even before the release of the film, then I liked the song “Ishq Shava” most of all, it is so funny and groovy that you immediately start to beat out the rhythm with your fingers. Now I like the song “Saans” performed by one Shreya Ghoshal more. There is something in it, the song conveys the whole tragedy of the film.

I will not call this film a masterpiece, but the fact that it is an outstanding film is a fact. “While I’m Alive” has a meaning: not to create obstacles to happiness. This is what Yash Chopra tried to convey to us, ordinary viewers.

8 of 10

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January 24, 2013 | 00:23


Repentance Daag: The Fire (1999)

“I will pay for your sins.”

Once again I remember my childhood.And now I remembered – I saw the film “Repentance”. A week ago, I didn’t even know what the movie was called. I remembered only very small fragments of the film (of course, so many years have passed!), And then, thanks to such a great thing as the Internet, I found both the name and the film itself. While enjoying the viewing, I kept trying to find those fragments that remained in my memory since childhood – a white sari, the shooting and murder of Kajal (now Kajal, and earlier just girls), the good deeds of a bad guy, a lawyer.How wonderful it is to find what you lost a long time ago!

The plot of is very interesting, but let’s talk about everything in order. 2 storylines are developing, which are gradually intertwined into one. Ravi is a very bad person, if at home he is an exemplary family man, then at work he seems to be replaced, he becomes an aggressive “intellectual”. Up to a certain point, arrogance and moderate aggressiveness served him well, until he put the wrong person in prison. When this man died in prison, Ravi seemed to be cursed – everything went awry.Karan, the man’s son, decided to avenge his father. He lay in wait for Ravi and fired, but his wife Kajal covered her husband with her body and … died. Ravi loved her so much that when he came to, he remembered only the name of his wife – Kajal. But Kajal is gone. At the funeral, information appears that there is another girl, like two drops of water, similar to the deceased Kajal. From this moment, all the most interesting begins, but I will not tell this, otherwise the viewers will not be interested in watching.

The role of the “villain” Ravi was played by an actor with a cool name for me Chandachur Singh .I saw only 2 films with him, although his entire filmography cannot be called long. In these two films I liked him – he plays beautifully, naturally, as if he were living. And that’s all you need to be a good actor. The changes in Ravi were also very significant and noticeable. Although looking at Chandrachur, I did not imagine him as a villain from the very beginning. Moreover, I knew the end of the film.

The second film in Mahima Choudhary’s career may have been more successful than the first with Shah Rukh Khan. The double role allows the actor to open up and show all the talents he has, as happened with Mahima.Two roles – and all successful. Kajal – kind, sympathetic and loving. For the sake of her husband, she was ready for anything and she gave everything when the time came. Kajri (in the film for some reason Kairi?) – fighting, ill-mannered, but docile. She immediately understood what was required of her, and did it unquestioningly. If we compare these two roles of Mahima, then she flashed her talent in the second role. Kajri was more lively, Kajal was calm and did not show great feelings, there was almost no passion.

Karan Sanjay Dutt – in his repertoire, a hero, a savior of human lives and so on.For me, this actor is not my favorite, but I don’t avoid his films either. There weren’t just such roles for him that would take me by the heart. As for Karan, this “Dutt” standard helped in the film only by saving Puja and Kajri at the end of the film. It was not interesting for me to watch how he tried to avenge his father. The main idea in the film was not like that.

The film didn’t get me in tears, it didn’t take my heart, but I watched it anyway, because the plot was interesting and entertaining.Especially the development of relations between Ravi and Kajri. Probably, this is the only thing for which it is worth seeing. And also for the double role of Mahima. So the verdict is okay.

8 of 10

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April 30, 2011 | 15:05

I’ve been doing some bullshit lately. No, not in the sense of life.In life, I am now correct to the point that I feel sickening myself. In the sense that I do not at all fulfill the program of screenings (I almost wrote – television programs) of the planned Indian cinema, but again went somewhere in YI cinema and (oh, God) in Indian serials. I watch some fools with Vijay, with all due respect to him. I was hooked here and this film, I just could not pass by the hipster image of Chiyan Vikram. And you know, the most interesting thing is that I didn’t even understand whether this image suits him or not. It seems to be stylish all this – a beard, a mustache, this forelock, but the feeling did not leave that Vic was playing a 20-year-old guy in a leather jacket and leggings, that this image was a frank banter.Maybe it was.

In general, cinema is ambiguous. It begins with the fact that Vic flies out of the window (but with insurance!), He robbed someone there and did not give something to someone or did not share it. So I couldn’t figure out what he’d done there. In short, he is a criminal, an experienced thief Kay Kay and his degree of coolness is off the charts. I am glad that at least mysticism is not mixed here, as in the recently watched Sami squared (with the same Vikram). He is shot down and he ends up in the hospital, where he is rescued by some junior doctor full of loshara.There is a separate story about loshara, he comes to Malaysia (oh, I forgot, the action takes place in Malaysia) with a deeply pregnant wife to work and give birth (he works and his wife gives birth), respectively. And the underworld of Kuala Lumpur understood this situation in such a way – since the doctor saved Kay Kay, then we will launch the dogs on him. They stole his wife and let’s torture the unfortunate woman. The doctor is hysterical, Kay Kay spent half of the film under anesthesia, half of the film passed with such an air – leave me alone, my head is cracking! I felt sorry for everyone alternately – both Dr. Vasa, and his poor wife, who got the worst of it, and Vika, who could be held and treated in the hospital, but he had to run around the city with this doctor, and it was not known who had whom. hostage.In general, there was not much Vikram, and it was a fat minus. For his charisma saved the film in the most “saggy” places. The doctor himself, I have never seen before, but his wife, Akshara Hassan, I remember, in my opinion, she was filming with Dhanush in Shamitabha.

Well, there is nothing more to say to me about the film. Not a bad action movie with Vikram the hipster, Vikram, of course, is brutal all of himself, but it is clear that he is not in the best shape and that his uncle, despite his youthful appearance, is already over fifty dollars. But he is doing well.

9 of 10

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October 21, 2019 | 22:12

(A film that won a lot of awards and brought Dhanush a national prize).

A highly praised film at one time – almost seven years ago, which brought as many as 6 awards, including the best directing and script and, of course, the best actor.I don’t know, in my opinion, there are more colorful, more emotional and more dramatic films in Dhanush’s filmography. I started looking two or three times, and something did not grow together, stopped, even with all my love for Dhanush, such a portion of rude overgrown men shaking lungs is too much. Then somehow it went and watched, and I want to say that this is an ordinary Tamil drama, however, with a strong actor in the lead role. Probably, it is strong in its ordinariness – that is, it is somewhat tough, but not bloody-snotty twisted with moronic showdowns and flights.No, there is not a single stupid fight and rollover cars and somersaults. There are very few stunt fighting scenes here, no shooters, no superhero heroic hand-to-hand and bouncy fights. There are several cockfights, quite gambling and with intense passions. In order not to run over the green ones, all the roosters were drawn so vividly on the computer, it was, of course, noticeable that they were drawn, but the eyes did not hurt.

At first, as I said, I got involved for a very long time, but then I even began to empathize – and worried about everyone in a row.Once again I was convinced that … if you yourself are with a pure heart and a pure and bright soul, you should not naively think that all the people around and even sometimes close and tested for years are also the same .. decent, honest and bright .. how naive it is. again, to live and trust no one, always suspect and look back – this is also not the right life and very evil. In general, the choice is always final for the person, and in this case the person (Karuppu) chose to leave. Escape. From all these showdowns, cock passions, money, bets and thirst for victory at any cost, undercover intrigue, from behind-the-scenes machinations, manipulation of ambition, pride, greed, stupidity, thirst for freebies.In terms of the intensity of passions and unexpectedly emerging human vices, cinema is close to Shakespeare’s tragedies, although not everyone who deserved died in the finale. Who would have thought – it’s like a politician: everyone wants to win and will go to any dirty game to beat the enemy. And it comes to the point that not only cock feathers fly, but also human heads. All that was needed was to moderate the ardor and turn on the brains. Knowing the Tamils, just in case I was ready for the worst, wildest and most brutal variants of the outcome, so the ending became almost a happy ending for me.

The undoubted advantages include directing and decent cinematography. An Indian village is faithfully and authentically shown, a full feeling that this is how they live there. Not to say that it is already horror-horror, but poverty is not covered up here with all sorts of glamorous nonsense and is not overshadowed by the beauty of the landscapes. Shown, as I call it, “just life.” Dhanush’s wonderful game. He undoubtedly deserved his National Prize, everything was played well, convinced, moved and made you once again forget about your appearance.But, there are also marvelous secondary actors, almost everything. Both male and female, and enemies and associates. Wonderful old women, straight natural Tamil grumpy witches. And even Taapsi Pannu, quite to their place. Special mention should be made of her – her early works do not impress me at all, here she cooked through the whole film, played a little at the end, but so – with vata-vata. In fairness, there was not much of her, she was not allowed to dance (and very correctly), she walked with a sad gaze and practically did not shine unnecessarily.Now she has grown a lot as an actress, and it pleases – she’s not a bad girl.

Another definite plus – there is not a single Tamil comedian. Already tired of all the films of the eyes to callou.

Conclusion: I recommend it to everyone as an example of a high-quality, intelligent, realistic yuzhka. A rare cinema for Tamil. If you love Dhanush, look be sure, this role is one of his strongest (well, it is considered so, but, I repeat, everything is subjective, I think there are more interesting works of him).

