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Picture, Symptoms, Types, Causes, Risks, Treatments

What Are Gallstones?

Gallstones are pieces of solid material that form in your gallbladder, a small organ under your liver. If you have them, you might hear your doctor say you have cholelithiasis.

Your gallbladder stores and releases bile, a fluid made in your liver, to help in digestion. Bile also carries wastes like cholesterol and bilirubin, which your body makes when it breaks down red blood cells. These things can form gallstones.

Gallstones can range from the size of a grain of sand to that of a golf ball. You might not know that you have them until they block a bile duct, causing pain that needs treatment right away.

Gallstone Types

The two main kinds of gallstones are:

  • Cholesterol stones. These are usually yellow-green. They’re the most common, making up 80% of gallstones.
  • Pigment stones. These are smaller and darker. They’re made of bilirubin. .

Signs and Symptoms of Gallstones

Symptoms may include:

See your doctor or go to the hospital if you have signs of a serious infection or inflammation:

Causes of Gallstones

Doctors aren’t sure exactly what causes gallstones, but they might happen when:

  • There’s too much cholesterol in your bile. Your body needs bile for digestion. It usually dissolves cholesterol. But when it can’t do that, the extra cholesterol might form stones.
  • There’s too much bilirubin in your bile. Conditions like cirrhosis, infections, and blood disorders can cause your liver to make too much bilirubin.
  • Your gallbladder doesn’t empty all the way. This can make your bile very concentrated.

Gallstone Risk Factors

You’re more likely to get gallstones if you:

Gallstone Diagnosis

Your doctor will do a physical exam and might order tests including:

Blood tests. These check for signs of infection or blockage, and rule out other conditions.

Ultrasound. This makes images of the inside of your body.

CT scan. Specialized X-rays let your doctor see inside your body, including your gallbladder.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography(MRCP). This test uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of the inside of your body, including your liver and gallbladder.

Cholescintigraphy (HIDA scan). This test can check whether your gallbladder squeezes correctly. Your doctor injects a harmless radioactive material that makes its way to the organ. A technician can then watch its movement.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Your doctor runs a tube called an endoscope through your mouth down to your small intestine. They inject a dye so they can see your bile ducts on a camera in the endoscope. They can often take out any gallstones that have moved into the ducts.

Endoscopic ultrasound. This test combines ultrasound and endoscopy to look for gallstones.

Gallstone Treatment

You don’t need treatment if you don’t have any symptoms. Some small gallstones can pass through your body on their own.

Most people with gallstones have their gallbladders taken out. You can still digest food without it. Your doctor will use one of two procedures.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This is the most common surgery for gallstones. Your doctor passes a narrow tube called a laparoscope into your belly through a small cut. It holds instruments, a light, and a camera. They take out your gallbladder through another small cut. You’ll usually go home the same day.

Open cholecystectomy. Your doctor makes bigger cuts in your belly to remove your gallbladder. You’ll stay in the hospital for a few days afterward.

If gallstones are in your bile ducts, your doctor may use ERCP to find and remove them before or during surgery.

If you have another medical condition and your doctor thinks you shouldn’t have surgery, they might give you medication instead. Chenodiol (Chenodol) and ursodiol (Actigall, Urso 250, Urso Forte) dissolve cholesterol stones. They can cause mild diarrhea.

You may have to take the medicine for years to totally dissolve the stones, and they may come back after you stop taking it.

Complications of Gallstones

Gallstones can cause serious problems, including:

  • Gallbladder inflammation (acute cholecystitis). This happens when a stone blocks your gallbladder so it can’t empty. It causes constant pain and fever. Your gallbladder might burst, or rupture, if you don’t get treatment right away.
  • Blocked bile ducts. This can cause fever, chills, and yellowing of your skin and eyes (jaundice). If a stone blocks the duct to your pancreas, that organ may become inflamed (pancreatitis).
  • Infected bile ducts (acute cholangitis). A blocked duct is more likely to get infected. If the bacteria spread to your bloodstream, they can cause a dangerous condition called sepsis.
  • Gallbladder cancer. It’s rare, but gallstones raise your risk of this kind of cancer.

Preventing Gallstones

Some lifestyle changes might lower your risk of gallstones.

  • Eat a healthy diet that’s high in fiber and good fats, like fish oil and olive oil. Avoid refined carbs, sugar, and unhealthy fats.
  • Get regular exercise. Aim for at least 30 minutes, 5 days a week.
  • Avoid diets that make you lose a lot of weight in a short time.
  • If you’re a woman at high risk of gallstones (for example, because of your family history or another health condition), talk to your doctor about whether you should avoid the use of hormonal birth control.

Gallstones | Cedars-Sinai

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What are gallstones?

Gallstones are lumps of solid material that form in your gallbladder. They are also
called cholelithiasis. They are made when the digestive juice called bile turns hard

gallbladder is a small organ under your liver. It stores bile made by the liver. Bile
made of several things such as cholesterol, bile salts, and a yellowish pigment

Gallstones can be as small as a grain of sand or as big as a golf ball. Your
gallbladder may form a single large stone, hundreds of tiny stones, or both sizes
at the
same time. Gallstones often don’t cause any symptoms. But in some cases, gallstones
block the tubes that carry bile (bile ducts). This can lead to a life-threatening
infections of the bile ducts, pancreas, or liver. Once you have had gallstones, you
at risk of having more.

are two types of gallstones: cholesterol and pigment.

Cholesterol stones

These stones are:

  • Most
    common type of stone
  • Often a yellow-green color
  • Made
    mainly of hardened cholesterol

Pigment stones

These stones are:

  • Less
  • Dark
  • Made
    of a yellowish pigment called bilirubin

What causes gallstones?

Cholesterol stones form when your gallbladder doesn’t empty the way it should. They
also form when bile has:

  • Too much cholesterol
  • Too much of a yellowish pigment called bilirubin
  • Not enough bile salts

Health experts don’t know what causes pigment stones to form. But pigment stones are
more common in people who have:

  • A liver disease (cirrhosis) where scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue
  • An infection in the vessels that transport bile (biliary tract infection)
  • Blood
    disorders that are passed from parent to child (hereditary) such as sickle cell

Who is at risk for gallstones?

Some people have a higher risk for gallstones. These include:

  • Native
    They have the highest rates of gallstones in the U.S. This may be
    genetic as they have very high levels of cholesterol in their bile.
  • Mexican
    They have higher than average rates of gallstones.
  • Women.They are twice as likely to have gallstones as men.
  • People over
    age 60.
    Risk for gallstones increases with age.
  • People with a
    family history of gallstones.
    Gallstones seem to run in some families
    (inherited). There may be a genetic link.

Health issues that may raise your risk for gallstones include:

  • Obesity.
    This is a major risk factor, mainly for women.
  • Estrogen. Women may have extra estrogen from pregnancy, hormone replacement
    therapy, or birth control pills. This seems to raise cholesterol levels in bile and
    slow down gallbladder movement. Both can lead to gallstones.
  • Diet.
    Eating a high-fat, high-cholesterol, or low-fiber diet raises your risk. They lead
    more cholesterol in the bile and reduced gallbladder emptying.
  • Cholesterol-lowering medicines. These medicines can increase the amount of
    cholesterol in bile.
  • Diabetes. People with diabetes often have high levels of fatty acids
    (triglycerides). This raises the risk for gallstones.
  • Very fast
    weight loss.
    As the body processes fat during very fast weight loss, the
    liver sends out extra cholesterol into bile.
  • Not eating
    for a few days (prolonged fasting).
    Fasting slows down gallbladder movement.
    Over time, your bile has too much cholesterol.

