Jaundice treatment in newborns at home: Infant jaundice – Diagnosis and treatment
Infant jaundice – Diagnosis and treatment
Your doctor will likely diagnose infant jaundice on the basis of your baby’s appearance. However, it’s still necessary to measure the level of bilirubin in your baby’s blood. The level of bilirubin (severity of jaundice) will determine the course of treatment. Tests to detect jaundice and measure bilirubin include:
- A physical exam
- A laboratory test of a sample of your baby’s blood
- A skin test with a device called a transcutaneous bilirubinometer, which measures the reflection of a special light shone through the skin
Your doctor may order additional blood tests or urine tests if there’s evidence that your baby’s jaundice is caused by an underlying disorder.
Mild infant jaundice often disappears on its own within two or three weeks. For moderate or severe jaundice, your baby may need to stay longer in the newborn nursery or be readmitted to the hospital.
Treatments to lower the level of bilirubin in your baby’s blood may include:
- Enhanced nutrition. To prevent weight loss, your doctor may recommend more-frequent feeding or supplementation to ensure that your baby receives adequate nutrition.
- Light therapy (phototherapy). Your baby may be placed under a special lamp that emits light in the blue-green spectrum. The light changes the shape and structure of bilirubin molecules in such a way that they can be excreted in both the urine and stool. During treatment, your baby will wear only a diaper and protective eye patches. Light therapy may be supplemented with the use of a light-emitting pad or mattress.
- Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Jaundice may be related to blood type differences between mother and baby. This condition results in the baby carrying antibodies from the mother that contribute to the rapid breakdown of the baby’s red blood cells. Intravenous transfusion of an immunoglobulin — a blood protein that can reduce levels of antibodies — may decrease jaundice and lessen the need for an exchange transfusion, although results are not conclusive.
- Exchange transfusion. Rarely, when severe jaundice doesn’t respond to other treatments, a baby may need an exchange transfusion of blood. This involves repeatedly withdrawing small amounts of blood and replacing it with donor blood, thereby diluting the bilirubin and maternal antibodies — a procedure that’s performed in a newborn intensive care unit.
Lifestyle and home remedies
When infant jaundice isn’t severe, your doctor may recommend changes in feeding habits that can lower levels of bilirubin. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions or concerns about how much or how often your baby is feeding or if you’re having trouble breast-feeding. The following steps may lessen jaundice:
- More-frequent feedings. Feeding more frequently will provide your baby with more milk and cause more bowel movements, increasing the amount of bilirubin eliminated in your baby’s stool. Breast-fed infants should have eight to 12 feedings a day for the first several days of life. Formula-fed infants usually should have 1 to 2 ounces (about 30 to 60 milliliters) of formula every two to three hours for the first week.
- Supplemental feedings. If your baby is having trouble breast-feeding, is losing weight, or is dehydrated, your doctor may suggest giving your baby formula or expressed milk to supplement breast-feeding. In some cases, your doctor may recommend using formula alone for a couple of days and then resuming breast-feeding. Ask your doctor what feeding options are right for your baby.
Preparing for your appointment
Bilirubin levels in the blood tend to peak when your baby is between three and seven days old. So it’s important for your doctor to examine your baby for jaundice during that time.
When your baby is discharged from the hospital, your doctor or nurse will look for jaundice. If your baby has jaundice, your doctor will assess the likelihood of severe jaundice based on a number of factors:
- How much bilirubin is in the blood
- Whether your baby was born prematurely
- How well he or she is feeding
- How old your baby is
- Whether your baby has bruising from delivery
- Whether an older sibling also had severe jaundice
If risk factors for severe jaundice are present, your doctor may recommend a follow-up visit a day or two after the baby leaves the hospital.
When you arrive for your follow-up appointment, be prepared to answer the following questions.
- How well is your baby feeding?
- Is your baby breast-fed or formula-fed?
- How often does your baby feed?
- How often does your baby have a wet diaper?
- How often is there stool in the diaper?
- Does your baby wake up easily for feeding?
- Does your baby seem sick or weak?
- Have you noticed any changes in the color of your baby’s skin or eyes?
- If your baby has jaundice, has the yellow color spread to parts of the body other than the face?
- Has your baby’s temperature been stable?
You may also prepare questions to ask your doctor at your follow-up appointment, including:
- Is the jaundice severe?
- What is the cause of the jaundice?
- What tests will my baby need?
- Does my baby need to begin treatment for jaundice?
- Will I need to readmit my baby to the hospital?
- Is the jaundice severe?
- Will my baby need to go back into the hospital?
- When should my baby have a follow-up visit?
- Should I keep feeding my baby the way I am now?
- Do you have any brochures about jaundice and proper feeding?
March 17, 2020
- Wong RJ, et al. Clinical manifestations of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in term and late preterm infants. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed April 2, 2018.
- Maisels MJ, et al. Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant ≥35 weeks’ gestation: An update with clarifications. Pediatrics. 2009;124:1193.
- American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinemia. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 or more weeks of gestation. Pediatrics. 2004;114:297.
- Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinemia. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 or more weeks of gestation. American Academy of Pediatrics. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/114/1/297. Accessed April 2, 2018.
- Hay WW, et al., eds. The newborn infant. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics. 23rd ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2016. https://www.accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed April 2, 2018.
- Wong RJ, et al. Evaluation of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in term and late preterm infants. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed April 2, 2018.
- Maisels MJ. Managing the jaundiced newborn: A persistent challenge. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2015;187:335.
- Muchowski KE. Evaluation and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. American Family Physician. 2014;89:87.
- Biliary atresia. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/biliary-atresia/all-content. Accessed Jan. 13, 2020.
- Wong RJ. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn: Pathogenesis and etiology.https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Feb. 5, 2020.
- Picco MF (expert opinon). Mayo Clinic. Feb. 5, 2020.
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Newborn jaundice – Treatment – NHS
Speak to your midwife, health visitor or GP if your baby develops jaundice. They’ll be able to assess whether treatment is needed.
Treatment is usually only needed if your baby has high levels of a substance called bilirubin in their blood, so tests need to be carried out to check this.
See diagnosing jaundice in babies for more information about the tests used.
Most babies with jaundice don’t need treatment because the level of bilirubin in their blood is found to be low.
In these cases, the condition usually gets better within 10 to 14 days and won’t cause any harm to your baby.
If treatment isn’t needed, you should continue to breastfeed or bottle feed your baby regularly, waking them up for feeds if necessary.
If your baby’s condition gets worse or doesn’t disappear after 2 weeks, contact your midwife, health visitor or GP.
Newborn jaundice can last longer than 2 weeks if your baby was born prematurely or is solely breastfed. It usually improves without treatment.
But further tests may be recommended if the condition lasts this long to check for any underlying health problems.
If your baby’s jaundice doesn’t improve over time or tests show high levels of bilirubin in their blood, they may be admitted to hospital and treated with phototherapy or an exchange transfusion.
These treatments are recommended to reduce the risk of a rare but serious complication of newborn jaundice called kernicterus, which can cause brain damage.
Phototherapy is treatment with a special type of light (not sunlight).
It’s sometimes used to treat newborn jaundice by lowering the bilirubin levels in your baby’s blood through a process called photo-oxidation.
Photo-oxidation adds oxygen to the bilirubin so it dissolves easily in water. This makes it easier for your baby’s liver to break down and remove the bilirubin from their blood.
There are 2 main types of phototherapy.
- conventional phototherapy – where your baby is laid under a halogen or fluorescent lamp with their eyes covered
- fibreoptic phototherapy – where your baby lies on a blanket that incorporates fibreoptic cables; light travels through the fibreoptic cables and shines on to your baby’s back
In both methods of phototherapy, the aim is to expose your baby’s skin to as much light as possible.
In most cases, conventional phototherapy is usually tried first, although fibreoptic phototherapy may be used if your baby was born prematurely.
