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11 year old wetting the bed: Bedwetting in Children & Teens: Nocturnal Enuresis


Bedwetting in Children & Teens: Nocturnal Enuresis

Nocturnal enuresis , defined as nighttime
bedwetting beyond age 5, affects many school-age children and even some teens. It’s not a serious health problem, and children usually outgrow it. Still, bedwetting can be upsetting for children and parents.

It’s important to work with your child’s doctors to find possible causes and solutions. Here are some frequently asked questions.

How common is bedwetting in school-age children and teens?  

Occasional “accidents” are common among children who are toilet trained. Around 20% of children have some problems with bedwetting at age 5, and up to 10% still do at age 7. By the late teens, the estimated rate of bedwetting is between 1% and 3% of children. Nocturnal enuresis is 2 to 3 times more common in boys than girls.

There are 2 types of nocturnal enuresis:

  • Primary enuresis: a child has never had bladder control at night and has always wet the bed.    

  • Secondary enuresis: a child did have bladder control at night for a period of at least 6 months, but lost that control and now wets the bed again.

Primary enuresis is much more common. Secondary enuresis in older children or teens should be evaluated by a doctor. Bedwetting in this age group could be a sign of a urinary tract infection or other health problems, neurological issues (related to the brain), stress, or other issues.

What are some causes of bedwetting?

Although it is not completely understood why bedwetting occurs, it is thought to happen because of a delay in the development in at least one of the following three areas at nighttime:

  • Bladder:  less space in the bladder at night

  • Kidney: more urine is made at night

  • Brain: unable to wake up during sleep

In babies and toddlers, links between the brain and the bladder have not fully formed; the bladder will just release urine whenever it feels full. As children get older, the connections between brain and bladder develop. This allows a child to control when the bladder empties. This control usually develops during the daytime first; it takes more time before it happens at night.

Other bedwetting risk factors: 

  • Genetics. If one parent wet the bed after 5 years old, their children may have the same problem about 40% of the time. If both parents wet the bed as children, then each of their children would have about a 70% chance of having the same problem. 

  • Stress. This is one of the most common reason for secondary enuresis. Children experience
    stress when moving to a new home or school, experiencing a parental divorce or losing a parent or other people they love, or going through another major life event. This stress can cause bedwetting; treating the stress can stop the bedwetting.

  • Deep sleep. A deep sleep pattern can be part of normal adolescent development, as can a poor sleep schedule and too few hours of sleep. This is all common during
    puberty and especially during a teen’s high school years. 

  • Obstructive sleep apnea/snoring. In rare cases, bedwetting happens because a child has
    obstructive sleep apnea and
    snores. Children with this condition have a partly blocked airway that can briefly stop their breathing when they sleep. This can change the chemical balance of the brain, which may trigger the bedwetting.  

  • Constipation. The bladder and bowels sit very near each other in the body. A backed up bowel (constipation) can push on the bladder and cause the child to lose bladder control. Treating the
    constipation is often the first step to treating the bedwetting in these cases. If your child is having pain or straining with bowel movements, this could be contributing to bedwetting. 

  • Bladder or

    kidney disease. This may be the case if a child has both daytime and nighttime bladder control problems and other urinary symptoms such as pain when peeing or the need to pee frequently.

  • Neurologic disease. Sometimes a spinal cord problem that develops with growth or that is present early in childhood can cause bedwetting. If your child has other symptoms like numbness, tingling, or pain in the legs, a spinal issue may be considered. However, this is a very rare cause of bedwetting. 

  • Other
    medical conditions and/or medications. In rare cases, other medical conditions like
    diabetes cause enuresis in children.
    Some studies suggest that children with
    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are more likely to have enuresis, possibly because of differences in brain chemistry. Some medications can also increase the chances of bedwetting.  

How is bedwetting evaluated?

Your child’s doctor will first take a complete medical history and ask about any other urinary symptoms such as the urge to urinate a lot, the need to “run to the bathroom” a lot, or pain or burning while peeing. The doctor will also ask about sleep patterns, how often your child moves his or her bowels, and family health. The doctor will ask if either parent wet their bed at night as a child. Finally, the doctor may ask about stressful events in the child’s life that could be adding to the problem.

Your child will also receive a complete physical exam including a simple urine test (urinalysis). This test shows signs of a disease or an infection.  In most children with enuresis, the results of this test come back completely normal. X-rays are usually not needed.

Is there treatment for older children and teens who wet the bed?  

Yes. However, treatment for bedwetting first depends on if it is caused by something like stress, which would need to be managed first.  Overall, children who take an active part in their treatment have a better chance of decreasing or stopping the bedwetting.