What are the symptoms of gallstones?

Some people with gallstones don’t have any symptoms. These stones are called silent
stones. They don’t stop the gallbladder, liver, or pancreas from working properly.
In most cases they don’t need to be treated. Most gallstones don’t cause symptoms
right away.  

Gallstone symptoms (also called a gallbladder attack) may happen very suddenly. They

  • Begin when gallstones get bigger
  • Happen when the stones start to block bile ducts
  • Occur after a fatty meal or at night

Each person’s symptoms may vary. Symptoms may include:

  • Steady, severe pain in your upper belly (abdomen) that quickly gets worse
  • Pain in your back between the shoulder blades
  • Pain in your right shoulder
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice)

See your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms during or
after a gallbladder attack:

  • Pain that lasts more than 5 hours
  • Sweating
  • Chills
  • Low-grade fever
  • Yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes
  • Clay-colored stools

The symptoms of gallstones may look like other health problems. Always see your healthcare
provider to be sure.

How are gallstones diagnosed?

people have gallstones but don’t know it because they don’t have symptoms. In some
cases, gallstones are found by accident. This may happen if you are being tested for
different health problem.

But if you have pain that doesn’t go away, your healthcare provider will look at your
past health and give you a physical exam. 

You may also have some tests to check for gallstones such as:

  • Ultrasound. This imaging test uses high-frequency sound waves to create
    images of your internal organs on a computer screen. It is used to see the
    gallbladder and gallstones.
  • HIDA or
    PIPIDA scan (hepatobiliary scintigraphy or cholescintigraphy).
    This scan
    checks for any abnormal contractions of the gallbladder and blockages in your bile
    ducts. A radioactive chemical or tracer is shot (injected) into your vein. The amount
    of radiation is very small. It is not harmful. It collects in your liver and flows
    into your gallbladder. A special scanner is used to watch the tracer move through
    your organs. You will take a medicine to make your gallbladder contract.
  • Blood
    These look for signs of infection, blockage, liver problems, jaundice,
    and inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).
  • CT scan.
    A CT scan is an imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed
    pictures of any part of the body. It can show gallstones. It can also show infection
    or bursting of the gallbladder or bile ducts.
  • MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography).
    This is a special MRI test that creates images using magnetic fields and pulsed radio
    wave energy.
  • EUS (endoscopic ultrasound). This internal
    ultrasound (sonogram) is done with a flexible lighted scope. You are given medicine
    to help you relax and then a scope is passed through your mouth. It creates internal
    images using sound waves.
  • ERCP
    (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography).
    ERCP uses both X-ray and a
    long flexible lighted tube with a camera near the end (catheter). . While you are
    sedated, the tube is put in your mouth and throat. It goes down your food pipe
    (esophagus), through your stomach, and into the first part of your small intestine
    (duodenum). Your healthcare provider can see the inside of these organs on a video
    screen and check for any problems. A dye is put into your bile ducts through the
    tube. The dye lets the bile ducts be seen clearly on the X-ray.

How are gallstones treated?

If your gallstones don’t cause any symptoms, you often don’t need treatment.

Gallstones that do cause symptoms should be treated right away. They may lead to damage
or infection if your bile ducts are blocked for a long time.

If your symptoms don’t go away, your treatment may include:

  • ERCP
    (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography).
    ERCP uses both X-ray and a
    long flexible lighted tube (endoscope). While you are sedated, the tube is put into
    your mouth and throat. It goes down your food pipe (esophagus), through your stomach,
    and into the first part of your small intestine (duodenum). A dye is put into your
    bile ducts through the tube. The dye lets the bile ducts be seen clearly on X-rays.
    Small stones can be taken out through the scope.
  • Sphincterotomy. This can also be done through the tube during an ERCP. Tight
    rings of muscle (called sphincters) are around the openings of the bile ducts. They
    can block gallstones. Cutting these rings lets the ducts open wider so that stones
    can pass into your intestine.
  • Gallbladder
    removal (cholecystectomy).
    If stones are in your gallbladder, your
    gallbladder must be removed. These stones cannot be taken out with ERCP. Gallbladder
    removal is a common surgery. Your body will work well without your gallbladder. It
    not essential for a healthy life.
  • Percutaneous
    If stones in your gallbladder cause a blockage of
    bile acid and  subsequent infection, your gallbladder will have to be removed. But
    you are too sick to have surgery or there are other complications, a drainage tube
    may be inserted into your gallbladder through the skin of your abdomen. This will
    temporarily bypass the blockage and drain any infection.
  • Oral
    dissolution therapy.
    The stones are dissolved using medicines made from bile
    acid. But, it can take a couple of years to completely dissolve the stones. They also
    tend to come back when the medicine is stopped.
  • Methyl-tert-butyl ether. This solution or a similar chemical can be shot
    (injected) through the skin into your gallbladder to dissolve stones. This is an
    uncommon procedure.

Most people respond very well once their stones are dissolved or taken out.

Key points about

  • Gallstones are lumps of solid material that form in your gallbladder.
  • They are made when the digestive juice called bile gets hard and stone-like.
  • If your gallstones cause no symptoms, treatment is often not needed.
  • If
    symptoms don’t go away, you will need treatment to remove the gallstones.
  • If
    stones are in your gallbladder, the gallbladder must generally be removed. This is
    common surgery.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your health care

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember
    what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any
    new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your
    provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it
    will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results
    could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the
    test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time,
    and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

Medical Reviewer: Jen Lehrer MD

Medical Reviewer: Ronald Karlin MD

Medical Reviewer: Raymond Kent Turley BSN MSN RN

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

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Gallstones – Illnesses & conditions

Your treatment plan for gallstones depends on how the symptoms are affecting your daily life.

If you don’t have any symptoms, a policy of ‘active monitoring’ is often recommended. This means you won’t receive immediate treatment, but you should let your GP know if you notice any symptoms.

As a general rule, the longer you go without symptoms, the less likely it is that your condition will get worse.

You may need treatment if you have a condition that increases your risk of developing complications, such as:

Treatment may also be recommended if a scan shows high levels of calcium inside your gallbladder, as this can lead to gallbladder cancer in later life.

If you have episodes of abdominal pain (biliary colic), treatment depends on how the pain affects your daily activities. If the episodes are mild and infrequent, you may be prescribed painkillers to control further episodes and given advice about eating a healthy diet to help control the pain.

If your symptoms are more severe and occur frequently, surgery to remove the gallbladder is usually recommended.

The gallbladder isn’t an essential organ and you can lead a perfectly normal life without one. Some people may experience symptoms of bloating and diarrhoea after eating fatty or spicy food. If certain foods do trigger symptoms, you may wish to avoid them in the future.

Keyhole surgery to remove the gallbladder

If surgery is recommended, you’ll usually have keyhole surgery to remove your gallbladder. This is known as a laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

During a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 3 or 4 small cuts are made in your abdomen. One larger cut (about 2-3cm) will be by the belly button and the others (each 1cm or less) will be on the right side of your abdomen.

Your abdomen is temporarily inflated using carbon dioxide gas. This is harmless and makes it easier for the surgeon to see your organs.

A laparoscope (long thin telescope with a tiny light and video camera at the end) is inserted through one of the cuts in your abdomen. This allows your surgeon to view the operation on a video monitor. Your surgeon will then remove your gallbladder using special surgical instruments.