9 of 10

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September 8, 2018 | 20:27

It so happened that for six months at the university I had to study political science.My relationship with her was not very good, but that’s not the point. Going through the course on the topic “Elections and Electoral Systems” I remembered the film “Politicians” and decided to watch it with the following thought: “What if this incomprehensible science will become clearer to me?”

Politicians shows us how political parties in India are fighting for parliamentary seats. In the state (whose name was never mentioned in the film), the dominant party was Rashtravadi, at the head of it was a very powerful family, in which there were a lot of skeletons in the closet.It is difficult to understand the family ties, who is whom, I really understood only by the end of the film. Before the next elections, the Rashtravadi party was dragged into a very difficult situation by chance. Its president, Bhanu Pratap, ended up in the hospital with a stroke; he appointed his successor not his son Viru, who really wanted to become president, but his brother-in-law, the husband of his sister Chandra Pratap. This was the beginning of the internal confrontation in the party, which led to a crisis.

There are a lot of characters in the film, each of which played an important role. Chandra Pratap was elected president and decided to compete for the post of prime minister. His son Prithvi became a young leader. The youngest son Samar before the crisis was far from politics, but life forced him. Indu – a commodity in the hands of his father. Viru is an envious person, offended by his father and life. Suraj – Viru’s friend.

Of all the heroes, I liked most of all Bridge Gopal – a kind of Gray Cardinal in the party leadership.He always sits and observes everyone, sees and hears everything, calculates the steps forward. He already feels that he is getting old, his time has passed. He chose Samara as his successor, who was smart and prudent beyond his years. Bridge passed the post, and Samar accepted it. Superfluous in this political drama, I consider the line of Suraj , why his character was introduced to the film in the role of the illegitimate. Even a simple guy with a mind could be in his place. Why attribute kinship?

“Politicians” look in one breath, capture with their events and do not let go until the last scene.Director Prakash Jha will probably never have such films again, because masterpieces are not created every year. There are rumors that he wants to do a sequel. Well, let’s wait and see what comes of it all.

9 of 10

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January 22, 2013 | 17:10

When neither the index finger nor the little finger acts on them, there is only one thing to do – show them the middle one!

The translator who called the film so should be arrested.Ungli is the middle finger that is shown, you know when. Well, that is, who when. Some people live with such a gesture. That is, they should put everything on everyone and we would all go … But this film is not described that case. Among the many films released in recent years, this one stands out – the director tried to reflect the corrupt, rotten system that dominates India today. Well, since Hindi-Russi is bhai-bhai, then everything is mirrored here. Some moments were drawn from our streets.For example, a healthy bull kicks an old man, for the fact that he allegedly hit his car, and everyone drives … drives by. Nobody will stop. Nobody cares. A beaten man fell – but let him fall. Helping him is more precious to us … And I am generally silent about kickbacks and bribes. We can even teach the Indians this. And about noodles on our ears, when on TV – one thing, in reality – quite another, we are also aware. In short, the situations are identical.

And then one fine day one old man once again went to some officials to get his pension.He was sent once again. And he got thin … He ended up in the hospital. And at the hospital, the intern doctor heard his story and called a gang – a journalist (Randip Hoodah), a computer technician and a mechanic. And she said – guys, there is a case. And on the same evening, those ill-fated bureaucrats who offended grandfather ran around the stadium with bombs on their belly. Explode – did not explode, but did it, that’s for sure … This is one of the few examples of the activities of the Ungli gang – as they called themselves, a gang whose symbol has become, sorry, a big fak. They raised the whole of Mumbai to their ears.In general, the first half of the film, when it is not yet clear with what fright these four started all this, is very intriguing and dynamic. Then the fifth joins them – Nikhil (Emran Hashmi), as it turns out later – a policeman, but a criminal romantic or a romantic criminal at heart. He was sent to the gang by Inspector Kale (Sanjay Dutt), who later also joins the gang in order to bring his superiors to clean water … And all this got muddied after the brother of the doctor Maya (Kangan) was hit on the head by the son of a semi-criminal bureaucrat in the street, who put pressure on the witnesses and the son was excused from prison.The doctor’s brother lay in a coma for the entire film. And his friends were outraged and decided to act – to take order in the city into their own hands. And I must say, for a while they succeeded …

The actors did their best here. The most interesting thing is that there are no main roles here. It is difficult to name “the captain of the ship”. Everyone in turn attracts attention. Randyp Hoodah does not even get naked here, Emran Hashmi (the main kisser) still kisses, but only once, and somehow from under the stick. I don’t remember Kangana Ranaut especially here, but the figure is perfect.But Neha Dhupiya, whom I had not seen for a very long time, made me happy. It has become even more stylish, stricter and brighter at the same time. The role is significant and important. Shraddha Kapoor danced in the only music video “Dance Basanti, the costumes are beautiful, in general, unusual in appearance, but an interesting girl.

It may seem to some that a concrete solution to the problem of corruption in society and the police is not offered here. So be it. But on the other hand, they showed how a separately taken group helped a separate city. Let for a little … The main thing is to start …

My rating:

9 out of 10

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February 21, 2015 | 19:17


Full House Housefull (2010)

A lie, which is not a lie at all, depending on which side you approach it.

Everyone said that it was a hit and one of the funniest films in India in 2010. It turned out to be so, but … either I had something wrong with humor or the jokes were not funny. Because I didn’t manage to laugh. But right away I want to say that the film has its advantages, which I will write a little later.

I associate the comedy with Akshay Kumar with a two-hour humor, but I was very wrong with the movie “Full House”. It was evident that the filmmakers tried very hard with jokes and everything would be fine if they paid more attention to verbal jokes than to any faces and stupid antics of the characters (I can only put -).I wouldn’t be so critical of this film if it wasn’t for the laughing scene at the end. Yes, it smooths out the curious situation, but how can everything be so easy and simple?

Aarush (Akshay Kumar) is a congenital loser, he was told that he can get rid of this bad luck by marrying his girlfriend, but he cannot find this girl. So he still has to spend time working as bad luck in a casino (the idea is just great! That’s a big +) … I liked Akshay, he left the game of bad uncles and policemen.Although heroes with a great inner world suit him very much, he wanted something new. New and it turned out. I especially made fun of Aarush’s image – those sleek hair, these checkered sleeveless jackets.

After another unsuccessful romance Aarush leaves for London to his childhood friend Bob (Ritesh Deshmukh) . Bob has been married for 2 years and his wife is beautiful Hital (Lara Dutta) . They have no children yet, they enjoy each other’s company until Aarush arrives.The coolest moment in this part of the film is the behavior of a parrot (+) … Ritesh and Lara looked very good together, there was a very strong chemistry between them, it catches your eye right away. Bob and Hital seem to complement each other, it is not in vain that they come together.

Newly made friends of Aarush decide to help a friend in his bad luck, they offer him to marry the daughter of their boss Devika (Jia Khan) . They get married, but after the first wedding night Aarush does not find his young wife … I liked Gia in the film, although she played a role that was neither positive nor outstanding.

And then Aarush meets his love – Sandy (not Sandy +), played by Deepika Padukone . She loves him, he loves her, but there is one obstacle between them – Sandy’s brother Major Krishna Rao (Arjun Rampal) . And now Aarush has to “fight” with a relative of his beloved in order to be with her … Deepika’s role was not any outstanding, it was similar to many other roles (not just her) of simple girls in love. Sandy’s simplicity lent more charm and it became clear why Aarush had a crush on her head over heels.It was not fun to watch Arjun, I had never seen him so angry and mistrustful in films.

The film’s soundtrack is relatively normal. The songs are average, I can only single out “Loser” and that’s it. The motive is memorable, and this is very important for me. With dancing, too, not everything is so bad, but not everything is as good as we would like. They are quite mediocre. But seeing the film, you understand that the whole point is not in fantastic dancing, but in the plot.

So, taking into account the pros and cons that I did not write here, I come to the conclusion that this film does not pull the lowest mark, but it is also impossible to put 10 on it.Therefore, only:

7 out of 10

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March 25, 2011 | 22:31

Since from the beginning of January I had an awkward mood on the basis of the beginning of the new year, the onset of my fifth decade, lack of money and others like them, all the holidays my youngest daughter and I watched Indian comedies.Thank God, there were no absolutely stupid ones among them, we raised our mood as best we could, here the fourth full house was to help us. I will not say that it is very good, they made a lot of sophistication, mixed modern Indian realities with the 15th century, and Akshay was made bald. But definitely better than the third part. The Indomans will understand me.

Back to Full House. The plot largely repeats the plots of the previous “houses”. Again, three friends / brothers marry three girlfriends / sisters. Only this time there was confusion.In the 15th century, one story happened, then reincarnation happened and the guys chose not those girls whom they never married in the past (well … uh, guys – that’s putting it mildly. Actors are all 50 years old, plus or minus. Ritesh is the youngest) … And the whole plot revolves around this.

Of the undoubted advantages – Akshay Kumar. He seems to be mothballed, or maybe he just has a whole staff of cool doctors, trainers and plastic surgeons in the storehouse. I like his choice of roles in recent years, so this “House” I forgive him, let the man have some fun, because against the backdrop of all these historical and social dramas about gaskets and toilets, “House 4” seems like nothing at all comedy.Everyone needs to rest, including the actors. Another plus – Bobs, of course, who, I repeat, looks better at 50 than at 30. It was nice to look at him, he never overplayed, did not underestimate, even danced well. Ritesh was … in the role of Ritesh, nothing new. Although I’m lying, here he was playing a eunuch, something new. How could a eunuch get married ??? Ritesh is becoming obscene, and so far I can’t say whether I like him this way, or not. Here in “I will die” he played an evil dwarf. Everything is clear there – the character is bad and you need to hate him, and at the end you must soak it so that the viewer is satisfied.But with these half-men, half-women, everything is not so simple.