These types of phototherapy will usually be stopped for 30 minutes every 3 to 4 hours so you can feed your baby, change their nappy and give them a cuddle.
If your baby’s jaundice doesn’t improve after conventional or fibreoptic phototherapy, continuous multiple phototherapy may be offered.
This involves using more than one light and often a fibreoptic blanket at the same time.
Treatment won’t be stopped during continuous multiple phototherapy.
Instead, milk expressed from your breasts in advance may be given through a tube into your baby’s stomach, or fluids may be given into one of their veins (intravenously).
During phototherapy, you baby’s temperature will be monitored to ensure they’re not getting too hot, and they’ll be checked for signs of dehydration.
Intravenous fluids may be needed if your baby is becoming dehydrated and they aren’t able to drink a sufficient amount.
The bilirubin levels will be tested every 4 to 6 hours after phototherapy has started to check if the treatment is working.
Once your baby’s bilirubin levels have stabilised or started to fall, they’ll be checked every 6 to 12 hours.
Phototherapy will be stopped when the bilirubin level falls to a safe level, which usually takes a day or two.
Phototherapy is generally very effective for newborn jaundice and has few side effects, although your baby may develop a temporary rash and diarrhoea.
If your baby has a very high level of bilirubin in their blood or phototherapy hasn’t been effective, they may need a complete blood transfusion, known as an exchange transfusion.
During an exchange transfusion, your baby’s blood will be removed through a thin plastic tube placed in blood vessels in their umbilical cord, arms or legs.
The blood is replaced with blood from a suitable matching donor (someone with the same blood group).
As the new blood won’t contain bilirubin, the overall level of bilirubin in your baby’s blood will fall quickly.
Your baby will be closely monitored throughout the transfusion process, which can take several hours to complete. Any problems that may arise, such as bleeding, will be treated.
Your baby’s blood will be tested within 2 hours of treatment to check if it’s been successful.
If the level of bilirubin in your baby’s blood remains high, the procedure may need to be repeated.
If jaundice is caused by an underlying health problem, such as an infection, this usually needs to be treated.
If the jaundice is caused by rhesus disease (when the mother has rhesus-negative blood and the baby has rhesus-positive blood), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be used.
IVIG is usually only used if phototherapy alone hasn’t worked and the level of bilirubin in the blood is continuing to rise.
Learn more about IVIG treatment for rhesus disease.
Page last reviewed: 04 September 2018
Next review due: 04 September 2021
Newborn jaundice – NHS
Jaundice is a common and usually harmless condition in newborn babies that causes yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. The medical term for jaundice in babies is neonatal jaundice.
Other symptoms of newborn jaundice can include:
- yellowing of the palms of the hands or soles of the feet
- dark, yellow urine (a newborn baby’s urine should be colourless)
- pale-coloured poo (it should be yellow or orange)
The symptoms of newborn jaundice usually develop 2 to 3 days after the birth and tend to get better without treatment by the time the baby is about 2 weeks old.
Find out more about the symptoms of jaundice in babies
Yellowing of the skin in newborn jaundice.
When to get medical advice
Your baby will be examined for signs of jaundice within 72 hours of being born as part of the newborn physical examination.
If your baby develops signs of jaundice after this time, speak to your midwife, health visitor or a GP as soon as possible for advice.
While jaundice is not usually a cause for concern, it’s important to determine whether your baby needs treatment.
If you’re monitoring your baby’s jaundice at home, it’s also important to contact your midwife straight away if your baby’s symptoms quickly get worse or they become very reluctant to feed.
Find out more about diagnosing jaundice in babies
Why does my baby have jaundice?
Jaundice is caused by the build-up of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow substance produced when red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body, are broken down.
Jaundice is common in newborn babies because babies have a high number of red blood cells in their blood, which are broken down and replaced frequently.
Also, a newborn baby’s liver is not fully developed, so it’s less effective at removing the bilirubin from the blood.
By the time a baby is about 2 weeks old, their liver is more effective at processing bilirubin, so jaundice often corrects itself by this age without causing any harm.
In a small number of cases, jaundice can be the sign of an underlying health condition. This is often the case if jaundice develops shortly after birth (within the first 24 hours).
How common is newborn jaundice?
Jaundice is 1 of the most common conditions that can affect newborn babies.
It’s estimated 6 out of every 10 babies develop jaundice, including 8 out of 10 babies born prematurely before the 37th week of pregnancy.
But only around 1 in 20 babies has a blood bilirubin level high enough to need treatment.
For reasons that are unclear, breastfeeding increases a baby’s risk of developing jaundice, which can often persist for a month or longer.
But in most cases, the benefits of breastfeeding far outweigh any risks associated with jaundice.
Treating newborn jaundice
Treatment for newborn jaundice is not usually needed because the symptoms normally pass within 10 to 14 days, although they can occasionally last longer.
Treatment is usually only recommended if tests show very high levels of bilirubin in a baby’s blood.
This is because there’s a small risk the bilirubin could pass into the brain and cause brain damage.
There are 2 main treatments that can be carried out in hospital to quickly reduce your baby’s bilirubin levels.
- phototherapy – a special type of light shines on the skin, which alters the bilirubin into a form that can be more easily broken down by the liver
- an exchange transfusion – where your baby’s blood is removed using a thin tube (catheter) placed in their blood vessels and replaced with blood from a matching donor; most babies respond well to treatment and can leave hospital after a few days
If a baby with very high levels of bilirubin is not treated, there’s a risk they could develop permanent brain damage. This is known as kernicterus.
Kernicterus is very rare in the UK, affecting less than 1 in every 100,000 babies born. There were 7 hospital admissions for kernicterus in England in 2015-16.
Find out more about kernicterus in babies
You can also read the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance about jaundice in newborn babies under 28 days.
Page last reviewed: 04 September 2018
Next review due: 04 September 2021
Jaundice in newborns | Caring for kids
Jaundice is a condition where a newborn baby’s skin turns yellow because a high amount of bilirubin is produced or because the liver can’t get rid of it quickly enough. Bilirubin is a brownish-yellow substance that is produced after red blood cells break down. The body gets rid of bilirubin through the stool (poo) and urine (pee).
What are the symptoms of jaundice?
Jaundice is very common in newborn babies. It makes a baby’s skin and the whites of the eyes turn a yellow colour. You may notice it between 1 and 4 days after your baby is born. It will first appear on your baby’s face and chest.
Babies who have higher levels of bilirubin (severe jaundice) may seem very tired and cranky, and feed poorly because they are too hard to wake up.
Will jaundice hurt my baby?
Most jaundice is not harmful to your baby and disappears when your baby’s body learns to deal with bilirubin.
But in some babies there is so much bilirubin that it can be harmful. If the level of bilirubin becomes very high it can affect some of your baby’s brain cells. In rare cases, severe jaundice can cause seizures or lead to deafness, cerebral palsy or serious developmental delay. Fortunately, most jaundice is not severe and complications can usually be prevented.
How can I prevent jaundice?
Feeding (especially breastfeeding) your baby frequently in the first hours and days after his birth helps reduce the risk of jaundice. Feeding often will make your baby pass more stool. The milk also gives your baby’s liver the energy it needs to process the bilirubin. Your baby’s stool should turn from dark green to yellow.
If you are having trouble breastfeeding, it is important to get help. It might be necessary to offer your baby supplementary feeds of formula to avoid dehydration and to keep the jaundice from getting worse.
How do I know if my baby’s bilirubin levels are too high?
There is a blood test to measure the amount of bilirubin in your baby’s body. In many hospitals, bilirubin levels are routinely checked before you take your baby home. To minimize blood tests, non-invasive devices (trans-cutaneous bilirubinometer) are also used to monitor jaundice.
Your health care provider can plot your baby’s result on a graph if they know exactly how many hours old your baby was when the test was performed. The information should be given to you when you and your baby leave the hospital. If the test shows that your baby is at risk for reaching a level of bilirubin that needs treatment, your doctor will arrange a follow-up visit and will do another test.