Bedwetting alarms:

Research shows that about half of children who properly use enuretic (bedwetting) alarms will stay dry at night after a few weeks. These alarms buzz or vibrate when a child’s underwear gets wet. Over time, the brain is trained to associate the feeling of needing to pee with the alarm going off, and getting up and going to the bathroom. This therapy requires active participation by an adult to make sure the child fully wakes up and goes to the bathroom when the alarm goes off.


There are only two medications that have been approved for bedwetting—imipramine and desmopressin. It is important to note that bedwetting usually returns once medications are stopped, unless the child has “grown out of” nocturnal enuresis.

  • Imipramine works well in some children with nocturnal enuresis. There is a chance of overdose on this medicine, so it is important for parents to strictly control how and when they give the medicine. An
    EKG is recommended before starting this medicine, although heart problems have not been reported with doses of imipramine used to treat bedwetting. Children with an abnormal EKG should not use this medicine.

  • Desmopressin (DDAVP) helps to reduce the amount of urine your body makes.  It improves bedwetting in about 40% to 60% of children. DDAVP comes in both nasal spray and pill forms and is taken before bed. It is important to not drink any fluids after taking it to decrease the risk of electrolyte imbalance.  An additional medication, oxybutynin, has been show to be helpful, especially in patients who do not respond to DDAVP alone and can be given in combination with it.

Will bedwetting stay with my child into adulthood?

Bedwetting almost always goes away on its own. Most children will grow out of it by the late teenage years or sooner. Secondary enuresis may go away when the cause is found. It is either treated, or it gets better on its own. If bedwetting has not stopped in the late teenage years, your child should be seen by a doctor.


Never wait to talk about bedwetting with your pediatrician to find a solution that works best for your child and your family.

Additional Information:


The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

Still Bedwetting? – Specialists Help

Q1. My son is 10 years old, turning 11 in October. He wets the bed just about every night. He currently takes DDAVP tablets before bed and does not drink fluids after 6:30 pm. I just can’t get him to stop wetting the bed. I read a news study that said heart hormones are sometimes elevated in children who wet the bed. How can I find out if this is the issue and, if it is, will this help me to find a better treatment?

It sounds like you have tried a lot of different techniques to help your son with his bedwetting (also called nocturnal enuresis). First, I just want to emphasize how common an issue bedwetting is in children, especially males. About 5 percent of children aged 10 to 11 years old will have issues with nocturnal enuresis. There can be a variety of causes, including a small bladder, an immature bladder that does not always empty appropriately, a family history that makes bedwetting more likely, deep sleeping, stress, and increased urine production at night that may be related to abnormal secretion of hormones that affect urine volume.

I believe the “heart hormone” that you have heard about is atrial natriuretic peptide, a hormone involved in the body’s fluid regulation that is secreted from the heart. Studies I have read have not supported initial thoughts that children with nocturnal enuresis have abnormal amounts of atrial natriuretic peptide. It is not currently recommended as a treatment for children with primary nocturnal enuresis.

Certainly, by the age of 10, I do recommend treatment for those with bedwetting issues because it can be very embarrassing for children this age to attend sleepovers or camp. DDAVP (desmopressin) has been shown to be effective in almost 50 percent of patients who have nocturnal enuresis; however, there is a very high relapse rate when the medication stops. DDAVP works by decreasing the production of urine. It is usually given right before a child goes to bed. It seems that your son has not responded to DDAVP, which is not uncommon! Surprisingly, the most effective treatment for bedwetting is actually “bedwetting alarms,” or underwear that can detect urination. These “alarms” help approximately 70 percent of patients, with a low relapse rate. I would certainly recommend that you try a bedwetting alarm before you try a new medication. Your child’s pediatrician can give you specific instructions about how to best use the alarm to modify bedwetting behavior.

If your son is still having significant issues with bedwetting, I would recommend he see a pediatric urologist. Your son’s primary care doctor can be a great resource in helping you develop a plan for your son’s treatment. I would definitely involve him in whatever decisions you make.

Q2. My daughter is 7, and she wets her bed about three times a month. Is this normal? What can I do to help?

— Maria, New Hampshire

Bedwetting is a common childhood problem. The medical term for it is nocturnal enuresis. Most children are toilet trained by the time they are 5 years old, however, approximately 3 percent of girls your daughter’s age will have occasional nocturnal enuresis. If your daughter has no other symptoms, such as an increase in amount, frequency, urge, or pain with urination, and if she has always had difficulty with wetting the bed, she has a benign type of nocturnal enuresis.