The girls were very nice (in the third housefull it was impossible to look at the female part at all, and not even quite in the role of furniture, they were allowed to play at least a little bit. I finally learned to distinguish Kriti Senon from Harbanda Kriti – they are very similar, (surnames), and outwardly. Now I know that the first one is taller and her nose is more elongated. We compared them here, so to speak, clearly. Parallels were also drawn with Bahubali (well, maybe it seemed to me that these are parallels, maybe the creators didn’t mean it).This is Ranu, I mean, who was the evil savage in the past / singer forged in the present. He came to me normally in this capacity, although it was unusual. Also pleased with Nawaz Siddikui in the role of a sorcerer, although when he walked in the pose of an inverted bridge, it was creepy. The humor in the film was bearable, there were awkward moments, but they somehow smoothed out. As for the past, they drew a beautiful picture on the computer, dressed everyone in colorful costumes, beautiful girls, Akshay is bald, his mustache sticks out … babble!

So yes, the film is only suitable for comedy lovers, in particular the houseful franchise, this is a special theme in Indian cinema.But it seems that the film paid for itself at the box office, so everything is OK.

8 of 10

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February 1, 2020 | 21:21

It appears that this is a continuation of the Masti franchise – after the films Masti 2004 and Grand Masti 2013. Not entirely a failure, fortunately, but not the most successful either. From the category (again!) Of sex comedies, only sex here all the way was going to be engaged … with a ghost! Oh how.I don’t remember such a thing. Strong, yes.

Again, these three idiots – Amar (Ritesh Deshmukh), Mit (Vivek Oberoi) and Prem (Aftab Shivdasani), after marriage, wanted “strawberries” and were stuck in another story. In the second part, I remember, they went to the alumni meeting. This time they were carried to the village, where, it seemed to them, only lotus flowers and pink buds, unspoiled by the city, dwell. How they were rolled into this creepy mansion, I no longer remember, whether this is someone’s family nest, or where.But in general, the guys got like chickens in the pluck. The girl lived there, the ghost of Ragini. Written beauty, in fact (Urvasi Rutela). True, they chose a very effective actress for the role. But then she turned out to be a ghost. And even a virgin ghost. Nightmare, nightmare! And throughout the film, these losers of ours are escaping from the fatal beauty that is in urine, and at the same time they begin to appreciate their wives, as well as (oh horror!) Mother-in-law and, in general, that boring life that they all lived. The cinema is not at all scary, that is, horrors are present here, of course, but in some ridiculous forms, so it doesn’t bother watching at all.The film does not bother at all, relaxes, makes me laugh, oddly enough. Humor, of course, is so kind of … on the verge. But you still cannot compare with the previous Aftabov film, there is both a message and a sense of some kind. Well, yes, a comedy, well, yes, vulgar. And after themselves such films leave a sad aftertaste. Well, how could such actors as Aftab and Vivek come to such a life after all. With Riteish Deshmukh, everything is clear. He was a comedian from the beginning, and now he is strenuously getting out of this image, because, firstly, age, and secondly, tired, you see, playing idiots.But these comrades all roll and roll into walk-through films. Well, or, like Vivek Oberoi, villains began to play in South Indian films. What is this about? No, his villains come out gorgeous, whatever you say. But after Salman ruined his career in Bollywood, of course, his roles went wrong … It’s a pity. He is talented and hard worker. It can make candy out of aa. I have a couple of films with him hanging – from the beginning of his career, you need to watch.

I can’t say anything about the rest of the characters.The guys had so many wives that I won’t even comment. The line with the priest (Sanjay Mishra) and his suddenly flared up passion for Amara’s mother-in-law is so vulgar that fu-fu. The music is ordinary, the clips are good, of course, but the most important decoration there is Urvashi. Good, beast.

I can only recommend this work to fans of the franchise and the aforementioned actors. And so, of course, a film at one time. Entertaining though.

8 of 10

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October 3, 2019 | 11:00


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90,000 Read Sixth digit.Book 2 online (completely and free)

Alexandra Lisin The sixth sign Book 2


“If you don’t know where to go, stop for a while, close your eyes and listen to your heart – it always knows the right way.”

Traveler’s advice.

And again it was a dream – alarming, gloomy, but at the same time strikingly similar to reality.



The silent greatness of the Void, instantly extinguishing any sound and making any conversation impossible … arms and chest, since our last meeting he never went anywhere.

“Stop,” I whisper silently to him, hoping that at least now he will hear. – Do not.

She’s killing you! Please stop, brother… I don’t want to lose you ”…

When he sees me, he freezes, never hitting the stubborn wall, and insane relief appears in his eyes.

“Do you hear ?! – I whisper in wild hope, diligently moving my lips. – Can you hear me?!”

Dem, hesitating, tilts his horned head uncertainly.

“Gaide?” His lips move barely noticeably, exposing the tips of sharp fangs.

I smile with relief and slowly, slowly raising an incredibly heavy hand, I also nod.

“Alive…” he swallows, peering into my face to the point of pain in his eyes. “Are you really alive, or should we look for you in the Shadow?”

“Order” – I make him a sign familiar from the old times. Fingers, however, if not mine – were numb, barely bending.I don’t feel pillows at all, and the body is like someone else’s. But he understands – he smiles and, dropping his tense shoulders, exhales noisily. Yes, so powerful that a thick cloud of steam, escaping from his lips, manages to fly off two steps and only there freeze into a whitish clot, which incredibly slowly begins to dissolve in the surrounding Emptiness.

“Where are you?” Dem asks, fluttering his wings impatiently.

I spread my hands in response, not knowing how to explain. Then I still think of portraying a hole in the floor, my rapid fall … he frowns, understanding hardly half of what I want to say, but patiently waits for me to finish.And I have neither the time nor the right words to explain my location. I can only whisper to him:

“Vo-Allar … Desert …”

But I don’t have time anymore – my lips are tight from the cold, and my cheeks are covered with a thick layer of frost more and more quickly.

“How to get to you?” He asks again when I run out of strength and my fingers stop moving.

I look expressively at the barrier separating us. But as soon as he tries to rush towards, I find the strength to creak and bend the frozen fingers and make a stopping gesture.

“Here is death,” I again point him at the wall. “You can’t get through.”

“Bypass? He frowns even more. – Shadow?!”

With difficulty moving my disobedient lips and whispering the only thing that comes to my mind: “Lin”.

Startled, he asks again, giving me hope of an early return, and then shakes his head dejectedly. And I sigh in disappointment – it means that my blood brother has not returned yet.It’s a pity.

“How are you? – I hurriedly make a new sign, until I finally turned into a piece of ice. – Ennar? … “

” Going crazy, – the brother grins crookedly and brings his index finger to his temple, representing a pistol. Picked up from my memory, you scoundrel. But still it is not clear which of them is ready to shoot himself. – Looking for. Waiting. Hopes”.

“Say …”

“I’ll say, Gaide,” he erases his grin.- You just wait. We will certainly get you out. ”

I smile faintly, and then it darkens sharply in my eyes: The Shadow finally got to its victim and again drank my strength to the bottom. Playfully throwing me out of her possessions and pouring a deadly cold on my heart at last, she reluctantly let go. For the umpteenth time.

So say after that that she has no feelings …

– Dem ?! – I screamed, opening my eyes in my own bed and no longer understanding where the dream is, where is reality.The body is still alien, as if chained by the Arctic ice. There is fog in the eyes. The familiar frost is still biting on the cheeks. Legs are wadded, hands barely move, every breath is like a test, and every movement is like torture …

With difficulty regaining consciousness, I tried to sit up, amazed at my own weakness, but then I felt that something was interfering in my eye, carefully removed it from my eyelashes a tiny piece of ice, which immediately melted into the palm. For a few moments she looked in disbelief at the transparent servant, who was still unpleasantly chilling her skin, and then whispered: “So it’s not a dream after all…

Then she sighed deeply and, instantly forgetting about everything else, tightly, painfully, closed her eyes.

Retreat 1

– So what this time? – Aid snorts with displeasure, again feeling persistent itching in his left ear. – Who needs me again? Well it was ordered – not to disturb …

– Are you calling again? – Allar asks, not even thinking to hide ridicule.

– Yes, – the Beast growls, rising on powerful paws and angrily dusting himself off. – Usually my demons are meek – they squabble among themselves, but they do not interfere with me – they are afraid, inhumans. And here, , probably from your birds, infections picked up, until the last time they found out who was right, who was to blame.So they are pulling over trifles … however, I’ll go check it out, or what? What if something serious happened?

“And I think I’ll go,” the Light One responds thoughtfully, catching a light chime coming from the Void, similar to the sound of a crystal bell. – Two calls at the same time – not good, is not it?

Aid bares his teeth unkindly.

– Now we’ll find out everything. And if it turns out that the Equilibrium has shifted again … hey, where is our stubborn Ishta?

– And really, where? Allar frowns unexpectedly.Then he listens to something, frowns even more and, rising from his favorite hummock, sharply turns away from the already ripe new world. With the same sharp movement, he tears the fabric of the universe, quickly steps into the gap formed, and from there dryly throws Aidu, shaking his head in confusion: “Check your Dungeon, brother. It seems that you are brewing excitement there.