How is jaundice treated?
Most of the time, jaundice goes away on its own.
Sometimes, babies will need help to get their bilirubin levels down. One way to do this is with phototherapy, where your baby’s skin is exposed to a special blue light. The skin absorbs the light and changes the bilirubin so that his body can more easily get rid of it in stool and urine. Phototherapy is usually done in a hospital, but sometimes babies can be treated at home.
Exposing your baby to sunlight (directly or indirectly) can be harmful. Do not do this without first discussing with your health care provider.
Is phototherapy safe?
Phototherapy is safe. Your baby’s eyes will be protected with special eye patches. Genitals will also be protected.
Phototherapy can sometimes cause a skin rash or loose bowel movements. Your baby may need extra fluids, such as more frequent breastfeeding.
When should I be concerned about jaundice?
Jaundice can be more serious for babies:
- born before 37 weeks,
- who weigh less than 2500 grams (5.5 lbs) at birth,
- whose blood group is incompatible with their mothers’ blood group,
- who develop jaundice early in life, especially during the first 24 hours,
- whose jaundice has moved to the arms and legs,
- who have a lot of bruising or swelling under the scalp (called caput) after birth,
- whose siblings had jaundice at birth and needed treatment with an exchange transfusion (baby’s blood is removed and replaced).
After I leave the hospital, when should I call my doctor?
Call your doctor if your baby shows any of the following symptoms:
- refuses breastfeeding or bottle feeding,
- is very sleepy all the time,
- has lost a lot of weight (more than 10% of her weight at birth),
- is extremely jaundiced (arms and legs are a yellow or orange colour), or
- jaundice that seems to be getting worse.
If your baby is having trouble with breastfeeding, there are many hospital- or community-based programs that support breastfeeding families, such as the La Leche League Canada. Call their toll-free breastfeeding line for a referral to someone in your community: 1-800-665-4324.
You may also contact a lactation consultant, public health nurse, and/or breastfeeding coordinator.
More information from the CPS
Reviewed by the following CPS committees
- Fetus and Newborn Committee
Last updated: October 2017
Newborn jaundice is when your baby’s skin and the white parts of his eyes look yellow. It’s caused by the build-up of a substance in the blood called bilirubin. Newborn jaundice is very common—about 3 in 5 babies (60 percent) have jaundice.
Jaundice usually happens a few days after birth. Most of the time, it’s mild, doesn’t hurt your baby and goes away without treatment. But if a baby has severe jaundice and doesn’t get quick treatment, it can lead to brain damage.
What causes jaundice in newborns?
Your baby’s body recycles some red blood cells each day. Bilirubin is a yellow substance that forms as red blood cells break down. During pregnancy, your liver removes bilirubin for your baby. After birth, your baby’s liver may not be developed enough to properly remove bilirubin on its own. It can take a few days for your baby’s liver to be able to do this.
When a baby’s liver causes jaundice in the first days of life, it’s called physiologic jaundice. This is the most common kind of jaundice in newborns. But sometimes a health condition in your baby can cause jaundice. Babies with these health conditions are more likely to need treatment to help lower their bilirubin levels than babies with physiologic jaundice. These conditions include:
- Blood type mismatches, like Rh disease. A small number of babies have different blood types than their mothers. These mismatches can lead to a faster breakdown of red blood cells.
- Internal bleeding. This is bleeding inside the body.
- A problem with your baby’s liver. Your baby’s liver may not work well if he has an infection, like hepatitis, or a disease, like cystic fibrosis, that affects the liver.
- A problem with your baby’s red blood cells. Some babies have too many red blood cells. This is more common in some twins and babies who are small for gestational age. This means a baby who is smaller than normal based on the number of weeks he’s been in the womb.
- A genetic condition, like G6PD deficiency. This condition is when your body doesn’t have enough G6PD, an enzyme that helps your red blood cells work the right way.
- An infection, like sepsis. This is an infection in your baby’s blood.
- Bruising at birth. A bruise happens when blood leaks out of a blood vessel. Sometimes babies get bruises during labor and birth. When large bruises heal, bilirubin levels may rise.
Some babies are more likely than others to have jaundice. These include:
- Premature babies. A premature baby is one who is born too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy. A premature baby is more likely than others to have jaundice because his liver may not be fully developed.
- Breastfed babies, especially babies who aren’t breastfeeding well. If you’re breastfeeding, feed your baby when he’s hungry. For most newborns, this is once every 2 to 3 hours (about eight to 12 times each day). Feeding this often helps keep your baby’s bilirubin level down. If you’re having trouble breastfeeding, ask your baby’s provider, a nurse or a lactation consultant for help. A lactation consultant is a person with special training in helping women breastfeed.
- Babies with East Asian or Mediterranean ethnic backgrounds. Ethnic background means the part of the world or the ethnic group your ancestors come from. An ethnic group is a group of people, often from the same country, who share language or culture. Ancestors are family members who lived long ago, even before your grandparents.
How do you know if your baby has jaundice?
When a baby has jaundice, a yellowish color usually first appears on his face. It then may spread to his chest, belly, arms, legs and white parts of his eyes. The best way to see jaundice is in good light, like in daylight or under fluorescent lights. Jaundice can be harder to see in babies with darker skin.
Call your baby’s health care provider right away if your baby:
- Looks very yellow, orange or greenish-yellow
- Is hard to wake up or won’t sleep at all
- Has trouble breastfeeding or sucking from a bottle
- Is very fussy
- Has too few wet or dirty diapers
Call 911 or take your baby to the hospital if he:
- Won’t stop crying or has a high-pitched cry
- Arches backward
- Has a stiff, limp or floppy body
- Has strange eye movements
These may be warning signs of dangerously high levels of bilirubin that need quick treatment to prevent kernicterus. This is a kind of brain damage caused by high bilirubin levels. Kernicterus isn’t common because babies usually are treated before jaundice becomes severe. If untreated, kernicterus can cause:
- Athetoid cerebral palsy. Babies with this condition have uncontrollable movements in the arms, legs, face and other body parts.
- Hearing loss
- Vision problems
- Dental problems
- Intellectual disabilities
How are babies checked for jaundice?
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that all babies be checked for jaundice after birth while in the hospital. Your baby’s provider checks her with one or more of these tests:
- Blood test. This is the best way to measure bilirubin levels. Your baby’s provider takes a small sample of blood from her heel to do this test.
- Physical exam. Your baby’s provider checks your baby’s body for signs of jaundice.
- Skin test. Your baby’s provider places a device on your baby’s forehead to check her bilirubin level. The device measures the reflection of a special light that shines through her skin.
The AAP recommends that babies be checked for jaundice again at 3 to 5 days of age. This is the time when bilirubin levels are the highest. If your baby leaves the hospital before 72 hours (3 days) of age, she should be checked within the next 2 days.
How is jaundice treated?
Most babies with jaundice don’t need treatment. If your baby has mild jaundice, her provider may recommend that you breastfeed your baby more often so that she has more bowel movements. This helps to get rid of bilirubin.
Jaundice usually clears up within 2 weeks in formula-fed babies. It may last for more than 2 to 3 weeks in breastfed babies. If your baby’s jaundice lasts more than 3 weeks, talk to his health care provider.
If your baby has more severe jaundice, she may need treatment including:
- Phototherapy treatment (also called light therapy or bili lights). This is when your baby is placed under special lights that help her body change bilirubin into a form that she can get rid of in her urine. While she is under the lights, your baby wears just a diaper and shields over her eyes. Some babies can lie on a light therapy blanket (also called a fiber optic blanket) that has tiny bright lights in it. You may use the blanket in place of, or along with, the overhead lights. Phototherapy can be done in the hospital or at home, and it’s safe for your baby.