The exact cause of this type of nocturnal enuresis is not known. It can be embarrassing and cause anxiety for both children and parents, especially as children get older and want to have or attend sleepovers. Nocturnal enuresis does seem to run in families. It may be due to deep sleep, a small bladder, delayed control of the urination system, or some psychological component.

Although diapers may seem like a tempting solution, it’s important that your daughter learns how to better control the problem. There are several strategies you can try to help reduce the frequency of these episodes. I recommend starting with a conversation to explain nocturnal enuresis to your daughter, so that she understands what is occurring and does not feel guilty or unusual for having this issue. There are good handouts on the topic that can help you with this discussion. Other things you may want to try include:

  • Limiting your daughter’s food and fluid intake close to bedtime (but not during the rest of the day).
  • Completely removing any caffeinated beverages like iced teas or sodas from her diet.
  • Developing a routine in which your daughter uses the bathroom right before she goes to sleep to fully empty her bladder.
  • You or your daughter can keep a diary to try to track her bedwetting improvements.
  • Have her help clean up if she has an accident, however, do not treat this as a punishment! Praise both dry nights and thorough cleaning up of accidents. Avoid criticism and teasing by other family members!

These simple measures help to improve symptoms in most patients, although only about a quarter of patients are “cured” by these measures. If your daughter continues to have nocturnal enuresis, there are other options, such as special “bedwetting alarms” or underwear that can detect urination, hypnotherapy, and medications.

Rarely, bedwetting may be caused by a urinary tract infection or can be a sign of a more significant issue. This is unlikely if the problem only occurs at night and on an occasional basis. A number of behavioral and medical treatments exist for benign nocturnal enuresis that does not get better on its own, or by using the simple measures mentioned above. Consult your child’s pediatrician if your daughter is having any other symptoms associated with her nocturnal enuresis or for more details about treatment options.

Learn more in the Everyday Health Kids’ Health Center.

What Causes Your Child to Wet the Bed?

Waking in the middle of the night to change your child’s sheets after a bedwetting episode is practically a rite of passage for parents. And it’s more common than you think.

“I call it the hidden problem of childhood,” says Howard Bennett, MD, a pediatrician and author of Waking Up Dry: A Guide to Help Children Overcome Bedwetting. “Unlike asthma or allergies, it’s just not talked about outside the house.”

Bedwetting: The Secret Problem

That secrecy about bedwetting makes the situation tougher for kids and parents alike. “Ninety percent of kids think they’re the only ones who wet the bed, which makes them feel even worse,” says Bennett.

Yet bed-wetting children are far from alone. Though children naturally gain bladder control at night, they do so at different ages. From 5 to 7 million kids wet the bed some or most nights — with twice as many boys wetting their bed as girls. After age 5, about 15% of children continue to wet the bed, and by age 10, 95% of children are dry at night.

Wet beds leave bad feelings all around. Frustrated parents sometimes conclude a child is wetting the bed out of laziness. Kids worry there’s something wrong with them — especially when teasing siblings chime in. Fear of wetting the bed at a friend’s sleepover can create social awkwardness.

For some, bedwetting may be an inevitable part of growing up, but it doesn’t have to be traumatic. Understanding bed-wetting’s causes is the first step to dealing with this common childhood problem.

The Bedwetting Gene

There’s no one single cause of bed-wetting, but if you want an easy target, look no farther than your own DNA.

“The majority of bedwetting is inherited,” says Bennett. “For three out of four kids, either a parent or a first-degree relative also wet the bed in childhood.”

Scientists have even located some of the specific genes that lead to delayed nighttime bladder control. (For the record, they’re on chromosome 13, 12, and 8.)

“Most parents who had the same problem communicate it to their kids, which is good,” suggests Bennett. “It helps a kid understand, I’m not alone, it’s not my fault.

The Usual Bedwetting Suspects

Yet genetics only tells part of the story. Researchers have identified a number of factors that likely contribute to bedwetting. “All of these are debated, but each probably plays a role in some children,” says Bennett, including:

  • Delayed bladder maturation. “Simply put, the brain and bladder gradually learn to communicate with each other during sleep, and this takes longer to happen in some kids,” Bennett tells WebMD.
  • Low anti-diuretic hormone (ADH). This hormone tells the kidneys to make less urine. Studies show that some kids who wet the bed release less of this hormone while asleep. More urine can mean more bedwetting.
  • Deep sleepers. “Families have been telling us for years that their children who wet the bed sleep more deeply than their kids that don’t,” says Bennett. Research confirms the link. “Some of these children sleep so deeply, their brain doesn’t get the signal that their bladder is full.
  • Smaller “functional” bladder. Although a child’s true bladder size may be normal, “during sleep, it sends the signal earlier that it’s full,” says Bennett.
  • Constipation. Full bowels press on the bladder, and can cause uncontrolled bladder contractions, during waking or sleep. “This is the one that’s hiding in the background,” says Bennett. “Once kids are toilet trained, parents often don’t know how often a child is going … [they’re] out of the ‘poop loop.'”