If it’s thought there may be gallstones in the bile duct, an X-ray or ultrasound scan of the bile duct is also taken during the operation. If gallstones are found, they may be removed during keyhole surgery. If the operation can’t be done this way or an unexpected complication occurs, it may have to be converted to open surgery (see below).

After the gallbladder has been removed, the gas in your abdomen escapes through the laparoscope and the cuts are closed with dissolvable stitches and covered with dressings.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomies are usually performed under a general anaesthetic, which means you’ll be asleep during the procedure and won’t feel any pain while it’s carried out. The operation takes 60-90 minutes and you can usually go home the same day. Full recovery typically takes around 10 days.

Single-incision keyhole surgery

Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a newer type of keyhole surgery used to remove the gallbladder. During this type of surgery, only one small cut is made, which means you’ll only have one barely visible scar.

However, single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomies haven’t been carried out as often as conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomies, so there are still some uncertainties about it. Access to this type of surgery is also limited because it needs an experienced surgeon with specialist training.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has more information on single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Open surgery

A laparoscopic cholecystectomy may not always be recommended, for example if you:

  • are in the third trimester (the last three months) of pregnancy
  • are extremely overweight
  • have an unusual gallbladder or bile duct structure that makes a keyhole procedure difficult and potentially dangerous

In these circumstances, an open cholecystectomy may be recommended. During this procedure, a 10-15cm (4-6in) incision is made in your abdomen underneath the ribs so the gallbladder can be removed. This is done under general anaesthetic, so you’ll be asleep and won’t feel any pain.

Open surgery is just as effective as laparoscopic surgery, but it does have a longer recovery time and causes more visible scarring. Most people have to stay in hospital for up to 5 days and it typically takes 6 weeks to fully recover.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP)

An endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure that can be used to remove gallstones from the bile duct. The gallbladder isn’t removed during this procedure, so any stones in the gallbladder will remain unless removed using the surgical techniques mentioned above.

ERCP is similar to a diagnostic cholangiography (see diagnosing gallstones for more information), where an endoscope (long, thin flexible tube with a camera at the end) is passed through your mouth down to where the bile duct opens into the small intestine.

However, during ERCP the opening of the bile duct is widened with a small incision or an electrically heated wire. The bile duct stones are then removed or left to pass into your intestine and out of your body.

Sometimes a small tube called a stent is permanently placed in the bile duct to help the bile and stones pass.

An ERCP is usually carried out under sedation, which means you’ll be awake throughout the procedure but won’t experience any pain.

The ERCP procedure lasts about 30 minutes on average, but can take from 15 minutes to over an hour. You may need to stay overnight in hospital after the procedure so you can be monitored.

Medication to dissolve gallstones

If your gallstones are small and don’t contain calcium, it may be possible to take ursodeoxycholic acid tablets to dissolve them.

However, these aren’t prescribed very often because:

  • they’re rarely very effective
  • they need to be taken for a long time (up to 2 years)
  • gallstones can recur once treatment is stopped

Side effects of ursodeoxycholic acid are uncommon and are usually mild. The most commonly reported side effects are feeling sick, being sick and itchy skin.

The use of ursodeoxycholic acid isn’t usually recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women. Sexually active women should use either a barrier method of contraception, such as a condom, or a low-dose oestrogen contraceptive pill while taking ursodeoxycholic acid, as it may affect other types of oral contraceptive pills.

Ursodeoxycholic acid tablets are occasionally also prescribed as a precaution against gallstones if it’s thought you’re at risk of developing them. For example, you may be prescribed ursodeoxycholic acid if you’ve recently had weight loss surgery, as rapid weight loss can cause gallstones to grow.

Urology | Kidney and Ureteral Stone Types

There are four main

types of kidney and ureteral stones

– calcium, uric acid, struvite and cystine.

Calcium stones

Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stone. They are made of calcium compounds, including calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. High levels of calcium and oxalate in the body increase the risk of developing calcium stones. There are some medical conditions that can lead to high levels of calcium, including hyperparathyroidism.

Uric acid stones

Uric acid is a waste product that is normally passed out of the body in the urine. Some people have a buildup of uric acid, which can lead to uric acid kidney stones. There are some factors that can increase risk for this type of kidney stone, including:

  • Low urine output
  • Health conditions like gout and Crohn’s disease
  • Increased alcohol intake
  • A diet high in animal protein, such as meat, eggs and fish

Struvite stones

Struvite stones are sometimes called infection stones because they can occur with urinary tract infections (UTIs). If struvite stones are large, they are also known as staghorn calculi. These stones require medical treatment because they can cause serious complications. Treatment may include antibiotics and stone removal. Although most stones are more common in men than in women, struvite stones tend to occur more in women who have urinary tract infection.

Cystine stones

This type of kidney stone is made up of the chemical cystine. There is a medical condition called cystinuria, which causes too much cystine in the urine. People with a family history of cystinuria have a greater risk of getting cystine stones.

What’s the difference between kidney stones and ureteral stones?

Kidney stones are a buildup of substances in the urine. The substances that make up the stones vary between types of stones, and can even vary within the same type.

Most ureteral stones are kidney stones that have moved out of the kidney into the ureter. The makeup and the type of stone don’t change, only the location changes. In general, stones in the kidney don’t cause symptoms, but when the stones start to move into the ureter and obstruct the flow of urine,



Learn more about kidney stones

Kidney Stones (for Teens) – Nemours Kidshealth

What Are Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones happen when minerals form crystals inside the kidneys. Then they get bigger and become kidney stones. Kidney stones can move into the urinary tract. There, they can cause problems like pain and blood in the urine (pee). Some stones also can block the flow of pee.

Most kidney stones pass out of the body without causing any damage. Pain medicine and plenty of fluids help most people with kidney stones get better.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Kidney Stones?

Usually, kidney stones don’t cause symptoms until they move around in the kidney or pass into the ureter (the muscular tube that connects the kidney to the bladder). Small stones can pass out of the body with little or no pain.

Larger stones in the urinary system may get stuck and cause symptoms like:

  • pain, which usually:
    • starts in the side or back
    • spreads to the lower belly and groin as the stones move through the urinary tract
    • comes and goes in waves
  • blood in the pee (hematuria)
  • nausea and vomiting
  • needing to pee often or urgently
  • fever or chills (signs of a possible infection)

Sometimes, a stone that’s too big to move can create a backup of pee. This can make one or both kidneys swell, causing pain in the side and back. If it’s not treated, it may cause long-term kidney damage.

What Causes Kidney Stones?

Most teens who get kidney stones have a health condition that increases their risk for them. These include:

  • some medicines 
  • special diets, like a ketogenic diet that is sometimes used to prevent seizures
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • problems with how the urinary tract is formed
  • metabolic disorders (problems with how the body breaks down and uses food)
  • other kidney conditions
  • conditions that affect the thyroid or parathyroid gland
  • some urinary tract infections (UTIs)

Other things that can make a kidney stone more likely are:

  • not drinking enough water
  • eating too much salt
  • not having enough citric acid (the acid in citrus fruits such as oranges) in the urine
  • having too much calcium in the urine

Kidney stones mostly affect adults. But kids and teens can get them.

Some types of kidney stones run in families, so having a relative with kidney stones can make a person more likely to get them. Teens who have had kidney stones before are more likely to get them again.

How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed?