- Exchange transfusion. If phototherapy doesn’t work and your baby’s bilirubin levels are still very high, she may need a special type of blood transfusion called an exchange transfusion. An exchange transfusion gets rid of bilirubin by replacing your baby’s blood with fresh blood in small amounts.
- Intravenous immunoglobulin (also called IVIg). If you and your baby have different blood types, your baby may get immunoglobulin (a blood protein) through a needle into a vein. This can help her treat her jaundice so that she’s less likely to need an exchange transfusion.
See also: Premature babies
Last reviewed: April, 2013
Why It’s Best Not to Worry If Your Baby Has Jaundice – Cleveland Clinic
Seeing your baby have yellowish eyes and skin can easily send parents into panic mode, especially if you’ve never seen it before.
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This yellow discoloration in a newborn is called jaundice, and it’s a common issue, says pediatric gastroenterologist Kadakkal Radhakrishnan, MD.
Jaundice is due to an elevated level of yellowish pigment in the blood called bilirubin that forms when the baby’s body breaks down excess red blood cells. Bilirubin is carried through the blood to the liver, where it’s tagged to a chemical and excreted into bile, the green pigment made by the liver. Then it moves out of the body as waste.
“When your new baby begins breathing after birth, the excess red blood cells your baby had while in the uterus are broken down,” explains Dr. Radhakrishnan. “This generates a higher level of bilirubin in all babies after birth.”
This higher load of bilirubin and the fact that many infant’s livers can’t get properly get rid of it cause newborns to have higher levels of it. Sometimes, premature birth or an underlying disorder may aggravate their jaundice.
Should parents panic?
While your first line of defense might be to worry about your baby’s jaundice, it’s normal for babies born at term to have at least some jaundice that affects their eyes and face. It shouldn’t cause any problems, though.
“It’s normal to worry at first, but keep in mind that it’s nothing to be concerned about,” says Dr. Radhakrishnan. “This is typically seen on the baby’s second or third day of life and is called physiological jaundice.”
Some breastfed babies may have more jaundice than babies who aren’t breastfed, but this shouldn’t be a reason to stop breastfeeding. If you have concerns about jaundice and questions related to breastfeeding, be sure to talk to your child’s doctor.
“If the jaundice is noticeable on the first day of your baby’s life or it affects the chest or abdomen, it’s a sign their level of bilirubin may be higher than normal,” he says. “In this case, your baby should be evaluated by their doctor.”
Beyond physiological jaundice
When the onset of jaundice occurs on the first day or if jaundice doesn’t quickly go away, the problem could be beyond physiologic jaundice. Other issues could include blood group incompatibility, infection in the bloodstream, certain viral infections, abnormalities of certain enzymes or the red cell membrane.
If your baby’s jaundice sticks around longer than one week of their life, then problems related to the liver that affect the flow of bile to the intestine will have to be considered. Though these problems are not common, the most common among them is biliary atresia, a disorder that leads to blockage in the bile ducts, which are the tubes that drain bile from the liver to the intestine. Talk to your baby’s doctor if the jaundice is prolonged.
“Often, elevated bilirubin doesn’t lead to any major health problems,” says Dr. Radhakrishnan. “However, very high levels or inadequately treated elevated levels may cause brain damage and the risk is higher for premature babies. But before you worry, know that this is uncommon.”
Most often, physiologic jaundice does not require treatment and will improve on its own.
“If jaundice spreads to the chest, abdomen, if your baby’s skin color looks more yellow or if you are concerned regarding your babies feeding or excess sleepiness, a pediatrician will need to check your baby’s bilirubin level,” he says. “The decision to treat is based on the level of bilirubin and the age of your baby. This decision should be made with the help of your child’s doctor.”
Placing the baby under light, called phototherapy, is the most common treatment to lower bilirubin levels – if the pediatrician considers it high enough to be treated. Phototherapy often requires hospitalization and a premature baby may need a more aggressive treatment than a full-term baby. .” “Although it’s rare, when severe jaundice doesn’t respond to other types of therapy, an exchange transfusion may be required,” says Dr. Radhakrishnan. “In this procedure, the baby’s blood is exchanged in small volumes, which dilutes the bilirubin and maternal antibodies. This requires close monitoring and needs to be done in a neonatal intensive care unit.”
“Occasionally, a jaundice vest, which is a portable phototherapy device, may be used for your baby’s bilirubin levels that are elevated but not considered high enough for hospitalization,” he says. “If the pediatrician approves, this blanket can be used at home while monitoring your baby’s bilirubin level.
Watch your baby’s eating
Whether your newborn has physiological jaundice or requires more intensive treatment, it’s important your baby is eating well. When your baby eats well, it can help them have good bowel movements and makes sure bilirubin gets excreted through their intestine. For this reason, your doctor may advise supplementary feeding beyond breastfeeding.
Jaundice (JOHN-diss) is also called hyperbilirubinemia (HI-per-bil-ee-roo-bin-EE-mee-ah). It means that there is a high level of bilirubin (BIL-ee-rue-bin) in the blood. This is a yellow pigment that settles in body tissues and can make your baby’s skin look yellow. Jaundice often happens in newborns. It is usually seen on the second or third day of life and goes away by the second week after birth. The jaundice does not usually cause any lasting effects, but if levels are high and left untreated it can cause serious problems.
The Cause of Jaundice
When red blood cells in the body break down, a yellow pigment called bilirubin is formed. Usually the liver is able to break down the bilirubin so it can leave the body in the urine and stool (bowel movements). Sometimes, especially in newborn babies who are premature, the liver is not developed enough to break down the bilirubin. As the bilirubin goes into the body tissue, the skin, gums and whites of the eyes will appear yellow (jaundice). With time and treatment the baby’s color returns to normal.
Infants are treated with a special kind of light, called a bili-light.
- Your baby will be placed in a bed with bili-lights. The lights shine on the baby’s skin and change the bilirubin. It can then pass out of the body through the urine and stool.
- Your baby will need to be under the light for about 1 to 2 days.
- He may also lie on a blanket of light, called a bili-blanket.
- He will stay under the bili-light as much as possible. During this time, his eyes will be covered with patches because the light can damage them. The patches can be taken off when your baby is not under the light, such as when he is being fed or bathed.
- While your baby is in the hospital, tiny drops of blood will be drawn from the baby’s heel from 1 to 4 times per day. This is to measure the amount of bilirubin in the blood.
- Your baby may have an IV (intravenous) line to deliver fluids into his body to make sure he stays hydrated.
- Feeding your infant every 2 to 3 hours helps move the bilirubin through the body so it can be passed out of his body through stool.
What You Can Do
This is an important time for you to get to know your baby (Picture 1). We encourage you to help with your baby’s care, including feeding and changing his diapers. This will help you and your baby get to know each other.
If you are breastfeeding, please keep breastfeeding. your infant directly and pump as needed. Direct breastfeeding your infant as much as possible helps to establish your milk supply. It also helps your baby to learn how to breastfeed successfully.
This may also be a hard time for you, so let us know how we can help. We understand that the hospital may be new to you. Please ask us any questions you may have.
What to Expect
Remember jaundice is usually temporary and will go away in time. Once your baby is placed under the bili lights, it is important to leave him under the lights between feedings to maximize the light therapy and bring down the bilirubin level quickly. The nursing staff will try to cluster vital signs, lab draws, and diaper changes around your baby’s feeding time so your baby can be under the bili light as long as possible. Ongoing breastfeeding is strongly encouraged and supported.
Sometimes during the first few hours of phototherapy, your baby may need to be given a bottle of your expressed breast milk or formula. This is so we can be sure he is getting enough fluids and the right nutrition, which also brings down the bilirubin level faster. Breast pumps and kits are available if needed.
To keep the baby taking in enough milk by direct breastfeeding is the ultimate goal. After your baby’s bilirubin level has gone down (usually below 14) and the bili-light is turned off, he will be discharged as long as he has no other complications that require a longer hospital stay. Your doctor may want to check the bilirubin level again after your child goes home from the hospital.