Bedwetting: When Is It Worth Worrying?

Bedwetting that’s caused by medical problems is genuinely rare — 3% of cases or less, according to Bennett. Urinary tract infections, sleep apnea, diabetes, spinal cord problems, and deformities of the bladder or urinary tract — all are worth mentioning, but probably not worrying over.

Medical causes of bedwetting are nearly always uncovered by simply talking to a child and her parents, performing an exam, and testing the urine, says Bennett.

“The vast majority of kids who are wet at night have nothing medically wrong with them,” he emphasizes.

Children who have gained nighttime bladder control, then “relapsed” into bedwetting, are slightly more likely to have medical causes. Psychological stress (such as divorce or the birth of a new sibling) is an even more common cause, though.

Pediatricians don’t diagnose primary nocturnal enuresis (the medical term for bedwetting) until age 6. It’s an arbitrary cutoff — after all, 12% of children wet the bed at that age. “It’s really only a problem when either the child or the parents start to think so,” says Bennett.

Bedwetting Treatment: Becoming ‘Boss of Your Body’

The potential harm of bedwetting is more often psychological than medical. “After age 6, many children start to have sleepovers, and that’s when bed-wetting can be particularly embarrassing and stressful,” says Bennett.

“It’s just as important to know what doesn’t cause bedwetting — the myths around it,” says Bennett. “No child wets the bed on purpose, or from being too lazy to get up to pee.”

Dragging themselves out of bed to change wet sheets on yet another night, parents frequently become frustrated. “Intentionally or unintentionally, parents express disapproval that this is happening,” says Bennett. “It’s understandable, but it makes the situation worse.”

Addressing the problem positively can avoid lasting problems, and numerous strategies can help children cope with and improve bedwetting. Some bed-wetting treatments include:

  • Encouraging a child to pee before bedtime.
  • Restricting a child’s fluid intake before bed.
  • Covering the mattress with plastic.
  • Bed-wetting alarms. These alarms sense urine and wake a child so they can use the toilet.
  • Bladder stretching exercises that may increase how much urine the bladder can hold.
  • Medications.

Because bedwetting gets better on its own, “in the past, doctors often said to parents and kids, ‘Don’t worry about it,'” says Bennett. “But if it’s causing anxiety or social problems, it’s important to know there are things families can do to make the situation better.”

How to Help Your Child Stop Wetting the Bed – Cleveland Clinic

You’re frustrated. You’re
exhausted. Your child is already in school – and they’re still wetting the bed
at night. You’ve tried limiting liquids after dinner. You’ve woken your child
up in the middle of the night and asked them to go the bathroom. Still, no

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

You aren’t alone. Parents often worry about bed-wetting in their children, a problem defined as “involuntary urination in children 5 years of age or older.” But in reality, about 15% of children in the U.S. are still wetting the bed at age 5.

To help parents deal with this challenge, we turned to Charles Kwon, MD, a pediatric nephrologist and Audrey Rhee, MD, a pediatric urologist.

I be worried?

Dr. Kwon says bed-wetting isn’t a concern until your child is 7 years old.

When your child is older than age 7 and still wetting the bed, you might want to talk with your child’s primary care physician or a pediatric nephrologist or urologist. The underlying issue is usually a bladder that’s not yet matured.

Also, keep in mind that about
15% of children age 5 or older actually stop wetting the bed each year.

“When I meet a child who is wetting the bed, it’s twice as likely to be a boy. He usually presents with no other medical problems,” Dr. Kwon says.

Dr. Kwon says the parents are usually upset because it’s an ongoing issue – and everybody needs to get some sleep. There are chances too that there’s a family history of bed-wetting as well. To combat bed-wetting, doctors suggest:

  • Shift times for drinking. Increase fluid intake earlier in the day and reduce it later in the day.
  • Schedule bathroom breaks. Get your child on a regular urination schedule (every two to three hours) and right before bedtime.
  • Be encouraging. Make your child feel good about progress by consistently rewarding successes.
  • Eliminate bladder irritants. At night, start by eliminating caffeine (such as chocolate milk and cocoa). And if this doesn’t work, cut citrus juices, artificial flavorings, dyes (especially red) and sweeteners. Many parents don’t realize these can all irritate a child’s bladder.
  • Avoid thirst overload. If schools allow, give your child a water bottle so they can drink steadily all day. This avoids excessive thirst after school.
  • Consider if constipation is a factor. Because the rectum is right behind the bladder, difficulties with constipation can present themselves as a bladder problem, especially at night. This affects about one-third of children who wet the bed, though children are unlikely to identify or share information about constipation.
  • Don’t wake children up to urinate. Randomly waking up a child at night and asking them to urinate on demand isn’t the answer, either. It will only lead to more sleeplessness and frustration.
  • An earlier bedtime. Often children are deep sleepers because they’re simply not getting enough sleep.
  • Cut back on screen time, especially before bedtime. Improving sleep hygiene can help their minds slow down so they can sleep better.
  • Don’t resort to punishment. Getting angry at your child doesn’t help them learn. The process doesn’t need to involve conflict.

not usually recommended

Although there are medications (including a synthetic form of a hormone) that can address bed-wetting, Dr. Rhee doesn’t prescribe them unless a child was already put on the medication by another provider.

“There are side effects,” she
says. “Plus it’s a temporary fix, a Band-Aid remedy, when what we want is an
overall solution.

my child

want to learn?

Families often wonder if a child is bed-wetting on purpose. Parents will ask, “‘Don’t they want to get better?’” Dr. Kwon often tells parents that it’s typically not their fault nor is it their child’s fault. “I tell them not to get too stressed, because this issue often resolves on its own,” he says.

Dr. Rhee adds it’s also important to talk to your child to see if there is motivation to change. If they are motivated to change, a bed-wetting alarm can be the solution. 

You can clip the alarm to the child’s underwear or place it on the pad on the bed. Once the device detects any moisture, the alarm goes off.  But if the child isn’t independently motivated, the alarm may have no benefit for the child and may just further frustrate the family.

“If they’re still sneaking drinks late at night and eating what they shouldn’t, then it doesn’t make sense to invest in an expensive bed-wetting alarm. So, I directly ask a child if bed-wetting bothers them, to find out if it’s the parents’ frustration that brought the child to the appointment or their own,” Dr. Rhee says.

As the child gets older and has opportunities to go to slumber parties and weekend trips, bed-wetting can affect their confidence and social life. This will most likely motivate the child to solve the problem and avoid feeling embarrassed.

When bed-wetting signals more serious issues

Occasionally, bed-wetting is a sign of something more significant, including:

  • Sleep apnea – If a child snores a lot or otherwise shows signs of sleep apnea, Dr. Rhee will investigate further. Otherwise, this isn’t a first course of evaluation of a child with bed-wetting issues.
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) – A urine sample can detect these infections, which is a typical test doctors will order when bed-wetting is an issue.
  • Diabetes – A urine sample can also detect diabetes in children.

If a child also has daytime incontinence, age is something to consider. Generally children will outgrow the issue. “In preschool, about 20% of children have daytime incontinence. But, only 5% of teenagers have these symptoms,” Dr. Kwon says.