The doctor will ask about:

  • the symptoms and how long they’ve been going on
  • your diet
  • whether you could be dehydrated
  • whether there’s a family history of kidney stones, or urinary or kidney problems

The doctor will do an exam and probably order:

  • blood tests
  • urine tests
  • kidney function tests
  • imaging tests, such as ultrasounds, X-rays, or CT scans. These can show a stone’s exact size and location. This helps doctors decide on the best treatment.

How Are Kidney Stones Treated?

Treatment depends on the type of kidney stone and its size. Some people only need to drink a lot of water and take pain medicines to pass a kidney stone. Those with larger stones may need surgery or other treatments to help remove the stones.

There are different types of stones. A stone that passes in pee and is caught in a strainer can be tested to see what type it is. Knowing that can help doctors find the cause and offer advice how to treat it and prevent other stones.

Home Treatment

To help pass a small stone, drink plenty of water and take medicine to ease the pain. Often, over-the-counter medicines such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen are enough. But sometimes, doctors prescribe pain medicine.

The doctor might ask you to strain your pee for a few days to collect the kidney stones. Examining them can help the doctor decide if you need more treatment.

Hospital Treatment

Teens whose kidney stones block the urinary tract or cause severe pain or dehydration may need care in a hospital. They might get intravenous (IV) fluids and pain medicine to help the stones pass and treat dehydration.

Large stones rarely pass on their own. To get rid of large stones and stones that are damaging the kidneys, doctors can do a procedure to break up the stone. This lets the smaller pieces pass on their own or be removed with a scope or surgery.

Can Kidney Stones Be Prevented?

It’s not always possible to prevent some types of kidney stones.

But anyone who’s had kidney stones should:

  • Drink a lot of liquids (water is best) throughout the day. Avoid dark sodas, soft drinks, and sports drinks. If their pee is almost clear, that’s a sign they’re drinking enough. Ask your doctor how much you should drink.
  • Limit the salt and protein in their diet.

If dietary changes don’t prevent kidney stones, medicines can help. Depending on the type of kidney stone you had, the doctor can prescribe treatments or medicines to lower the levels of crystal-forming substances in the pee.

Doctors will keep an eye on teens who have had kidney stones and try to prevent new ones. The doctor might have you use a 24-hour urine collection test. This measures the volume of pee within a 24-hour period and checks what’s in it.

Kidney stones aren’t usually a worry for most teens, though it’s always a good idea to eat healthy foods and drink enough fluids to avoid dehydration.

Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

Kidney stones have become more common in children and teens over the past 20 years. They can occur in children of any age, even premature infants, but most stones occur in teens.

Kidney stones happen when minerals and other substances normally found in urine join together to form a hard stone in the urinary tract. They can also form if there is not enough of other substances in the urine that help stop stones from forming.

Stones typically form in the kidney and ureter, the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. They rarely form in the bladder.

Types of kidney stones

There are many types of kidney stones, but the most common among U. S. children are calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones. Less often, stones are made of uric acid (a waste product from eating certain foods and drinks), an amino acid (a building block of protein) called cystine, or the mineral struvite.

How big are kidney stones?

Kidney stones vary in size, with most about 1/8-1/4 inch. If a child passes a stone while peeing, it is helpful to collect it if possible so your doctor can send it for lab testing. Finding out what the stone is made of can help your child’s doctor find ways to stop more stones from forming.

Risk factors for kidney stones

There are many risk factors for forming kidney stones. Some of the most common ones are:

  • Family tendency to form stones

  • A diet high in salt, meat, and processed foods, and low in fruits and vegetables

  • Low urine output from not drinking enough fluid

Other risk factors include:

  • Specific inherited conditions (hyperoxaluria,

  • Certain medicines, such as the seizure drug topiramate, for example, or the blood pressure drug furosemide, which removes excess water from the body

  • Blocked urine flow

  • Kidney infection

  • Not enough physical activity, as when wearing a cast after surgery. This can cause calcium to leave the bones, so that an excess amount builds up in the urinary tract and contributes to stone formation.

  • Bowel disease

  • Surgery for weight loss

Signs & symptoms of kidney stones

Stones can form in a child’s kidney without causing symptoms for a long time. However, if a stone starts to move down the urinary tract through the tube called the ureter, it can cause symptoms such as:

  • Sudden, severe pain in back or side

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Groin pain as the stone passes down the urinary tract

  • Severe stomach pain only (young children especially)

  • Burning or pain while peeing.

  • Blood in pee (hematuria)

  • Fever and urinary tract infection​

How are kidney stones diagnosed?

The diagnosis is usually confirmed when a stone is found in a child’s urinary tract by x-ray, ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan.

The preferred test for a child suspected of having a stone is an ultrasound. That’s because an ultrasound is easy to do, can detect most stones, and does not use radiation. A
CT scan can show very small stones, but since this test requires some radiation exposure, many providers will start with an ultrasound. They will then order a CT scan only if a stone is suspected, but not seen with ultrasound.

Treatment for kidney stones in children

If a kidney stone is causing a child pain, the goals are to help ease discomfort and to help the stone pass down into the bladder and out in the urine. This can sometimes be done at home by drinking large amounts of water and other fluids. Over-the-counter pain medicine like acetaminophen and ibuprofen may be helpful to manage pain. Other oral medications may be prescribed to ease the stone’s passage. Your child’s doctor may recommend using a strainer to help collect the stone from the urine so it can be tested in the lab.

Sometimes, if children are vomiting or have severe pain, they may need to be hospitalized so they can get fluids and stronger pain medicine through a vein.

Children with large stones or stones that will not pass on their own may need the help of a urologist, a doctor who specializes in the urinary tract. The urologist may use lithotripsy, a procedure that uses sound waves to break the stone into tiny pieces, which are then passed down the urinary tract. While it may sound scary, it is quite safe and does not damage the kidney. The urologist may also remove the stone by using a scope that enters the bladder and goes up the ureter while your child is under anesthesia. The urologist can then “grab” the stone and remove it from the body.

How to help preventing kidney stones

There are many things that you can help your child do to reduce the chances of developing more kidney stones. Children with kidney stones should:

  • Drink a lot of fluid throughout the day (urine should usually look very pale yellow). Ask your healthcare team for an amount that’s right for your child. If your child has kidney disease and needs to limit fluid, please discuss this with the team.

  • Limit
    salt in the diet.​

  • Eat more fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits.

  • Eat fewer meats, processed foods, fast food, and

  • Avoid food and drinks with high fructose corn syrup.

  • ​Keep a healthy weight.

  • Eat the recommended amount of calcium-rich foods and drinks. Cutting back calcium in the diet is not recommended and can sometimes actually increase stone risk. On the other hand, don’t take a calcium supplement unless your doctor says your child needs one.

Your doctor may also recommend that your child see a
pediatric nephrologist, a kidney specialist who treats children with kidney stones. Blood tests and a 24-hour urine collection test may determine why your child formed a kidney stone. With this information, a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) can make specific dietary recommendations and your doctor and health care team can prescribe medicines to reduce your child’s risk for making future kidney stones.

More information

The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Kidney Stones Symptoms And Treatments

Kidney stones are a fairly common condition that tend to affect people more during middle age (aged 30-60 years). Stones can form in one or both kidneys and quite often can just pass through the urinary system undetected and without causing any pain. Sometimes large stones can get blocked and cause considerable pain called renal colic. In this instance a treatment to break up the stone or surgery may be required.

Symptoms Of Kidney Stones

Small stones are unlikely to cause you much of a problem. Symptoms don’t usually occur until the kidney stone has got to a size where it becomes stuck in either the kidney, ureters or urethra. A stone blocking the ureter can also cause a kidney infection to develop, which can cause a different set of symptoms.