If you have any questions, be sure to ask your nurse or doctor.
Jaundice (Hyperbilirubinemia) (PDF)
HH-I-137 9/90, Revised 8/17 Copyright 1990, Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Infantile jaundice (jaundice) in newborns treatment
Infantile jaundice – treatment, causes and consequences
Why is jaundice widespread in newborns
Physiological jaundice of newborns (neonatal jaundice) is a medical term describing the state of children during the adaptation period to environmental conditions. It is popularly known as jaundice in newborns. It often manifests itself in the hospital.Mothers start to get scared when they see that the skin and whites of the baby’s eyes acquire a yellowish tint. But this is one of the physiological processes taking place in the baby’s body, allowing him to adapt to new living conditions. Statistics show that jaundice develops in 60% of term babies and 80% of premature babies.
Let’s look at what jaundice is in a newborn, how long and how long does jaundice go through in newborns, whether it is worth fearing a reaction, resorting to treatment at home or in the hospital.
How is jaundice in newborns
In the womb, a large number of red blood cells – erythrocytes – are present in the fetal blood. There are much more of them than in the body of children and adults. At birth, the baby no longer needs so many red blood cells to promote tissue oxidation. Therefore, they begin to degrade, leading to an increase in the bile pigment in the blood. During this period, infant jaundice begins to appear in newborns. The norm of bilirubin at this moment exceeds 80 μmol / l or 5-12 mg / dl.It begins to be deposited in the subcutaneous fat, giving it a yellow color. This leads to a change in the tone of the skin, mucous membranes.
By the second week of life, the infant’s body begins to independently cope with excess bilirubin, and the yellowness disappears. Many parents worry when the newborn’s jaundice will go away if the baby’s skin remains yellowish after the first month. As noted by pediatricians, for uncertain reasons, breastfeeding can slow down the process of excretion of bilirubin.The rate of jaundice in newborns is 3-4 months
If the symptoms persist, it is worth checking whether the newborn is healthy – jaundice, which is protracted, may indicate the development of diseases that need to be urgently treated in order to avoid serious consequences. But in most cases, this is still associated with breastfeeding and is not a dangerous physiological jaundice in newborns. Treatment at home is in any case contraindicated, you should consult a pediatrician for advice.
Jaundice in newborns: causes and consequences
If you are faced with the fact that a child develops non-physiological neonatal jaundice and it lasts more than 10 days, you should consult a doctor, as the consequences of jaundice in newborns can be very serious. Before reassuring the parents, the doctor must exclude the causes of the manifestation:
- nuclear jaundice. It develops if the norm of bilirubin is more than 400 μmol / l.Bile pigment affects the central nervous system, causing severe irreversible injury to it;
- cholestasis. This syndrome occurs if the baby is born with an obstruction of the bile duct. In such a situation, immediate surgical intervention is required;
90,025 liver diseases.
How to cure jaundice in a newborn
In physiological jaundice, the main treatment that can be applied is phototherapy (phototherapy). This is a procedure during which a blue and green lamp with a wavelength of 400-500 nm is directed at the baby.Radiation should never contain ultraviolet rays. When exposed to rays, the indirect bile pigment is converted into a safer, water-soluble form that the kidneys can filter.
If the mother does not have enough breast milk, the baby may develop the so-called “hungry infantile jaundice”. How to treat jaundice in newborns in such a situation? You should resort to temporary supplementation with a mixture.
Note that children’s physiological jaundice in newborns is not a contraindication for vaccination against viral hepatitis B.Failure to timely vaccinate can adversely affect the health of the baby.
Jaundice in children of newborns – contact the pediatricians MOC Fortis
From birth, the baby should be observed by a qualified pediatrician. The doctor will promptly indicate possible health problems of the baby and their causes, prescribe the correct treatment that will help avoid the consequences. You can get qualified advice from a pediatrician by contacting the Fortis Medical Wellness Center.It is convenient to make an appointment using the online registration form or by contacting our consultants at the contact numbers listed on the website. Before making an appointment, read the schedule of doctors’ appointments here.
Get additional information when jaundice in newborns passes, the reasons for the physiological phenomenon, under what conditions to seek help using the feedback form. Our managers will answer all your questions. Contact the MOC Fortis at the address – Kharkiv, Independence Avenue, 10 (2nd floor), m.University (glass exit). We are waiting for you on weekdays – 8.00-21.00, on Saturday – 8.00-18.00. We will be happy to help!
Neonatal Jaundice Treatment – SUNFORBABY |
Grebneva Tatyana Sergeevna Head. department of the clinic “Children’s Doctor” on Shcherbakova 45, pediatrician-neonatologist. Work experience – 10 years.
Newborn jaundice is not scary!
Jaundice, or visual manifestation of hyperbilirubinemia, includes syndromes of various origins, the common feature of which is icteric staining of the skin and mucous membranes.
In my practice I almost daily encounter neonatal jaundice . This is absolutely normal, since jaundice in children has always manifested itself and will continue to manifest itself.
First of all, the tactics of managing such children depends on the age of the child, on how severe the jaundice is and at what time the baby was born. First of all, you need to find out the cause of jaundice.
In the practice of a neonatologist, the pathogenetic classification of neonatal jaundice is used (according to N.P. Shabalov, 1996), according to which there are:
- Jaundice caused by increased production of bilirubin (hemolytic): hemolytic disease of newborns, polycythemic syndrome, swallowed blood syndrome, hemorrhages, drug hemolysis.
- Conjugation jaundice: hereditary syndromes of Gilbert, Crigler-Nayyard types I and II, Arias, metabolic disorders (galactosemia, fructosemia, tyrosinosis, hypermethioninemia, etc.), impaired conjugation of bilirubin in pyloric stenosis, high intestinal obstruction.
- Obstructive jaundice: anomalies in the development of the biliary tract in combination with other malformations (Edwards, Alagill syndrome), familial Bayler, McElfresh cholestasis, Rotor and Dubin-Johnson syndromes, cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin insufficiency, bile thickening syndrome, compression biliary tract tumor, infiltrates, etc.
- Mixed genesis: sepsis, intrauterine infections.
Jaundice newborns does not always require serious treatment and medical intervention.
The most convenient and safe method of treatment these days is phototherapy. This is the most effective treatment for indirect hyperbilirubinemia. The essence of the action of phototherapy is the photoisomerization of indirect bilirubin, that is, its transformation into a water-soluble form. Currently, there are several types of blue light lamps, with a wavelength of 410-460 nm, allowing you to choose the required treatment regimen (continuous, intermittent). Modern fiber-optic devices are devoid of almost all side effects, are compact, do not interfere with the normal routine of the child and his communication with the mother.Phototherapy is started when there is a threat of bilirubin growth to a toxic level. If phototherapy is used in a newborn with direct hyperbilirubinemia, a discoloration of the skin can be observed – the “bronze child” syndrome.
Complications of phototherapy include skin burns, lactose intolerance, hemolysis, dehydration, hyperthermia and sunburn.
Parents of the baby need to remember that when conducting phototherapy sessions, measures are required to maintain a constant water balance in the newborn.
In my opinion, treatment with a photo lamp at home is very convenient, practical and effective. The child and mother, being at home, do not break their usual daily routine. If necessary, the doctor can go home, this practice has remained unchanged since the days of Soviet medicine. But the practice of delivering equipment for home treatment is an innovation that will greatly facilitate the process of treating jaundice in newborn babies.
Remember that jaundice is a symptom that needs attention! Get treatment on time and be healthy!
90,000 Phototherapy of newborns – GBUZ YANAO
The device “Phototherapy 4000” is intended for phototherapy irradiation of premature and newborn infants in order to reduce the content of bilirubin in the blood serum.