5 Common Reasons Why Children Wet the Bed

Choose an AuthorAaron Barber, AT, ATC, PESAbbie Roth, MWCAdam Ostendorf, MDAdriane Baylis, PhD, CCC-SLPAdrienne M. Flood, CPNP-ACAdvanced Healthcare Provider CouncilAila Co, MDAlaina White, AT, ATCAlana Milton, MDAlana Milton, MDAlecia Jayne, AuDAlessandra Gasior, DOAlex Kemper, MDAlexandra Funk, PharmD, DABATAlexandra Sankovic, MDAlexis Klenke, RD, LDAlice Bass, CPNP-PCAlison PeggAllie DePoyAllison Rowland, AT, ATCAllison Strouse, MS, AT, ATCAmanda E. Graf, MDAmanda Smith, RN, BSN, CPNAmanda Sonk, LMTAmanda Whitaker, MDAmber Patterson, MDAmberle Prater, PhD, LPCCAmy Coleman, LISWAmy Dunn, MDAmy E. Valasek, MD, MScAmy Fanning, PT, DPTAmy Garee, CPNP-PCAmy Hahn, PhDAmy HessAmy Leber, PhDAmy LeRoy, CCLSAmy Moffett, CPNP-PCAmy Randall-McSorley, MMC, EdD CandidateAnastasia Fischer, MD, FACSMAndala HardyAndrea Brun, CPNP-PCAndrea M. Boerger, MEd, CCC-SLPAndrea Sattler, MDAndrew AxelsonAndrew Kroger, MD, MPHAndrew SchwadererAngela AbenaimAngela Billingslea, LISW-SAnn Pakalnis, MDAnna Lillis, MD, PhDAnnette Haban-BartzAnnie Drapeau, MDAnnie Temple, MS, CCC-SLP, CLCAnthony Audino, MDAnup D. Patel, MDAri Rabkin, PhDAriana Hoet, PhDArielle Sheftall, PhDArleen KarczewskiAshleigh Kussman, MDAshley EcksteinAshley Kroon Van DiestAshley M. Davidson, AT, ATC, MSAshley Minnick, MSAH, AT, ATCAshley Overall, FNPAshley Parikh, CPNP-PCAshley Parker MSW, LISW-SAshley Parker, LISW-SAshley Tuisku, CTRSAsuncion Mejias, MD, PhDAurelia Wood, MDBailey Young, DOBecky Corbitt, RNBelinda Mills, MDBenjamin Fields, PhD, MEdBenjamin Kopp, MDBernadette Burke, AT, ATC, MSBeth Martin, RNBeth Villanueva, OTD, OTR/LBethany Uhl, MDBethany Walker, PhDBhuvana Setty, MDBill Kulju, MS, ATBlake SkinnerBonnie Gourley, MSW, LSWBrad Childers, RRT, BSBrandi Cogdill, RN, BSN, CFRN, EMT-PBrandon MorganBreanne L. 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Williams, MD, MPH, FAAP, Dipl ABOMDonna Ruch, PhDDonna TeachDoug WolfDouglas McLaughlin, MDDrew Duerson, MDEd MinerEdward Oberle, MD, RhMSUSEdward Shepherd, MDEileen Chaves, PhDElise Berlan, MDElise DawkinsElizabeth A. Cannon, LPCCElizabeth Cipollone, LPCC-SElizabeth Zmuda, DOEllyn Hamm, MM, MT-BCEmily A. Stuart, MDEmily Decker, MDEmily GetschmanEmma Wysocki, PharmD, RDNEric Butter, PhDEric Leighton, AT, ATCEric Sribnick, MD, PhDErica Domrose, RD, LDEricca L Lovegrove, RDErika RobertsErin Gates, PT, DPTErin Johnson, M.Ed., C.S.C.S.Erin Shann, BSN, RNErin TebbenFarah W. Brink, MDGail Bagwell, DNP, APRN, CNSGail Besner, MDGail Swisher, ATGarey Noritz, MDGary A. Smith, MD, DrPHGeri Hewitt, MDGina Hounam, PhDGina McDowellGina MinotGrace Paul, MDGregory D. Pearson, MDGriffin Stout, MDGuliz Erdem, MDHailey Blosser, MA, CCC-SLPHanna MathessHeather Battles, MDHeather ClarkHeather Yardley, PhDHenry SpillerHenry Xiang, MD, MPH, PhDHerman Hundley, MS, AT, ATC, CSCSHiren Patel, MDHoma Amini, DDS, MPH, MSHoward Jacobs, MDHunter Wernick, DOIbrahim Khansa, MDIhuoma Eneli, MDIlana Moss, PhDIlene Crabtree, PTIrene Mikhail, MDIrina Buhimschi, MDIvor Hill, MDJackie Cronau, RN, CWOCNJacqueline Wynn, PhD, BCBA-DJacquelyn Doxie King, PhDJaime-Dawn Twanow, MDJames Murakami, MDJames Popp, MDJames Ruda, MDJameson Mattingly, MDJamie Macklin, MDJane AbelJanelle Huefner, MA, CCC-SLPJanice