If you have a large stone you may experience:

  • Persistent ache in your lower back or groin
  • Intense pain that comes in waves in your back, abdomen or groin that can last for several minutes or several hours
  • Feeling generally uncomfortable or restless
  • Nausea
  • The need to urinate more often
  • Blood in your urine

Symptoms of a kidney infection include:

  • A high temperature of 38C (100F) or higher
  • Chills and shivering
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Diarrhoea
  • Cloudy and/ or foul smelling urine

How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed?

You may be asked to provide a urine sample to check for signs of kidney stones. If you suspect and have seen stones in your urine, it may be helpful to collect these for your GP so they can diagnose the type of stone causing the issue more easily. One method for collecting stone is to urinate through a piece of gauze so that the stones don’t pass through.

If you are experiencing significant pain then you may be referred to a urologist who can perform some more detailed exams to determine the extent of your kidney stone. These tests may include:

Various scans including CT (Computerised Tomography), X-rays and Ultrasound
Intravenous Urogram or Intravenous Pyelogram – a contrast is injected into your vein and then a series of x-rays will be taken. This contrast dye can highlight if their are any blockage in the kidney or urinary tract

Kidney Stones Treatments

For most people treatment will aim to reduce your discomfort via pain relief and anti-sickness medication should you need it. Most stones should pass out naturally but can cause pain for several days. If the stone is too big to be passed then a surgical solution may be looked into


Drinking Plenty Of Fluids

To aid the removal of the stone, it is important to drink plenty of clear fluids. Keeping well hydrated will also help to prevent stones from forming too. Drinking lots of water is particularly important if you have a stone that has formed from uric acid as this will help to break the stone down. In these instance you will be advised to try to drink around three litres of water a day and may also be given a medication to make your urine more alkaline, which will also help the stone break down.


Pain Relief

You may be given painkilling injections to give you relief whilst waiting for the stone to pass. You may also be given some stronger painkillers on prescription to take home to keep on top of your pain. Make sure that you follow the guidelines and only take the doses as prescribed by your GP.


If you are suffering from bouts of sickness, your GP can also describe a drug that can help relieve sickness and nausea. These include medicines such as Cyclizine and Metoclopramide that are also known as antiemetics.


Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)

This is the most common method used to treat kidney stones and involves using ultrasound shockwaves to break down the stones and make them easier to pass.


If the kidney stone is stuck in your ureter than you may be offered a ureteroscopy, which is an operation done under general anaesthetic and involves passing a small flexible tube through your urethra, into your bladder and then up into your ureter. The surgeon will then either try to remove the stone or use a laser to break the stone down so it can be passed out.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

This is an alternative removal method if ESWL cannot be carried out for some reason. This involves making an incision in the back and passing a nephroscope (a small, thin telescopic instrument) into the kidney where the stone will either be removed and lasered and broken down so that it can be passed out with your urine.


Further information and downloads can be found in the RESOURCES section. Living with a bladder or bowel condition or caring for someone with a bladder and bowel condition can affect you emotionally and socially; sometimes it can help to speak to others who understand your situation. The Bladder & Bowel Community Forum is available 24 hours today and will allow you to connect with those who share your condition. Start your own topic today or just follow one that interests you.

90,000 Stomach stones. Why are bezoars dangerous? | Healthy life | Health

Our expert is an endoscopist, oncologist, surgeon of the highest category of the State Budgetary Healthcare Institution “City Clinical Hospital named after VV Veresaeva “Georgy Dmitrienko.

The season of fresh vegetables, fruits, berries, barbecue in nature is not far off. It would seem, what could be more beautiful and more useful? In fact, even natural food can be fraught with serious dangers if misused.

No magic

The word “bezoar” in translation from Arabic means “stone”. In literary sources, stones with magical properties are often called bezoars. So, in the epic about Harry Potter, bezoars – stones that are in the stomach of a goat – had the properties of a powerful antidote.

The fairy-tale plot is somewhat not far from the truth. Indeed, phytobezoars, formed by ingesting huge amounts of grass, are often formed in the stomach of ruminants. And trichobezoars – lumps of hair and wool – are not uncommon in the digestive tract of cats and other animals that have a habit of licking themselves.But, alas, these conglomerates have no medicinal properties.

Cola therapy

In humans, bezoars can reach the size of the head of a newborn baby and, accordingly, can cause severe pain, cause burning in the epigastric region, belching, nausea, and vomiting. It is on this occasion that patients, as a rule, go to the doctor.
The most common product, with excessive use of which phytobezoars arise, is persimmon: its thick and long fibers collapse and thicken in the stomach. It is impossible to remove them endoscopically, as they become as hard as a stone. Before proceeding with minimally invasive surgery, the patient has to sit on a water-alkaline diet for several days. This is the very case when it is not too late to drink Borjomi. However, cola turned out to be an even more effective solvent. Endoscopists even have a new term – “cola therapy”. So there are times when this drink is beneficial.

If you do not take measures and do not get rid of the phytobezoar, the patient may face the most serious troubles – for example, a stomach ulcer in an acute, bleeding state, which forms from the pressure of a stone on the wall of an organ.

From what, from what?

In addition to persimmons, phytobezoars can be formed with excessive consumption of figs, plums, dates, grapes, nuts and sunflower seeds, especially poorly peeled and with seeds. The risk is increased if you do not drink these foods and chew them poorly. Various problems with the gastrointestinal tract also contribute to pathologies – increased viscosity of mucus in the stomach, impaired evacuation function, decreased secretion of gastric juice, and others.

Significantly less frequently than phytobezoars, but other formations nevertheless occur.For example, sebobezoars are formed when eating goat, lamb and beef fat without sufficient heat treatment; anthracobezoars are an accumulation of undissolved residues of activated carbon and other medicines; Pixobezoars appear when drinking low-quality alcohol or swallowing chewing gum.

Trichobezoars that appear when hair is swallowed are, oddly enough, a fairly common phenomenon. It turns out that many people under stress not only bite their nails, but also bite the ends of their hair, and this can lead to the formation of giant “hairpieces” in the abdominal cavity, which disrupt the functioning of the entire digestive tract and can lead to the most serious complications.

Chew and drink!

You can only get rid of any bezoars surgically. Therefore, it is important to prevent their formation.

Eating coarse, plant foods containing a lot of fiber is beneficial, but in moderation. You can’t abuse it. It is also important to drink such food with a sufficient amount of water, which helps the absorption of food. The diet should be varied. Eating only meat or only vegetables and fruits is wrong.

In addition, food must be chewed thoroughly.Failure to do this not only increases the risk of bezoar formation, but also increases the risk of choking. In the warm season, when the barbecue season begins, the number of calls to endoscopists for the removal of uncooked pieces of meat from the esophagus sharply increases.

Do not forget to undergo preventive gastroscopy and colonoscopy every two years, especially if you are over 40 years old. Remember: cancer in its early stages does not
does not show, sometimes it can be detected only during these examinations, while the successful result of treatment depends precisely on early diagnosis.

See also:

90,000 stomach bezoars. Symptoms, Causes and Treatment. Gastroenterologist in Almaty

Bezoar is a calculus in the stomach, that is, in fact, an analogue of renal, gallbladder or fecal stones. Some sources indicate that the term comes from the Arabic “bâzahr”, in others it is considered a tracing of the French “bézoard”.