Bilirubin in newborns
Bilirubin is formed by the destruction of erythrocytes – red blood cells containing hemoglobin and providing organs and tissues with oxygen.Before birth, while the baby does not breathe on its own, red blood cells with special (fetal) hemoglobin carry oxygen in its body.
These erythrocytes, after birth, are destroyed as unnecessary, with the formation of a large amount of bilirubin. This bilirubin is called indirect, or free. It is insoluble, so it cannot be excreted in the urine. The liver is involved in converting it into a soluble form and excreting it with bile. Even in healthy children, immediately after birth, there is often not enough special protein that ensures the transfer of bilirubin to the liver cells, where, after a series of biochemical reactions, it combines with substances that make it soluble.
This is necessary so that bilirubin does not have a toxic effect and is safely excreted from the body. Several enzyme systems provide this transformation at once. In many newborns, these systems finish their maturation and begin to work fully only a few days after birth.
The work of the bilirubin release system is also gradually improving. Usually after 1-2 weeks, the icteric discoloration of the skin disappears without causing any harm to the baby. Therefore, jaundice of newborns in premature babies is more common, more pronounced and lasts longer than in full-term babies.And the severity of an increase in the level of bilirubin in the blood of premature babies does not depend on the body weight at birth, but on the degree of maturity of the fetus and the mother’s problems during pregnancy. Children of multiple pregnancies, newborns who have had birth injuries, babies born to mothers with diabetes mellitus often turn yellow.
Newborn bilirubin level
In physiological jaundice, the general condition of children, as a rule, does not suffer. Only if it is very pronounced, babies become drowsy, suckle lazily, sometimes they vomit.The severity of jaundice is judged not by external manifestations, but by the level of direct bilirubin in the blood. It reaches its maximum on the 3rd day of a child’s life. The child’s body “fights” with the excess of bilirubin, binding it to the blood protein albumin, thereby preventing its toxic effect. But this is not always the case.
With a very strong increase in the level of bilirubin, albumin cannot “block” it completely, and it penetrates into the nervous system. This can have a toxic effect, primarily on the vital nerve centers, the brain.This condition is called “kernicterus” or “bilirubin encephalopathy”. Symptoms: severe drowsiness, convulsions, decreased sucking reflex. Among the late manifestations – deafness, paralysis, mental retardation.
Today, the most effective and proven method of reducing the toxicity of bilirubin in physiological jaundice is phototherapy (phototherapy). The baby’s skin is illuminated with a special installation (an average of 96 hours per course). Most commonly, blue fluorescent lamps are used for phototherapy under standard conditions.A well-proven combination: 4 blue light bulbs and 2 fluorescent light bulbs. In this case, the therapeutic effect is provided mainly by blue light.
Under the influence of light, bilirubin is converted into non-toxic derivatives, the main of which is called “lumirubin”. It has a different route of excretion, and after 12 hours it leaves the body with feces and urine. A side effect of phototherapy is the appearance of peeling of the skin and frequent loose stools, and in some children, drowsiness is observed.
After stopping treatment, all phenomena disappear without a trace. And after discharge from the hospital, it is worthwhile to expose the baby to indirect sunlight as often as possible during the day. The best prevention and treatment of physiological jaundice is early and frequent feeding. Because babies with elevated bilirubin levels are drowsy, they must be woken up for feeding.
Colostrum, or “early milk” for the first few days, acts as a laxative and helps the meconium (original feces) pass out more quickly.Bilirubin, which is converted in the liver, is also excreted along with it. If the meconium is not released quickly, the bilirubin from the intestines can re-enter the bloodstream, thereby increasing the level of jaundice.
Even with rare jaundice caused by mother’s milk, it is not recommended to give up breastfeeding. To distinguish this type of jaundice in newborns, it is possible to later emerge (after the 1st week of a child’s life). This condition is associated with the content in the mother’s milk of substances that reduce the activity of enzymes that ensure the “conversion” of indirect bilirubin into soluble direct.
Pathological jaundice often manifests itself during the first days after birth. Often, the liver and spleen enlarge, feces can become discolored, and the urine becomes dark in color, sometimes bruises and punctate hemorrhages appear on the skin of a newborn. A blood test shows signs of increased erythrocyte breakdown (hemolysis) and anemia. With pathological jaundice, specialists are involved in treatment.It depends entirely on the cause of this condition.
In case of incompatibility between the mother and the newborn according to blood groups and / or according to the Rh factor, massive destruction (hemolysis) of erythrocytes occurs. Severe jaundice often happens if the mother has a blood group I, and the child has II or (less often III). It is believed that with each subsequent pregnancy, the risk of such complications increases. It is for this reason that it is especially dangerous for women with a negative Rh factor to have an abortion.
The destruction of erythrocytes can also be caused by various genetically determined disorders, such as, for example, microspherocytosis (Minkowski-Shoffard anemia), disturbances in the structure of hemoglobin (for example, in sickle cell anemia), changes in the shape and structure of the erythrocyte itself, etc.In the treatment of conditions accompanied by the destruction of red blood cells, exchange transfusions are often used to “flush out” the bilirubin and antibodies that cause hemolysis.
A large group is made up of jaundice resulting from damage to the liver by viruses, bacteria, protozoa. It is clear that it is impossible to do without treatment of the infectious process in such cases. Unfortunately, not all congenital infections currently have effective treatments. This once again emphasizes the need for careful preparation for pregnancy, especially in the presence of infectious diseases, in order to reduce the risk of transmitting infection to the baby.
The so-called obstructive jaundice occurs due to a violation of the outflow of bile with a cyst of the bile duct, annular pancreas, atresia (underdevelopment) of the bile ducts. In this case, surgical intervention is necessary.
In case of pyloric stenosis and intestinal obstruction, the cause of an increase in the level of bilirubin in the blood is its reabsorption from the intestine. In such situations, surgeons can also help.
Constitutional hepatic dysfunction (Gilbert-Meilengracht syndrome), a hereditary disease very similar to the physiological jaundice of newborns, occurs quite often.The reason for the failure in the exchange of bilirubin in this case is a violation of its binding due to hereditary inferiority of the liver enzyme systems. This condition usually requires treatment and is observed by gastroenterologists.
Hormonal disorders also cause jaundice in newborn babies. This happens, for example, with hypothyroidism – a decrease in the functional activity of the thyroid gland. This form of jaundice is combined with other signs of insufficient production of thyroid hormones: large abdomen, dry skin, low body temperature, a special, hoarse cry, constipation, swelling of the face, eyelids, delayed ossification processes, etc.Jaundice occurs with hypothyroidism on the 2-3rd day of life, lasts up to 3-12 weeks, and sometimes up to 4-5 months. Treatment is carried out under the supervision of an endocrinologist using drugs – thyroid hormones.
Without being a specialist, it is impossible to understand all the intricacies of diagnosing such a large group of diseases as jaundice in newborns (jaundice). It is important to understand that the long-term preservation of icteric staining of the skin in a small child requires a mandatory examination.
And yet the most common jaundice in newly born babies is physiological. It occurs in about 60-70% of babies and appears 3-4 days after birth. In the maternity ward of the City Hospital, all newborns are monitored in dynamics the level of bilirubin using a bilirubinometer, which allows you to determine the indicator without taking blood. With an increase in bilirubin over 180 μmol / l, phototherapy is prescribed.
Drug treatment and the main symptoms of jaundice in adults and children
Symptoms of jaundice in adults and children.Treatment
Jaundice is a syndrome characterized by yellow staining of mucous membranes and skin. Jaundice is a clinical manifestation of various pathological conditions.
Causes of physiological jaundice in newborns:
- Immaturity of the liver enzyme system;
- conflict of the Rh factor in the blood of the baby and the mother;
- adaptation to new environmental conditions;
- blood group conflict.
90,025 premature birth;
Physiological jaundice is not dangerous for the baby’s health and does not require therapeutic treatment.