He freezes for a moment, also listening to something, after which he quietly hisses through tightly clenched teeth, flares up with a hellish flame and immediately disappears, leaving behind only a stone melted at the edges, thick black smoke, slowly dissipating in the Void , yes, the feeling of a deadly threat, from the very smell of which the newly born star flashes fearfully, then flashes again and in the blink of an eye burns the world left unattended …

Chapter 1

This morning the dress again fell on me with difficulty.I don’t know what the matter was, but the gift of the water bottle suddenly began to squeeze in my chest, as if the dress had suddenly sat down, like low-quality knitwear after washing. Of course, after the warning from Master Griolo, Yai was already expecting the dress to be tricky. For example, it will suddenly stretch and begin to fall off at the most inopportune moment, or it will stick, like smeared with glue, trying to leave mermaid scales on my skin. But still, I never thought that it would begin to gradually turn into a tight corset.

It will then be necessary to shake the old tzar by the sparse beard and find out how the demon he arranges such mean things.He decided not to turn me into a mermaid, in the very-tedel ?!

However, on common sense, I decided not to change – I woke up late, so time was running out: I had to go to a meeting with the Lord, and before that I had to redo a bunch of different things, most of which could not be delayed. Aid yanked me to sleep for so long …

Burcha on the wrong local sunrises, I hurried to get ready and, having rewarded the Welshon with the next set of tasks for the day, hurriedly got out of the guest wing.This time I didn’t take Mr. Igger with me – there was no need for him, but Niga, of course, did.

We got to the familiar gazebo in the blink of an eye – the servant just muttered some rubbish under his breath, lightly snapped his fingers, and that was all. And there they were already waiting for us: Vladyka Eloide-shaere, as he felt, came to the meeting a little earlier than the agreed time, so I did not have time to look around, touch the ground, or even feel her mood. Eh, I should have asked Vega to use the alarm clock …

StEll Ir – Cosmic Universe.Time Variations. # 1 read online

Morning and evening Irene

She woke up in the morning from slight dizziness – in the cool morning air there was a faint smell of ozone and fresh foliage. Irene, without opening her eyes, stretched out her hand to the night table for cutlery and felt Her woolly warm forms. Little Li immediately covered her hand with her wings and thrust Irene’s index finger into her mouth, beginning to suck gently. Irene only closed her eyes tighter …

– Ha-im !!! – was heard, it seemed, to the whole House, and with all its inappropriateness, Pizdohai fell out of the space into the apartment.

Irene twitched, involuntarily clicking her finger on the cool tongue of cute Li, and at first frowned, and then she opened her eyes and sat up in bed.

– Pikh, you are on time! – from this compliment, Pizdokhai’s fiercely warlike disposition always melted into ice cream, and his eyes rolled slightly noticeably. “Do you really think that you cannot alarm my Lee with your appearances?”

The ovals of the eyes that had reached the ceiling, fell guiltily downward.

– Irene, this is the Geographer’s ass! He said … time zones … and so on … – muttered Pizdohai with such a destroyed look that Irene would have burst into tears from her sleep if she did not want to laugh so hard.

After trying to observe at least the elementary norms of morality in relation to alien animals, Irene gathered all the laughter and irony in the corner of her mouth and firmly bit her lip. Then she once again glanced at the guilty Pizdokhai, who was already almost flat on the floor, and fell back into bed on her back, wrapping herself up in folding sheets along the way from the unbearable laughter that flooded everything around. She woke up from the feeling of perfect and even slightly ringing silence in the room. Pizdokhai with an uncomprehending look sat at her feet and looked into her eyes with a thoughtful, discouraged look, Lee peeked out from under the edge of the feathery blanket … Irene looked at both of them attentively, looking from one to the other.Pizdokhai all reached out to her in reciprocal already idiotic attention, and Lee barely noticeably reproachfully shook her head and put her tongue on her shoulder … Irene collapsed into the hospitable sheets a second time. She laughed with difficulty, but she experienced the most terrible paroxysms of passion. At this time, they attacked her …

Pizdokhai skillfully fixed on his hips and pulled tightly on himself. Li-darling rushed to the milky-matte neck and her wings comfortably settled down on the pink nipples still bouncing with laughter.Irene with difficulty suppressed fits of laughter that was no longer befitting the circumstances and, gathering all her resolve, she said almost sternly:

– Liza-Veta !!!

Li cautiously froze on her neck, without stopping, however, easily tickling her nipples with the tips of her fluffy wings. Pizdokhai also almost completely froze, and something hot, incredibly swollen and a little dizzying, crept inside Irene from under the belly …

– P-zd’O’h !!! – Irene breathed out almost indignantly, since there was no longer enough strength for complete indignation.

The rapists puffed up guiltily together at once and began to settle down more comfortably within the confines of her luxurious body. Liza-Veta left her white neck alone and stretched her whole body towards her scarlet mouth. Covering it completely, she wetly sucked into the pliable-soft inflorescence of Ira’s lips and launched her tasty-cool tongue to the high palate. Pizdohay energetically feather into the depths, in his puff, it seemed, more and more spreading in breadth. In addition, something small, funny and ticklish, but still extremely pleasant and exciting, so much so that the edges of Irene’s tiny hole throbbed excitedly and anxiously, opening up to meet Irene right into his ass, right under his cock.

Little Lee glass, as always, the first, with delicious strawberry juice pouring right down to Irene’s throat and comically squeezing in the convulsions of orgasm shaking her. The quiet plaintive squeak that she uttered at the same time could be mistaken for an extremely timid plea for her forgiveness for using her beloved mouth for utilitarian purposes … Irene was so led to this squeak and to her wide-trembling blue eyes that she herself trembled with her whole belly in a strong strong embrace. Having almost completely sucked in the limp labia of Lee’s ever-widening eyes, she several times strongly, in waves arched her whole body towards Pizdokhai, closed her eyes with all her might and dizzily finished, collapsing exhaustedly into bed … Pizdohay was quite puffing, catching up with the bodies spread out in front of him in his pleasure …

When Irene staggered into the kitchen, Ibiza was sitting in a transparent playing chair and swinging her own translucent leg in the slightly sparkling air around her.

– Fucking mammals? – instead of a greeting, the tip of the leg swayed slightly visibly reproachfully.

– Good morning! – Irene was always genuinely, like a small child, delighted with unexpected visits to Ibiza. – Why “with mammals”?

– You have condensed milk running down your legs! – Ibiza raised her toe, pointing.

Irene, a little embarrassed, looked between her legs, examining the trail of droplets of Pizdokhai’s semen, skillfully laid from the entrance to the magic gate to the knees.Anxiously, picking up a few drops on the pads of her fingers, she pulled them into her mouth …

– I was joking! – Ibiza shook one leg off the other and tensely spread her sharp knees.

But it was too late.

– Rather, then, “snowing” … – Irene once again licked the pads and looked questioningly at Ibiza: – Ibi, why does it taste cold? ..

– We’ll find out at the same time! – with all her slender charming body Ibiza ascended over the chair and embraced Irene with translucent hands.- You put anything in your mouth …

Irene felt that there was absolutely nothing left around, except for the gentle lightness supporting her from all sides. High in the completely absent sky above her, two blue stars shone from the eyes of Ibiza kissing her deep into her mouth …

Ibiza’s blue transparent leg barely managed to slip its crystal outlines between Irene’s welcoming legs when Lee and Pih reached the kitchen.

– Monsters! – Ibiza thought to them without opening her mouth from the distraught Irene and barely touching the floor with one foot.- What did you do with the girl?

– Fucked off … – in his discouragement, Pizdohai was distinguished by his perfect straightforwardness and only shrugged his shoulders in bewilderment. – And what?

Liza-Veta chuckled softly.

Ibiza arrogantly refused to continue the conversation. Her slender knee reached the cusp and now gently nudged Irene into the soft entrance. Why Irene, in height without the environment, had the feeling of a heavenly swing swinging her … Pizdokhai immediately interestedly crawled under her pussy, peering carefully and looking for a place for her tongue, already wet from saliva.Little Lee sat down on Irene’s shoulder and began to ring melodiously with a barely audible bell, singing about something pleasant in Irene’s left ear. Ibiza was extremely condescending this time, and did not chase them away, besides, they would hardly have left anyway, and, resting her elastic tiny breasts with blue nipples under Irene’s hot breasts, Ibiza only increased the pressure of her knee under the wet bosom, why all her kneecap disappeared into Irene’s pussy trimmed with a soft dark fluff, and the swiftly pouring clitoris with a pink bead ridiculously climbed up to Ibiza’s foot.Irene felt how the music surrounding her swinging swing fills all of her without a trace, the emerging key-stream sobbed sweetly in her tummy again, and, sitting down with her whole body on a pushing slippery knee, Irene with difficulty pulled herself away from her tender lips and moaned Li’s trills unison. Irene’s legs and Lee’s frozen knee flowed …

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Read “The sixth character. Volume two” – Lisina Alexandra – Page 1

Alexander Lisin

The sixth character.Volume Two


“If you don’t know where to go, stop for a while, close your eyes and listen to your heart – it always knows the right way.”

Advice of the Traveler

And again it was a dream – alarming, gloomy, but at the same time strikingly similar to reality.

Darkness. Silence. The silent majesty of the Void, instantly extinguishing any sound and making any conversation impossible.

I stand, as before, near a barrier running away into infinity and look with anguish at my enraged brother, who, judging by the new wounds on his arms and chest, never left our last meeting.

“Stop,” I whisper to him soundlessly, hoping that at least now he will hear. – Do not. Please stop, brother… I don’t want to lose you… ”

When he sees me, he freezes, and an insane relief appears in his eyes.

“Do you hear ?! – I whisper in wild hope. – Can you hear me?!”

Dem hesitates and bows his horned head.

“Gaide?” His lips move barely noticeably, exposing the tips of sharp fangs.

I smile with relief and, slowly, slowly raising an incredibly heavy hand, I also nod.

“Sister ?! He repeats, peering into my face. “Are you really alive, or should we look for you in the Shadow?”