The absolute frequency of occurrence in terms of the total population is not given in the literature and is usually not even approximately estimated.As a rule, only the specific proportions of various types (see below) in the total flow of bezoars included in the survey are statistically analyzed, or the proportion of bezoars (approx. 1%) among the causes of intestinal obstruction. In any case, the formation of bezoar stones is treated as a rare or rather rarely diagnosed phenomenon. Often not manifesting themselves with any clinical symptoms, bezoars can exist in the stomach for years and are detected only with a tendency to increase, the appearance of discomfort, upon opening, or simply by accident (for example., in the course of an examination carried out for other indications). Wikipedia reports that by the end of the twentieth century, only about 400 cases of the detection of bezoars in humans were described in the world medical literature. However, this information is hardly accurate. According to the data of Perm gastroenterologists, who recently carried out a deep statistical and bibliographic search, domestic doctors alone reported at least 300 cases of bezoar stones in the stomach (since 1912, when such an observation was first published).However, this does not fundamentally change the overall picture: even if the real frequency is hundreds of times higher than the estimated one, it will still remain very small in relation to the population size. Another question is that the difficulties of objective diagnosis, as well as the lack of sufficient personal experience in the field of therapists and gastroenterologists (when analyzing a specific case, doctors do not immediately recall that the cause may be just bezoar, and not a tumor, inflammation, etc.), – cause a very large proportion of misdiagnoses: according to the results of the above-mentioned statistical analysis, at the first stages of the examination, bezoar is identified correctly only in every tenth case.

In different historical eras and in different cultures (including modern art of the fantasy genre) miraculous and protective properties were attributed to bezoar stones: most often they were considered an antidote or, in general, a panacea. Bezoars are much more common in ruminants and some marine animals than in humans.


Despite a certain similarity with calculi formed in the urinary tract, biliary ducts, intestines, etc.the etiopathogenesis of gastric bezoars is still different; moreover, it has not been sufficiently studied to date.

If in the first case the main etiopathogenetic role is played by the deposition of salts of various organic acids, then the trigger factor for the formation of bezoars is the ingress of indigestible substances into the stomach: hair (especially if the patient has an obsessive habit of chewing or biting hair), casein, synthetic fibers, etc.

Many such options are known (pixo-, tricho-, sebobezoars and many others. etc.). So, from the stomach of alcoholics who regularly consumed alcohol-containing chemical compounds, bezoars were repeatedly extracted, which had the property of burning.

However, three quarters of bezoar stones are of plant origin (phytobezoars). In this regard, it is well known that the greatest danger is represented by dense, fibrous, leathery foods with a high content of astringent, sticky, tannin, resinous substances (nuts, dates, figs, wild plums, sunflower seeds, etc.).and persimmon is always the leader in this list – most often unripe, or completely ripe, but absorbed on an empty stomach and in large quantities.

Such clumps of plant fiber, especially if it is poorly chewed, become the center of condensing formations (usually rounded and with a smooth surface), which are often then compressed to a stone hardness. In general, stone-hard bezoars are more common – sometimes such a calculus cannot be broken with a hammer – however, much less dense formations are known, with a consistency resembling, for example, thick dough.

As a rule, a fetid odor is inherent in bezoar stones. The dimensions are usually several centimeters, however, there were also giant bezoars, which are almost a complete internal cast of the gastric space. In about 15% of cases, the stone is not formed in the stomach, but in the small intestine.

Risk factors are disturbances in the evacuation of gastric contents, the vital activity of yeast fungi (for which the bezoar substance serves as a very favorable nutrient medium), hyposecretion of gastric juice, viscous mucus, insufficient primary processing of food in the oral cavity (due to dental problems, constant haste or just a bad habit of swallowing large pieces, practically not chewing them), as well as some previous surgical interventions, for example, vagotomy with pyloroplasty.


The clinical picture depends on a number of factors – the number of bezoars (they can be multiple), their size, localization, composition, “age”, mobility – and therefore varies widely. In the early stages, symptoms may be absent altogether, and for a very long period. Then, as gastric functions are disturbed, nonspecific symptoms appear: nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, belching, abdominal pain, general weakness, weight loss, feeling of a full stomach or, in large sizes, a “ball” inside, etc.d.

If the formation of multiple bezoars is recurrent and if they are mobile enough to be evacuated to the duodenal pawn before reaching a significant size (much more often the stone remains in the stomach), the patient’s condition can change in waves, but there are also cases when the bezoar becomes the cause of obstruction and obstruction Gastrointestinal tract.

It is necessary to clearly differentiate a bezoar stone from a malignant tumor, gastroenteritis and other types of symptomatically similar pathology.The most informative diagnostic method is FEGDS, sometimes radiography and ultrasound can also help to establish the correct diagnosis. Careful examination of all available anamnestic information is essential.


As a rule, an attempt is first made to eliminate the problem by conservative methods, for example, a solution of soda in combination with a special massage, which in many cases turns out to be sufficient for the destruction and subsequent evacuation of the bezoar in parts.In the absence of the desired effect, endoscopic destruction or removal is tried. If this does not work, they resort to surgical removal; in the presence of severe complications (ulceration, obturation with a large stone, etc.), the operation is performed urgently, urgently or urgently.

The prognosis is usually favorable, especially if the diagnosis is made promptly and accurately (for this, first of all, it is necessary to promptly seek help with the complaints described above).


Stomach stones | Doctor-Says

Nowadays, people are increasingly developing bezoar seals. The reason for their appearance is the frequent use of certain types of products. Berries, fruits and vegetables will ripen again soon. People will go to have a rest in nature, to fry kebabs. The consumption of natural products can lead to a dangerous disease if there are a lot of them and the wrong one. Bezoar translated from Arabic means “stone”.Stones are soft and hard, large and small. Stones sometimes form over several decades. They can be green, brown with an unpleasant odor. The disease is mainly found in women and babies.

Troubles from persimmon

In humans, stones in the stomach can grow from the head of a newborn baby. They cause severe pain, vomiting, nausea and burning. Symptoms force the patient to see a doctor.Phytobezoars are one of the types of stones in the stomach. The reason for its appearance is considered to be a delicacy with a large amount of persimmon. Its dense and long fibers curl into a tight ball in the stomach. They cannot be removed with an endoscope because they harden to the hardness of a stone. Then you can still do without surgery. In this case, the patient is forced to sit on a water-alkaline diet. You should drink more Borjomi and Cola. They effectively dissolve stones in the organ. If treatment is not started on time, then a person will face serious illnesses.The stone presses against the stomach wall, causing an ulcer that bleeds.

Varieties of bezoars

1. In addition to persimmons, the reason for the appearance of phytobezoars in the stomach is the consumption of large quantities of figs, plums, dates, grapes, nuts, bird cherry and sunflower seeds. The risk increases dramatically if the fruit is not washed down and chewed a little. The disease causes various digestive problems. They increase the viscosity of the stomach, reduce the secretion of gastric juice, and reduce intestinal motility.Phytobezoars appear in 70% of the formation of all types of stones in the stomach.

2. Sebobeosars appear from excessive consumption of animal fat. Especially if it is not thermally processed.

3. Anthracobezoars are formed from insoluble residues of activated carbon and drugs.

4. Trichobezoars are formed from ingestion of hair or chewing gum. They are quite common. Some people under stress bite off the ends of their hair and swallow it unnoticed.This happens to hairdressers. Over time, an impressive tangle of hair accumulates in the stomach cavity. It becomes sticky under the influence of gastric juice. It disrupts the digestive system. Sometimes it leads to serious consequences, to close the evacuation section of the stomach.