Jaundice is what kind of hepatitis
There are several types of jaundice depending on the pathogenesis and cause of origin. In addition, a distinction is made between pseudo-jaundice and true jaundice. In the first case, we are talking about the accumulation of a large amount of carotene in the skin. In this case, the mucous membranes remain white. This can happen when you eat a lot of carrots, pumpkins and oranges.With true jaundice, not only the skin is colored yellow, but also the mucous membranes. And the reasons are completely different.
Types of jaundice:
After clarifying the cause of the disease, it is extremely important to carry out a differential diagnosis of jaundice.
Causes and clinical manifestations of pathology
General symptoms of jaundice include the following manifestations:
- an increase in the size of the liver;
- yellowness of the skin and sclera;
- increase in red blood cells;
- discoloration of urine and feces.
Symptoms of jaundice in adults: itching of the skin, lack of appetite and pain in the right hypochondrium.
Causes of jaundice:
- pathology of the liver or gallbladder;
- parasite infestation;
- neoplasms in the liver;
- long-term use of certain medications;
90,025 postoperative complications;
90,025 congenital pathologies;
90,025 contact with a patient infected with hepatitis A.
On our website https://www.dobrobut.com/ you can sign up for a consultation with a specialist who will answer the question “jaundice is what kind of hepatitis” and will tell you about drug therapy for this disease.
This form of the disease is characterized by pathological destruction of red blood cells, accumulation of large amounts of bilirubin and difficulties with its elimination from the body. This condition can be provoked by anemia, tropical malaria, lymphocytic leukemia and lymphosarcoma.In some cases, hemolytic jaundice is the result of the toxic effects of drugs on the body.
Symptoms of jaundice in adults are quite rare, since this form of the disease is most common in children. The syndrome develops as a result of the negative effects on the liver of certain factors, for example, drugs. In addition, conjugational jaundice can be a consequence of congenital abnormalities.
The most common form of the disease, which can be provoked by acute viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver.Signs of hepatic jaundice in patients – enlarged liver, yellow skin color, which eventually becomes reddish, and telangiectasia (spider veins on the skin).
How jaundice is transmitted
Jaundice resulting from disturbances in physiological processes in the body is not contagious. It is not transmitted either by airborne droplets or from person to person. With a viral etiology of the disease, jaundice can be transmitted through water, food, blood, sexually, and also through direct contact with a sick person.In more detail about how jaundice of various forms is transmitted, the doctor will tell you at a personal appointment.
For an accurate diagnosis, after a thorough examination of the patient, the doctor will prescribe a number of additional measures, namely: complete blood count and biochemistry, blood for bilirubin, ultrasound, liver scan, MRI and duodenal intubation. After receiving the results, the specialist will prescribe a course of treatment, which can be supplemented.
Treatment of obstructive jaundice
Treatment depends on the form of the disease and the stage of development.For therapy to be effective, it is necessary to establish the cause of the disease. The main treatment is conservative therapy. Surgical intervention (liver transplantation) is used only in advanced cases. Any form of the disease is treated in a hospital setting.
Treatment of obstructive jaundice:
- infusion therapy;
How to treat jaundice with phototherapy.Phototherapy is a safe treatment that uses light to reduce the amount of bilirubin in the blood. Phototherapy is usually used to treat neonatal jaundice. Session time – from one hour to four. The exposure time depends on the degree of pathology and the general condition of the baby.
Consequences of jaundice syndrome, prevention
With proper and timely treatment, jaundice is completely cured. The exception is neglected cases, the result of which will be a malfunction of the gallbladder and liver.A terrible consequence of jaundice syndrome in children is developmental delay.
Preventive measures are aimed primarily at preventing diseases that cause jaundice.
Recall that jaundice is a fairly common disorder and can accompany various diseases. In case of revealing yellowness of the skin and pain in the right hypochondrium, it is necessary to urgently seek medical help. Only timely treatment will help to cope with the disease and avoid negative health consequences.Sign up for a consultation right now.
Newborn Sun Baths (Infant in the Sun)
Jaundice is caused by the accumulation of excess bilirubin in the baby’s body from the womb and can lead to brain damage in case of complications. Often, parents spend sunbathing on newborns from jaundice. Does the sun help with this ailment, and what should be feared?
Newborn and sun
Many mothers face such a problem as newborn jaundice.According to experts, it is the acquisition of a yellow tint by the baby’s skin, and the mucous membranes and whites of the eyes also turn yellow. This is the so-called physiological jaundice and must be distinguished from jaundice. This condition is common in babies, especially those who are born prematurely.
In most cases it is not dangerous. But only a doctor during examination can determine what type of disease a child has. Usually, the baby is given an ultrasound of the liver or the entire abdominal cavity.
The disease is provoked by an increase in bilirubin in the blood of a newborn, which the baby’s liver cannot cope with from the body.Bilirubin rises as a result of the breakdown of red blood cells (erythrocytes), which the baby no longer needs as much as the fetus for intrauterine development.
In premature babies and those whose Rh factor or blood group does not match the mother’s, the likelihood of the disease increases.
As a rule, jaundice in newborns appears in the hospital and goes away on its own after 3-6 days. Gradually, the baby’s condition is normalized, the skin and mucous membranes acquire a natural shade. But if symptoms persist for two weeks or appear after discharge from the hospital, serious treatment should be undertaken.
Jaundice of newborns – Doctor Komarovsky
As already mentioned, the cause of the disease is the increased content of bilirubin in the body, if it is processed in the child’s skin, it will be easily excreted from the body.This is facilitated by UV light . In the maternity hospital, phototherapy is used for this disease. A child is irradiated with light close to the sun in its spectrum using Biliblanket fiber optic devices or other light devices. Phototherapy is usually supplemented with glucose droppers.
For more severe cases, immunoglobulin or blood transfusion may be needed.
Frequent breastfeeding during this period is believed to help reduce the manifestations of jaundice, as breast milk weakens and rapidly removes waste products from the infant’s body.However, many doctors recommend weaning for several days when symptoms of the disease appear, because milk contains certain types of fatty acids that suppress liver function.
Also, the treatment of jaundice in an infant can be successfully carried out on the street, using direct or indirect light from the sun .
Newborn and sun
Ultraviolet rays from sunlight are an effective treatment for jaundice in newborns, but they can also harm the skin of babies.Beware of burns, control the length of time the crumbs are in direct sunlight. In addition, newborns may be allergic to the sun, which manifests itself in the form of spots or papules merging with each other on the skin.
Safe Sunlight Treatment
If you follow the safety rules, you can confidently say that sunlight is a simple and effective treatment. Bilirubin, collected in subcutaneous fat, breaks down without intoxication under the influence of the sun.
At home, it is necessary to walk with the baby on the street more often, revealing as much of the body surface as possible. If it is cold outside, then you can lay the baby near a closed window so that sunlight falls on him. The healing effect will also take effect through the glass.
Sunbathing for babies during the warm season how and how long to take?
- Undress the baby and leave him in direct sunlight for 10 minutes, first on his back and then on his stomach.
- After 10 minutes, transfer the child to the shade and leave for another 20 minutes.
- Continue to alternate between sun and shade while feeding and changing diapers throughout the day.
In case you notice even slight redness on the skin, move the child to the shade. Not only for newborns, but also for children under one year old, sunbathing is essential for healthy development.
Let’s make a conclusion. If a newborn has jaundice, parents should not panic. This very common condition, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, affects about 70% of all newborns 2-4 days after birth and is even more common in premature babies. Caring for a newborn with jaundice does not require any complicated steps. In most cases, the baby can easily be helped to cope with this ailment, including at home.
Physiological jaundice of newborns – Maternity hospital “Leleka”
Even in the hospital, in the second or third life of a newborn, the baby’s skin may turn yellowish.This is a manifestation of physiological jaundice in newborns. Immediately we hasten to reassure young mothers: this is not a disease, but a symptom that has nothing to do with jaundice in liver diseases in adults.