“Order” – I make him a sign familiar from the old times. The fingers, however, were numb, barely bending. I don’t feel pillows at all, and the body is like someone else’s. But Dem understands – he smiles and, dropping his tense shoulders, exhales. Yes, so powerful that a thick cloud of steam, escaping from his lips, manages to fly off two steps and only there freeze as a whitish clot, which incredibly slowly begins to dissolve in the Void.

“Where are you?” Dem asks, fluttering his wings impatiently.

I spread my hands in response, not knowing how to explain. Then I still think of portraying a hole in the floor, my rapid fall … he frowns, understanding hardly half of what I want to say, but patiently waits for me to finish. And I have neither the time nor the right words to explain my location. I can only whisper to him:

“Vo-Allar … Desert …”

I have no time to say anything else – my lips are tight from the cold, and my cheeks are covered with a thick layer of frost more and more quickly.

“How to get to you?” He asks again when I run out of strength and my fingers stop moving.

I look expressively at the barrier separating us. But as soon as he tries to rush towards, I find the strength to creak and bend the frozen fingers and make a stopping gesture.

“Here is death,” I again point him to the wall. “You can’t get through.”

“Bypass? He frowns even more.- Shadow?!”

With difficulty moving my disobedient lips and whispering the only thing that comes to my mind:


He asks again and then shakes his head dejectedly. And I sigh in disappointment – it means that my blood brother has not returned yet. It’s a pity.

“How are you? – I hurriedly make a new sign, until I finally turned into a piece of ice. “Ennar? ..”

“Going crazy,” the brother grins crookedly and brings his index finger to his temple, imitating a pistol.Picked up from my memory, you scoundrel. But still it is not clear which of them is already ready to shoot himself. – Looking for. Waiting. Hopes”.

“Say …”

“I’ll say, Gaide,” he erases his grin. – You just wait. We’ll get you out. ”

I smile faintly, and then it darkens sharply in my eyes: The Shadow finally got to its victim and again drank my strength to the bottom. Playfully throwing me out of her possessions and pouring a deadly cold on my heart at last, she reluctantly let go.For the umpteenth time.

So say after that that she has no feelings …

– Dem ?! – I screamed, opening my eyes in my own bed and no longer understanding where the dream and where reality. The body is still alien, as if chained by the Arctic ice. There is fog in the eyes. A familiar frost bites on the cheeks. Legs are wadded, hands barely move, every breath is like a test, and every movement is like torture …

Recovering with difficulty, I tried to sit up, amazed at my own weakness, but then I felt something interfering in my eye, carefully removed a tiny piece of ice from my eyelash, which immediately melted into my palm.For a few moments she looked in disbelief at the transparent puddle, which was still unpleasantly cold on her skin, and then whispered:

– So, it’s not a dream after all …

Then she took a deep breath and, instantly forgetting about everything else, hard, to the point of pain, closed her eyes.

Retreat 1

– So what this time? – Aid snorts with displeasure, again feeling persistent itching in his left ear. – Who needs me again? It was ordered – not to disturb!

– Are they calling again? – Allar asks, not even thinking to hide ridicule.

– Yes, – the Beast growls, rising on powerful paws and angrily dusting himself off. – Usually my demons are meek – they squabble among themselves, but they do not interfere with me – they are afraid. And here, probably, from your birds, infections picked up, until the last time they figured out who was right and who was wrong. So they are pulling over trifles … however, I’ll go check it out, or what? What if something serious happened?

– And I, perhaps, will go, – the light responds thoughtfully, having caught a light chime coming from the Void, similar to the sound of a crystal bell.- Two calls at the same time – not good, is not it?

Aid bares his teeth unkindly.

– Now we’ll find out everything. And if it turns out that the Equilibrium has shifted again … hey, where is our stubborn Ishta?

– And really, where? Allar frowns unexpectedly. Then he listens to something, frowns even more and, rising from his favorite bump, sharply turns away from the already ripe new world. With the same sharp movement, he tears the fabric of the universe, quickly steps into the gap formed, and from there dryly throws Aidu, shaking his head in confusion: “Check your Dungeon, brother.It seems that you are brewing excitement there.

He freezes for a moment, listening to something, then flares up with a hellish flame and immediately disappears, leaving behind a stone melted at the edges, thick black smoke slowly dissipating into emptiness, and a sense of a deadly threat, from one smell which a newly born star blinks fearfully, then flashes again and in the blink of an eye burns an unattended world …

Chapter 1

This morning the dress again fell on me with difficulty.I don’t know what was the matter, but the gift of the waterman suddenly began to squeeze in his chest, as if the dress had sat down, like low-quality jersey after washing. Of course, after the warning from Master Griolo, I already expected it to be tricky. But I still didn’t think it would turn into a corset. Then it will be necessary to shake the tzar by the sparse beard and find out what kind of demon he is arranging such mean things. Didn’t he decide to turn me into a mermaid, in fact ?!

However, on common sense, I decided not to change – I woke up late, so time was running out: I had to go to a meeting with the sovereign, and before that I had time to redo a bunch of different things, most of which could not be delayed.And Ayd pulled me to sleep for so long …

Burcha on the wrong local sunrises, I hurried to get ready and, having awarded the Welshonians with another set of tasks for the day, got out of the guest wing. This time I didn’t take Mr. Igger with me – there was no need for him, but Niga, of course, did.

We got to the familiar gazebo in the blink of an eye – the servant just muttered some rubbish under his breath, snapped his fingers, and that was all. And there they were already waiting for us: Vladyka Eloide-shaere, as he felt, came to the meeting a little earlier than the agreed time, so I did not have time to look around, touch the ground, or even feel her mood.Eh, I had to ask Vega to work with an alarm clock …

“Mafia” with a human face – MK Chelyabinsk

A strange feeling: as if you are breaking the law, but at the same time you have every right to do so. Moreover, the right, not supported by any legislation.

“Why are the numbers inverted?” – I ask the driver , a huge fellow weighing well over 100 kilograms. Hidden between his thumb and forefinger are the nearly worn five dots of the one in four walls tattoo.

The head is shaved, and the massive body is packed in a red and white Olympic suit from “Bosco de Ciliegi”.

“This is how it should be,” he says calmly to . “For the bandits to know and be afraid.”
– “And the police? ..” – I ask the question again.
“And what about the police? The police are aware, “- is answered by the owner of the black Hummer with unprecedented numbers.

The most dangerous zone in Chelyabinsk is the city itself with its traffic jams and roads within a radius of 10 kilometers.It is here that the easiest way to “undress” a truck driver.

Imagine: driving a long-range car from Novosibirsk to Moscow. Got stuck in a traffic jam. And then a gloomy-looking man comes up to him and says that since yesterday the passage through Chelyabinsk has become paid.

“How much?” – asks the driver, because everything is already bored, and driving far and deadlines are running out.
“Five thousand,” the gloomy one replies.

The carrier resignedly gives the money, because he is used to extortion.I got used to giving in to cops and bandits, I got used to overpay for spare parts on the road, to eat what they give in a roadside tavern. He has such a life, he chose it himself. He’s a trucker.

Later, when he drinks one hundred grams in a familiar cafe, he will feel ashamed and painful for the aimlessly given “five”. And he will tell his colleagues a completely different story – about how severe Chelyabinsk bandits stood with a “knop” at the wheel, threatening to puncture him to hell.

Or about a night race on a deserted track, when the truck was clamped by three jeeps, and he drove 120 and almost left, but they snuffled along the slopes from the sawn-off edge, stopped on the side of the road and pulled the five by force.

This is how legends are born about the gangster city of Chelyabinsk, where, if only you are very lucky, you will remain alive and with a load.

There is some truth in this story. Indeed, they both beat and rob from us. And the police are inactive. But they are robbing less and less, and I will tell you about the reasons for such positive dynamics below.

And the police are inactive, because due to lack of time, a rare driver will be puzzled by writing a statement to the police. Without a statement, you understand, “the case has no move.”And the gangsters are now literate. They instantly learn and follow the changes in the legislation.

Now, for example, the maximum that can be “soldered” to a “junkie” thug shaking money from a truck driver is a fine for petty fraud. Judge for yourself: they detained him and asked how it all happened.

Well, this is a common thing, he will answer, I told the driver that the road was toll, I wanted to play a joke, but he, kind soul, gave me money for information. Everything is pure work. But not everything is so simple. There is always another strength for strength.

And even if it is not always (more precisely, rarely) legal, it is effective and even somewhat charming, if you share the principle of “good must be with fists.”

Brother is not a brother

– Well, in short, once I got a little tired of this situation, – says Kirill Kartashkov, he is Kiryukha, he is also the editor of the magazine “Truck”, he is one of the organizers of the club of mutual assistance to truckers “Brother”.

The upside-down Hummer belongs to him.- We have assembled a team of serious fighters, who are also tired of everything … and began to fight the lawlessness on the roads with our own methods.

– Beaten?

– Regularly. And we continue if they do not understand. In winter, drug addicts out of bounds in Lake Smolino are forced to engage in ice swimming. Forced, of course. In the police, they know all the drug addicts who “shake” them by name, but they cannot do anything, so we have to …

After the army, Kirill himself became a truck driver.I’ve been spinning the steering wheel for four years. For four years I have seen what is happening on the track, so you can understand it. At first he was engaged in the publication of the magazine “Truck”.