5. Babies have lactobezoars when they are fed a mixture with low-quality lactose or casein.

Symptoms of bezoar formation

Initially, the stone disease does not manifest itself for several years.However, in certain situations, they make themselves felt.

1. The main cause is vomiting after eating.

2. In babies, the stone causes edema, anemia. It provokes metabolic disorders, filling the lumen of the stomach with a stone.

3. Dull pain appears during dinner and disappears one and a half hours after eating.

4. Fast food saturation after eating a small amount of food.

5. Strong weight loss, overwork, frequent colds.

6. Frequent exacerbation of chronic diseases.

7. Poor complexion.

8. If the stone has closed the outlet zone of the stomach, the patient feels acute cramping pains followed by severe vomiting.


1. Visual examination will not help the doctor identify a stone in the stomach.

2. Palpation reveals only large movable bezoars.

3. Only anemia can be recognized by a blood test.

4. Prescribe an X-ray of the stomach. Moving stones are found there, defining their clear outlines.

5. Gastroscopy is performed. With its help, the shape, shape, structure of the stone is determined. A biopsy is taken for analysis to identify oncology.

6. Prescribe ultrasound if there is a disagreement between the other two methods.

Bezoar treatment

1. At the first stage, the use of a large amount of Borjomi and cola for 2 weeks helps.

2. Light massage of the stomach can break up stones and remove them from the body.

3. The stones can be removed using an endoscope.

4. Large stones are removed during the operation.


1. Eat food with fiber content in moderation, although it is good for the body.

2. Coarse food should be washed down with plenty of liquid.

3. Only meat products, vegetables and fruits should not be included in the diet.

4. Do not bite your nails or bite your hair.

5. Food, especially meat products, must be chewed 40 times.

6. If the food is not chewed, then not only stones can form, but a person can simply choke. In the summer, when people often go out into nature, prepare barbecue, the number of visits to the doctor increases. They take out pieces of meat that are not completely chewed from the esophagus.


1.The stones cause severe pain and vomiting.

2. Stones block the exit from the stomach, causing obstruction.

3. Bezoara is the cause of stomach ulcers with perforation of the organ wall.

The listed prevention rules must be followed to prevent the formation of a stone in the stomach.

Stomach stones (bezoar)

In the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of the stomach, one must bear in mind foreign bodies (bezoars), which include trichobezoars (foreign bodies consisting of hair), phytobezoars (from cellulose and fruit seeds), sebobezoars (from fat), stibobezoars (fatty stones), shellacbezoars (made from shellac dyes), pixobezoars (made from resin) and others.

Phytobezoars are most often found, especially in the southern regions of the country, where the population quite often and a lot eats persimmons, figs, oranges with seeds, olives and some other fruits containing fibrous structures and tannins. The latter, in the presence of hydrochloric acid, can glue plant fibers and bones and give rise to stone formation. The formation of trichobezoar (a very rare type of bezoar) is caused by ingestion of hair in women who have a habit of chewing the ends of their hair or swallowing them due to mental disorders.set 32 ​​cm, and in diameter – 13 cm, and in the observations of G. N. Goryachev (1964) and A. A. Aliev (1966), when the trichobezoar was an imprint of the stomach (Fig. 14). Minami (1974) described two bezoars that developed after gastric resection. The author notes that the number of such bezoars is increasing.

Bezoars with long-term existence can cause various complications: stomach ulcer (I.K.Pipia, A.V. Telia, 1973; I.A.Patevsky, 1974; I. Yu. Ibadov, 1972; D.R. Yusubov, 1975 ), perforation of the ulcer (G.N. Goryachev, 1964; N. F. Bogdanov, B. A. Svidersky, 1969; I.K. Pipia, A.V. Telia, 1973), massive bleeding, papillomatosis (V.I. Mints – cited by E.K. Nikiforov, 1957), cancer (I. M. Mamedov – cited by E K. Nikiforov, 1957), acute intestinal obstruction (occurs when a small stone moves from the stomach to the intestine). With large bezoars, the walls of the stomach hypertrophy.

The clinical picture of bezoars depends on the size, nature of the bezoar and the presence of complications. Therefore, bezoars, like benign tumors, should be divided into uncomplicated and complicated ones.

All authors unanimously note that patients with bezoars complain of pain and heaviness in the epigastric region, nausea, vomiting, belching. The accompanying complications supplement the clinical picture with symptoms of bleeding, peptic ulcer, intestinal obstruction, etc. In vomit with loose bezoars, elements of a foreign body may be contained. Clinical symptoms gradually progress.


Stomach stones (bezoar)

Diagnostics with the possibility of a planned study is not difficult.It is necessary to take into account the patient’s tendency to chew hair, resin, eat fruit with seeds, eat a lot of persimmons, etc.

A detailed study of anamnestic data is usually addressed after an objective and X-ray examination has been performed.In most patients, bezoars are well palpated in the form of rounded, dense, easily displaced formations, which is one of the most important symptoms that make it possible to suspect stomach bezoars. before x-ray examination. True, this is realistic only if the bezoar is not very large and it is possible to determine the intragastric position of the tumor.In his observation, VM Mysh took the trichobezoar for a displaced “wandering” spleen. A very high mobility of the bezoar (from one hypochondrium to another) was noted in one of the observations of EK Nikiforov. A similar displacement of the bezoar took place in our observation: in a thin person, with a general good condition and no complaints, a dense oval formation was determined, wandering along the epigastric region.

Solves the diagnosis by X-ray examination, which gives especially clear data with moderate bezoars.A central (contrasting mass surrounds the defined formation on all sides) is found, a filling defect, rounded with clear contours, freely moving in the stomach cavity. Severe hypersecretion in bezoars leads to the presence of a large amount of gastric juice, therefore, it is recommended to pump out the contents and rinse the stomach before fluoroscopy. In the majority of published cases, with the possibility of a planned study, the diagnosis of bezoar is established before surgery. So it was with our patient.However, difficulties in diagnosis are possible, which increase with complicated forms of bezoars. In such cases, patients are taken for surgery most often with a diagnosis of “tumor (cancer)”, “perforated stomach ulcer” or “acute intestinal obstruction.” In one of our patients, two rather large stomach bezoars were accidentally found during surgery for a cardia ulcer.

Treatment of bezoars is mainly operative – gastrotomy and stone removal. Operations for bezoars complicated by a stomach ulcer that has given penetration or bleeding should also include intervention in the ulcerative process.For large anatomical changes in the stomach, economical resection is indicated. In other cases, taking into account the genesis of the ulcer, excision of the ulcer and suturing of the stomach wound is permissible. The possibility of ulcerative lesions of the stomach wall (unrecognized before surgery) necessitates a thorough revision of the stomach after removal of the bezoar. IK Pipia and AV Telia, referring to the work of Browne a. Me. Hardy (1940) and Kalbizer (1955), write about cases of death from profuse bleeding and peritonitis in patients in whom complicated stomach ulcers were not recognized during surgery for bezoar.

Conservative treatment is permissible only with phytobezoars (light massage, taking a warm 5% soda solution). E. K-Nikiforov described a successful case of self-medication of a patient who had resinous bezoar using massage and a warm solution of soda. It is difficult to count on the success of conservative treatment, and therefore the diagnosis of bezoar of any nature should be followed by a conclusion about the need for surgical intervention.