What is physiological jaundice and where does it come from
As you know, human blood contains erythrocytes – red blood cells that carry oxygen between tissues and organs. They live for a relatively short time, and then break down into components that are excreted from the body by the liver and kidneys.One of the components is bilirubin, a pigmenting agent. With the massive breakdown of red blood cells, bilirubin accumulates in the tissues and gives the skin and the whites of the eyes a yellowish tint. According to the icteric color of the skin in adults, liver dysfunction is diagnosed.
Mass decay of erythrocytes also occurs in the newborn’s body. Inside the womb, when the baby is not breathing through the lungs, it needs more red blood cells to properly supply oxygen. When a baby is born, more oxygen enters the bloodstream, part of the red blood cells is released and quickly destroyed.This produces bilirubin. And the liver of a newborn cannot yet excrete a large amount of bilirubin at the same time, it accumulates in the skin, and the baby becomes yellowish.
How to treat physiological jaundice of newborns
Physiological jaundice is a normal condition for a newborn baby, it is not contagious, it goes away on its own after a few days, and does not affect the general condition of the body. But you can help the baby’s body to quickly cope with the withdrawal of bilirubin.There are several factors that stimulate jaundice:
- Retention in the body of meconium;
Meconium is the original feces, it is formed in the intestines of the baby from the digested amniotic fluid, which the baby swallows in the womb. The release of meconium is evidence that the baby’s digestive system has started up and begins to work normally. In order for the meconium to come out faster, it is necessary to apply the newborn to the breast from the very moment of birth.Even a drop of colostrum will have a beneficial effect on the child’s immunity and trigger intestinal peristalsis, after which meconium will be released.
Early breastfeeding also prevents the baby from starving. In the first days of life, there is no need to feed the baby. Even if the mother has little milk, it is necessary to apply the baby to the breast more often. So the baby will be fed drop by drop on the mother’s milk, and the breast will go into the mode of normal milk production.
Hypothermia is another possible cause of intense jaundice.But nowadays babies are more often dressed too warmly than left undressed. So leaving a child naked in the fresh air for a long time is impossible, but there is no need to wrap him up in a blanket either. A good rule of thumb is that the child should have one more layer of clothing than the mother. If the mother is wearing a summer dress, the child needs a little undershirt and sliders, a light envelope or blanket.
Pathological jaundice of newborns
In less than 1% of children, neonatal jaundice is pathological.Here are the reasons why it develops most often:
- Premature birth;
- Drug stimulation of the labor process, the introduction of oxytocin;
- Congenital diseases of the biliary tract;
- Rhesus conflict between mother and child;
- Diabetes mellitus in the mother;
- Infectious diseases;
- Internal hemorrhage in a child;
- Cracked mother’s nipples and blood in the baby’s digestive tract;
- Other reasons.
To distinguish normal jaundice of newborns from pathological, in the first two or three days, the baby is closely monitored. With prolonged intense jaundice, negative consequences for the central nervous system are possible. Therefore, the baby can be prescribed phototherapy. When the sun’s rays fall on the baby’s body, bilirubin breaks down into components that are removed from the body much faster.
The simplest phototherapy is sunbathing. The kid is undressed and laid at 10-15 in the open sun, in extreme cases – on the windowsill.Important: the baby should not freeze, this will only intensify the jaundice. If it is not hot in the hospital, it is better not to undress the child completely, to bare only the arms and legs. And of course, you shouldn’t put your baby under the scorching rays of the sun in summer, especially in the south. Better to sunbathe in the morning and evening.
In modern maternity hospitals, they often offer sunbathing with photo lamps. In these special devices, the wavelength of the light is selected so as to split bilirubin into safe components as much as possible.When combined with breastfeeding, phototherapy can be quite effective. But in the most severe cases, fluid therapy and blood transfusion may be needed.
90,000 medical equipment for the smallest patients
World Prematurity Day is celebrated around the world in November. Every year on the planet, about 15 million children are born prematurely, in other words, on average, it is every tenth child.Many countries are now taking steps to reduce premature infant mortality. This problem is being addressed at the state level and in Russia – within the framework of the priority national project “Health”.
More than 20 perinatal centers have already been opened in different regions of the country, where babies weighing 500 grams or more are nursed. The construction of the centers was implemented with the participation of the State Corporation Rostec, and the Shvabe holding supplies neonatal equipment to doctors.About the developments of the holding that save small lives – in our material.
Shvabe holding: responsible for the most fragile
The Shvabe holding, which is part of the Rostec State Corporation, unites developers and manufacturers of high-tech optical products. Today, in addition to optics, the holding also produces medical equipment, including a line of advanced neonatal equipment.
For more than 20 years, the Shvabe neonatal technique has been saving children’s lives.More than two million premature newborns survived thanks to incubators and other devices of the holding. Shvabe enterprises produce a whole series of neonatal devices. These are incubators for newborns, neonatal tables for postpartum resuscitation of children, phototherapy devices for treating neonatal jaundice and other devices. Rostec’s neonatal equipment is in demand not only in Russia and the CIS countries, but also abroad. In 2020, various newborn devices went to Sri Lanka, Philippines, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Slovenia.
One of the auxiliary devices for perinatologists is the apgar-timer – a module for assessing the state of a newborn according to the Apgar scale. The timer helps doctors make a quick assessment in the first hour of life, which is also called the “golden hour” – a lot depends on prompt and accurate help at this time. Apgar-timer “Shvabe” prompts perinatologists with the help of sound signals when it is necessary to conduct the next assessment of the condition.In addition, in metronome mode, it helps doctors synchronize their actions during artificial ventilation or chest compressions.
Intensive care incubator for newborns IDN-03
Incubator IDN-03 is used for resuscitation and nursing of premature and weakened children. This device is used in neonatal pathology departments, intensive care units and intensive care units. With its help, doctors automatically monitor the body temperature of weakened babies, air temperature, its relative humidity, as well as oxygen concentration and body weight.The incubator IDN-03 consists of a baby module, a control panel with a color display and a mobile stand with an automatic leveling system and the ability to perform radiography. The module is equipped with six windows for access to the newborn. Incubators IDN-03 are manufactured at the regional enterprise of the Shvabe holding – the Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant named after E.S. Yalamov.
Portable incubator Bonny
This mobile incubator model is designed for transporting newborns in healthcare facilities or using ambulances.Bonnie is able to maintain heat inside the module, measure the child’s body temperature, blood oxygen saturation, heart rate and much more. It can be used to transport children weighing from 1 to 6 kg. The incubator is completely autonomous from external power sources. The Bonnie body reliably protects the child from cold, noise and vibration. The development of the Shvabe holding received prizes and diplomas of international exhibitions of medical equipment.
Infrared heater “Radiant heat – BONO”
To soften the child’s transition from one environment to another, which is especially important for premature babies, additional sources of heat are used in maternity hospitals and perinatal centers.The “Radiant Heat – BONO” heater is used during resuscitation or light treatment of newborns. The device has ample opportunities for settings and automatic operation. Audible and visual alarm systems indicate parameter changes. The ceramic heating element of the device does not require regular maintenance. “Radiant Heat – BONO” can be built into various medical equipment and used as a light source.
System for phototherapy “BiliFlex”
Physiological jaundice of newborns – staining of the skin and mucous membranes in yellow color – is associated with an increase in the amount of bile pigment bilirubin in the blood.With the help of the device “BiliFlex” it is possible to reduce the concentration of indirect (unbound) bilirubin in the child’s blood. The device is based on the effect of high-intensity therapeutic light on the skin of the newborn. Due to the absence of harmful infrared or UV radiation, BiliFlex is absolutely safe for both patients and doctors. A fiber-optic cloth with super-bright LEDs is used as a light source. The light covers 90% of the baby’s body and effectively relieves the symptoms of jaundice.