————————————————- ——————-

Brother’s Code of Conduct

  • Brother undertakes to help all those in need on the track to the best of his ability and capabilities.
  • A brother never uses membership in the club and the help of others for selfish purposes.
  • The brother respects the opinion of other road users and is never infinite on the road and parking lots.
  • A brother never transports goods at low rates, he respects himself and his work.
  • Brother is actively involved in actions to protect the interests of the club.
  • Brother supports boycotts of the club towards those who insulted or did not show respect to the members of the club.
  • Brother is committed to spreading the club’s message to other truckers.

———————————————— —————

A hooligan and very funny edition with censored anecdotes, text messages from drivers and their girlfriends, all useful information like the location of trusted cafes came out in more than 60 thousand copies. This is a lot.

Then “Brother” appeared. And now Kiryukha is the leader of a very serious army of 11 thousand “long-range combatants” who joined the “Brother”. And this is in three years. The coverage of the territory is huge: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Germany.

“Brother” is not a club of interests, but a serious enterprise engaged in repairs, logistics, legal assistance to drivers.

– And now we are helping the widows of the dead truckers, – says Kirill. – We have a large network with high turnover, but there are no membership fees. To join the “Brother”, you just need to send an SMS to my number, which is in any “Truck”. We exist at the expense of sponsors, companies that themselves depend on the carriers.These are cargo services, and companies selling components, spare parts, oils …

If the truck has a sticker with the “Brother” logo, it means that this person will always help on the track and can count on the help of the organization himself. Believe it or not, today the average waiting time for help on the track is three to four days (“This is the current society,” comments Kirill).

A help service (there are branches and sympathizers in almost every city of the country) goes to the “little brother” in trouble, wherever he is in Russia, which will tow the car into a warm box and provide spare parts at the purchase price.

Well, if an unpleasant incident with the participation of gloomy armed men suddenly happens on the road, then a completely different service is being prepared for departure …

Trade union for the “long-range”

We walk through the courtyard of the Brothers office. It is densely packed with trucks from all regions of Russia. It used to be driven only by KamAZ and MAZ. Today Volvo, Mac, Mercedes, Scania are in use – whole apartments on wheels. In fact, they are the main residence of truckers.

Here, for example, Dima . A huge, patched man with a face decorated with a mustache and oil stains. He slowly wipes his hard palms with a rag and comes up to Kirill and me.

– Here the correspondent is interested, – Kartashkov introduces me.

Dima arrived at the “Brothers” parking lot from Nefteyugansk. It has been worth a week due to some kind of leak in the engine. At the same time, he is waiting to become an official member of the club (approximately three days pass between the submission of an SMS application and admission to the club).He is especially grateful to his colleagues for providing him with orders.

– I constantly travel from Chelyabinsk to Moscow and Nefteyugansk. As soon as I arrive, “Brother” will again provide an order, – he smiles.

I want to distract myself a little: who is such a trucker today?

– Previously, he was considered to be the one who carries goods and makes flights between regions, – Kartashkov enlightens me. – Moreover, a driver who never helped someone on the track could not be considered a trucker.Now everything is about the same, but a couple of points have been added. “Dalnoboy” drives a European or American car, works for himself (which was ruled out earlier) or for a “master”. He has been on the voyage for three weeks, resting at home for a week …

This is the definition. I would also add on my own: truckers are a caste numbering about 60 thousand “adepts” in Russia alone. Most of them have a dark past, so they prefer not to talk about themselves. But they easily make contact on the 15th radio channel (27 MHz).

True, you need to know how to communicate. If you heard, for example: “The car works for eighteen or twenty-six,” it means that traffic police officers are standing on the 1826th kilometer of our M5 highway and talking with enthusiasm about something with the drivers who have stopped for some reason …

I don’t want to seem tactless, but “Brother” with its system of identification marks, code of conduct enshrined in the pages of “Truck”, the presence of sympathizers and the very family structure of the organization reminded the mafia.

Yes, a simple Italian mafia at a time when it had not yet bought power. After all, in fact, the mafia played the role of an informal trade union, that is, it did what “Brother” is now doing. On the one hand, it’s great that Russian truckers have finally felt the ground under their feet.

On the other hand, it is sad, because such structures are born in a period of helplessness of the legitimate government. The police cannot stop the chaos, but Kiryukha and his comrades – maybe that’s what I mean.

However, it’s better this way, after all.No caps, no editors for you, “brothers”!

Comparison test Century Stealth Graphene 12 ft 3.75 lb & Poseidon Carp Time 12 ft 3.75 lb – Carptime.Ru

Read reviews of article

Long-distance fishing rods are perhaps one of the most debated and topical topics of today. In addition to the quest for the perfect boilie, rig and hook, it has been added, with overwhelming budgets and proposals, accompanied by an overwhelming amount of marketing buzz and an almost complete lack of prior, objective benchmarking.The purchase of premium and special-purpose rods without a test can be compared to a wedding after acquaintance with a photograph. Reality is sometimes unpredictable and different from expectations, advertising slogans and promises, it is easy to fulfill any desire of the sufferer. And the ability of some hobby colleagues at the beginning – to buy a rod, and then think: why bought it – adds fuel to the fire even more when discussing this interesting and very relevant topic on Internet forums and in specialized communities.

In order to see and realize the greatness of the mountain – move away from it, so the ancient sages said. In order to have an objective opinion about modern carp rods, let’s take another look at the important stages in the history of blank construction.

What is a modern long range rod? The history of the creation of specialized rods for carp fishing goes back to the 70s of the last century, it was then that the Fast Taper concept was developed, a distinctive feature of which was: a tip that very quickly acts but also very poorly absorbs fish jerks, which significantly increased the number of annoying retirements and losses.A very stiff butt that did not tolerate overloads well, but it was this design that made it possible to increase the weight of the cast rigs and significantly advance in conquering long distances, previously were not available at all .

A logical continuation of the evolutionary process in blank construction was the creation of rods with ultra-fast (X Fast) and fast (Fast) action for working with heavy loads in extreme conditions. The ability to cast heavy (up to 170-199 grams) weights and heavy PVA bags, reliably hook fish at extreme, ultra-long and “imported” distances, work in a strong current, control fish when fishing near snags and on steep edges, capable of handling heavy trophy when playing and, most importantly, throw the nozzle at the maximum distance – this is an incomplete list of what carp anglers expect from Dalniks.

Most manufacturers, for such purposes, continue to focus on super-stiff X-Fast rods. By and large, this is a powerful throwing tool, the casting ability of which prevails over accuracy and sensitivity, requiring the angler to have appropriate physical and technical training, increased attention to the friction brake of the reel used, which greatly complicates the use of thin lines.

In addition, together with such a rod, the angler acquires an unexpected addition, in the form of an almost complete absence of positive sensations and pleasures from the “game” of fish while playing, and as a consequence, an increased number of annoying, and in the case of sports competitions – fatal retirements.

How much these losses and retirements are relevant in the conditions of tournament competitions and heightened competition, when teams go, what is called tail to tail, athletes, for whom it is simply “vital” to perform with maximum efficiency, will tell much better than me. The pressing question is to throw far, or to throw far and to the point? Only on paper it looks the same, but on a pond? In conditions of intense competition, when the swim is a gravel spot 5 by 5 at a distance of + 145 m.

There is one more feature of the X-Fast class rangers: in order for them to work, the angler needs to be able to load, pump a very hard blank in order to extract power from it.As a rule, long distance casting specialists have high weight and size indicators multiplied by excellent physical shape and proven casting technique.

And nevertheless, what should anglers who are less than 170 cm tall and not the most brilliant physical form do? Indeed, in practice, pumping a long, 13-foot X-Fast rod is much more difficult than on paper, and no matter how disappointed you may be from the “shovel shank” purchased for many hundreds of euros, the most reasonable solution would be to test the rod before buying, and more better – a comparative test of different rods (by test and by length).It is for this reason that the saying: “For an objective opinion you need personal participation” I consider the most useful and I try to be guided by it in making many decisions.

Comparison Test Century Stealth Graphene 12 ft 3.75 lb & Poseidon Carp Time 12 ft 3.75 lb

I have been familiar with rods and accessories from Century and the Custom Build workshop, which produces classic “Hand made in England” carp rods since 2005. During this time, a lot of carp and cupids were caught, among which there are worthy, memorable and rare trophies, I was also able to significantly improve my results on long casting and, most importantly, the use of these rods brought me a lot of positive emotions (this is what: my own progress and positive emotions, for me the most valuable in carp fishing).

The news of new products from the manufacturer of the most high-tech rods and the legendary master of the English blank structure aroused my great interest, especially since I was already lucky enough to test one of the pre-production prototypes, the performance of which I was really impressed with. By the way, the fact that Alistair Bond and Simon Chillcot have the richest, thirty-five years of experience in creating high-quality and yet versatile rods added even more intrigue and anticipation from meeting the favorites of reputable manufacturers.

It is doubly pleasant that our compatriots are directly and indirectly related to the appearance of these rods. The main distinguishing feature of the Century Stealth rods is the use of Graphene material, which is a revolutionary discovery of the 21st century, for which our compatriots, Russian-British scientists, members of the Royal Society of England Andrey Geim and Konstantin Novoselov were awarded the titles of SIR and were awarded the Nobel Prize in 2010. And the direct customers of the Poseidon rod are the Russian company Carp Time.

And so, the first acquaintance with the tested serial samples took place in the sales area of ​​the Karptekl Krasnodar store. I would like to express special gratitude to Yulia Khlynina and Ilya Ponamarev for their prompt assistance in organizing the test. By the way, it is in this store that the layout of the assembled rods is the most visual and informative of all the existing ones. The looks of the Century Stealth and Poseidon rods are very different, but nevertheless, they are impeccable and fully in line with the individual style that is expected from the flagship models of the best and reputable manufacturers.

Day one. Visual measuring test.