Removal of stomach bezoars | GBUZ “KKB No. 2”

Bezoars of the stomach and duodenum belong to a special kind of diseases, close in many cases to foreign bodies.They are formed when they enter the stomach with food or, as a result of bad habits, of such substances that are not digested in it, but accumulate and form into foreign bodies. In addition, bezoars can form due to the multiplication of Candida-type fungi in the stomach.

Many different bezoars are known: phyto-, tricho-, shellac-, pixo-, sebo (stibo) -, pseudo-, polybezoars, etc. Phytobezoars are found more often than others, which make up 70-75% of all bezoars. They are formed from plant fiber, the skin of seeds and pits of fruits and vegetables: wild persimmon, wild plums, grapes, figs, bird cherry, etc.The rate of phytobezoar formation depends on their organic nature and ranges from 1-5 days to 16 years. Very quickly they are formed from unripe persimmon, which contains a large amount of resinous and astringent substances that glue the remnants of plant food into a compact mass.

Depending on the time of formation, phytobezoars can have a consistency from soft to the density of natural stone. They are single and multiple, dark brown or green in color, and emit a fetid odor.The sizes of these formations range from a few millimeters to 20 cm or more. In recent years, reports of the appearance of phytobezoars in the stomach and duodenum after various operations on the stomach, in particular after vagotomy, have become more frequent. At the same time, it was found that phytobezoars after vagotomy in combination with gastric resection are found no less often than after vagotomy with drainage interventions. Probably, the frequency of phytobezoar formation in the operated stomach indicated by us is underestimated, since not all patients undergo X-ray and endoscopic examinations in the process of monitoring them.Factors contributing to the formation of phytobezoars are a decrease in the secretory function of the stomach and a violation of the evacuation of contents from it, poor chewing of food, the presence of viscous mucus in the stomach due to the development of postoperative gastritis. In the formation of phytobezoars, a significant role is played by yeast-like fungi, which are, as it were, a “seed”. At the same time, there is an opinion that mushrooms grow on bezoars as a nutrient medium. In some cases, large accumulations of fungal colonies become bezoars.Trichobezoars were described earlier than others. In the domestic literature, VM Mysh (1912) was the first to report the trichobezoar of the stomach. They are formed when hair enters the stomach and are most often found in people with an unbalanced psyche who suffer from an irresistible urge to bite their hair, as well as in people who work with hair. Children with schizophrenia often suffer from this disease. Shellac stones (shellacobesoars) are much less common, there are isolated reports of them.

Bezoars, as a rule, form in the stomach, but they can also form in the duodenal diverticulum.Clinical manifestations of stomach and duodenal bezoars depend on the nature, size, mass, location and age of their formation, as well as on the neuropsychic state of patients and complications associated with the bezoar. In the diagnosis, anamnestic data on the patient’s bad habits are important. The most common symptoms are epigastric pain, nausea, swollen belching, and vomiting. The pain is often dull, but it can be cramping, spreading to the lower abdomen, which is caused by partial or complete blockage of the small intestine.Sometimes patients feel the “ball” rolling in the stomach. Many patients complain of general weakness, fast satiety, poor appetite, and weight loss. A blood test reveals anemia.

The main diagnostic method is X-ray of the stomach and fibrogastroscopy. Ultrasound examination is a screening method in the diagnosis of this disease. At the same time, a volumetric formation is revealed in the stomach cavity, often with uneven contours, high echogenicity with the presence, as a rule, of an acoustic shadow.The walls of the stomach can be thickened, but evenly and slightly. Differential diagnosis with gastric cancer should be carried out when a volumetric disease is detected in the projection of the stomach. But it, in contrast to the bezoar, is associated with a significant thickening of the wall. The inner contour of the wall is uneven, with the presence of air in the cavity and symptoms of reverberation.

Cola dissolves stones in the stomach :: Society ::

Greek scientists have found that drinking carbonated drinks like Coca-Cola will help dissolve the so-called bezoars – stones that form in the gastrointestinal tract.Sweet fizzy drinks have been named as a cheap prophylactic remedy for people with digestive problems.

The corresponding conclusions were made by a group of gastroenterologists from the medical school at the University of Athens, who conducted the study and published its results in a popular medical journal.

Sometimes in the human gastrointestinal tract, indigestible food debris forms into bezoars – or stones. The most common are phytobezoars – plant stones , which are formed from the fibers of unripe persimmon, grape and date seeds, and the like.

For healthy people, even unripe fruits and vegetables are harmless . However, if the stomach or intestines are dysfunctional, the risk of bezoar formation increases. They are often found in patients who have undergone surgery on the stomach, as well as in people suffering from pronounced gastritis, or those who do not chew food well.

Hardened stones can be removed with surgery. But as long as the bezoars are soft, they can be dissolved.Doctors found that in most cases, in patients with soft bezoars and regularly drinking soda, there was no need for further operation , RT reports.

Traditionally, soft bezoars are removed with an endoscope. But even without its use Coca-Cola completely dissolved stones in 50% of observed patients . Doctors point out that soda treatment is a matter of personal choice. “Nevertheless, the availability, low cost, fast mode of action, ease of use and safety make soda a very effective therapy,” the Greek researchers conclude.

But everyone who decides that sweet soda is useful should remember that such drinks contribute to obesity and provoke caries . So it cannot be recommended as a treatment for people without gastrointestinal stones.

Note, it is known that Coca-Cola perfectly polishes metal bumpers, and is also known as a good detergent for the toilet and sinks. As a rule, an effervescent drink is subject to numerous attacks because of this.


90,000 Foreign body in the stomach of dogs. Veterinary clinic “Zoostatus”

Signs of a foreign body in the stomach of a dog
Diagnosis of a dog with a foreign body in the stomach

Treatment of a dog with a foreign body in the stomach


Dogs often swallow inedible items. This can happen while playing (too small a ball, gnawed toys and household items) or while getting food (eating bones or food along with the packaging).Sometimes this happens in front of the owner, and sometimes a foreign body in the dog’s stomach is discovered by chance, during a routine examination. These can be toys, rags (most often household linen), polyethylene, needles, coins, stones, pieces of wood, etc.

Signs of a foreign body in the dog’s stomach

Sometimes foreign bodies in the stomach can stay for months without showing themselves in any way. But more often they cause symptoms of gastritis or obstruction:

  • vomiting (more often some time after eating),
  • soreness in the stomach,
  • loss of appetite,
  • weight loss,
  • no chair or melena,
  • lethargy.

Sharp edges of a foreign object can injure the stomach wall up to its perforation and the development of peritonitis. Also, a long stay in the stomach of even a soft foreign object causes inflammation of the walls of the stomach and can lead to their necrosis. This threatens not only the health, but also the life of the dog.

If there is a suspicion that the dog has swallowed a foreign object, it should be taken to the veterinary clinic without waiting for clinical signs to appear.

Diagnosis of a dog with a foreign body in the stomach

An abdominal ultrasound can usually only provide indirect evidence of the suspected presence of a foreign body in the dog’s stomach. Radiography is used to diagnose a foreign object in the stomach, but it is informative for radiopaque objects (metal, bones, stones, etc.). In some cases, radiography using contrast will be informative (rags and the like will retain the contrast agent).Accurate information on the presence of a foreign body in the stomach and on the condition of the stomach walls will be given by gastroscopy.

Treatment of a dog with a foreign body in the stomach

Treatment consists of removing the foreign body from the dog’s stomach and following therapy according to the condition (intravenous infusion for dehydration, antibiotics and gastroprotective agents).