M. Moreland, CPNP-PC, DNPJanice Townsend, DDS, MSJared SylvesterJaysson EicholtzJean Hruschak, MA, CCC/SLPJeff Sydes, CSCSJeffery Auletta, MDJeffrey Bennett, MD, PhDJeffrey Hoffman, MDJeffrey Leonard, MDJen Campbell, PT, MSPTJena HeckJenn Gonya, PhDJennifer Borda, PT, DPTJennifer HofherrJennifer LockerJennifer PrinzJennifer Reese, PsyDJennifer Smith, MS, RD, CSP, LD, LMTJenny Worthington, PT, DPTJerry R. Mendell, MDJessalyn Mayer, MSOT, OTR/LJessica Bailey, PsyDJessica Bogacik, MS, MT-BCJessica Bowman, MDJessica BrockJessica Bullock, MA/CCC-SLPJessica Buschmann, RDJessica Scherr, PhDJim O’Shea OT, MOT, CHTJoan Fraser, MSW, LISW-SJohn Ackerman, PhDJohn Caballero, PT, DPT, CSCSJohn Kovalchin, MDJonathan D. Thackeray, MDJonathan Finlay, MB, ChB, FRCPJonathan M. Grischkan, MDJonathan Napolitano, MDJoshua Watson, MDJulee Eing, CRA, RT(R)Julia Colman, MOT, OTR/LJulie ApthorpeJulie Leonard, MD, MPHJulie Racine, PhDJulie Samora, MDJustin Indyk, MD, PhDKady LacyKaleigh Hague, MA, MT-BCKaleigh MatesickKamilah Twymon, LPCC-SKara Malone, MDKara Miller, OTR/LKaren Allen, MDKaren Days, MBAKaren Rachuba, RD, LD, CLCKari A. Meeks, OTKari Dubro, MS, RD, LD, CWWSKari Phang, MDKarla Vaz, MDKaryn L. Kassis, MD, MPHKasey Strothman, MDKatherine Deans, MDKatherine McCracken, MDKathleen (Katie) RoushKathryn Blocher, CPNP-PCKathryn J. Junge, RN, BSNKathryn Obrynba, MDKatie Brind’Amour, MSKatie Thomas, APRKatrina Hall, MA, CCLSKatrina Ruege, LPCC-SKatya Harfmann, MDKayla Zimpfer, PCCKeli YoungKelley SwopeKelli Dilver, PT, DPTKelly AbramsKelly BooneKelly HustonKelly J. Kelleher, MDKelly McNally, PhDKelly N. Day, CPNP-PCKelly Pack, LISW-SKelly Tanner,PhD, OTR/L, BCPKelly Wesolowski, PsyDKent Williams, MDKevin Bosse, PhDKevin Klingele, MDKim Bjorklund, MDKim Hammersmith, DDS, MPH, MSKimberly Bates, MDKimberly Sisto, PT, DPT, SCSKimberly Van Camp, PT, DPT, SCSKirk SabalkaKris Jatana, MD, FAAPKrista Winner, AuD, CCC-AKristen Armbrust, LISW-SKristen Cannon, MDKristen Martin, OTR/LKristi Roberts, MS MPHKristina Booth, MSN, CFNPKristina Reber, MDKyle DavisLance Governale, MDLara McKenzie, PhD, MALaura Brubaker, BSN, RNLaura DattnerLaurel Biever, LPCLauren Durinka, AuDLauren Garbacz, PhDLauren Justice, OTR/L, MOTLauren Madhoun, MS, CCC-SLPLauryn RozumLee Hlad, DPMLeena Nahata, MDLelia Emery, MT-BCLeslie Appiah, MDLinda Stoverock, DNP, RN NEA-BCLindsay Pietruszewski, PT, DPTLindsay SchwartzLindsey Vater, PsyDLisa GoldenLisa M. Humphrey, MDLogan Blankemeyer, MA, CCC-SLPLori Grisez PT, DPTLorraine Kelley-QuonLouis Bezold, MDLourdes Hill, LPCC-S Lubna Mazin, PharmDLuke Tipple, MS, CSCSLynda Wolfe, PhDLyndsey MillerLynn RosenthalLynne Ruess, MDMaggy Rule, MS, AT, ATCMahmoud Kallash, MDManmohan K Kamboj, MDMarc Levitt, MDMarc P. Michalsky, MDMarcel J. Casavant, MDMarci Johnson, LISW-SMarcie RehmarMarco Corridore, MDMargaret Bassi, OTR/LMaria HaghnazariMaria Vegh, MSN, RN, CPNMarissa Condon, BSN, RNMarissa LarouereMark E. Galantowicz, MDMark Smith, MS RT R (MR), ABMP PhysicistMarnie Wagner, MDMary Ann Abrams, MD, MPHMary Fristad, PhD, ABPPMary Kay SharrettMary Shull, MDMatthew Washam, MD, MPHMeagan Horn, MAMegan Brundrett, MDMegan Dominik, OTR/LMegan FrancisMegan Letson, MD, M.EdMeghan Cass, PT, DPTMeghan Fisher, BSN, RNMeika Eby, MDMelanie Fluellen, LPCCMelanie Luken, LISW-SMelissa