Poseidon “shaking the earth.” In ancient Greek mythology, the God of the seas, the patron saint of the water element and fishermen, whose distinctive feature is power, regal majesty and unrestrained strength (I was lucky enough to personally see in the power and strength of the ocean element in the Pacific fishing expeditions).


Poseidon is a classic English rod – 12 ‘(3.6m) length, 3.3 / 4lb (3.75LB) test action – fast action.

  • whip and butt made from 100% 1K carbon fiber.
  • Ergonomic, comfortable 18mm Fuji reel seat.
  • lightweight Fuji Kigan guides with reinforced Sic inserts 50-40-30-25-20 mm,
  • Spacing of rings distance from butt 1-170 / 2-236, 5 / 3-282 / 4-317, 5 / 3-345.
  • anti-jamming tulip in 16 mm.
  • Three types of weaving used to give a special action at the declared power.
  • Special insert reinforcing the upper part of the blank.
  • Classic connection of the 1st and 2nd elbows, reinforced with a metal washer.

Limited edition, hand-made by the craftsmen of the “Custom Build” factory, as evidenced by the corresponding inscription on the butt and the personal number of each rod.

Textured weaving of carbon fiber of the highest quality, tinted with a noble dark mahogany color, with a multilayer coating with a glossy, shiny varnish, with the manufacturer’s declared, extremely high adhesion and resistance to external influences.

Gold braid threads, exquisite, sophisticated parallel blank with reinforced reverse joining, complex second knee and superior workmanship. The aesthetics and refinement of the rod evoke positive emotions, which are further enhanced by taking the rod in hand. The weight of 414 grams (14.6 OZ), although not small in absolute terms, seems insufficient in comparison with the well-known classic long-range guns of most manufacturers, the severity and solidity of which is obvious.The blank diameter of the compact reel seat is 15.9 mm and in front of the reinforced butt joint of the first bend 12.3 mm. The increased 650 mm grip makes a good impression, and has already found numerous fans among anglers. The rod comes standard with a split grip with a high-strength duplon butt for a comfortable feel and a metal-rubber heel with the Carp Time logo engraved on metal. By the way, just such a handle, as well as the highest quality of workmanship, is the hallmark of rods from the English workshop “Custom Build”.

The creator of the Poseidon rod deserves a special mention. The head of the “Custom Build” workshop, the famous English master Alistair Bond, along with the legendary Bruce Ashby, went down in the history of English blank building. Over the years, the Custom Build has created some of the finest classic carp rods in the world. Rod Hutchinson, Leon Hougendijk entrusted Alistair Bond with the implementation of their ideas. It is thanks to the unique collaboration of outstanding masters that the rods have been created, which have received well-deserved, world recognition among the most demanding carp anglers.Legendary: “ENDURO”, “ENIGMA” “INTRIGUE”, “MILLENIUM”, “MIRAGE” became a real gift for aesthetes of carp fishing and received the title “Top of the Peaks” in the field of creating English classic carp rods.


“Century Stealth Graphene 12 / 3.75” is the most powerful rod in the latest Stealth family – 12 ‘(3.6m) length, 3.3 / 4lb (3.75LB) test action – fast.

  • The entire blank is made of 1K – 1K carbon fiber and Graphene material.
  • stylish ALPS aluminum reel seat with laser engraving.
  • titanium rings with reinforced inserts 50-40-30-25-20 mm.
  • ring spacing distance from butt 1-165 / 2-233, 5 / 3-280 / 4-316 / 3-344.
  • anti-jamming tulip in 16 mm.
  • Reinforced blank weaving all the way to the tulip.
  • classic connection of the 1st and 2nd knees.

The 12ft 3.75lb “Century Stealth Graphene” has the discreet, stylish design common to all Century rods. The matt lacquer accentuates the embossed structure of the gray carbon fiber weave.This is the only rod with a weave all the way to the tulip, made possible only by the use of Graphene material. Feels like this is an incredibly lightweight, resilient and durable rod. The extremely light weight of only 385 grams (13.6 OZ) raises even more questions. Those who held the Century FMA in their hands will understand me without further ado. The 61cm grip at first glance feels a bit shorter compared to the Poseidon’s longer grip, but nevertheless quite harmonious for a 12ft (360cm) rod

The rod is equipped with a modern matte black reel seat with ALPS white laser engraving.The reel seat has small duplon inserts on both sides. The blank diameter at the reel seat is only 15 mm and at the joint of the first bend 11.8 mm.

The rod ends with a signature black aluminum heel with a laser engraved white Century logo.

A unique top model from the leading manufacturer of the most technologically advanced rods in the world. Century is recognized as the flagship of the entire industry. The core feature of the Century rods manufactured by Simon Chillcot & Co. is the autoclave feature.This is a technically complex and very expensive device that is used to create the most solid materials. In the autoclave, the liquid resin (a component of the blank) begins to evaporate, it turns into a gaseous state. This gas creates in a vessel where the reaction takes place at a temperature much higher than the boiling point of the resin. The higher the temperature, the higher the pressure in the system. A large amount of heat is generated, which under pressure has a great penetrating force into the molecular structure of carbon fibers.The autoclave provides full vacuum and eliminates even microscopic voids in the structure of each rod. The use of an autoclave and impeccable workmanship are the main design features of all Century rods without exception, allowing for many years to use the blank with maximum loads without the slightest signs of fatigue (changes in the physical properties and technical characteristics of the rod). It is thanks to graphene, which is used as an additional element in the resin matrix, that the new Century Stealth Graphene rods are the lightest yet strongest rods of all Century models, and also made with the use of ITT technology, which prevents the rod tip from twisting during power casting.

A visual comparison shows that the first knee of the Poseidon Carp Time is slightly larger than that of the Century Stealth Graphene, which is compensated by the inverse difference of the second knees. As a result, both rods have the same length of 12 ft (360 cm). The ring map, ring size and butt distance shown above for the Century Stealth Graphene and Poseidon Carp Time also differ. Measurement of the inner and outer diameter of the rings with a caliper revealed an insignificant difference (less than 1 mm), which is acceptable and not fundamental for carp rods.

In a deflection test (in a static position with a weight of 300 grams), the Poseidon Carp Time bending index was 35 mm higher than that of the Century Stealth Graphene, which indirectly indicates the high rigidity of the Century blank.

During the vibration damping test (simultaneous deviation of the rod tips from the horizontal position at the same distance with subsequent release), the Century Stealth Graphene tulip stopped a little faster than the Poseidon Carp Time, which is generally quite expected given the use of ITT technology (anti-twist)

Century Stealth Graphene & Poseidon Carp Time are billed as powerful lake longs with the same length of 12 ft, with a serious test of 3.75 lb, but against the background of successful and functional rods of many manufacturers, including their own, there are more than enough questions for the tested rods. , the most important – how can they cope with perhaps one of the most difficult tasks, range and accuracy ?! To achieve which you need a decent technique and excellent physical shape.And especially, the desired comfort when playing fish (which in my opinion is the most difficult to achieve for a rod of the “long range” category)

These questions can only be answered by a practical test.

Day one. Practical test.

Throws with a weight of 113.115.121 grams.

For a practical test, I went to the Kuban River, in the area of ​​the Solnechny Ostrov park. Early morning is perhaps the most convenient and very picturesque place within the city. It should be borne in mind that from 09-30 in this water area training begins at the rowing base and kayaks, canoes and motor boats very often appear in the casting area, which is a serious obstacle, and in the summer from 10-00 resting bathers catch up, which requires increased attention to ensuring security.Century Stealth Graphene & Poseidon Carp Time rods were equipped with the same SHIMANO Ci 4+ 14000 XTB reels with a 0.29 mm Fun Fishing RUSH + working line, braided shock leader of the same test and length (45 lb and 6 meters) additionally treated with GARNER FLUORO PLUS. The joints of the rods were pretreated with paraffin (which is mandatory, especially for powerful rods working with heavy loads) For throws, we used carp weights calibrated on jewelry scales of a special casting shape and various weights, from 112 to 145 grams.

To protect my finger, I used reliable SAGITTAR fingertips of the new SURF and CASTING models, made taking into account the wishes of the best casters and specialists in carp fishing. The distance was measured using FOX marker pegs with an inextensible clamp of 500 cm. Luggage, FOX and TRAKKER covers. COLMIC rod holders. The data for each throw was recorded in the table. Taking into account the high temperature and humidity, I used a T-shirt made of COOLMAX ACTIVE fabric, which helps to maintain a comfortable state under the most extreme loads.

On the first day, to complete the task, about 60 throws were performed with weights of 113, 115 and 121 grams.


  1. to evaluate the overall ergonomics of the rod, i.e. convenience when working with it
  • weight
  • balance
  • responsiveness
  • sensitivity.
  • carrying capacity, i.e. the range of weights at which the letterhead works most efficiently.
  • Conclusions : Both rods fell into the hand right away, especially the Poseidon Carp Time, its extended grip is much more familiar to me, and after 12 years of using Alistair Bond rods (again, an extended grip is a distinctive feature of blanks produced in the Custom Build workshop), I mean this I’m used to grip.However, it is worth noting that, unlike the Poseidon Carp Time, the Century Stealth Graphene blank is much more responsive, and began to show acceptable results even with a minimum weight of 113 grams with a sufficient lash, requiring a sharper acceleration of the throw. For Poseidon Carp Time, the weight of 113, 115 grams is clearly insufficient, despite the external elegance of the blank, its power requires very fast acceleration with light weights (rather suitable for lighter rods) For greater sensitivity and a tighter fit, I soaked during a break SAGITTAR finger cot in water (high quality leather tolerates many wet and dry cycles).The sensitivity from the impact of the leader’s shock on the finger increased, but this did not add a significant range to the throw.