and Mikael McLarenMelissa McMillen, CTRSMelissa Winterhalter, MDMeredith Merz Lind, MDMichael Flores, PhDMichael T. Brady, MDMike Patrick, MDMindy Deno, PT, DPTMitch Ellinger, CPNP-PCMolly Gardner, PhDMonica Ardura, DOMonica EllisMonique Goldschmidt, MDMotao Zhu, MD, MS, PhDMurugu Manickam, MDNancy AuerNancy Cunningham, PsyDNancy Wright, BS, RRT, RCP, AE-C Naomi Kertesz, MDNatalie Powell, LPCC-S, LICDC-CSNatalie Rose, BSN, RNNathalie Maitre, MD, PhDNationwide Children’s HospitalNationwide Children’s Hospital Behavioral Health ExpertsNeetu Bali, MD, MPHNehal Parikh, DO, MSNichole Mayer, OTR/L, MOTNicole Caldwell, MDNicole Dempster, PhDNicole Greenwood, MDNicole Parente, LSWNicole Powell, PsyD, BCBA-DNina WestNkeiruka Orajiaka, MBBSOctavio Ramilo, MDOliver Adunka, MD, FACSOlivia Stranges, CPNP-PCOlivia Thomas, MDOmar Khalid, MD, FAAP, FACCOnnalisa Nash, CPNP-PCOula KhouryPaige Duly, CTRSParker Huston, PhDPatrick C. Walz, MDPatrick Queen, BSN, RNPedro Weisleder, MDPeter Minneci, MDPeter White, PhDPitty JenningsPreeti Jaggi, MDRachael Morocco-Zanotti, DORachel D’Amico, MDRachel Schrader, CPNP-PCRachel Tyson, LSWRajan Thakkar, MDRaymond Troy, MDRebecca Fisher, PTRebecca Hicks, CCLSRebecca Lewis, AuD, CCC-ARebecca Romero ShakReggie Ash Jr.Reno Ravindran, MDRichard Kirschner, MDRichard Wood, MDRobert A. Kowatch, MD, Ph.D.Rochelle Krouse, CTRSRohan Henry, MD, MSRose Ayoob, MDRose Schroedl, PhDRosemary Martoma, MDRoss Maltz, MDRyan Ingley AT, ATCSamanta Boddapati, PhDSamantha MaloneSammy CygnorSandra C. Kim, MDSara Bentley, MT-BCSara Bode, MDSara Breidigan, MS, AT, ATCSara N. Smith, MSN, APRNSara O’Rourke, MOT, OTR/L, Clinical LeadSara Schroder, MDSarah A. Denny, MDSarah Cline, CRA, RT(R)Sarah Driesbach, CPN, APNSarah GreenbergSarah Hastie, BSN, RNC-NIC Sarah Keim, PhDSarah MyersSarah O’Brien, MDSarah SaxbeSarah Schmidt, LISW-SSarah ScottSarah TraceySarah VerLee, PhDSasigarn Bowden, MDSatya Gedela, MD, MRCP(UK)Scott Coven, DO, MPHScott Hickey, MDSean EingSean Rose, MDSeth Alpert, MDShana Moore, MA, CCC-AShannon Reinhart, LISW-SShari UncapherSharon Wrona, DNP, PNP, PMHSShawn Pitcher, BS, RD, USAWShawNaye Scott-MillerShea SmoskeSheila GilesSimon Lee, MDStacy Whiteside APRN, MS, CPNP-AC/PC, CPONStefanie Bester, MDStefanie Hirota, OTR/LStephanie Burkhardt, MPH, CCRCStephanie CannonStephanie Santoro, MDStephanie Vyrostek BSN, RNStephen Hersey, MDSteve Allen, MDSteven C. Matson, MDSteven Ciciora, MDSteven CuffSuellen Sharp, OTR/L, MOTSusan Colace, MDSusan Creary, MDSwaroop Pinto, MDTabatha BallardTabbetha GrecoTabi Evans, PsyDTabitha Jones-McKnight, DOTahagod Mohamed, MDTamara MappTammi Young-Saleme, PhDTerry Barber, MDTerry Bravender, MD, MPHTerry Laurila, MS, RPhTheresa Miller, BA, RRT, RCP, AE-C, CPFTThomas Pommering, DOThomas SavageTiasha Letostak, PhDTiffanie Ryan, BCBA Tim RobinsonTimothy Cripe, MD, PhDTracey L. Sisk, RN, BSN, MHATracie Rohal RD, LD, CDETracy Mehan, MATravis Gallagher, ATTrevor MillerTyanna Snider, PsyDTyler Congrove, ATVanessa Shanks, MD, FAAPVenkata Rama Jayanthi, MDVidu Garg, MDVidya Raman, MDW. Garrett Hunt, MDWalter Samora, MDWarren D. Lo, MDWendy Anderson, MDWendy Cleveland, MA, LPCC-SWhitney McCormick, CTRSWhitney Raglin Bignall, PhDWilliam Cotton, MDWilliam J. Barson, MDWilliam Ray, PhDWilliam W. Long, MD