    The picture began to change with the use of load 121. The blanks began to respond much more actively to the applied forces and responding with a noticeable ringing of the fishing line clipped into the clamp at 150 meters. The goal of the first day of testing was achieved.

    Testing took place from 14-30 to 17-45. Head-to-side wind 4-6 meters per second. Air temperature in the sun +36 / + 39 C.

    The test result is positive, the mood is positive. There is enough information for reflection. It is worth noting that the joint of the knees at Poseidon Carp Time in the sun “stuck”, this is due to the fact that the metal ring reinforcing the joint, under the influence of high temperature, expands slightly. It is enough to move the blank into the shade for a few minutes (or pour water over it) and the knees will come apart without significant effort.

    Several photographs for memory and my wife and I went to dinner in a cafe in anticipation of the evening movie show.Moreover, clothes made of COOLMAX ACTIVE fabric remain comfortable even after considerable physical effort and there is no need to change clothes.

    Day two. Practical test.

    Throws with a load of 121.128.135 grams.

    The morning of the second day began with an early awakening and a feeling of “aches” throughout the body, especially strong in the area of ​​the lower back, shoulders and shoulder blades. Which served as another reminder of the need to regularly visit the gym, since long distance casting is a pure sports discipline, and this statement does not require special evidence.

    Contrast shower, light breakfast and at 08-00 I am again on the beach of the Kuban River (this time deserted and therefore especially comfortable) Sunny morning, side wind 3-5 meters per second, temperature + 23C.

    Several throws with a weight of 121 grams (which I finished yesterday) and put the weight at 128. It becomes more interesting. Rods respond much more actively to applied forces. The Century blank is more elastic and informative, nevertheless, Roseidon perfectly transfers the efforts by sending a bullet to the load at a fixed distance of 150 meters.Both rods once again demonstrate decent balancing, however, the difference in grip, especially at the first transitional throw, is felt.

    I put a weight of 135 grams. No more questions. Italians call this state “amore a prima vista di un tuono”. Love is like a thunderbolt and a flash of lightning! I will say right away that it was with this weight that I liked working with both rods the most. With a weight of 135 grams, I was forced to re-clip at a distance of 170 meters in 5 meters increments, since at 150 meters the line hit the clip with jerks, stretching and hitting the sinker back.With the clip at 165 meters, it became more comfortable to throw. With a weight of 135 grams, with a sharp cast, the rods are fully included in the work. The maximum combination of blank compression and acceleration speed is achieved, while very strong pressure is exerted on the index finger, so the use of reliable finger protection is extremely important and necessary! Feels like when casting 135 grams, the Poseidon blank clearly conveys energy, the entire upper and middle part of the rod works, demonstrating decent accuracy. At the same time, the accuracy and information content of the Stealth form is simply perfect.Weight of 135 grams emphasizes the sharpness of the forms and does not drown out their work. This is very consonant with the state when in winter you enter a turn on a snow-covered mountain track at high speed and fully control the situation, feeling with your whole body how the skis you control with sharp edges “hold” the rolled track, transforming the applied energy into an exciting whirlwind speed.

    The third day. Analysis of the results obtained.

    The morning of the third day reminded me even more strongly of the need to resume training in the gym.Of course, when working with 12 ft rods, arms, legs and especially the back experience much less stress, and nevertheless: a long range is a sports equipment with corresponding requirements for the topic of who uses it. In two days, there were completely more than 100 casts and more than 15 kilometers of fishing line exhausted, which accordingly affected the state of health. The third day was spent sketching the article and resting.

    Day four. Practical test.

    Throws with a weight of 135.142 grams.

    Early morning, sunny, calm, temperature + 24C, the beach of the Kuban River near the Solnechny Ostrov park. Deserted and it pleases, we came to the test in an expanded composition with our son.

    Manufacturers of Century Graphene & Poseidon Carp Time declared the weight of 142 grams (5 ounces) as acceptable, and this is what it was decided to check on the final, fourth day of testing.

    One weight for test throws allows for greater focus on sensation.The general “picture” of impressions and understanding of the specifics of loading rods have already been formed, muscle memory has been fixed. The optimal weight drop for rods is the same, and is 160-170 cm. The stand is classic, with outstretched arms, a wide step with the left leg with the most sharp thrust of the butt to the solar plexus. Blank Stealth and Poseidon happily respond to compression and fire a heavy sinker with a cannon at a distance of +165 meters. At the moment of casting, there is a very strong pressure of the thin shocker on the index finger.Stealth and Poseidon blanks work informatively in a 5-ounce brisk cast, there is not even the slightest hint of blanks failing, the power reserve is felt. Rods created by Alistair Bond and Simon Chillcot using different technologies have a common advantage: Stealth and Poseidon are much easier to load “to the reel seat” than their longer “comrades”. It is this design feature of Stealth and Poseidon that is most interesting and provides the greatest casting distance with significant energy savings.I note that the tests were carried out without equipment, the sinker was attached directly to the shock leader through a carbine. That is why the opinion that in the “working condition” with a rig and a boilie with a weight of 4.75 ounces (135 grams), the rods will show the maximum accuracy and range and will work easily and comfortably, I consider the most objective (To measure and select the optimal weight of the lead I use a jewelry scale, on which I recommend weighing the complete rig and especially the weight of bags and sticks.)


    According to my feelings, the rods Century Stealth Graphene 12 ft 3.75 lb & Poseidon Carp Time 12 ft 3.75 lb fully correspond to the declared characteristics and the “long range” status

    With a sharp load of 135 – 142 grams, graceful blanks with a small taper, are included in the work completely, without the application of prohibitive efforts, which allows them to be used even by not the most experienced anglers with short stature.With these rods, it has become easier and easier to perform long, and most importantly, very accurate throws.

    It is absolutely obvious that both rods are not only lake longs, but also excellent options for fishing in the current, including strong. Both powerful blanks, if necessary, must withstand not only forced casting but also the weight of 6-6.5 oz sinkers. And also quickly raise the fish over the steep edge.

    Of course, powerful carp rods with a high test and a length of 13 ft can be thrown further, but let’s honestly answer the question – what% of anglers can completely load them in order to use all the mighty resource of blanks? I will assume 10 times less than the Century Stealth Graphene 12 ft 3.75 lb & Poseidon Carp Time 12 ft 3.75 lb blanks capable of loading.

    As a rule, casters (experts in long-range casting) are real athletes who devote hundreds of hours of hard training to maintaining appropriate physical shape and casting technique, this is the MAIN skis, high-speed motorcycle or sports plane).

    In my opinion, the Century Stealth Graphene 12 3.75 blank is more versatile, as it starts to work with a lighter weight, is more informative and has no alternative to be more controllable when casting.In these parameters, the Century Stealth surpasses even the flagship of the Century company, the C2D 13ft 3.75lb rod and can rightfully be called the most high-tech rod of our time. This is the Bugatti Chiron, the successor to the 1000-horsepower Veyron, a triumph of engineering, and simply the most supercar of the rod today, even more outstanding than its predecessor. For maximum performance within stated parameters, it is the leader among 3.75 test rods and 12ft long. And the practically inexhaustible resource of the blank is a weighty argument in choosing a fishing rod for sports.

    “Poseidon” was born in the hands of an outstanding artisan, the legendary English craftsman Alistair Bond, whose products are known much more than himself. Poseidon is more than a rod, just as Rolls-Royce is more than a car, and a 30-year-old cognac is more than a drink. This is a whole era, the highest level of the guardian of traditions and the status of the owner. Which, unlike a supercar, can be possessed by any carp angler, for whom power, range, and a sharp shot with unsurpassed build quality, style and beauty are important.

    Nevertheless, before buying such serious and expensive rods, the most reasonable decision would be to test them first.

    The practice of testing rods before buying, adopted in England, is beginning to spread in Russia. It is gratifying to note that it was in Krasnodar in 2017 that the Krasnodar Carp Club in the format of a carp school held the FIRST practical lesson on long-distance casting, where everyone was given the opportunity to test the rods of the world’s leading manufacturers.

    This is an important step towards the popularization of carp fishing and long distance casting in the Kuban and in Russia in general.

    When choosing a rod for long casting, first of all, you should think about whether you have enough strength, self-discipline and perseverance to match your own condition and the task: to achieve ultra-long distances.

    A rod, even the best, is an auxiliary tool, the main one in long casting, this is the angler himself. In long casting, it is the technique, and not the largest weight of the load or the longest rod length, that is decisive.The tendency to compensate for the shortcomings of the casting technique of a long rod and a large weight of the load, regardless of the individual characteristics of the angler, is clearly erroneous and ineffective, further exacerbating the situation when working with powerful rods. Choosing a rod for your height, weight, technique, physical shape and arm length is the only correct and rational decision in achieving maximum range.

    Good physical shape, going to the gym, training on the throwing technique are not only desirable when working with such rods, but also necessary to protect against painful back injuries and achieve the set task: confident work with long-range casting rods at a distance of +150 meters during for a long time (by the way, these requirements are mandatory for members of the Russian national carp fishing team, the current world champion in 2016).

    Each person is unique, therefore, the priority when choosing a rod for long casting, as well as in the search for your own style in carp fishing, are personal feelings, as well as the individual characteristics of the angler.

    “Nothing happens without a sufficient reason” this is the phrase of the great Russian scientist M.V. Lomonosov, was, is and will be an instruction in all endeavors, and especially in choosing a rod for long-distance casting.

    Catch and Release! Good luck, success and peace of mind.Try to understand yourself, and then it will be easier for you to understand others.